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Sample records for preparation time required

  1. Times required for cavity preparation using ultrasonic tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Pfeiffer, Peter; Tütüncü, Rengin

    1999-01-01

    Poster for: Date/Event/Venue: 10.03.99-13.03.99 77th General Session & Exhibition of the IADR Vancouver The purpose of this study was to evaluate the required time for opening the proximal cavities using three ultrasonic tips of different sizes and fine diamond inlay bur followed by ultrasonic tip.

  2. Times required for cavity preparation using ultrasonic tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Pfeiffer, Peter; Tütüncü, Rengin

    1999-01-01

    Poster for: Date/Event/Venue: 10.03.99-13.03.99 77th General Session & Exhibition of the IADR Vancouver The purpose of this study was to evaluate the required time for opening the proximal cavities using three ultrasonic tips of different sizes and fine diamond inlay bur followed by ultrasonic tip.

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Time Well Spent: Preparation for Impromptu Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kevin W.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that impromptu speaking should be viewed as an event which develops students' organizational ability, creative thinking, audience analysis, and delivery skills. Presents various techniques to aid students and coaches in pre-tournament preparation for impromptu speaking. (MM)

  5. Patient time requirements for anticoagulation therapy with warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Daniel E; Bryant Shilliday, Betsy; Laundon, W Russell; Pignone, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most patients receiving warfarin are managed in outpatient office settings or anticoagulation clinics that require frequent visits for monitoring. To measure the amount and value of time required of patients for chronic anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. /Participants. Prospective observation of a cohort of adult patients treated at a university-based anticoagulation program. Measurements. Participants completed a questionnaire and a prospective diary of the time required for 1 visit to the anticoagulation clinic, including travel, waiting, and the clinic visit. The authors reviewed subjects' medical records to obtain additional information, including the frequency of visits to the anticoagulation clinic. They used the human capital method to estimate the value of time. Eighty-five subjects completed the study. The mean (median) total time per visit was 147 minutes (123). Subjects averaged 15 visits per year (14) and spent 39.0 hours (29.3) per year on their visits. Other anticoagulation-related activities, such as communication with providers, pharmacy trips, and extra time preparing food, added an average of 52.7 hours (19.0) per year. The mean annual value of patient time spent traveling, waiting, and attending anticoagulation visits was $707 (median $591). The mean annual value when also including other anticoagulation-related activities was $1799 (median $1132). The time required of patients for anticoagulation visits was considerable, averaging approximately 2.5 hours per visit and almost 40 hours per year. for reducing patient time requirements, such as home-based testing, could reduce costs for patients, employers, and companions.

  6. On the time required to freeze water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J. R.; Navarro, C.; Sanz, E.; Valeriani, C.; Vega, C.

    2016-12-01

    By using the seeding technique the nucleation rate for the formation of ice at room pressure will be estimated for the TIP4P/ICE model using longer runs and a smaller grid of temperatures than in the previous work. The growth rate of ice will be determined for TIP4P/ICE and for the mW model of water. Although TIP4P/ICE and mW have a similar melting point and melting enthalpy, they differ significantly in the dynamics of freezing. The nucleation rate of mW is lower than that of TIP4P/ICE due to its higher interfacial free energy. Experimental results for the nucleation rate of ice are between the predictions of these two models when obtained from the seeding technique, although closer to the predictions of TIP4P/ICE. The growth rate of ice for the mW model is four orders of magnitude larger than for TIP4P/ICE. Avrami's expression is used to estimate the crystallization time from the values of the nucleation and growth rates. For mW the minimum in the crystallization time is found at approximately 85 K below the melting point and its value is of about a few ns, in agreement with the results obtained from brute force simulations by Moore and Molinero. For the TIP4P/ICE the minimum is found at about 55 K below the melting point, but its value is about ten microseconds. This value is compatible with the minimum cooling rate required to avoid the formation of ice and obtaining a glass phase. The crossover from the nucleation controlled crystallization to the growth controlled crystallization will be discussed for systems of finite size. This crossover could explain the apparent discrepancy between the values of J obtained by different experimental groups for temperatures below 230 K and should be considered as an alternative hypothesis to the two previously suggested: internal pressure and/or surface freezing effects. A maximum in the compressibility was found for the TIP4P/ICE model in supercooled water. The relaxation time is much smaller than the crystallization time

  7. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; Plichta, Jennifer; Zeira, Ohad; Rivera, Randy; Wang, Susan; Pottle, Bill; Leung, Calvin; Vicens, Carrie; Tao, Christine; Beers, Craig; Fung, Grace; Levine, Jacob; Yoo, Jaeshin; Jackson, Joanna; Saikkonen, Kelly; Zimmerman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  8. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  9. PREPARING FOR EXASCALE: ORNL Leadership Computing Application Requirements and Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL; Nam, Hai Ah [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), elicited petascale computational science requirements from leading computational scientists in the international science community. This effort targeted science teams whose projects received large computer allocation awards on OLCF systems. A clear finding of this process was that in order to reach their science goals over the next several years, multiple projects will require computational resources in excess of an order of magnitude more powerful than those currently available. Additionally, for the longer term, next-generation science will require computing platforms of exascale capability in order to reach DOE science objectives over the next decade. It is generally recognized that achieving exascale in the proposed time frame will require disruptive changes in computer hardware and software. Processor hardware will become necessarily heterogeneous and will include accelerator technologies. Software must undergo the concomitant changes needed to extract the available performance from this heterogeneous hardware. This disruption portends to be substantial, not unlike the change to the message passing paradigm in the computational science community over 20 years ago. Since technological disruptions take time to assimilate, we must aggressively embark on this course of change now, to insure that science applications and their underlying programming models are mature and ready when exascale computing arrives. This includes initiation of application readiness efforts to adapt existing codes to heterogeneous architectures, support of relevant software tools, and procurement of next-generation hardware testbeds for porting and testing codes. The 2009 OLCF requirements process identified numerous actions necessary to meet this challenge: (1) Hardware capabilities must be

  10. Time required for adaptation of protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals that can appropriately adjust to varying environmental and nutritional conditions possess a survival advantage. Maintaining homeostasis and homeorhesis in response to changing nutritional conditions requires flexibility in nutrient partitioning and efficiencies. This is especially the case f...

  11. Epidural top-up solutions for emergency caesarean section: a comparison of preparation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D N; Borra, P J; Yentis, S M

    2000-04-01

    We compared the preparation times of three solutions commonly used for epidural top-up for emergency Caesarean section. Twenty-two anaesthetists were asked to prepare fresh solutions in random order as quickly as possible: 0.5% bupivacaine 20 ml (B); 2% lidocaine 20 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine (LE); and 0.5% bupivacaine 10 ml and 2% lidocaine 10 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate 2 ml (BLEB). Preparation times for B were approximately half of those for LE, which in turn were approximately half of those for BLEB (P = 0.0001). If local anaesthetic solutions with additives such as epinephrine or bicarbonate are prepared just before emergency Caesarean section, any possible reduction in onset time that they might afford may be offset by the additional preparation time required.

  12. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  13. Value of patient time invested in the colonoscopy screening process: time requirements for colonoscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Daniel E; Russell, Louise B; Sandler, Robert S; Chou, Jon; Pignone, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous cost-effectiveness analyses of colorectal cancer screening have not considered the value of patient time despite consensus recommendations to do so. The authors sought to estimate the amount and value of patient time required for screening colonoscopy. Patients who were scheduled to undergo screening colonoscopy were recruited from a university endoscopy center. Participants completed a time diary for the screening colonoscopy process, including time spent in preparation, travel, waiting, colonoscopy, and recovery. The authors defined several time intervals and estimated their value. The primary time interval of interest, called occupied time, included preparation, travel, waiting, the colonoscopy procedure, and on-site recovery. Time was valued at the 2005 average wage rate. The authors performed sensitivity analyses to test other time intervals and wage rates. They then incorporated patient time costs into a previously published cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer screening to examine their impact. One hundred ten subjects completed the study. The sample was 57% female, 85% Caucasian, and 90% insured (40% Medicare, 4% Medicaid). The mean occupied time was 23.2 hours, worth $432 at the average wage rate. The authors estimate that including patient time costs in cost-effectiveness analysis would increase the cost per life-year saved with screening colonoscopy by 68%, from $13,100 to $22,000. Sensitivity analyses showed that the increase could range from 17% to 224% depending on the time interval valued. Patient time constitutes an important cost in colonoscopy screening and should be included in cost-effectiveness analyses.

  14. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...) providing guidance to specified tax return preparers who prepare and file individual income tax...

  15. 75 FR 76940 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... provide further guidance relating to the requirement for ``specified tax return prepares,''. FOR...

  16. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking......We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...

  17. Time required for motor activity in lucid dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the time required for specific tasks (counting and performing squats) in lucid dreams and in the waking state. Five proficient lucid dreamers (26-34 yr. old, M=29.8, SD=3.0; one woman and four men) participated. Analysis showed that the time needed for counting in a lucid dream is comparable to the time needed for counting in wakefulness, but motor activities required more time in lucid dreams than in the waking state.

  18. 21 CFR 25.22 - Actions requiring the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 25.22 Section 25.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.22 Actions requiring the preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a...

  19. Quality of Just-in-Time Requirements: Just-Enough and Just-in-Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the notion of quality for Just-in-Time (JIT) Requirements. JIT requirements are the opposite of up-front requirements. JIT requirements are not analyzed or defined until they are needed meaning that development is allowed to begin with

  20. Quality of Just-in-Time Requirements: Just-Enough and Just-in-Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the notion of quality for Just-in-Time (JIT) Requirements. JIT requirements are the opposite of up-front requirements. JIT requirements are not analyzed or defined until they are needed meaning that development is allowed to begin with

  1. Requirements Specifications Checking of Embedded Real-Time Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoqing(毋国庆); SHU Fengdi(舒风笛); WANG Min(王敏); CHEN Weiqing(陈伟清)

    2002-01-01

    After introducing the overview of our requirements description model HRFSM,the paper presents a dynamic software execution model (DERTS) of embedded real-time software, which can integrate control flow, data flow and time. Based on DERTS, a checking method is also presented. It consists of three kinds of checking and can check the consistency and completeness of the requirement specifications of embedded real-time software. Besides providing information helpful to improve the efficiency of analyzing and checking specifications,the checking method is flexible, and easy to understand and to use for the analyst.

  2. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans; Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    1993-01-01

    An approach to specification of requirements and verification of design for real-time systems is presented. A system is defined by a conventional mathematical model for a dynamic system where application specific states denote functions of real time. Specifications are formulas in duration calculus......, a real-time interval logic, where predicates define durations of states. Requirements define safety and functionality constraints on the system or a component. A top-level design is given by a control law: a predicate that defines an automation controlling the transition between phases of operation. Each...... control the distributed computation through synchronous events. Sensors and actuators relate events with system states. Verification is a deduction showing that a design implies requirements...

  3. Time-varying Capital Requirements and Disclosure Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jonas; Rangvid, Jesper

    Unique and confidential Danish data allow us to identify how changes in disclosure requirements and bank-specific time-varying capital requirements affect banks' lending and capital accumu-lation decisions. We find that banks increase their capital ratios after capital requirements are increased......, implying that resilience in the banking system is also increased. The increase in capital ratios is partly due to a modest reduction in lending. Using a policy changes, we show that banks react stronger to changes in capital requirements when these are public. Our results further suggest that the impact...... of capital requirements differ for small and large banks. Large banks raise their capital ratios more, reduce lending less, and accumulate more new capital compared to small banks....

  4. Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Soares, Danusa Dias; Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Silva, Fabrício Sousa da; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Thermography for scientific research and practical purposes requires a series of procedures to obtain images that should be standardized; one of the most important is the time required for acclimatization in the controlled environment. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the appropriate acclimatization time in rest to reach a thermal balance on young people skin. Forty-four subjects participated in the study, 18 men (22.3 ± 3.1 years) and 26 women (21.7 ± 2.5 years). Thermographic images were collected using a thermal imager (Fluke®), totaling 44 images over a period of 20 min. The skin temperature (TSK) was measured at the point of examination which included the 0 min, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20. The body regions of interest (ROI) analyzed included the hands, forearms, arms, thighs, legs, chest and abdomen. We used the Friedman test with post hoc Dunn's in order to establish the time at rest required to obtain a TSK balance and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, BMI, body fat percentage and temperature variations between men and women, considering always a significance level of p abdomen obtained a significant variance (p abdomen and thighs, and the posterior part of the hands, forearms and abdomen showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Based on our results, it can be concluded that the time in rest condition required reaching a TSK balance in young men and women is variable, but for whole body analysis it is recommended at least 10 min for both sexes.

  5. Dimensional Analysis and the Time Required to Urinate

    CERN Document Server

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Zheng, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    According to the recently discovered 'Law of Urination', mammals, ranging in size from mice to elephants, take, on the average, 21s to urinate. We attempt to gain insights into the physical processes responsible for this uniformity using simple dimensional analysis. We assume that the biological apparatus for urination in mammals simply scales with linear size, and consider the scenarios where the driving force is gravity or elasticity, and where the response is dominated by inertia or viscosity. We ask how the time required for urination depends on the length scale, and find that for the time to be independent of body size, the dominant driving force must be elasticity, and the dominant response viscosity. Our note demonstrates that dimensional analysis can indeed readily give insights into complex physical and biological processes.

  6. Minimizing the area required for time constants in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    When a medium- or large-scale integrated circuit is designed, efforts are usually made to avoid the use of resistor-capacitor time constant generators. The capacitor needed for this circuit usually takes up more surface area on the chip than several resistors and transistors. When the use of this network is unavoidable, the designer usually makes an effort to see that the choice of resistor and capacitor combinations is such that a minimum amount of surface area is consumed. The optimum ratio of resistance to capacitance that will result in this minimum area is equal to the ratio of resistance to capacitance which may be obtained from a unit of surface area for the particular process being used. The minimum area required is a function of the square root of the reciprocal of the products of the resistance and capacitance per unit area. This minimum occurs when the area required by the resistor is equal to the area required by the capacitor.

  7. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  8. Coincidence-anticipation timing requirements are different in racket sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selçuk; Devrilmez, Erhan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy of athletes of different racket sports with various stimulus velocity requirements. Ninety players (15 girls, 15 boys for each sport) from tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.4), badminton (M age = 12.5 yr., SD = 1.4), and table tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.2) participated in this study. Three different stimulus velocities, low, moderate, and high, were used to simulate the velocity requirements of these racket sports. Tennis players had higher accuracy when they performed under the low stimulus velocity compared to badminton and table tennis players. Badminton players performed better under the moderate speed comparing to tennis and table tennis players. Table tennis players had better performance than tennis and badminton players under the high stimulus velocity. Therefore, visual and motor systems of players from different racket sports may adapt to a stimulus velocity in coincidence-anticipation timing, which is specific to each type of racket sports.

  9. Slope Transit Time (STT): A Pulse Transit Time Proxy requiring Only a Single Signal Fiducial Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    A novel pulse transit time proxy measurement, slope transit time (STT), is proposed in this letter. STT is based on geometrical considerations of the arriving photoplethysmographic cardiac waveform and its computation requires only the measurement of a single point on each cardiac beat arriving at the peripheral site. This novel transit time is explained conceptually and its implementation illustrated through its application to signals from respiratory effort, Müller maneuver, and obstructive sleep apnea trials.

  10. Magistral preparation in nuclear medicine departments: Requirements for their realization; Preparations magistrales en radiopharmacie: contraintes liees a la mise en place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desruet, M.D. [Radiopharmacie, clinique universitaire de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bolot, C. [Radiopharmacie, hospices civils de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Bourrel, F. [Services de pharmacie et medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier d' Avignon, 84 - Avignon (France); Francois-Joubert, A.; Biechlin-Chassel, M.L. [Medecine nucleaire et Radiopharmacie, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Couret, I. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Pelegrin, M. [Institut de recherche en cancerologie (IRCM), 34 - Montpellier (France); Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lao, S. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Hopital de l' Archet, 06 - Nice (France); Ouhayon, E.; Sauvan, R. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-11-15

    Use of radiopharmaceuticals in French nuclear medicine departments depends on marketing authorization and their development may be compromised by a limited return on investment. As an alternative, radiopharmaceuticals may also be prepared in the form of a magistral preparation, like in some European countries. In this case, these preparations are subjected to restrictions and requirements for radio-pharmacies relating to quality assurance, facilities and equipment, quality of starting materials and final radiopharmaceutical products defined in French good preparation practice. Labelled tracers used as magistral preparations have to be prepared under the full responsibility of a radio-pharmacist and used under the responsibility of the prescribing physician. Conditions of sufficient guarantees for the safety of the patient and adherence to pharmaceutical rules must be evaluated individually. However, this form of preparation intends to supply specific medical needs for an individual patient and is not an answer in the framework of development of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  11. 75 FR 75439 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ52 Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... contains proposed regulations relating to the requirement for ``specified tax return preparers,''...

  12. Labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane-anaesthesia using shared and stationary inhaler devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sabrina; Das, Gürbüz; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Isoflurane-anaesthesia combined with an analgesic represents a welfare-friendly method of pain mitigation for castration of piglets. However, it requires an inhaler device, which is uneconomic for small farms. Sharing a device among farms may be an economical option if the shared use does not increase labour time and the resulting costs. This study aimed to investigate the amount and components of labour time required for piglet castration with isoflurane anaesthesia performed with stationary and shared devices. Piglets (N = 1579) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (using either stationary or shared devices) and castrated.The stationary devices were used in a group (n = 5) of larger farms (84 sows/farm on an average), whereas smaller farms (n = 7; 32 sows/farm on an average) shared one device. Each farm was visited four times and labour time for each process-step was recorded. The complete process included machine set-up, anaesthesia and castration by a practitioner, and preparation, collection and transport of piglets by a farmer. Labour time of the complete process was increased (P = 0.012) on farms sharing a device (266 s/piglet) compared to farms using stationary devices (177 s/ piglet), due to increased time for preparation (P = 0.055), castration (P = 0.026) and packing (P = 0.010) when sharing a device. However, components of the time budget of farms using stationary or shared devices did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Cost arising from time spent by farmers did not differ considerably between the use of stationary (0.28 Euro per piglet) and shared (0.26 Euro) devices. It is concluded that costs arising from the increased labour time due to sharing a device can be considered marginal, since the high expenses originating from purchasing an inhaler device are shared among several farms.

  13. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  14. Comparison of time required for traditional versus virtual orthognathic surgery treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, M K; Peacock, Z S; Laviv, A; Goldwaser, B R; Ortiz, R; Resnick, C M; Troulis, M J; Kaban, L B

    2016-09-01

    Virtual surgical planning (VSP) is a tool for predicting complex surgical movements in three dimensions and it may reduce preoperative laboratory time. A prospective study to compare the time required for standard preoperative planning versus VSP was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2014 through January 2015. Workflow data for bimaxillary cases planned by both standard techniques and VSP were recorded in real time. Time spent was divided into three parts: (1) obtaining impressions, face-bow mounting, and model preparation; (2) occlusal analysis and modification, model surgery, and splint fabrication; (3) online VSP session. Average times were compared between standard treatment planning (sum of parts 1 and 2) and VSP (sum of parts 1 and 3). Of 41 bimaxillary cases included, 20 were simple (symmetric) and 21 were complex (asymmetry and segmental osteotomies). Average times for parts 1, 2, and 3 were 4.43, 3.01, and 0.67h, respectively. The average time required for standard treatment planning was 7.45h and for VSP was 5.10h, a 31% time reduction (Porthognathic surgery cases.

  15. Dedicated robotics team reduces pre-surgical preparation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lasser

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance; Two-sample t-test for unequal variances. Results: The first and last 100 cases were found to have similar age (P=0.27, BMI (P=0.11, and ASA (P=0.09. The average preoperative times were 66. 4 and 53.4 min, respectively (P<0.05. The second 100 patients treated were found to have a significantly shorter preoperative time when compared to the first 100 patients (P<0.05. When the first 100 cases were divided into cohorts of 10 cases the mean preoperative time for the first through fourth cohorts were 80.5, 69.3, 78.8, and 64.7 min, respectively. After treatment of our first 30 patients we found a significant drop in preoperative time. This persisted throughout the remainder of our experience. Conclusions: From the time of patient arrival a number of tasks are accomplished by the non-physician operating room staff during RALRP. The use of a consistent staff can decrease preoperative setup times and, therefore, the overall length of surgery.

  16. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How Many Grid Points Are Required for Time Accurate Simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Ayaboe; Karagozian, Ann; Mundis, Nathan; Sankaran, Venkateswaran

    2015-11-01

    Grid resolution is a key element in a numerical discretization scheme's ability to accurately capture complex fluid dynamics phenomena encountered in LES and DNS calculations. The fundamental question to be asked concerns the minimum number of points required to represent relevant flow phenomena such as vortex and acoustic wave propagation. The answer is naturally dependent upon the choice of numerical scheme, but it is also influenced by the modal content of the fluid dynamics. Specifically, this study looks at high-order and optimized spatial stencils and their associated dispersion and dissipation characteristics coupled with several time integration schemes. Scheme stabilization is also addressed with respect to artificial dissipation and filtering techniques. The theoretical investigations based on von Neumann analysis are substantiated by calculations of pure mode and multiple mode wave propagation problems, isentropic vortex propagation and the DNS of Taylor Green vortex transition, all of which are used to establish the accuracy properties of the schemes. Distribution A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Supported by AFOSR (PM: Drs. F. Fahroo and Chiping Li).

  18. Determination of the working time requirement for suckling sows in the pen of Wels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quendler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, especially in organic piglet production, it is necessary to reduce the production costs to be competitive on the market. A large proportion of the production costs are caused by labor and construction costs to ensure a high level of animal welfare. The farrowing pen of Wels, currently existing in prototype form, was designed to fulfill organic farming requirements, improve animal welfare, and minimize the costs for construction and labor. The housing system is characterized by four separate functional areas: the lying area, the excretion and moving area, the feeding area for the sow, and a piglet nest. To identify the working time requirements of routine and special tasks, a time study, based on the work element method and an electronic time recording system (ortim b3 (a Pocket PC with time recording software, was conducted. The influencing variables and the time measurements were collected by directly observing work processes in the farrowing unit, which had 5 farrowing pens, over a period of 21 days at the “LFZ Raumberg Gumpenstein.” The data were descriptive and statistically analyzed to obtain planning data on the element basis. The time requirement was modeled according to the related task and in total over the suckling period. The routine tasks consisted in transporting the feed to the pen, feeding the sows, monitoring the sows and piglets, mucking out the dung corridor with a tractor and sprinkling straw in it, as well as filling up the hay rack. The labor input was 3.99 AKmin per sow and day in total. The special tasks included inoculating the piglets, marking with ear tags, castrating the male piglets, cleaning the whole pen and the dung corridor, and preparing the farrowing pen for the next sows. Special work required 25.9 MPmin per sow over the keeping period of 21 days. The total working time requirements over the period of 21 days were 1.82 MPh per sow. Overall, the farrowing pen of Wels has low time requirements and

  19. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending <1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  1. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  2. 48 CFR 52.211-9 - Desired and Required Time of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.211-9 Desired and Required Time of Delivery. As prescribed in 11.404(a)(3), insert the following clause: Desired and Required Time of Delivery (JUN 1997) (a) The Government desires delivery to be... beyond the time for delivery in the Government's required delivery schedule as follows: REQUIRED DELIVERY...

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Newly Developed Chitosan Salt Coating Dispersions for Colon Delivery without Requiring Overcoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Although chitosan (CS) has been recognized as a good material for colon-specific drug delivery systems, an overcoating with an enteric coating polymer on the surface of CS is absolutely necessary because CS is soluble in acidic conditions before reaching the colon. In the present study, to improve its stability in the presence of acid, a newly developed CS-laurate (CS-LA) material was evaluated as a coating dispersion for the development of colon-specific drug delivery systems. Two types of CS with different molecular weights, CS250 and CS600, were used to prepare CS-LA films by the casting method. The CS250-LA films had smooth surfaces, whereas the surfaces of the CS600-LA films were rough, indicating that the CS250-LA dispersion could form a denser film than CS600-LA. Both of these CS-LA films maintained a constant shape over 22 h in a pH 1.2 HCl/NaCl buffer, where the corresponding CS films rapidly disintegrated. In addition, the CS250-LA film showed specific colon degradability in a pH 6.0 phosphate buffered solution containing 1.0% (w/v) β-glucosidase. As a result of tensile strength and elongation at the break, both CS-LA films were found to have flexible film properties. Finally, the release of acetaminophen from disks coated with CS250-LA dispersions was significantly suppressed in fluids at pH 1.2 and 6.8, whereas disks coated with CS solution rapidly released the drug in pH 1.2 fluids. Taken together, this study shows that LA modification could be a useful approach in preparing CS films with acid stability and colonic degradability properties without requiring overcoating.

  4. Considering Time-Scale Requirements for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    to correct for the annual seasonal variation in the Earth’s rotational speed and is rarely used today. 4 20 " 15 .. Equation of Time 0 0 I 10 ID...York, 1960. R. Coutrez, ’Transactions of the International Astronomical Union." Ciel et Terre , Vol. 73, 1957, pp. 472. S. Newcomb, Tables of the

  5. Writing and Communicating in the Geosciences: A 1-credit required course to prepare undergraduates for independent research

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, K. K.; Courtier, A. M.; Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing numbers of majors (currently 130) and an independent research requirement of all undergraduates in our program, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science at James Madison University sought a means to streamline and formalize instruction of research practices we deem fundamental to all sub-disciplines in the geosciences. Therefore, in Fall 2010, we developed a research preparation course called 'Writing and Communicating in the Geosciences,' which is now required for all Geology BS and Earth Science BA undergraduate students. This 1-credit course must be completed prior to students' senior year, and is a pre-requisite to a minimum of 2-credits of independent research required of all majors. 'Writing and Communicating in the Geosciences' is designed to prepare students for independent research by providing them with opportunities to develop, practice, and gain feedback on a variety of writing and communication skills. It is our goal that after taking this course, students are able to identify primary literature using the library data-based systems, critically discuss peer-reviewed papers, write abstracts, use accepted referencing styles in bibliographies, and effectively make scientific posters and give oral presentations. The class is offered every semester and is always co-taught by two faculty members from the department. Curriculum and instruction is designed to balance student workload, faculty workload, and strategies toward meeting the course learning objectives. Students informally report at the time of enrollment that this is a perceived as a rigorous 'rite-of-passage' course. Informal feedback from past students has been positive, suggesting that the greatest benefits manifest later, as former students apply the course-developed skills to projects in their upper-level courses, their independent research projects, and their graduate research. Faculty feedback has been similarly positive, with department colleagues commenting that

  6. Space and Time Resolved Spectroscopy during the Preparation of Hydrogenation Catalyst Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa Alonso, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837342

    2009-01-01

    The development of space and time resolved spectroscopic methods to image space and time dependent heterogeneities in catalyst bodies during preparation is of paramount importance for the development of more efficient and sustainable chemical processes. There are a large number of physicochemical

  7. Comparison of the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts using two Brazilian ultrasound devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Brito-Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts cemented with zinc phosphate (ZF or glass ionomer cement (GIC, using two Brazilian ultrasound devices (BUD. Seventy two human inferior premolars with single root canals were sectioned transversally at the cementoenamel junction. In each specimen, the root canal was endodontically treated, the post space was prepared to a depth of 9 mm and the canal was molded to obtain a post impression. After the casting procedures, the posts were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 36 according to the luting material used: G1 - ZF and G2 - GIC. The tooth and luted post set was then embedded in an acrylic resin block. The groups were then divided into 3 subgroups (n = 12 according to the ultrasound device used: A - Enac (Osada Electric, Japan, used as a control group; B - Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante, Brazil and C - Jet Sonic Satelec (Gnatus, Brazil. The posts were submitted to the vibration process with maximum power set on all surrounding surfaces. Time of application was recorded with a chronometer until complete post dislodgment, and the data were analyzed by the ANOVA test (p < 0.05. The averages required for post removal in G1 and G2 were respectively 41.42 and 92.03 seconds, with significant statistical difference (p = 0.001. No statistical difference was observed among the three ultrasound devices (p = 0.088, and the BUD presented a performance similar to that of the international gold standard device (Enac. Moreover, the type of luting agent had a greater influence on the time required for post removal than the origin of the ultrasonic unit.

  8. Reducing diagnostic turnaround times of exome sequencing for families requiring timely diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourchany, Aurélie; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lehalle, Daphné; Bruel, Ange-Line; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Jean, Nolwenn; Nambot, Sophie; Willems, Marjorie; Lambert, Laetitia; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Schaefer, Elise; Jaquette, Aurélia; St-Onge, Judith; Poe, Charlotte; Jouan, Thibaud; Chevarin, Martin; Callier, Patrick; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Laurent, Nicole; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Huet, Frédéric; Houcinat, Nada; Moutton, Sébastien; Philippe, Christophe; Tran-Mau-Them, Frédéric; Vitobello, Antonio; Kuentz, Paul; Duffourd, Yannis; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Faivre, Laurence

    2017-08-12

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has now entered medical practice with powerful applications in the diagnosis of rare Mendelian disorders. Although the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of WES have been widely demonstrated, it is essential to reduce the diagnostic turnaround time to make WES a first-line procedure. Since 2011, the automation of laboratory procedures and advances in sequencing chemistry have made it possible to carry out diagnostic whole genome sequencing from the blood sample to molecular diagnosis of suspected genetic disorders within 50 h. Taking advantage of these advances, the main objective of the study was to improve turnaround times for sequencing results. WES was proposed to 29 patients with severe undiagnosed disorders with developmental abnormalities and faced with medical situations requiring rapid diagnosis. Each family gave consent. The extracted DNA was sequenced on a NextSeq500 (Illumina) instrument. Data were analyzed following standard procedures. Variants were interpreted using in-house software. Each rare variant affecting protein sequences with clinical relevance was tested for familial segregation. The diagnostic rate was 45% (13/29), with a mean turnaround time of 40 days from reception of the specimen to delivery of results to the referring physician. Besides permitting genetic counseling, the rapid diagnosis for positive families led to two pre-natal diagnoses and two inclusions in clinical trials. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of rapid diagnostic WES in our primary genetics center. It reduced the diagnostic odyssey and helped provide support to families. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. On the time required for identification of visual objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    of experiments with the help of the theory of visual attention – have proven to be an effective approach to examine cognitive parameters that are essential for a broad range of different patient groups. The theory of visual attention relies on a psychometric function that describes the ability to identify...... a stimulus as a function of exposure duration. An important contribution of the thesis is that it investigates whether other psychometric functions than the one originally used with the theory of visual attention could be more appropriate at describing data. The thesis points to two psychometric functions......, with the dataset that we collected, to directly analyse how confusability develops as a certain letter is exposed for increasingly longer time. An important scientific question is what shapes the psychometric function. It is conceivable that the function reflects both limitations and structure of the physical...

  10. In vitro preparation of radionuclides labeled blood cells: Status and requirements; Preparation in vitro des cellules du sang marquees par des radionucleides: statut et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couret, I. [Service de medecine nucleaire et radiopharmacie, hopital Lapeyronie, CHU de Montpellier, 34 - Montpellier (France); Desruet, M.D. [Service de medecine nucleaire et radiopharmacie, CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bolot, C. [Service de pharmacie, hospices civils de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Chassel, M.L. [Service de pharmacie et radiopharmacie, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Pellegrin, M. [Inserm U896, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, IRCM, universite Montpellier 1, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-11-15

    Labelled blood cells permit nuclear medicine imaging using their physiological behaviours. The radiolabeling must be performed in vitro because of the lack of specific markers and requires several highly technical stages of preparation. Labelled blood cells have not the medication drug status, so that the nuclear physician conducting the nuclear test is fully liable. In most cases, the physician delegates the technical responsibility to radio-pharmacists. Although the status of radiolabelled autologous cells is not legally defined and in the absence of a specific repository, it is essential that their preparation is subject to the requirements of the rules of French Good Manufacturing Practice published by Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des produits de sante (Afssaps). It would be desirable to harmonize the practices of radiolabeling cellular blood components by editing a repository. (authors)

  11. Reading Preparation of Secondary ELA Teachers: A U.S. Survey of State Licensure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, Gail E.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary teacher preparation in reading in the U.S. has received minimal attention from the research community despite the almost universal implementation of the Common Core State Standards. In response, numerous publications have demanded that secondary teachers be fully prepared to support the needs of struggling readers, especially ELA…

  12. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  14. Estimating blood transfusion requirements in preparation for a major earthquake: the Tehran, Iran study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Morteza; Ardalan, Ali; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Pourmalek, Farshad; Ahmadi, Batool; Shokouhi, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Tehran, Iran, with a population of approximately seven million people, is at a very high risk for a devastating earthquake. This study aims to estimate the number of units of blood required at the time of such an earthquake. To assume the damage of an earthquake in Tehran, the researchers applied the Centre for Earthquake and Environmental Studies of Tehran/Japan International Cooperation Agency (CEST/JICA) fault-activation scenarios, and accordingly estimated the injury-to-death ratio (IDR), hospital admission rate (HAR), and blood transfusion rate (BTR). The data were based on Iran's major earthquakes during last two decades. The following values were considered for the analysis: (1) IDR = 1, 2, and 3; (2) HAR = 0.25 and 0.35; and (3) BTR = 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10. The American Association of Blood Banks' formula was adapted to calculate total required numbers of Type- O red blood cell (RBC) units. Calculations relied on the following assumptions: (1) no change in Tehran's vulnerability from CEST/JICA study time; (2) no functional damage to Tehran Blood Transfusion Post; and (3) standards of blood safety are secure during the disaster responses. Surge capacity was estimated based on the Bam earthquake experience. The maximum, optimum, and minimum blood deficits were calculated accordingly. No deficit was estimated in case of the Mosha fault activation and the optimum scenario of North Tehran fault. The maximum blood deficit was estimated from the activation of the Ray fault, requiring up to 107,293 and 95,127 units for the 0-24 hour and the 24-72 hour periods after the earthquake, respectively. The optimum deficit was estimated up to 46,824 and 16,528 units for 0-24 hour and 24-72 hour period after the earthquake, respectively. In most Tehran earthquake scenarios, a shortage of blood was estimated to surge the capacity of all blood transfusion posts around the country within first three days, as it might ask for a 2-8 times more than what the system had produced

  15. Curriculum Type and Sophomore Students' Preparation Time for the USMLE Step 1 Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Boyd F.; Cariaga-Lo, Liza

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen medical students in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum reported that on average they spent twice as much time preparing for step 1 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination as did 52 students in the traditional lecture-based curriculum at the same school. Different learning approaches were also employed. (SLD)

  16. 45 CFR 1211.1-8 - Time for preparation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time for preparation and presentation. 1211.1-8 Section 1211.1-8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR... presentation. (a) Both a volunteer and a volunteer's representative, if another volunteer or an employee...

  17. Mental fatigue and temporal preparation in simple reaction-time performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Steinborn, Michael B; Chatterjee, Anjan; Sturm, Walter; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Performance decrements attributed to mental fatigue have been found to be especially pronounced in tasks that involve the voluntary control of attention. Here we explored whether mental fatigue from prolonged time on task (TOT) also impairs temporal preparation for speeded action in a simple reaction-time task. Temporal preparation is enabled by a warning signal presented before the imperative stimulus and usually results in shorter reaction time (RT). When the delay between warning and imperative stimuli - the foreperiod (FP) - varies between trials, responses are faster with longer FPs. This pattern has been proposed to arise from either voluntary attentional processes (temporal orienting) or automatic trial-to-trial learning (trace conditioning). The former account suggests a selective RT increase on long-FP trials with fatigue; the latter account suggests no such change. Over a work period of 51 min, we found the typical increase in overall RT but no selective RT increase after long FPs. This additivity indicates that TOT-induced mental fatigue generally reduces cognitive efficiency but leaves temporal preparation under time uncertainty unaffected. We consider this result more consistent with the trace-conditioning account of temporal preparation.

  18. Using Enhanced Podcasts to Augment Limited Instructional Time in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hart, Juliet E.; Kellems, Ryan O.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher education programs are limited in terms of available face-to-face instructional time for preparing general education teacher candidates to work with students with exceptionalities. Given this constraint, developing innovative use of technologies may assist in meeting the demand for highly qualified teachers for such students. In this…

  19. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  20. Timetabling and Extracurricular Activities: A Study of Teachers' Attitudes towards Preparation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Richard, George

    2012-01-01

    Many models of timetabling exist in secondary schools in Western educational jurisdictions. This study examines whether or not teachers teaching a full course load without preparation time during a semester are willing to volunteer to participate in extracurricular activities. This research was conducted in a rural school district in British…

  1. Measuring Parent Time Scarcity and Fatigue as Barriers to Meal Planning and Preparation: Quantitative Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. Methods: A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the…

  2. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...), specifically refers to the act of ``filing'' the individual income tax return by the tax return preparer or... Assistance Act of 2009 (the Act), the IRS was prohibited from requiring filers of individual income tax... File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  3. 78 FR 54252 - Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements-One Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0166, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-- Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  4. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  5. Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe combined effects of tumbling marination methods (Vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8 and 10 h on quality characteristics of prepared boneless pork chops were investigated. The results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly increased the pH, product yield, cohesiveness, resilience, sensory tenderness and overall flavor (p<0.05 compared with IT method, and CT method also significantly decreased the pressing loss, cooking loss, shear force value (SFV, hardness and chewiness (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increasing from 4 h to 10 h, the product yield and sensory attributes of prepared pork chops increased at first and then decreased, whereas the pressing loss, cooking loss, SFV, hardness and chewiness decreased at first and then increased. Additionally, an interaction between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed. These results suggested that CT method of 8 h obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops, which should be adopted.

  6. Timing and Spectroscopy Requirements for a Plastic Scintillating Fiber Bundle Time-of-Flight Neutron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    flexibility, efficiency, timing, and position resolution in developing novel Compton camera detectors capable of detecting special nuclear material. 1.3...oscilloscope needs to be fast enough to resolve coincident pulse events on the picoseconds to nanosecond time scale. The final objective is to experimentally...Mirsaleh-Kohan, W. D. Nasrin, and R. N. Compton , “Electron ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy: Historical review and current applications

  7. Teaching Transgressive Representations of LGBTQ People in Educator Preparation: Is Conformity Required for Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2015-01-01

    One strategy used to teach about diverse populations is to edit their curricular representations to minimize their transgressive nature in an effort to gain more acceptance among students. This article explores the implications of these assimilationist narratives when used in educator preparation programs to represent LGBTQ people. It examines the…

  8. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment is generally prepared when a project is not expected to have a significant impact on... construction of a new facility within an existing correctional complex may have limited impact on...

  9. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a new... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for...

  10. Fast detection of Noroviruses using a real-time PCR assay and automated sample preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoV have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Currently, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays have been implemented in NoV diagnosis, but improvements that simplify and standardize sample preparation, amplification, and detection will be further needed. The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR offers such refinements. Methods We have designed a new real-time RT-PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC with SYBR Green detection and melting curve analysis (Tm to detect NoV RNA in patient stool samples. The performance of the real-time PCR assay was compared with that obtained in parallel with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for antigen detection by testing a panel of 52 stool samples. Additionally, in a collaborative study with the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Health office, Stuttgart (Germany the real-time PCR results were blindly assessed using a previously well-established nested PCR (nPCR as the reference method, since PCR-based techniques are now considered as the "gold standard" for NoV detection in stool specimens. Results Analysis of 52 clinical stool samples by real-time PCR yielded results that were consistent with reference nPCR results, while marked differences between the two PCR-based methods and antigen ELISA were observed. Our results indicate that PCR-based procedures are more sensitive and specific than antigen ELISA for detecting NoV in stool specimens. Conclusions The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR provided reliable diagnostic results in less time than conventional RT-PCR assays. These benefits make it a valuable tool for routine laboratory practice especially in terms of rapid and appropriate outbreak-control measures in health-care facilities and other settings.

  11. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Background Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. Methods This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG) system with a rapid preparation time intended for use in emergency medicine and prehospital care. The novel system comprises a quick-applicati...

  12. A microfluidic device for preparing next generation DNA sequencing libraries and for automating other laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Jin Tan

    Full Text Available Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation.

  13. Impact of water fluoride concentration on the fluoride content of infant foods and drinks requiring preparation with liquids before feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Fatemeh V; Moynihan, Paula J; Omid, Narges; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Maguire, Anne

    2012-10-01

    To measure the fluoride (F) content of infant foods and drinks requiring reconstitution with liquids prior to consumption and to determine the impact of water F concentration on their F content, as consumed, by measuring F content before and after preparation. In total, 58 infant powdered formula milks, dry foods and concentrated drinks were prepared with deionized water (pasta and rice', 'breakfast cereals', 'savoury meals' and 'powdered infant formula milks' were 0.38, 0.26, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 μg/g, respectively. The corresponding mean F concentrations were 0.97, 1.21, 0.86, 0.74 and 0.91 μg/g, respectively, when the same samples were prepared with fluoridated water. Although some nonreconstituted infant foods/drinks showed a high F concentration in their dry or concentrated forms, the concentration of F in prepared foods/drinks primarily reflected the F concentration of liquid used for their preparation. Some infant foods/drinks, when reconstituted with fluoridated water, may result in a F intake in infants above the suggested optimum range (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg body weight) and therefore may put infants at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Further research is necessary to determine the actual F intake of infants living in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities using reconstituted infant foods and drinks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Career and Technical Education Administration: Requirements, Certification/Licensure, and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkle, Christopher J.; Jeffery, Jeremy O.

    2017-01-01

    The current climate of career and technical administration requirements in all 50 states was detailed and explored. An increasing number of states are not requiring specific career-technical administration certification/licensure in order to oversee secondary career and technical education (CTE) programs, with more states moving towards a general…

  15. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest. (1...

  16. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-08-26

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems.

  17. Adding Timing Requirements to the CODARTS Real-Time Software Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, K.R.

    The CODARTS software design method consideres how concurrent, distributed and real-time applications can be designed. Although accounting for the important issues of task and communication, the method does not provide means for expressing the timeliness of the tasks and communication directly...

  18. A dynamic programming heuristic for vehicle routing with time-dependent travel times and required breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, E.W.; Schutten, J.M.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport co

  19. A dynamic programming heuristic for vehicle routing with time-dependent travel times and required breaks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport

  20. 'It is Time to Prepare the Next patient' Real-Time Prediction of Procedure Duration in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Paalvast, M; Meeuwsen, F C; Tax, D M J; van Dijke, A P; Wauben, L S G L; van der Elst, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2016-12-01

    Operating Room (OR) scheduling is crucial to allow efficient use of ORs. Currently, the predicted durations of surgical procedures are unreliable and the OR schedulers have to follow the progress of the procedures in order to update the daily planning accordingly. The OR schedulers often acquire the needed information through verbal communication with the OR staff, which causes undesired interruptions of the surgical process. The aim of this study was to develop a system that predicts in real-time the remaining procedure duration and to test this prediction system for reliability and usability in an OR. The prediction system was based on the activation pattern of one single piece of equipment, the electrosurgical device. The prediction system was tested during 21 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, in which the activation of the electrosurgical device was recorded and processed in real-time using pattern recognition methods. The remaining surgical procedure duration was estimated and the optimal timing to prepare the next patient for surgery was communicated to the OR staff. The mean absolute error was smaller for the prediction system (14 min) than for the OR staff (19 min). The OR staff doubted whether the prediction system could take all relevant factors into account but were positive about its potential to shorten waiting times for patients. The prediction system is a promising tool to automatically and objectively predict the remaining procedure duration, and thereby achieve optimal OR scheduling and streamline the patient flow from the nursing department to the OR.

  1. Changes in DNA fragmentation during sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Natalia; Uriondo, Heydy; Papier, Sergio; Checa, Miguel Angel; Sueldo, Carlos; Alvarez Sedó, Cristian

    2013-07-01

    To compare the DNA fragmentation of semen samples established by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) after incubation in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for different time periods. Comparative prospective study. Center for reproductive medicine. Twenty-seven semen samples from infertile patients. None. Semen analysis and DNA fragmentation assays (TUNEL) were performed. Two groups were established: A) normal TUNEL (DNA fragmentation significantly decreased after centrifugation gradient, regardless of the initial levels of the sample. Samples with TUNEL ≥ 20% were more susceptible to a significant increase in DNA fragmentation over time, with similar increases being observed over time for samples that were incubated in HA or PVP. These data may be relevant for sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 9 CFR 318.6 - Requirements concerning ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bromelin or pancreatic extract to permit the enzymes contained in these substances to act on the casings to..., the small intestine must comply with the requirements in 9 CFR 310.22(d). Establishments that use... CFR 310.22(d). (2) Casings for products shall be carefully inspected by Program employees. Only...

  3. BC3I: towards requirements specification for preparing an information security budget

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MT

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available with regulatory mandates. This calls for decision makers to become vigilant in their spending and move towards an optimised information security investment. The main aim of this paper is to provide decision makers with a set of requirements to be considered when...

  4. A Requirements Engineering Environment for Embedded Real- Time Software-SREE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yonghua; SHU Fengdi; WU Guoqing; LIANG Zhengping

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the embedded real-time software-oriented requirements engineering environment-SREE.It involves the whole process of software requirements engineering, including the definition, analysis and checking of requirements specifications. We first explain the principles of the executable specification language RTRSM. Subsequently,we introduce the main functions of SREE, illustrate the methods and techniques of checking requirements specifica tions, especially how to perform simulation execution, combining prototyping method with RTRSM and animated representations. At last, we compare the SREE with other requirements specifications methods and make a summary for SREE's advantages.

  5. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  6. ''In-house'' pharmacological management for computed tomography coronary angiography: heart rate reduction, timing and safety of different drugs used during patient preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Tedeschi, Carlo; Seitun, Sara; Ruffini, Livia; Aldrovandi, Annachiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Palumbo, Alessandro A.; Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tarantini, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Cardiology, Padua (Italy); Weustink, Annick C.; Meijboom, Willem B.; Mollet, Nico R.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology c/o Piastra Tecnica - Piano 0, Parma (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect, timing and safety of different pharmacological strategies during 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA). From the institutional database of CT-CA we enrolled 560 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. The type of drug preparation (group 1 = no treatment; group 2 = oral metoprolol; group 3 = other; group 4 = intravenous (IV) atenolol; group 5 = IV atenolol + nitrates; NR = non-responders), timing, and adverse effects were recorded. Heart rate (HR) during different preparation phases was recorded. Four adverse effects were recorded, none of which was attributable to pharmacological treatment. In all groups, except group 1, the HR on arrival was significantly reduced by the pharmacological treatment (p < 0.01). Group 4 showed the best (-16 {+-} 8 bpm) HR reduction. There was no significant effect on HR due to nitrates (p = 0.49), while a slight increase due to contrast material was noted (p < 0.05). Average time required for preparation was 44 {+-} 25 min. Groups 4 and 5 showed the most effective timing (8 {+-} 9 min and 8 {+-} 8 min, respectively; p < 0.01). Pharmacological preparation in patients undergoing CT-CA is safe and effective. Best results in terms of HR reduction and fast preparation are obtained with IV administration of beta-blockers. (orig.)

  7. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  8. Examples, clarifications, and guidance on preparing requests for relief from pump and valve inservice testing requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, C.B.; Hartley, R.S. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In this report, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reviewers discuss related to requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers code requirements for inservice testing (IST) of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. This report compiles information and examples that may be useful to licensees in developing relief requests submitted to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their consideration and provides insights and recommendations on related IST issues. The report also gives specific guidance on relief requests acceptable and not acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information for application at their facilities.

  9. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure asteroseismic targets. If not accounted for, the presence of planetary transits in the photometric time series often greatly complicates or even hinders these asteroseismic analyses. This drives the need for specialised methods of preprocessing data to make them suitable for asteroseismic analysis. In this paper we present the KASOC Filter, which is used to automatically prepare data from the Kepler/K2 mission for asteroseismic analyses of solar-like planet host stars. The methods are very effective at removing unwanted signals of both instrumental and planetary origins and produce significantly cleaner photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a ...

  10. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  11. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  12. Effects of preparation time and trial type probability on performance of anti- and pro-saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control optimizes responses to relevant task conditions by balancing bottom-up stimulus processing with top-down goal pursuit. It can be investigated using the ocular motor system by contrasting basic prosaccades (look toward a stimulus) with complex antisaccades (look away from a stimulus). Furthermore, the amount of time allotted between trials, the need to switch task sets, and the time allowed to prepare for an upcoming saccade all impact performance. In this study the relative probabilities of anti- and pro-saccades were manipulated across five blocks of interleaved trials, while the inter-trial interval and trial type cue duration were varied across subjects. Results indicated that inter-trial interval had no significant effect on error rates or reaction times (RTs), while a shorter trial type cue led to more antisaccade errors and faster overall RTs. Responses following a shorter cue duration also showed a stronger effect of trial type probability, with more antisaccade errors in blocks with a low antisaccade probability and slower RTs for each saccade task when its trial type was unlikely. A longer cue duration yielded fewer errors and slower RTs, with a larger switch cost for errors compared to a short cue duration. Findings demonstrated that when the trial type cue duration was shorter, visual motor responsiveness was faster and subjects relied upon the implicit trial probability context to improve performance. When the cue duration was longer, increased fixation-related activity may have delayed saccade motor preparation and slowed responses, guiding subjects to respond in a controlled manner regardless of trial type probability.

  13. Storage Time and Temperature Effects on Histamine Production in Tuna Salad Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Benner, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP), also known as histamine (Hst) poisoning, has been associated with consumption of scombroid-type fish, including tuna and tuna fish products. Preparation of commercial tuna salad contaminated with Hstproducing bacteria (HPB), combined with time-temperature abuse, can present a food safety hazard. A potential source of HPB is raw ingredients, such as celery and onions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether raw ingredients can be a source of HPB and to ascertain the effects of storage time (up to 4 days or 4 weeks) and temperature (4, 10, 18, 25, 30°C) on growth and Hst production by high-HPB (>1,000 ppm of Hst) in tuna salad preparations. Pantoea-Erwinia, Erwinia persicinus, Erwinia spp., and Enterobacter pyrinus isolated from celery in this study were used to inoculate tuna salad and tuna salad with celery or onion. HPB numbers were 0.7 to 4.3 log most probable number per g higher in the presence of celery or onion versus plain tuna salad (3:1 tuna:mayonnaise). E. pyrinus-inoculated plain tuna salad and tuna salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 2 days at 30°C and 4 days at 25°C. E. pyrinus-inoculated salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 4 days at 18°C and 2 weeks at 10°C. Raw celery can introduce HPB into tuna salad, which can cause SFP if the product is time-temperature abused. Tuna salad products must be refrigerated at ≤4°C to prevent growth and Hst production by the HPB used in this study, to protect consumers from potential SFP.

  14. Preparing for the WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Simulations, Requirements, Survey Strategies, and Precursor Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, Bernard

    As one of the four primary investigations of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, the microlensing survey will monitor several square degrees of the Galactic bulge for a total of roughly one year. Its primary science goal is to "Complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from the outer habitable zone to free floating planets, including analogs of all of the planets in our Solar System with the mass of Mars or greater.'' WFIRST will therefore (a) measure the mass function of cold bound planets with masses greater than that of roughly twice the mass of the moon, including providing an estimate of the frequency of sub-Mars-mass embryos, (b) determine the frequency of free-floating planets with masses down to the Earth and below, (c) inform the frequency and habitability of potentially habitable worlds, and (d) revolutionize our understanding of the demographics of cold planets with its exquisite sensitivity to, and large expected yield of, planets in a broad and unexplored region of parameter space. In order for the microlensing survey to be successful, we must develop a plan to go from actual survey observations obtained by the WFIRST telescope and hardware to the final science products. This plan will involve many steps, the development of software, data reduction, and analysis tools at each step, and a list of requirements for each of these components. The overarching goal of this proposal is thus to develop a complete flowdown from the science goals of the microlensing survey to the mission design and hardware components. We have assembled a team of scientists with the breadth of expertise to achieve this primary goal. Our specific subgoals are as follows. Goal 1: We will refine the input Galactic models in order to provide improved microlensing event rates in the WFIRST fields. Goal 2: We will use the improved event rate estimates, along with improvements in our simulation methodology, to provide higher

  15. The influence of tape type and of skin preparation on the force required to dislodge angiocatheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Smith, C E; Pinchak, A C; Hancock, D E

    1994-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of different techniques used to secure intravenous (i.v.) catheters. An angiocatheter attached to standard i.v. tubing was taped to human forearm using a standard taping method. A calibrated piezoelectric force transducer was attached to the i.v. tubing. The force applied along the longitudinal axis to pull out the taped catheter was measured and recorded on paper. Three tape types, Curity, Leukopor and Transpore, were evaluated alone, with benzoin skin pretreatment and with mastisol pretreatment. A randomized 3 x 3 block design with 20 replications per block was utilized, and a total of 180 pullout tests were performed on two adult volunteers. Without pretreatment, the forces required to dislodge catheters were (means +/- SEM) 46 +/- 2, 37 +/- 2 and 38 +/- 2 Newtons for Curity, Leukopor and Transpore tape, respectively. Corresponding values for mastisol pretreatment (64 +/- 1, 64 +/- 3 and 52 +/- 3 Newtons) were greater (P tape compared with benzoin (54 +/- 3, 53 +/- 2 and 40 +/- 2 Newtons) and no pretreatment. The most frequent failure mode for Transpore tape was by tape fracture, for Curity tape was by separation from the skin of tape and catheter as a single unit, and for Leukopor tape was by catheter separation while tape remained attached to skin (P tape helps to minimize the risk of accidental dislodgement.

  16. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS) for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Bhandari; Tony Gill; Stuart Phinn

    2012-01-01

    Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of image...

  17. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-11-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  18. First-time parents are not well enough prepared for the safety of their infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E J van Beelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional falls and poisonings are major causes of death and disability among infants. Although guidelines are available to prevent these injuries, safety behaviours are not performed by parents, causing unnecessary risks. Little is known about safety behaviours of first-time parents and whether they behave according to these guidelines. AIMS/OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare safety behaviours of first-time parents with those of non-first-time parents and to determine correlates of unsafe behaviour of parents of infants. We used self-report questionnaires to assess safety behaviours in a cross-sectional study sample. METHODS: A total of 1439 parents visiting a preventive youth healthcare centre in the Netherlands were invited to complete a questionnaire with regard to the prevention of falls and poisonings. Parents were categorized into first-time parents and non-first-time parents. Correlates of parents' child safety behaviours were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS/OUTCOME: Most respondents were mothers (93.2%; 48.2% of families were first-time parents. The mean age of the infants was 7.2 months (SD 1.1; range 4-12, 51.8% were boys, and 34.5% of infants could crawl. First-time parents were more likely not to have a stair gate installed (OR 16.46; 95% CI 12.36-21.93; were more likely to store cleaning products unsafely (OR 4.55; 95% CI 3.59-5.76; and were more likely to store medicines unsafely (OR 2.90; 95% CI 2.31-3.63 than non-first-time parents. First-time parents were more likely to not have a window guard installed (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08-2.15 (all P<0.05. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: First-time parents are not well prepared for the safety of their infant, causing unnecessary risks. The various parents' safety behaviours were influenced by different variables, for example, age of the infant, crawling of the infant, mother's educational level, mother's ethnicity, self

  19. Preoperative screening for coagulopathy using prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients requiring primary cranial vault remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genecov, David G; Por, Yong-Chen; Barcelo, Carlos Raul; Salyer, Kenneth E; Mulne, Arlynne F; Morad, Ammar B

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal preoperative screening prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients listed for primary cranial vault remodeling that required hematologic workup and their diagnoses and subsequent management. This retrospective analysis was performed from January of 2000 to December of 2003 at the International Craniofacial Institute, Dallas, Texas, on a total of 168 patients. All patients had a normal prothrombin time. Abnormally raised partial thromboplastin time was found in six patients (prevalence of 3.57 percent), one who had factor XI deficiency, one who had a borderline factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had an intermittent factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had a borderline von Willebrand's disease with low factor XII, and the remaining two who had a circulating inhibitor of coagulation. Of these six patients, the perioperative management was altered in four of five patients, and one patient declined surgery out of fear of surgical morbidity. The surgery of one patient was aborted intraoperatively because of abnormal bleeding without clot formation after the calvarial burr holes had been drilled. The mean blood loss was 183 ml for the four patients with completed surgery and 100 ml for one patient. The authors conclude that even though the prevalence of abnormal screening partial thromboplastin time in these patients was low (3.57 percent), detection of an abnormal result required preoperative correction of coagulopathy in 80 percent of cases.

  20. Research on Forecasting Water Requirement of Well Irrigation Rice by Time Series Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper builds up the forecasting model of air temperature according to the data (1994~1998) of Fu Jin area.At the same time,the writer inquires into the relation of water requirement of well irrigation rice (ET) and average air temperature (T).Furthermore,the rice irrigation water requirement (ET) of Fu Jin area has been forecast in 1999.Thus,we can apply the model in irrigation management.

  1. User Requirements for a Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Decision Support Tool to Promote Timely Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulla, Joy; Neri, Pamela M; Bates, David W; Samal, Lipika

    2017-05-01

    Timely referral of patients with CKD has been associated with cost and mortality benefits, but referrals are often done too late in the course of the disease. Clinical decision support (CDS) offers a potential solution, but interventions have failed because they were not designed to support the physician workflow. We sought to identify user requirements for a chronic kidney disease (CKD) CDS system to promote timely referral. We interviewed primary care physicians (PCPs) to identify data needs for a CKD CDS system that would encourage timely referral and also gathered information about workflow to assess risk factors for progression of CKD. Interviewees were general internists recruited from a network of 14 primary care clinics affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). We then performed a qualitative analysis to identify user requirements and system attributes for a CKD CDS system. Of the 12 participants, 25% were women, the mean age was 53 (range 37-82), mean years in clinical practice was 27 (range 11-58). We identified 21 user requirements. Seven of these user requirements were related to support for the referral process workflow, including access to pertinent information and support for longitudinal co-management. Six user requirements were relevant to PCP management of CKD, including management of risk factors for progression, interpretation of biomarkers of CKD severity, and diagnosis of the cause of CKD. Finally, eight user requirements addressed user-centered design of CDS, including the need for actionable information, links to guidelines and reference materials, and visualization of trends. These 21 user requirements can be used to design an intuitive and usable CDS system with the attributes necessary to promote timely referral. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Comparison of Instrumentation Time and Cleaning Capacity between Rotary and Manual Preparation Techniques in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahrololoomi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning ability and instrumentation time of manual and rotary methods used for preparation of primary an-terior teeth.Materials and Methods: Forty-four primary anterior teeth were used in this experi-mental study. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals. The samples were divided into three groups according to the instrument and preparation technique. In group I the root canals were manually instrumented with K-files. Rotary Flexmaster instruments were used for canal preparation in Group II, and the samples in Group III (control were not instrumented. After canal preparation, the teeth were cleared with methyl salicilate and the removal of India ink was measured in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. The incidence of file breakage and instrumentation time was recorded in the three study groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and t-tests.Results: There was no significant difference in cleaning capacity between the two tech-niques, but a significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Working time was significantly shorter when using the rotary system. No file fracture was observed during the study period.Conclusion: Regarding the shorter working time for rotary instrumentation and the similar cleaning ability of the two techniques, the application of the rotary system is suggested for preparation of decidious root canals during pulpectomy.

  3. Specifying Requirements of Real-Time System with Rules and Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a model specifying requirements of real-time systems. Different from existing researches, this model mainly uses rules and templates to represent hierarchical FSMs (Finite State Machine). In this model, one rule corresponds to one state transition of FSM and one template corresponds to one FSM. Rules and information with respect to a FSM can be written in a template. So templates include not only state diagrams, but also information that can not be described by FSM, such as performance requirements. The specification using this model consists of a collection of templates and it is easy for users to understand and to review. After introduced the related researches and principles of the model, this paper specifies requirements of a real-time system with this model, and discusses characters of this model in the end.

  4. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-05-08

    Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG) system with a rapid preparation time intended for use in emergency medicine and prehospital care. The novel system comprises a quick-application cap, a device for recording and transmitting the EEG wirelessly to a computer, and custom software for displaying and streaming the data in real-time to a hospital. Bench testing was conducted, as well as healthy volunteer and patient measurements in three different environments: a hospital EEG laboratory, an intensive care unit, and an ambulance. The EEG data was evaluated by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists and compared with recordings from a commercial system. The bench tests demonstrated that the emEEG system's performance is comparable to that of a commercial system while the healthy volunteer and patient measurements confirmed that the system can be applied quickly and that it records quality EEG data in a variety of environments. Furthermore, the recorded data was judged to be of diagnostic quality by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists. In the future, the emEEG system may be used to record high-quality EEG data in emergency medicine and during ambulance transportation. Its use could lead to a faster diagnostic, a more accurate treatment, and a shorter recovery time for patients with neurological brain disorders.

  5. Effectiveness of Constant Time Delay on Teaching Snack and Drink Preparation Skills to Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Funda; Gursel, Oguz

    2005-01-01

    A multiple probe design with probe conditions across behaviors was used to evaluate effectiveness of constant time delay on teaching snack and drink preparation skills to children with mental retardation. In addition, generalization effects across settings, time, and materials, and maintenance effects were examined. Three students between the ages…

  6. Time Required to Initiate a Defensive Reaction to Direct and Feint Attacks in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; García, Carlos; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    The two-fold purpose of this study was to analyze the time required by a fencer to initiate a defensive action in response to a direct attack, which involves identifying when the defending fencer detects the just-noticeable difference, and, secondly, to assess the effect that an attacker's rapid armed hand movement (feint attack) has on the time required to initiate a defensive move. Twenty-four elite fencers and a fencing master were included in the study. Four adapted force plates were installed on a scaffold used as a fencing piste. A 3D video analysis system recorded the location of 2 markers installed on the fencing master's shoulder and sword. The results confirm that the defending fencer has a mean movement time of 0.353 ± 0.028 s to perform the defensive action, which provides an advantage over the attacking fencer. The velocity of movement in the peripheral visual field has no influence on the time required by elite fencers to initiate a defensive action. This confirms the crucial role that response inhibition processes play when nonrelevant actions are perceived. Kinematic analysis of markers suggests that the eye movements of elite fencers are not the only source of information used while observing an attack.

  7. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N Kroutter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1, an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  8. 26 CFR 1.6695-2 - Tax return preparer due diligence requirements for determining earned income credit eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service (IRS) (Eligibility Checklist); or (B) Otherwise record in the preparer's paper or electronic files... by the IRS (Computation Worksheet); or (B) Otherwise record in the preparer's paper or electronic files the preparer's EIC computation, including the method and information used to make the...

  9. Type of oral solid medication packaging and medication preparation time in nursing homes: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cready, C M; Hudson, C; Dreyer, K

    2017-06-05

    Medication administration is a substantial portion of the workday in nursing homes, with the medication preparation step being the most time-consuming. However, little is known about how medication preparation time is affected by the type of packaging used for oral solid medications (ie, tablets/capsules). We examined the effects of two types of packaging. As fewer steps are associated with strip packaging compared to bingo card packaging, we hypothesized that the increase in medication preparation seconds per resident with each additional oral solid medication would be smaller when strip packaging was used. A total of 430 medication preparations conducted by eight nurses during the regularly scheduled morning medication administration period in two nursing homes-using strip packaging and bingo card packaging, respectively-were observed. Each medication preparation observation was matched to its corresponding medication administration record and observations averaged across resident. Using the resident sample (N=149), we estimated three regression models (adjusting the standard errors for the clustering of resident by nurse). The first model regressed medication preparation seconds on the number of oral solid medications. The second model added the type of packaging used and the control variables (type of unit [long-term care, post-acute care], the number of one-half pills and the dosage form diversity in the preparation). To test our hypothesis, the third model added an interaction term between the number of oral solid medications and the type of packaging used. As hypothesized, all else equal, the number of oral solid medications tended to increase medication preparation time per resident in both nursing homes, but the increase was smaller in the strip packaging nursing home (Phome increased medication preparation by an average of 13 seconds (b=13.077), whereas each oral solid medication administered in the strip packaging nursing home increased medication

  10. Real-Time Mobile Communication of Power Requirements for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodic power requirements of an electric vehicle are difficult to predict because the vehicle's location, the amount of charge remaining in its batteries, and the timing of its next charge are not known. For clusters of electric vehicles, the problem is magnified, and there is a risk that the demand will strain and overload a power utility’s infrastructure. Operational managers are left with reactive management of the infrastructure that may defer or prevent a vehicle charge to balance power demands and safeguard the infrastructure. In this article, the following key concepts are analyzed to provide background on the problem and to outline the requirements of any solution: i demand uncertainty and reactive management approaches, ii electric vehicle power requirements, and iii demand-management telecommunication capabilities. Then, by abstraction, induction, and creative synthesis, a novel solution to the problem is proposed to provide real-time mobile communication of power requirements. The proposed solution has potential to create new service and business opportunities to managers and entrepreneurs.

  11. Timing and control requirements for a 32-channel AMU-ADC ASIC for the PHENIX detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.S.; Ericson, M.N.; Britton, C.L. Jr. [and others

    1998-02-01

    A custom CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been developed consisting of an analog memory unit (AMU) has been developed consisting of an analog memory unit (AMU) and analog to digital converter (ADC), both of which have been designed for applications in the PHENIX experiment. This IC consists of 32 pipes of analog memory with 64 cells per pipe. Each pipe also has its own ADC channel. Timing and control signal requirements for optimum performance are discussed in this paper.

  12. Structural Requirements for Membrane Assembly of Proteins Spanning the Membrane Several Times

    OpenAIRE

    Lipp, Joachim; Flint, Nicholas; Haeuptle, Marie-Theres; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the structural requirements for the biogenesis of proteins spanning the membrane several times. Proteins containing various combinations of topological signals (signal anchor and stop transfer sequences) were synthesized in a cell-free translation system and their membrane topology was determined. Proteins spanning the membrane twice were obtained when a signal anchor sequence was followed by either a stop transfer sequence or a second signal anchor sequence. Thus, a sig...

  13. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Parmoon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models (segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion correction (AICc. The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination (D50, (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 0.004; AICc = − 276.97. Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C, respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and 7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  14. Time-dependent ambulance allocation considering data-driven empirically required coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degel, Dirk; Wiesche, Lara; Rachuba, Sebastian; Werners, Brigitte

    2015-12-01

    Empirical studies considering the location and relocation of emergency medical service (EMS) vehicles in an urban region provide important insight into dynamic changes during the day. Within a 24-hour cycle, the demand, travel time, speed of ambulances and areas of coverage change. Nevertheless, most existing approaches in literature ignore these variations and require a (temporally and spatially) fixed (double) coverage of the planning area. Neglecting these variations and fixation of the coverage could lead to an inaccurate estimation of the time-dependent fleet size and individual positioning of ambulances. Through extensive data collection, now it is possible to precisely determine the required coverage of demand areas. Based on data-driven optimization, a new approach is presented, maximizing the flexible, empirically determined required coverage, which has been adjusted for variations due to day-time and site. This coverage prevents the EMS system from unavailability of ambulances due to parallel operations to ensure an improved coverage of the planning area closer to realistic demand. An integer linear programming model is formulated in order to locate and relocate ambulances. The use of such a programming model is supported by a comprehensive case study, which strongly suggests that through such a model, these objectives can be achieved and lead to greater cost-effectiveness and quality of emergency care.

  15. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghasem; Parmoon; Seyed; Amir; Moosavi; Hamed; Akbari; Ali; Ebadi

    2015-01-01

    The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models(segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like) to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle(Silybum marianum L.) at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error(RMSE), coefficient of determination(R2) and Akaike information criterion correction(AICc). The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination(D50),(R2= 0.99;RMSE = 0.004; AICc =-276.97). Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C,respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  16. Accuracy and time requirements of a bar-code inventory system for medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, L B; Weinswig, M H; De Muth, J E

    1988-02-01

    The effects of implementing a bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to nursing units at a university teaching hospital were evaluated. Data on the time required to issue medical supplies to three nursing units at a 480-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital were collected (1) before the bar-code system was implemented (i.e., when the manual system was in use), (2) one month after implementation, and (3) four months after implementation. At the same times, the accuracy of the central supply perpetual inventory was monitored using 15 selected items. One-way analysis of variance tests were done to determine any significant differences between the bar-code and manual systems. Using the bar-code system took longer than using the manual system because of a significant difference in the time required for order entry into the computer. Multiple-use requirements of the central supply computer system made entering bar-code data a much slower process. There was, however, a significant improvement in the accuracy of the perpetual inventory. Using the bar-code system for issuing medical supplies to the nursing units takes longer than using the manual system. However, the accuracy of the perpetual inventory was significantly improved with the implementation of the bar-code system.

  17. [Preparation and evaluation of press-coated aminophylline tablet using crystalline cellulose and polyethylene glycol in the outer shell for timed-release dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Mukai, Baku; Kawamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Namiki, Michihiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Fujii, Makiko

    2002-02-01

    In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet in the form of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and coated with crystalline cellulose (PH-102) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at various molecular weights and mixing ratios in the amounts of PH-102 and PEG as the outer shell (press-coating material), were prepared (chronopharmaceutics). Their applicability as timed-release (delayed-release) tablets with a lag time of disintegration and a subsequent rapid drug release phase was investigated. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a tableting machine, and their aminophylline dissolution profiles were evaluated by the JP paddle method. Tablets with the timed-release characteristics could be prepared, and the lag time of disintegration was prolonged as the molecular weight and the amount of PEG, for example PEG 500,000, in the outer shell were increased. The lag time of disintegration could be controlled by the above-mentioned method, however, the pH of the medium had no effect on disintegration of the tablet and dissolution behavior of theophylline. The press-coated tablet (core tablet:aminophylline 50 mg, L-HPC and PEG 6000; outer shell:PH-102:PEG = 8:2 200 mg) with the timed-release characteristics was administered orally to rabbits for an in vivo test. Theophylline was first detected in plasma more than 2 h after administration; thus, this tablet showed a timed-release characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract. The time (tmax) required to reach the maximum plasma theophylline concentration (Cmax) observed after administration of the press-coated tablet was significantly (p 24) between the press-coated tablet and aminophylline solution. These results suggest that the press-coated aminophylline tablet (with the timed-release characteristic) offers a promising forms of theophylline chronotherapy for asthma.

  18. Impact of Educational Cartoon on Pediatric Bowel Preparation Quality at Time of Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maxwell MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate if addition of educational cartoon to pediatric bowel preparation instructions improves the quality of bowel preparation and patient experience. Methods: Patients were randomized to control group receiving standard bowel preparation instructions or intervention group receiving additional educational cartoon. To objectively rate bowel preparation, a blinded endoscopist completed numeric Ottawa score (0-14, with 0 being best. The family also completed a questionnaire rating the bowel preparation process. Results: Data from 23 patients were analyzed. Mean Ottawa score in the intervention group compared with controls was not significantly different (mean scores 3.73 and 3.33, respectively; P = .384. Level of education was significantly correlated with better Ottawa score in the overall population (ρ = −.462, P = .026 and within the control group (ρ = −.658, P = .02. Both groups of patients reported positive experience with bowel preparation. Conclusion: There may be benefit to further investigation of this educational cartoon in parents with less than college level education or non-English-speaking families in larger population of patients.

  19. Waiting Time for Coronal Preparation and the Influence of Different Cements on Tensile Strength of Metal Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilione Kruschewsky Costa Sousa Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of post-cementation waiting time for core preparation of cemented cast posts and cores had on retention in the root canal, using two different luting materials. Sixty extracted human canines were sectioned 16 mm from the root apex. After cast nickel-chromium metal posts and cores were fabricated and luted with zinc phosphate (ZP cement or resin cement (RC, the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 according to the waiting time for core preparation: no preparation (control, 15 minutes, or 1 week after the core cementation. At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min until failure. Two-way ANOVA (time versus cement and the Tukey tests (P < 0.05 showed significantly higher (P < 0.05 tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation.

  20. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  1. Management of Forgotten Ureteral Stents: Relationship Between Indwelling Time and Required Treatment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hacı; Yücel, Mehmet Özgür; Utangaç, Mehmet M; Benlioğlu, Can; Gök, Alper; Çift, Ali; Kalyenci, Bedreddin; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut

    2017-08-04

    Double-J stents are widely used in urology practice, and removal of these stents can sometimes be forgotten. To investigate whether indwelling time of double-J stent can predict which treatment modality is required for removal of the stent from the body. A multicentre, retrospective observational study. The data of 57 patients who were treated for forgotten ureteral stents between January 2007 and December 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were classified into four groups according to indwelling time of the stents: 6-12 months, 13-24 months, 25-36 months, and forgotten double-J stents. Transurethral procedures are sufficient for the treatment of patients with double-J stent indwelling times less than 30 months.

  2. Time-Dependent Decline in Multifocal Electroretinogram Requires Faster Recording Procedures in Anesthetized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Christiansen, Anders Tolstrup; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The time-dependent effect of anesthetics on the retinal function is debated. We hypothesize that in anesthetized animals there is a time-dependent decline that requires optimized multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) recording procedures. METHODS: Conventional and four-frame global-flash mf...... injection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was given and the mfERG was rerecorded as described above. Data were analyzed using mixed models in SAS statistical software. RESULTS: Propofol significantly decreases the conventional and global-flash amplitudes over time. The only significant effect of isoflurane...... is sufficient in anesthetized pigs. Recordings should be obtained immediately after the induction of anesthesia. The effect of TTX is significant 15 minutes after injection, but is contaminated by the effect of anesthesia 90 minutes after injection. Therefore, the quality of mfERG recordings can be further...

  3. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  4. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  5. 78 FR 24349 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J; Time-Limited Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J; Time-Limited Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishes a time-limited exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus mycoides... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for Bacillus mycoides isolate J, in or on potato. This...

  6. 75 FR 17919 - Submission for OMB Review; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-One-time Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors AGENCY... collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-time Reporting Requirements... information on those who are to respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques...

  7. The torpedo (DER) receptor tyrosine kinase is required at multiple times during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, R; Schüpbach, T

    1992-07-01

    The torpedo (DER) gene of Drosophila, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase of the EGF receptor subfamily, is essential for oogenesis, embryogenesis and imaginal disc development. To gain insight into the nature of the signals transduced by the torpedo product, we have characterized the gene's loss-of-function phenotype in the embryo. Through the induction of germline clones, we provide a genetic demonstration that maternal torpedo product does not contribute to zygotic development. Thus, the embryonic lethal phenotypes examined accurately reflect the consequences of eliminating all gene activity from the zygote. Temperature-shift experiments with the conditional allele topIF26 show that torpedo is required at two distinct times during embryonic development: the gene is first needed for germband retraction and for the production of anterior, posterior and ventral cuticle, then later for the secretion of ventral denticles. Since denticle formation can be severely disrupted in topIF26 animals without affecting cuticle production, the early and late requirements for torpedo appear to be functionally unrelated. torpedo, therefore, is required at multiple times in the development of the ventral epidermis, and may transduce qualitatively different signals. Since the early requirement for torpedo correlates with the first visible defect in embryonic development, increased cell death in the amnioserosa, cephalic ectoderm and ventral epidermis, the abnormalities in cuticle production and germband shortening seen in the mutant may be secondary consequences of a primary defect in cell viability. Given that the onset of cell death in torpedo embryos is not preceded by any obvious defects in mitogenesis, the establishment of cell identities or the maintenance of gene expression, it is possible that torpedo transduces a signal necessary for cell survival per se during early embryogenesis. During late embryogenesis, torpedo may mediate the reception of a second signal which

  8. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD.

  9. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...... discusses how to create a Colored Petri Nets (CPN) model that formally expresses the following elements in a clearly separated structure: (1) assumptions about the behavior of the environment of the component, (2) real-time requirements for the component, and (3) a possible solution in terms of an algorithm...

  10. Preparation and time-resolved fluorescence study of RGB organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Ding, Ran; Wang, Hai-Yu; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    In this work, large-size tetracene- and pentacene-doped 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl)-benzene (BSB-Me) crystals were prepared with physical vapor transfer technique. The photoluminescence emission can be adjusted from blue to green and even to red by changing the doping. Their fluorescence features are

  11. Limiting Time and Expanding the Mind: Using Limited Preparation in the Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert J., III

    This paper discusses the different types of presentations employed in various forms of impromptu and limited preparation speaking assignments in public speaking, interpersonal communication, and argumentation instruction. It also highlights the benefits associated with each activity, for example, improved thinking skills. The paper's presentations…

  12. Preparation and time-resolved fluorescence study of RGB organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Ding, Ran; Wang, Hai-Yu; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    2013-01-01

    In this work, large-size tetracene- and pentacene-doped 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl)-benzene (BSB-Me) crystals were prepared with physical vapor transfer technique. The photoluminescence emission can be adjusted from blue to green and even to red by changing the doping. Their fluorescence features are in

  13. Preparation for Full Time Employment: A Capstone Experience for Students in Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory T.; Cannon, Karen J.; Stedman, Nicole L.; Telg, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    This practice paper describes the development and implementation of a senior capstone course for communication and leadership development for undergraduate students. The resulting course is a unique combination of experiential skill development and career preparation. The success of this course provides students with an important and meaningful…

  14. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  15. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Stephen A; Goblirsch, Michael J

    2011-08-29

    Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments). However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp) trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime). The lethal temperature (LTemp99) for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  16. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  17. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  18. Real-time total system error estimation:Modeling and application in required navigation performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Li; Zhang Jun; Li Rui

    2014-01-01

    In required navigation performance (RNP), total system error (TSE) is estimated to pro-vide a timely warning in the presence of an excessive error. In this paper, by analyzing the under-lying formation mechanism, the TSE estimation is modeled as the estimation fusion of a fixed bias and a Gaussian random variable. To address the challenge of high computational load induced by the accurate numerical method, two efficient methods are proposed for real-time application, which are called the circle tangent ellipse method (CTEM) and the line tangent ellipse method (LTEM), respectively. Compared with the accurate numerical method and the traditional scalar quantity summation method (SQSM), the computational load and accuracy of these four methods are exten-sively analyzed. The theoretical and experimental results both show that the computing time of the LTEM is approximately equal to that of the SQSM, while it is only about 1/30 and 1/6 of that of the numerical method and the CTEM. Moreover, the estimation result of the LTEM is parallel with that of the numerical method, but is more accurate than those of the SQSM and the CTEM. It is illustrated that the LTEM is quite appropriate for real-time TSE estimation in RNP application.

  19. PLANNED LEAD TIME OPTIMIZATION IN MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING ENVIRONMENT FOR MULTILEVEL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faicel HNAIEN; Alexandre DOLGUI; Mohamed-Aly OULD LOULY

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of planned lead time calculation in a Material Requirement Planning (MRP) environment under stochastic lead times. The objective is to minimize the sum of holding and backlogging costs. The proposed approach is based on discrete time inventory control where the decision variables are integer. Two types of systems are considered: multi-level serial-production and assembly systems. For the serial production systems (one type of component at each level), a mathematical model is suggested. Then, it is proven that this model is equivalent to the well known discrete Newsboy Model. This directly provides the optimal values for the planned lead times. For multilevel assembly systems, a dedicated model is proposed and some properties of the decision variables and objective function are proven. These properties are used to calculate lower and upper limits on the decision variables and lower and upper bounds on the objective function. The obtained limits and bounds open the possibility to develop an efficient optimization algorithm using, for example, a Branch and Bound approach. The paper presents the proposed models in detail with corresponding proofs and several numerical examples. Some advantages of the suggested models and perspectives of this research are discussed.

  20. Surgeon motivations behind the timing of breast reconstruction in patients requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming; Reinertsen, Erik; McClure, Evan; Liu, Shuling; Kruper, Laura; Tanna, Neil; Boyd, J. Brian; Granzow, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Although postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been shown to reduce breast cancer burden and improve survival, PMRT may negatively influence outcomes after reconstruction. The goal of this study was to compare current opinions of plastic and reconstructive surgeons (PRS) and surgical oncologists (SO) regarding the optimal timing of breast reconstruction for patients requiring PMRT. Methods Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS), and the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) were asked to participate in an anonymous web-based survey. Responses were solicited in accordance to the Dillman method, and they were analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Results A total of 330 members of the ASPS and 348 members of the ASBS and SSO participated in our survey. PRS and SO differed in patient–payor mix (p reconstruction versus SO, overall timing did not significantly differ between the two specialists (p = 0.14). The primary rationale behind delayed breast reconstruction differed significantly between PRS and SO (p reconstructive outcome is significantly and adversely affected by radiation. Both PRS and SO cited “patient-driven desire to have immediate reconstruction” (p = 0.86) as the primary motivation for immediate reconstruction. Conclusions Although the optimal timing of reconstruction is controversial between PRS and SO, our study suggests that the timing of reconstruction in PMRT patients is ultimately driven by patient preferences and the desire of PRS to optimize aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26277336

  1. Real time MHD mode control using ECCD in KSTAR: Plan and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, M.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, W. R.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwak, J. G.; Yang, H. L. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H. [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. H.; Kim, K. J.; Na, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hosea, J.; Ellis, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2014-02-12

    For a high-performance, advanced tokamak mode in KSTAR, we have been developing a real-time control system of MHD modes such as sawtooth and Neo-classical Tearing Mode (NTM) by ECH/ECCD. The active feedback control loop will be also added to the mirror position and the real-time detection of the mode position. In this year, for the stabilization of NTM that is crucial to plasma performance we have implemented open-loop ECH antenna control system in KSTAR Plasma Control System (PCS) for ECH mirror movement during a single plasma discharge. KSTAR 170 GHz ECH launcher which was designed and fabricated by collaboration with PPPL and POSTECH has a final mirror of a poloidally and toroidally steerable mirror. The poloidal steering motion is only controlled in the real-time NTM control system and its maximum steering speed is 10 degree/sec by DC motor. However, the latency of the mirror control system and the return period of ECH antenna mirror angle are not fast because the existing launcher mirror control system is based on PLC which is connected to the KSTAR machine network through serial to LAN converter. In this paper, we present the design of real time NTM control system, ECH requirements, and the upgrade plan.

  2. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job.

  3. 76 FR 77492 - Draft Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... other legally binding requirement and is not legally enforceable. The use of non-mandatory terminology... policies and recommendations. The use of mandatory terminology such as ``shall,'' ``must,'' and ``required... developing a proposed policy, program, management plan, or project. Agencies must integrate the NEPA...

  4. The financial requirements and time commitments of caregivers for autologous stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Kenneth R; Fitzmaurice, Thomas; Root, Lynn; Kimtis, Elizabeth; Patchett, Linda; Hill, John

    2006-04-01

    This study is a prospective evaluation of the time commitment and financial requirements of caregivers of autologous stem cell recipients during the period of inpatient hospitalization. Eligible patients identified one caregiver, and a one-page survey addressing the necessary time commitment and out-of-pocket expenses was completed by the caregiver at each visit. The caregivers of 40 patients participated (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 19], multiple myeloma [n = 18], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 2], or acute myelogenous leukemia [n = 1]). Caregivers included spouses (n = 35), partners/friends (n = 2), or family members (n = 3). Results were summarized for the patient's total length of stay. Each caregiver traveled a median of 829 miles over 17.8 hours. Out-of-pocket expenses varied greatly depending on whether a caregiver stayed in local accommodations (cohort 1; n = 11) or in the patient's hospital room (cohort 2; n = 29). Total expenses (median) for each caregiver in cohort 1 were dollar 849.35, including accommodations (dollar 560), gasoline (dollar 87.35), and food (dollar 202). Total expenses (median) for each caregiver in cohort 2 were dollar 181.15, including gasoline (dollar 70) and food (dollar 111.15). Each caregiver in cohort 1 lost a median of 43.5 hours of work compared with 8 hours for each caregiver in cohort 2. The results from this prospective study demonstrate that there is a significant financial and time requirement on the part of the caregiver when a family member or significant other is hospitalized for an autologous stem cell transplant.

  5. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05, whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.

  6. Optical Clock and Drag-Free Requirements for a Shapiro Time-Delay Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In the next decade or two, extremely accurate tests of general relativity under extreme conditions are expected from gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers with a wide range of mass ratios. In addition, major improvements are planned in both strong and weak equivalence principle tests; clock measurements based on the ACES program on the ISS; more accurate light-bending measurements; and other new types of tests. However, whether these tests are all consistent with general relativity or not, it still appears desirable to proceed with a much improved measurement of the Shapiro time delay. A suggested approach is based on using a high-quality optical clock in a drag-free spacecraft near the sun-earth L1 point and a smaller drag-free transponder spacecraft in a two-year period solar orbit. Laser phase travel-time measurements would be made between the two spacecraft over a period of 10 or 20 days around the time when the line of sight passes through the Sun. The requirements on the optical c...

  7. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  8. Effect of temperature and time on microstructure and surface functional groups of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The results showed that the burn-off value of the LWACFs increased gradually with the increase in temperature or time. All the LWACFs were far from being structurally graphitized, and in general, as temperature or time increased, the degree of graphitization and thickness of crystal structure increased. In addition, the LWACFs possessed rich micropores, and their specific surface area, pore volume, micropore size, and mesopore quantity were directly related to the activation temperature or time. The maximum specific surface area was found to be 2641 m2/g. The fractal dimension values of all samples were close to 3, indicating that their surfaces were very rough. Furthermore, with an increase in temperature or time, the elemental content of carbon increased, while that of oxygen decreased. Meanwhile, as the temperature or time increased, the relative content of graphitic carbon decreased, whereas that of carbon bonded to oxygen-containing functions increased. The surface of samples prepared at higher temperature or with longer time formed a considerable amount of holes.

  9. Studies on applicability of press-coated tablets using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in the outer shell for timed-release preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, E; Uemura, K; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-10

    Press-coated tablets, containing diltiazem hydrochloride (DIL) in the core tablet and coated with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the outer shell, were examined for applicability as timed-release tablets with a predetermined lag time and subsequent rapid drug release phase. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a rotary tabletting machine and their DIL dissolution behavior was evaluated by the JP paddle method. The results indicated that tablets with the timed-release function could be prepared, and that the lag times were prolonged as the viscosity of HPC and the amount of the outer shell were increased. The lag times could be controlled widely by the above method, however, the compression load had little effect. Two different kinds of timed-release press-coated tablets that showed lag times of 3 and 6 h in the in vitro test (denoted PCT(L3) and PCT(L6), respectively) were administered to beagle dogs. DIL was first detected in the plasma more than 3 h after administration, and both tablets showed timed-release. The lag times showed a good agreement between the in vivo and in vitro tests in PCT(L3). However, the in vivo lag times were about 4 h in PCT(L6) and were much shorter than the in vitro lag time. The dissolution test was performed at different paddle rotation speeds, and good agreement was obtained between the in vivo and in vitro lag times at 150 rpm. This suggested that the effects of gastrointestinal peristalsis and contraction should also be taken into consideration for the further development of drug delivery systems.

  10. Aging Time Effect on Porous Characteristics of Natural Mud-based Silica Prepared by Hydrothermal-Coprecipitation Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaid, A.; Hidayat, N.; Munasir

    2017-05-01

    In this present study, we report the influence of aging time on porous characteristics and chemical bonding within structurally related silicates of silica. The silica was well prepared by using a combination of hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. Local natural mud from Sidoarjo, Indonesia was preferred as a starting material, rather than the expensive commercial ones. The aging time was set at 20, 24, 28, and 32 hours. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) test revealed that the produced porous silica has a purity of 98.9%. The Fourier Transform of Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed that ≡Si-OH and ≡Si-O -Si≡ functional groups were found in the samples. The pores of the silica, after Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, found to be macropore and mesopore. The prepared silica with different porous characteristics were strongly influenced by the chemical activities during the synthesis, known as syneresis and Ostwald processes.

  11. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  12. Reducing time and increasing sensitivity in sample preparation for adherent mammalian cell metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Matthew A; Burant, Charles F; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-05-01

    A simple, fast, and reproducible sample preparation procedure was developed for relative quantification of metabolites in adherent mammalian cells using the clonal β-cell line INS-1 as a model sample. The method was developed by evaluating the effect of different sample preparation procedures on high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry quantification of 27 metabolites involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle on a directed basis as well as for all detectable chromatographic features on an undirected basis. We demonstrate that a rapid water rinse step prior to quenching of metabolism reduces components that suppress electrospray ionization thereby increasing signal for 26 of 27 targeted metabolites and increasing total number of detected features from 237 to 452 with no detectable change of metabolite content. A novel quenching technique is employed which involves addition of liquid nitrogen directly to the culture dish and allows for samples to be stored at -80 °C for at least 7 d before extraction. Separation of quenching and extraction steps provides the benefit of increased experimental convenience and sample stability while maintaining metabolite content similar to techniques that employ simultaneous quenching and extraction with cold organic solvent. The extraction solvent 9:1 methanol: chloroform was found to provide superior performance over acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol with respect to metabolite recovery and extract stability. Maximal recovery was achieved using a single rapid (∼1 min) extraction step. The utility of this rapid preparation method (∼5 min) was demonstrated through precise metabolite measurements (11% average relative standard deviation without internal standards) associated with step changes in glucose concentration that evoke insulin secretion in the clonal β-cell line INS-1.

  13. Time series requirements and trends of temperature and precipitation extremes over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Guido; Desiato, Franco; Fraschetti, Piero; Perconti, Walter; Piervitali, Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    Extreme climate events have strong impacts on society and economy; accordingly,the knowledge of their trends on long period is crucial for the definition and implementation of a national adaptation strategy to climate change. The Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) identified a set of temperature and precipitation indices suited to investigate variability and trends of climate extremes. It is well known that extreme indices calculation is more demanding than first and second order statistics are: daily temperature and precipitation data are required and strict constrains in terms of continuity and completeness must be met. In addition, possible dishomogeneities affecting time series must be identified and adjusted before indices calculation. When metadata are not available, statistical methods can provide scientist a relevant support for homogeneity check; however, ad-hoc decision criteria (sometimes subjective) must be applied whenever contradictory results characterize different statistical homogeneity tests. In this work, a set of daily (minimum and maximum) temperature and precipitation time series for the period 1961-2011 were selected in order to guarantee a quite uniform spatial distribution of the stations over the Italian territory and according to the afore-said continuity and completeness criteria. Following the method described by Vincent, the homogeneity check of temperature time series was run at annual level. Two well-documented tests were employed (F-test and T-test), both implemented in the free R-package RHtestV3. The Vincent method was also used for a further investigation of time series homogeneity. Temperature dishomogeneous series were discarded. For precipitation series, no homogeneity check was run. The selected series were employed at daily level to calculate a reliable set of extreme indices. For each station, a linear model was employed for indices trend estimation. Finally, single station results were

  14. 75 FR 17918 - Submission for OMB Review; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-One-Time Reporting Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--One-Time Reporting Requirements for First-Tier Subcontractors...--One-time Reporting Requirements for First-tier Subcontractors. A request for public comments was... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Submit comments on...

  15. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin on...

  16. Home Use Devices: How to Prepare for and Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices That Require Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity Center for De CDRH vices and Rad lth ... Handle Power Outages for Medical Devices that Require Electricity As a home medical device user, it is ...

  17. Timing specific requirement of microRNA function is essential for embryonic and postnatal hippocampal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Li

    Full Text Available The adult hippocampus consists of the dentate gyrus (DG and the CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions and is essential for learning and memory functions. During embryonic development, hippocampal neurons are derived from hippocampal neuroepithelial cells and dentate granular progenitors. The molecular mechanisms that control hippocampal progenitor proliferation and differentiation are not well understood. Here we show that noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs are essential for early hippocampal development in mice. Conditionally ablating the RNAase III enzyme Dicer at different embryonic time points utilizing three Cre mouse lines causes abnormal hippocampal morphology and affects the number of hippocampal progenitors due to altered proliferation and increased apoptosis. Lack of miRNAs at earlier stages causes early differentiation of hippocampal neurons, in particular in the CA1 and DG regions. Lack of miRNAs at a later stage specifically affects neuronal production in the CA3 region. Our results reveal a timing requirement of miRNAs for the formation of specific hippocampal regions, with the CA1 and DG developmentally hindered by an early loss of miRNAs and the CA3 region to a late loss of miRNAs. Collectively, our studies indicate the importance of the Dicer-mediated miRNA pathway in hippocampal development and functions.

  18. The waiting time of the ship on port entrance at required water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław GALOR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of a ship which manoeuvres within a port area depends to a large extent on the underkeel clearance (UKC. Ports have been built to handle ships of specific maximum parameters. In many cases, however, the existing ports face the need to accept ships larger than those they were designed for. The construction of newharbours is limited by both natural conditions and exceedingly high estimated costs. The main restriction for handling larger ships is the depth of port basins, directly affecting the safety of the manoeuvring ship. The minimum underkeel clearance is most often specified by port regulations as a constant value. However, depending on the prevailingconditions, mainly water level, this required UKC value can be reduced. Thus, ships of larger draft will be allowed to enter. This article / paper present a method of UKC optimization with two restrictions: maximum permitted navigational risk and the time ofwaiting for sufficient water level. An example has been given in reference to ship’s waiting time probability for the port of Świnoujście.

  19. Usage of Working Time for Preparation and Cutting of Cloth in Garments’ Production

    OpenAIRE

    Beļakova, Dana; Ziemele, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Production working time expenditure management and standardizing is vital in the present global apparel production market to be able to compete in the market.Working time expenditure is connected with production quality, costs and productivity and by using appropriate working time expenditure determinationmethods, it is possible to find production margins, improve working methods and to find a midway between production costs and worker salaries. Therefore it isimportant to carry out working t...

  20. Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis Kees; Papantoniou, Christos; Gerkema, Menno P; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-11-01

    During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the current time of day. The TPL task applied in this study consists of three daily sessions in a three-arm maze, with a food reward at the end of each arm. During each session, mice should avoid one specific arm to avoid a foot-shock. We previously demonstrated that, rather than using external cue-based strategies, mice use an internal clock (circadian strategy) for TPL, referred to as circadian TPL (cTPL). It is unknown in which brain region(s) or peripheral organ(s) the consulted clock underlying cTPL resides. Three candidates were examined in this study: (a) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a light entrainable oscillator (LEO) and considered the master circadian clock in the brain, (b) the food entrainable oscillator (FEO), entrained by restricted food availability, and (c) the adrenal glands, harboring an important peripheral oscillator. cTPL performance should be affected if the underlying oscillator system is abruptly phase-shifted. Therefore, we first investigated cTPL sensitivity to abrupt light and food shifts. Next we investigated cTPL in SCN-lesioned- and adrenalectomized mice. Abrupt FEO phase-shifts (induced by advancing and delaying feeding time) affected TPL performance in specific test sessions while a LEO phase-shift (induced by a light pulse) more severely affected TPL performance in all three daily test sessions. SCN-lesioned mice showed no TPL deficiencies compared to SHAM-lesioned mice. Moreover, both SHAM- and SCN-lesioned mice showed unaffected cTPL performance when re-tested after bilateral adrenalectomy. We conclude that, although cTPL is sensitive to timing manipulations with light as well as food, neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for

  1. Reauthorization of NCLB: Time to Reconsider the Scientifically Based Research Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The federal initiative, NCLB, includes guidelines about educational research methodology as well as school practices ("No Child Left Behind Act," p. 532. The law states that reforms and school practices should be based on scientifically based research (SBR. SBR is mentioned over 100 times in NCLB (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. Next to the strong emphasis on dis-aggregation of test scores, NCLB’s reference to SBR has spawned the next most frequent number of responses in the literature (Viadero, 2004. Educational researchers spend time “fighting these designs when they are inappropriate or irrelevant, which is often the case” (Eisenhart, 2005, p. 246. In response to the NCLB SBR mandate, the National Research Council (2002 published a report, Scientific Research in Education (SRE, addressing the question of the meaning of SBR. On the NCLB website, the U.S. Department of Education explains that “scientifically based research means there is reliable evidence that the program or practice works ” (n.d.. The explanation includes a reference to experimental study involving an experiment/control group. The report states that requiring SBR “moves the testing of educational practices toward the medical model used by scientists to assess the effectiveness of medications, therapies and the like” (A. Smith, 2003, p. 126. The strong emphasis on SBR leads one to the conclusion that forms of research that do not conform to SBR are invalid (Mayer, 2006, Winter, p. 8. Having the federal government legislate SBR is unusual and can be interpreted to have political overtones. Howe (2005 explains that research methodology is “unavoidably political by virtue of adopting certain aims, employing certain kinds of vocabularies and theories, and providing certain people the opportunity to be (or not to be heard (p. 321.” It has been suggested that SBR was mandated to improve the credibility of educational research and thus to increase the likelihood of continued

  2. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkov A.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  3. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-01-01

    .... The novel system comprises a quick-application cap, a device for recording and transmitting the EEG wirelessly to a computer, and custom software for displaying and streaming the data in real-time to a hospital...

  4. System requirements for one-time-use ENRAF control panel software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER, J.H.

    1999-08-19

    An Enraf Densitometer is installed on tank 241-AY-102. The Densitometer will frequently be tasked to obtain and log density profiles. The activity can be effected a number of ways. Enraf Incorporated provides a software package called ''Logger18'' to its customers for the purpose of in-shop testing of their gauges. Logger18 is capable of accepting an input file which can direct the gauge to obtain a density profile for a given tank level and bottom limit. Logger18 is a complex, DOS based program which will require trained technicians and/or tank farm entries to obtain the data. ALARA considerations have prompted the development of a more user-friendly, computer-based interface to the Enraf densitometers. This document records the plan by which this new Enraf data acquisition software will be developed, reviewed, verified, and released. This plan applies to the development and implementation of a one-time-use software program, which will be called ''Enraf Control Panel.'' The software will be primarily used for remote operation of Enraf Densitometers for the purpose of obtaining and logging tank product density profiles.

  5. An Enhanced Tree-Shaped Adachi-Like Chaotic Neural Network Requiring Linear-Time Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Oommen, B. John

    The Adachi Neural Network (AdNN) [1-5], is a fascinating Neural Network (NN) which has been shown to possess chaotic properties, and to also demonstrate Associative Memory (AM) and Pattern Recognition (PR) characteristics. Variants of the AdNN [6,7] have also been used to obtain other PR phenomena, and even blurring. A significant problem associated with the AdNN and its variants, is that all of them require a quadratic number of computations. This is essentially because all their NNs are completely connected graphs. In this paper we consider how the computations can be significantly reduced by merely using a linear number of computations. To do this, we extract from the original complete graph, one of its spanning trees. We then compute the weights for this spanning tree in such a manner that the modified tree-based NN has approximately the same input-output characteristics, and thus the new weights are themselves calculated using a gradient-based algorithm. By a detailed experimental analysis, we show that the new linear-time AdNN-like network possesses chaotic and PR properties for different settings. As far as we know, such a tree-based AdNN has not been reported, and the results given here are novel.

  6. Weather requirements and rain forecast to time fungicide application for Fusarium head blight control in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Brustolin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the minimum conditions of wetness duration and mean temperature required for Fusarium head blight infection in wheat. The weather model developed by Zoldan (2008 was tested in field experiments for two wheat cultivars grown in 2005 (five sowing dates and 2006 (six sowing dates in 10 m² plots with three replicates. The disease was assessed according to head incidence (HI, spikelet incidence (SI, and the interaction between these two methods was called head blight severity (HBS. Starting at the beginning of anthesis, air temperature and head wetness duration were daily recorded with an automatic weather station. With the combination of these two factors, a weather favorability table was built for the disease occurrence. Starting on the day of flowering beginning (1 - 5% fully exserted anthers, the sum of daily values for infection favorability (SDVIF was calculated by means of a computer program, according to Zoldan (2008 table. The initial symptoms of the disease were observed at 3.7% spikelet incidence, corresponding to 2.6 SVDFI. The infection occurs in wheat due to rainfall which results in spike wetting of > 61.4 h duration. Rainfall events forecast can help time fungicide application to control FHB. The name of this alert system is proposed as UPF-scab alert.

  7. Robust preparation and manipulation of protected qubits using time--varying Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Coudreau, Thomas; Dubessy, Romain; Andreoli, Daria; Milman, Pérola

    2011-01-01

    We show that it is possible to initialize and manipulate in a deterministic manner protected qubits using time varying Hamiltonians. Taking advantage of the symmetries of the system, we predict the effect of the noise during the initialization and manipulation. These predictions are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Our study shows that the topological protection remains efficient under realistic experimental conditions.

  8. Increased reaction times and reduced response preparation already starts at middle age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Kamphuis, Janine; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Generalized slowing characterizes aging and there is some evidence to suggest that this slowing already starts at midlife. This study aims to assess reaction time changes while performing a concurrent low-force and high-force motor task in young and middle-aged subjects. The high-force motor task is

  9. Influence of mechanical alloying time on the properties of Fe3Al intermetallics prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengchang Jia; Qing He; Jie Meng; Lina Guo

    2007-01-01

    The Fe3Al-based intermetallics were prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the influence of milling time on the properties of materials was investigated. The phase identification was investigated by X-ray, and the surface morphology and fractography were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties such as bending strength, strain, and microhardness were tested. The results show that Fe reacts with Al completely to form Fe3Al during short SPS processing time. The relative densities of the sintered samples were nearly 100%. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples can be improved along with the milling time. The representative values are the bend strength of 1327 MPa and the microhardness of 434.

  10. When the brain is prepared to learn: enhancing human learning using real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Julie J; Hinds, Oliver; Ofen, Noa; Thompson, Todd W; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-01-02

    The rate of learning or memory formation varies over time for any individual, partly due to moment-to-moment fluctuation of brain state. Functional neuroimaging has revealed the neural correlates of learning and memory, but here we asked if neuroimaging can causally enhance human learning by detection of brain states that reveal when a person is prepared or not prepared to learn. The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) is essential for memory formation for scenes. Here, activation in PHC was monitored in real-time, and scene presentations were triggered when participants entered "good" or "bad" brain states for learning of novel scenes. Subsequent recognition memory was more accurate for scenes presented in "good" than "bad" brain states. These findings show that neuroimaging can identify in real-time brain states that enhance or depress learning and memory formation, and knowledge about such brain states may be useful for accelerating education and training. Further, the use of functional neuroimaging as a causal, rather than correlative, tool to study the human brain may open new insights into the neural basis of human cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 5 CFR 295.209 - Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TESTIMONY BY OPM EMPLOYEES RELATING TO OFFICIAL INFORMATION... Documents § 295.209 Procedure when a decision is not made prior to the time a response is required. If...

  12. CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY OF ROCURONIUM (ORG-9426) - STUDY OF THE TIME-COURSE OF ACTION, DOSE REQUIREMENT, REVERSIBILITY, AND PHARMACOKINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROEK, L; WIERDA, JMKH; SMEULERS, NJ; VANSANTEN, GJ; LECLERCQ, MGL; HENNIS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the time course of action, dose requirement, reversibility, and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium (Org 9426) under 3 anesthetic techniques (nitrous oxide-fentanyl supplemented with propofol halothane, or isoflurane). Design: Prospective, randomized study. Setting: Operating

  13. Guideline for preparing comprehensive extension of time (EoT claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ahmed Ali Alnaas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any project faces delays and disruptions especially the mega/complex projects of today, with many interfaces. Proving delay and/or disruption is not an easy task and it is a time consuming process especially in the mega/complex projects with thousands of activities, lots of details and interfaces with the involvement of many stakeholders. The different methods that are used to prove delays, as explained in industry standards and handbooks, are theoretical and could be applied in the small simple projects with few numbers of activities but the same methods cannot easily be applied on mega/complex projects. Proving delays in mega/complex projects, whose schedules contain thousands of activities with many interfaces and lot of causes for delay and disruption is a complicated process and involves lots of details. When any degree of complexity in the project is examined, it becomes more difficult for the project team to record the delays and disruption events properly because they are always busy dealing with the site issues and other project pressures. In order for the contractors to be successful, a time extension claim or disruption claims should adequately establish causation and liability and assist in demonstrating the extend of time-related damages experienced as a direct result of the delay events relied upon. The process of recording the delays and disruption is a dynamic process and needs continuous involvement from the planning team with the support from all other departments.

  14. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  15. Effects of temperature and deposition time on the RF- sputtered CdTe films preparation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Camacho-Espinosa; Rosendo, E.; T. Díaz; A. I. Oliva; V. Rejon; Peña, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by rf-sputtering at different substrate temperatures (room temperature (RT), 100, 150, 200, and 250 °C) and deposition times (30, 60, and 90 min). The applied power and vacuum pressure were maintained fixed for all depositions. A mean value of 18 .5 nm/s on the deposition rate was maintained for films deposition. The surface morphology, rms-roughness, and grain size of the sputtered-films were obtained from atomic force microscopy and scanning elec...

  16. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure...... photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a large number of stars. The application of the filter is not restricted to planetary hosts, but can be applied to any solar-like or red giant stars observed by Kepler/K2....

  17. Preparation and evaluation of electrospun nanofibers containing pectin and time-dependent polymers aimed for colonic drug delivery of celecoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhgari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun nanofibers of celecoxib using combination of time-dependent polymers with pectin to achieve a colon-specific drug delivery system for celecoxib. Materials and Methods:Formulations were produced based on two multilevel 22 full factorial designs. The independent variables were the ratio of drug:time-dependent polymer (X1 and the amount of pec­tin in formulations (X2. Electrospinning process was used for preparation of nanofibers. The spinning solutions were loaded in 5 mL syringes. The feeding rate was fixed by a syringe pump at 2.0 mL/h and a high voltage supply at range 10-18 kV was applied for electrospinning. Electrospun nanofibers were collected and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and drug release in the acid and buffer with pH 6.8 with and without pectinase. Results:Electrospun nanofibers of celecoxib with appropriate morphological properties were produced via electrospinning process. Drug release from electrospun nanofibers was very low in the acidic media; while, drug release in the simulated colonic media was the highest from formulations containing pectin. Conclusion: Formulation F2 (containing drug:ERS with the ratio of 1:2 and 10% pectin exhibited acceptable morphological characteristics and protection of drug in the upper GI tract and could be a good candidate as a colonic drug delivery system for celecoxib.

  18. [Time for cleaning and room preparation: connection between surgery size and professional perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Marla Andréia Garcia; de Fusco, Suzimar Fátima Benato; Gonalves, Ivana Regina; Caldeira, Sílvia Maria; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Yoo, Hugo Hyung Bok

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to verify the association between time needed for room cleaning (TLPS) and the surgery size, and related advantages and difficulties faced by the circulator of the room asszgned to this task. A mixed method, with a transverse quantitative, retrospective approach, using a sample of 3095 surgeries performed,from January to June 2011, and a qualitative approach using a Thematic Content Analysis of statements from 11 circulators, was used. The average TLPS was smaller in size 1 surgeries, increasing in sizes 2, 3 and 4, with a significant difference. Advantages reported included organization and size of staff and difficulties reported related to sharp, bladed materials mixed with surgical instruments and a reduced number of cleaning professionals. The larger the size, the higher the TLPS. Surgical teams operating in the Surgical Center interfere directly in the process, facilitating or hindering the achievement of institutional goals related to quality and productivity.

  19. Time for cleaning and room preparation: connection between surgery size and professional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Andréia Garcia de AVILA

    Full Text Available The objective was to verify the association between time needed for room cleaning (TLPS and the surgery size, and related advantages and difficulties faced by the circulator of the room assigned to this task. A mixed method, with a transverse quantitative, retrospective approach, using a sample of 3095 surgeries performed, from January to June 2011, and a qualitative approach using a Thematic Content Analysis of statements from 11 circulators, was used. The average TLPS was smaller in size 1 surgeries, increasing in sizes 2, 3 and 4, with a significant difference. Advantages reported included organization and size of staff, and difficulties reported related to sharp, bladed materials mixed with surgical instruments and a reduced number of cleaning professionals. The larger the size, the higher the TLPS. Surgical teams operating in the Surgical Center interfere directly in the process, facilitating or hindering the achievement of institutional goals related to quality and productivity.

  20. Requirements-Based Conformance Testing of ARINC 653 Real-Time Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Andrey

    2010-08-01

    Requirements-based testing is emphasized in avionics certification documents because this strategy has been found to be the most effective at revealing errors. This paper describes the unified requirements-based approach to the creation of conformance test suites for mission-critical systems. The approach uses formal machine-readable specifications of requirements and finite state machine model for test sequences generation on-the-fly. The paper also presents the test system for automated test generation for ARINC 653 services built on this approach. Possible application of the presented approach to various areas of avionics embedded systems testing is discussed.

  1. Study of the effect of solar flares on VLF signals during D-layer preparation or disappearance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    "Very Low Frequency" (VLF) is one of the bands of the Radio waves having frequency 3-30 KHz, which propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In relation to propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, low mass and high mobility cause electrons to play a vital role. Electrons are not distributed uniformly in the ionosphere and depending on this factor, ionosphere has different layers namely D, E and F. Different ionospheric layers generally exist during day and night time. During day-time when the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere is Sun, the lower most layer of ionosphere is D-layer. But during the night-time when Sun is absent and cosmic ray is the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere, this D-layer disappears and E-layer becomes the lower most region of the ionosphere. Normally, patterns of VLF signal depend on regular solar flux variations. However, during solar flares extra energetic particles are released from Sun, which makes the changes in the ionization of the ionosphere and these changes can perturb VLF signal amplitude. Usually if a solar flare occurs during any time of day, it only affects the amplitude and phase of the VLF signals. But in the present work, we found the if the flare occurs during D-layer preparation / disappearance time, then it will not only affect to amplitude and phase of the VLF signals but also to terminator times of VLF signals. We have observed that the sun set terminator time of the VLF signals shifted towards night time due to the effect of a M-class solar flare which occurred during the D-layer disappearance time. The shift is so high that it crossed 5σ level. We are now trying to a make model using the ion-chemistry and LWPC code to explain this observed effect.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.1220 - Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial statements at the time of request for a draw. (a) If you submit a request for a draw against your... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement for RBIC to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw. 4290.1220 Section 4290.1220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  3. Gelatin-agar lumbosacral spine phantom: a simple model for learning the basic skills required to perform real-time sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia Wei; Karmakar, Manoj K; Li, Xiang; Kwok, Wing Hong; Ngan Kee, Warwick Dean

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the preparation of a gelatin-agar spine phantom that was used for spinal sonography and to practice the hand-eye coordination skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks. The phantom was prepared by embedding a lumbosacral spine model into a mixture of gelatin and agar in a plastic box. Cellulose powder and chlorhexidine were also added to the mixture, after which it was allowed to solidify. Sonography of the osseous elements of the lumbosacral spine in the phantom was then performed, and their sonographic appearances were compared to those in volunteers. Simulated real-time sonographically guided paramedian spinal needle insertions were also performed in the phantom. The texture and echogenicity of the phantom were subjectively comparable to those of tissue in vivo. The osseous elements of the spine in the phantom were clearly delineated, and their sonographic appearances were comparable to those seen in vivo in the volunteers. During the simulated sonographically guided spinal injections, the needle could be clearly visualized, but the phantom provided little tactile feedback. In conclusion, the gelatin-agar spine phantom is a simple and inexpensive sonographic spine model that has a tissuelike texture and echogenicity. It can be used to study the osseous anatomy of the lumbar spine and practice the skills required to perform sonographically guided central neuraxial blocks.

  4. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone-Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henss, Anja; Hild, Anne; Rohnke, Marcus; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-06-07

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.

  5. Analysis of Timing Requirements for Data Aggregation and Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2014-01-01

    Modern communication mechanisms are at the heart of a smart grid system to ensure that the required information is transmitted within various components of the grid. Throughout this paper, we have studied how communication performance delays and smart grid controller delays effects the overall...... control system operation. The main goal of this paper is to propose and analyze resource allocation algorithm satisfying delay requirements of the communication infrastructure and the controller. Simulation of a communication network is implemented using OMNeT++ to study and record the corresponding...

  6. The influence of taste on swallowing apnea, oral preparation time, and duration and amplitude of submental muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, L P; Huckabee, M-L; Sharma, S; Tooley, T P

    2007-02-01

    Prior research has documented a modulating effect of taste on swallowing. We hypothesized that presentation of tastant stimuli would be a significant variable in swallowing-respiratory coordination, duration of oral bolus preparation, and submental muscle contraction. Twenty-three healthy females were presented with 1-cm(3) gelatin samples flavored with 4 tastants of increasing intensities. Visual analogue scale ratings of perceived intensity of each were used to identify relative equivalent concentrations across the 4 tastants. Data were then collected during ingestion of 5 trials of the 4 equivalent tastants using measurements of nasal airflow and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) to record biomechanical measures. Chi-square analysis failed to identify a statistically significant influence of taste on the phase location of swallowing apnea. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant taste effects for oral preparation time, submental sEMG amplitude, and duration (P Swallow duration for sour, salty, and bitter tastants were longer than sweet and neutral tastants. Sour tastants resulted in the greatest amplitude of submental muscle contraction during swallowing. This study supports existing research that found that sour substances were swallowed with more effort when compared with other tastes.

  7. Meal preparation and cleanup time and cardiometabolic risk over 14 years in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Nackers, Lisa M.; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Baylin, Ana; Burns, John W.; Powell, Lynda H.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine whether baseline levels and longitudinal changes in meal preparation and cleanup time are associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women. Methods Subjects were 2755 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation, a multi-ethnic, longitudinal cohort study. The five diagnostic components of the metabolic syndrome and meal preparation/cleanup time were assessed repeatedly across 14 years of follow-up (spanning 1996–2011) at seven U.S. sites. Mixed-effects logistic and ordered logistic models tested associations between meal preparation/cleanup time and odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome and its individual diagnostic components. Results Women who spent more time preparing and cleaning up meals at baseline, or demonstrated greater increases in this activity, had greater increases over time in their odds of having metabolic syndrome and in the number of metabolic syndrome components for which they met criteria. Adjusted associations were observed between meal preparation/cleanup time and hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not abdominal obesity. Conclusions In midlife women, greater meal preparation/cleanup time is associated with the development of an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. Public health interventions should place greater emphasis on cooking healthfully, not just cooking frequently. PMID:25490602

  8. Meal preparation and cleanup time and cardiometabolic risk over 14 years in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Nackers, Lisa M; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Baylin, Ana; Burns, John W; Powell, Lynda H; Kravitz, Howard M

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether baseline levels and longitudinal changes in meal preparation and cleanup time are associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women. Subjects were 2755 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multi-ethnic, longitudinal cohort study in the United States. The five diagnostic components of the metabolic syndrome and meal preparation/cleanup time were assessed repeatedly across 14 years of follow-up (spanning 1996-2011) at seven U.S. sites. Mixed-effects logistic and ordered logistic models tested associations between meal preparation/cleanup time and odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome and its individual diagnostic components. Women who spent more time preparing and cleaning up meals at baseline, or demonstrated greater increases in this activity, had greater increases over time in their odds of having metabolic syndrome and in the number of metabolic syndrome components for which they met criteria. Adjusted associations were observed between meal preparation/cleanup time and hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not abdominal obesity. In midlife women, greater meal preparation/cleanup time is associated with the development of an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. Public health interventions should place greater emphasis on cooking healthfully, not just cooking frequently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of a mandatory tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination requirement on vaccine uptake over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Consoli, Stephanie A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily; Rutala, William A

    2012-01-01

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all healthcare personnel who provide direct patient care unless medically contraindicated. Our university hospital made employment conditional upon receipt of Tdap vaccine. Implementation for newly hired employees quickly resulted in complete compliance, but achieving adherence among current workers required setting a termination date for noncompliance.

  11. THE PSTD ALGORITHM: A TIME-DOMAIN METHOD REQUIRING ONLY TWO CELLS PER WAVELENGTH. (R825225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations. It uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT), instead of finite differences on conventional finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) methods, to represent spatial derivatives. Because the Fourie...

  12. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time... liquid content in the container. (b) The timer or other indicator shall be accurately calibrated in...

  13. Neither the SCN nor the adrenals are required for circadian time-place learning in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cornelis Kees; Papantoniou, Christos; Gerkema, Menno P; van der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    During Time-Place Learning (TPL), animals link biological significant events (e.g. encountering predators, food, mates) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment. This allows animals to anticipate which locations to visit or avoid based on previous experience and knowledge of the c

  14. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.

  15. Real-time simulation requirements for study and optimization of power system controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakra, Harbans; McCallum, David; Gagnon, Charles [Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Venne, Andre; Gagnon, Julien [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    At the time of ordering for the multi-terminal dc system linking Hydro-Quebec with New England, Hydro-Quebec also ordered functionally duplicate controls of all the converters and installed these in its real time simulation laboratory. The Hydro-Quebec ac system was also simulated in detail and the testing of the controls as thus made possible in a realistic environment. Many field tests were duplicated and many additional tests were done for correction and optimization. This paper describes some of the features of the real-time simulation carried out for this purpose. (author) 3 figs.

  16. Contrasting Perspectives of Anesthesiologists and Gastroenterologists on the Optimal Time Interval between Bowel Preparation and Endoscopic Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal time interval between the last ingestion of bowel prep and sedation for colonoscopy remains controversial, despite guidelines that sedation can be administered 2 hours after consumption of clear liquids. Objective. To determine current practice patterns among anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists regarding the optimal time interval for sedation after last ingestion of bowel prep and to understand the rationale underlying their beliefs. Design. Questionnaire survey of anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists in the USA. The questions were focused on the preferred time interval of endoscopy after a polyethylene glycol based preparation in routine cases and select conditions. Results. Responses were received from 109 anesthesiologists and 112 gastroenterologists. 96% of anesthesiologists recommended waiting longer than 2 hours until sedation, in contrast to only 26% of gastroenterologists. The main reason for waiting >2 hours was that PEG was not considered a clear liquid. Most anesthesiologists, but not gastroenterologists, waited longer in patients with history of diabetes or reflux. Conclusions. Anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists do not agree on the optimal interval for sedation after last drink of bowel prep. Most anesthesiologists prefer to wait longer than the recommended 2 hours for clear liquids. The data suggest a need for clearer guidelines on this issue.

  17. Real-time PCR assays for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification may require two different targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Chang, Le; Jia, Tingting; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Lu; Ji, Huimin; Zhao, Junpeng; Wang, Lunan

    2017-05-12

    Quantification Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays a critical role in the management of chronic HBV infections. However, HBV is a DNA virus with high levels of genetic variation, and drug-resistant mutations have emerged with the use of antiviral drugs. If a mutation caused a sequence mismatched in the primer or probe of a commercial DNA quantification kit, this would lead to an underestimation of the viral load of the sample. The aim of this study was to determine whether commercial kits, which use only one pair of primers and a single probe, accurately quantify the HBV DNA levels and to develop an improved duplex real-time PCR assay. We developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay that used two pairs of primers and two probes based on the conserved S and C regions of the HBV genome. We performed HBV DNA quantitative detection of HBV samples and compared the results of our duplex real-time PCR assays with the COBAS TaqMan HBV Test version 2 and Daan real-time PCR assays. The target region of the discordant sample was amplified, sequenced, and validated using plasmid. The results of the duplex real-time PCR were in good accordance with the commercial COBAS TaqMan HBV Test version 2 and Daan real-time PCR assays. We showed that two samples from Chinese HBV infections underestimated viral loads when quantified by the Roche kit because of a mismatch between the viral sequence and the reverse primer of the Roche kit. The HBV DNA levels of six samples were undervalued by duplex real-time PCR assays of the C region because of mutations in the primer of C region. We developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay, and the results of this assay were similar to the results of commercial kits. The HBV DNA level could be undervalued when using the COBAS TaqMan HBV Test version 2 for Chinese HBV infections owing to a mismatch with the primer/probe. A duplex real-time PCR assay based on the S and C regions could solve this problem to some extent.

  18. Scheduling real-time indivisible loads with special resource allocation requirements on cluster computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hamdy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a heuristic algorithm to schedule real time indivisible loads represented as directed sequential task graph on a cluster computing. One of the cluster nodes has some special resources (denoted by special node that may be needed by one of the indivisible loads

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.512 - How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many times are we required to pay for an employee's return travel? 302-3.512 Section 302-3.512 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION...

  20. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time requir

  1. The effects of clonidine premedication on sevoflurane requirements and anesthetic induction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S; Yaguchi, Y; Toyooka, H

    1999-07-01

    We assessed the effects of oral clonidine preanesthetic medication (4.5 microg/kg) on the vital capacity rapid-inhalation anesthetic induction time (VCRII time) and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) to prevent a response to a verbal command in 50% of patients (MAC-Awake) by its hypnotic effect, and on MAC-Skin incision for the analgesic effect in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane. We studied 104 adult patients (control group: n = 52, clonidine group: n = 52) aged 30-48 yr scheduled to undergo general anesthesia. Fifty-two patients received oral clonidine 4.5 microg/kg 1.5 h before arrival in the operating room (clonidine group). The patients exhaled to residual volume and took three vital capacity breaths of 5% sevoflurane in oxygen. The VCRII time was defined as the time interval between the initiation of the VCRII and the disappearance of the response to verbal command. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and air. The end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration reached a predetermined value, then the ratio of predetermined ET to inspiratory concentration was maintained at > or =0.95 for at least 15 min before skin incision. After skin incision, the patients were observed for gross purposeful muscular movements. MAC was defined as the average of the cross-over midpoints in each cross-over. After maintaining the ET sevoflurane concentration for 15 min, patients were judged to be awake or asleep. Average times for VCRII using 5% sevoflurane were achieved in 44+/-11 s (mean +/- SD) and 27+/-6 s in the control and clonidine groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). MAC-Awake values of sevoflurane were 0.66%+/-0.03% and 0.35%+/-0.02% (P = 0.0001), and MAC-Skin incision values were 1.97%+/-0.19% and 1.29%+/-0.13% (P = 0.0001) in the control and clonidine groups, respectively. These results suggest that clonidine may have a more potent hypnotic effect than analgesic effect. Oral clonidine preanesthetic medication (4.5 microg/kg) significantly

  2. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  3. Preparation, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of NTOxDNAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haixia; Yan, Biao; Li, Zhaona; Guan, Yulei; Song, Jirong; Xu, Kangzhen; Hu, Rongzu

    2009-09-30

    NTOxDNAZ was prepared by mixing 3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNAZ) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in ethanol solution. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG methods. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the DSC and TG/DTG curves by Kissinger method, Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The main exothermic decomposition reaction mechanism of NTOxDNAZ is classified as chemical reaction, and the kinetic parameters of the reaction are E(a)=149.68 kJ mol(-1) and A=10(15.81)s(-1). The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with continuous C(p) mode of microcalorimeter. The standard mole specific heat capacity of NTOxDNAZ was 352.56 J mol(-1)K(-1) in 298.15K. Using the relationship between C(p) and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was obtained.

  4. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  5. A Table-Driven Control Method to Meet Continuous, Near-Real-Time Observation Requirements for the Solar X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Brown, Terry; Freestone, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    The design of the Solar X-Ray Imager (SXI) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) presents an unusual scenario for controlling the observing sequences. The SXI is an operational instrument, designed not primarily for scientific research, but for providing "operational" data used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to forecast the near-term space weather. To this end, a sequence of images selected to cover the full dynamic range of the sun will be executed routinely. As the dynamics of the sun have differing temporal cadences, the frequency of various images will differ. These images must be routinely received at the forecast center in near real-time, 24-hours a day, with a minimum of interruptions. While these requirements clearly lead to a 'routine patrol' of images, the parameters for each do not form a static set. The dynamics of the sun will change with the I 1-year solar cycle. The performance of the imaging will vary with on-orbit conditions and time. And while the SXI is not intended as a research instrument, forecasting techniques may change with time, which in turn will further alter the imaging sequences. An additional complication is the highly restricted commanding window, and a very slow commanding rate. To fulfill these requirements, the SXI was designed to utilize a table-driven approach. Sequences are defined using structured loops, with nested repetitions and delays. These sequences reference combinations of imaging parameters which in turn reference tables of parameters than can be loaded by ground commands. Multiple sequences can be built and stored in preparation for execution when determined appropriate by the NOAA forecasters. The result is an approach that can be used to provide a flexible, yet autonomous SXI capable of meeting both arbitrary forecasting requirements, and operating within the commanding constraints.

  6. Estimation of the left ventricular relaxation time constant tau requires consideration of the pressure asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S F J; Habazettl, H; Kuebler, W M; Pries, A R

    2005-01-01

    The left ventricular isovolumic pressure decay, obtained by cardiac catheterization, is widely characterized by the time constant tau of the exponential regression p(t)=Pomega+(P0-Pomega)exp(-t/tau). However, several authors prefer to prefix Pomega=0 instead of coestimating the pressure asymptote empirically; others present tau values estimated by both methods that often lead to discordant results and interpretation of lusitropic changes. The present study aims to clarify the relations between the tau estimates from both methods and to decide for the more reliable estimate. The effect of presetting a zero asymptote on the tau estimate was investigated mathematically and empirically, based on left ventricular pressure decay data from isolated ejecting rat and guinea pig hearts at different preload and during spontaneous decrease of cardiac function. Estimating tau with preset Pomega=0 always yields smaller values than the regression with empirically estimated asymptote if the latter is negative and vice versa. The sequences of tau estimates from both methods can therefore proceed in reverse direction if tau and Pomega change in opposite directions between the measurements. This is exemplified by data obtained during an increasing preload in spontaneously depressed isolated hearts. The estimation of the time constant of isovolumic pressure fall with a preset zero asymptote is heavily biased and cannot be used for comparing the lusitropic state of the heart in hemodynamic conditions with considerably altered pressure asymptotes.

  7. Regional insect inventories require long time, extensive spatial sampling and good will.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fattorini

    Full Text Available Understanding how faunistic knowledge develops is of paramount importance to correctly evaluate completeness of insect inventories and to plan future research at regional scale, yet this is an unexplored issue. Aim of this paper was to investigate the processes that lead to a complete species inventory at a regional level for a beetle family. The tenebionid beetles of Latium region (Italy were analysed as a case study representative of general situations. A comprehensive faunistic database including 3,561 records spanning from 1871 to 2010 was realized examining 25,349 museum specimens and published data. Accumulation curves and non-parametric estimators of species richness were applied to model increase in faunistic knowledge over time, through space and by collectors' number. Long time, large spatial extent and contribution of many collectors were needed to obtain a reliable species inventory. Massive sampling was not effective in recovering more species. Amateur naturalists (here called parafaunists were more efficient collectors than professional entomologists. Museum materials collected by parafaunists over long periods and large spatial extent resulted to be a cost effective source of faunistic information with small number of collected individuals. It is therefore important to valuate and facilitate the work of parafaunists as already suggested for parataxonomists. By contrast, massive collections by standardized techniques for ecological research seem to be of scarce utility in improving faunistic knowledge, but their value for faunistic studies may be enhanced if they are conducted in poorly surveyed areas.

  8. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  9. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  11. Research requirements for a real-time flight measurements and data analysis system for subsonic transport high-lift research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Harris, Franklin K.; Lytle, Carroll D.

    1993-01-01

    A multiphased research program to obtain detailed flow characteristics on a multielement high-lift flap system is being conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at NASA Langley Research Center. Upcoming flight tests have required the development of a highly capable and flexible flight measurement and data analysis instrumentation system. This instrumentation system will be more comprehensive than any of the systems used on previous high-lift flight experiment at NASA Langley. The system will provide the researcher near-real-time information for decision making needed to modify a flight test in order to further examine unexpected flow conditions. This paper presents the research requirements and instrumentation design concept for an upcoming flight experiment for the subsonic transport high-lift research program. The flight experiment objectives, the measurement requirements, the data acquisition system, and the onboard data analysis and display capabilities are described.

  12. Evaluation of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety requirements for manned space vehicles with extended on-orbit stay time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, S.; Coindoz, M.; Deneuville, L.; Garbellini, L.; Altavilla, A.

    1996-01-01

    The recent manned space transportation vehicles studies performed by ESA and European Industry, investigate the possibility of extended on-orbit stay time. From the RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) point of view, these vehicles will have to meet, in addition to the multi-phase mission safety and reliability constraints, stringent on-orbit availability levels which will be among the most important design and operations drivers. The objective of the paper is to derive the lessons learnt from the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) feasibility phase study, in terms of RAMS requirements specification. The paper briefly assesses the deterministic RAMS requirements derived from ESA and NASA applicable standards and focuses on the probabilistic requirements which were the subject of numerous interpretations. Different approaches are presented together with their impacts on the design (maintainability, testability, on-orbit replaceable units concept,…) and on the operations (check-out frequency, logistics,…). The main uncertainties are also assessed. In conclusion, recommendations are made for the specification of RAMS requirements for manned space vehicles with extended on-orbit stay time.

  13. Time required to protect the intestinal tract of chicks against Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis using competitive exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EV Sterzo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive exclusion (CE has been designed to accelerate the colonization of the alimentary tract of young commercial birds and it has been also used to repopulate the digestive tract after antibiotic therapy. The method has been successfully adopted as a means to prevent enteric salmonellosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate if CE is able to prevent this kind of infection. Newly hatched chicks were given a CE culture and at different intervals of time birds infected with Salmonella Enteritidis were placed together with the group of treated birds. CE culture was prepared from feces of adult laying hens incubated overnight at 37C under aerobic conditions. Birds were killed 4 and 8 days after challenge and viable counts of Salmonella Enteritidis were assessed in the cecal contents. The results showed that Salmonella infection was reduced even if CE culture administration was concomitant with the inclusion of the infected bird in the group.

  14. Laboratory preparation questionnaires as a tool for the implementation of the Just in Time Teaching in the Physics I laboratories: Research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Sanchez, Melba J.; Forero, Oscar M.

    2017-06-01

    The implementation of the JiTT (Just in Time Teaching) strategy is presented to increase the previous preparation of students enrolled in the subject Physics Laboratory I offered at the Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Colombia. In this study, a laboratory preparation questionnaire (CPL) was applied as a tool for the implementation of JiTT combined with elements of mediated learning. It was found that the CPL allows to improve the students’ experience regarding the preparation of the laboratory and the development of the experimental session. These questionnaires were implemented in an academic manager (Moodle) and a web application (lab.ciencias.uis.edu.co) was used to publish the contents essential for the preparation of the student before each practical session. The most significant result was that the students performed the experimental session with the basic knowledge to improve their learning experience.

  15. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  16. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharrafian, Shahram; Afshar, Hossein; Farbod, Maryam; Baniameri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds. Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves. Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198). Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838). The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680). Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. PMID:28127329

  17. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mosharrafian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds.Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves.Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198. Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838. The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680.Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. Keywords: Dental Etching; Composite Resins; Dentin; Tooth, Deciduous

  18. Time required for disappearance of urate crystals from synovial fluid after successful hypouricaemic treatment relates to the duration of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Eliseo; Sivera, Francisca

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether hypouricaemic treatment results in the disappearance of urate crystals from gouty joints and to define the time required. In 18 patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout, and after the initiation of successful serum uric acid (SUA)-lowering treatment, an arthrocentesis of the asymptomatic signal joint (11 knees, 7 first metatarsophalangeal joints) was performed every 3 months to obtain a synovial fluid (SF) sample. The sample was then analysed for the presence of MSU crystals, and the number of crystals/400x field was noted. SUA levels and the duration of gout were also noted. MSU crystals disappeared from the SF of all 18 joints after reduction of SUA to normal levels. The time required for disappearance ranged from 3 to 33 months; disappearance time correlated with the duration of gout (r(s) = 0.71; pcrystals in the SF samples before urate-lowering treatment was 7.5 (2.5-11) crystals/400x field, reducing to 3 (1-6.5) crystals/400x field (pCrystal counts continued to decrease after 3 months. In gout, reduction of SUA to normal levels results in disappearance of urate crystals from SF, requiring a longer time in those patients with gout of longer duration. This indicates that urate crystal deposition in joints is reversible. Normalisation of SUA levels results in a decrease in the concentration of MSU crystals in SF in the asymptomatic gouty joints. This may partially explain the reduced frequency of gouty attacks when a patient has been treated with SUA-lowering drugs.

  19. Timing of Tissue-specific Cell Division Requires a Differential Onset of Zygotic Transcription during Metazoan Embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Kin; Guan, Daogang; Ng, Kaoru Hon Chun; Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; An, Xiaomeng; Li, Runsheng; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2016-06-10

    Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues. To unravel the genetic control over the endoderm-specific E2 division timing, a total of 822 essential and conserved genes were knocked down using RNAi followed by quantification of cell cycle lengths using in toto imaging of C. elegans embryogenesis and automated lineage. Intriguingly, knockdown of numerous genes encoding the components of general transcription pathway or its regulatory factors leads to a significant reduction in the E2 cell cycle length but an increase in cell cycle length of the remaining cells, indicating a differential requirement of transcription for division timing between the two. Analysis of lineage-specific RNA-seq data demonstrates an earlier onset of transcription in endoderm than in other germ layers, the timing of which coincides with the birth of E2, supporting the notion that the endoderm-specific delay in E2 division timing demands robust zygotic transcription. The reduction in E2 cell cycle length is frequently associated with cell migration defect and gastrulation failure. The results suggest that a tissue-specific transcriptional activation is required to coordinate fate differentiation, division timing, and cell migration to ensure proper development.

  20. Higher percentage of in vitro apoptotic cells at time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia indicate earlier treatment requirement: Ten years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić-Stevović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has an extremely variable clinical course. Biological reasons for that wide variation in clinical course and survival rates in CLL patients are not fully understood. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of spontaneous apoptosis of CLL cells in vitro determined at presentation of disease, in prediction of treatment requirements and evolution of the CLL. Methods. Malignant B cells were isolated from the whole blood of 30 newly diagnosed CLL patients and cultured for 24 hours in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% of serum obtained from the same CLL patient. Cells were later fixed and processed for embedding in Epon, or cell smears were prepared and stained with TUNEL technique. Results. Ten-year follow-up revealed that patients with lower percentage of cells in apoptosis at presentation of disease had significant longer time treatment initiation (log rank test p0.05. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasize the importance of apoptosis of CLL cells at the time of the initial diagnosis in pathobiology of this disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41025

  1. X-ray peak broadening analysis of Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys prepared under different milling times and BPR using size strain plot (SSP) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Hosseinzadeh; J Baedi; A Khorsand Zak

    2014-08-01

    Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method at different milling times of 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 70 h and ball powder ratios (BPR) of 10 : 1, 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The structures of prepared powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The broadening of the diffraction peaks were analysed using size strain plot (SSP) method and the lattice strain and crystallite size of the nanocrystals were calculated. In addition, the typical morphological studies were performed by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocrystals decreased with the milling time and BPR increases; whereas, the lattice constant () increased. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) study of the powder prepared at 50 h and BPR 30 : 1 showed that the sample exhibits both the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties in nanocrystallite size range.

  2. Influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on the time required to reach the therapeutic INR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina C. Militaru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral anticoagulation (OAC is characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a high interindividual variability, both in terms ofpharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We have considered useful and interesting to research the factors that could play a role in determiningthe time required for Acenocoumarol to achieve its optimal therapeutic response. Material and method: The present research is a cross analyticobservational study. We included 105 patients treated with an initial dose of 4 mg Acenocoumarol, for one or more of the following clinicalsituations: 1. Deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs (DVT ± pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE; 2. Permanent atrial fibrillation (AF;3. Prosthetic heart valve. Results and conclusions: The presence of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles did not affect the time required to reacha therapeutic INR. The c.-1639G>A polymorphism of the VKORC1 gene significantly and statistically influenced the time to reach the targetINR. The existence of a supratherapeutic INR during the initial phase of anticoagulant treatment causes a 35% lower probability of reaching atherapeutic INR on the fifth day of anticoagulant treatment.

  3. A new test environment for the SOFIA secondary mirror assembly to reduce the required time for in-flight testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammen, Yannick; Reinacher, Andreas; Brewster, Rick; Greiner, Benjamin; Graf, Friederike; Krabbe, Alfred

    2016-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) reached its full operational capability in 2014 and takes off from the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center to explore the universe about three times a week. Maximizing the program's scientific output naturally leaves very little flight time for implementation and test of improved soft- and hardware. Consequently, it is very important to have a comparable test environment and infrastructure to perform troubleshooting, verifications and improvements on ground without interfering with science missions. SOFIA's Secondary Mirror Mechanism is one of the most complex systems of the observatory. In 2012 a first simple laboratory mockup of the mechanism was built to perform basic controller tests in the lower frequency band of up to 50Hz. This was a first step to relocate required engineering tests from the active observatory into the laboratory. However, to test and include accurate filters and damping methods as well as to evaluate hardware modifications a more precise mockup is required that represents the system characteristics over a much larger frequency range. Therefore the mockup has been improved in several steps to a full test environment representing the system dynamics with high accuracy. This new ground equipment allows moving almost the entire secondary mirror test activities away from the observatory. As fast actuator in the optical path, the SMM also plays a major role in SOFIA's pointing stabilization concept. To increase the steering bandwidth, hardware changes are required that ultimately need to be evaluated using the telescope optics. One interesting concept presented in this contribution is the in- stallation of piezo stack actuators between the mirror and the chopping mechanism. First successful baseline tests are presented. An outlook is given about upcoming performance tests of the actively controlled piezo stage with local metrology and optical feedback. To minimize the impact on

  4. Time and Effort Required by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Learn to Use a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Allan J; Bryce, Thomas N; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2015-01-01

    Powered exoskeletons have been demonstrated as being safe for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), but little is known about how users learn to manage these devices. To quantify the time and effort required by persons with SCI to learn to use an exoskeleton for assisted walking. A convenience sample was enrolled to learn to use the first-generation Ekso powered exoskeleton to walk. Participants were given up to 24 weekly sessions of instruction. Data were collected on assistance level, walking distance and speed, heart rate, perceived exertion, and adverse events. Time and effort was quantified by the number of sessions required for participants to stand up, walk for 30 minutes, and sit down, initially with minimal and subsequently with contact guard assistance. Of 22 enrolled participants, 9 screen-failed, and 7 had complete data. All of these 7 were men; 2 had tetraplegia and 5 had motor-complete injuries. Of these, 5 participants could stand, walk, and sit with contact guard or close supervision assistance, and 2 required minimal to moderate assistance. Walk times ranged from 28 to 94 minutes with average speeds ranging from 0.11 to 0.21 m/s. For all participants, heart rate changes and reported perceived exertion were consistent with light to moderate exercise. This study provides preliminary evidence that persons with neurological weakness due to SCI can learn to walk with little or no assistance and light to somewhat hard perceived exertion using a powered exoskeleton. Persons with different severities of injury, including those with motor complete C7 tetraplegia and motor incomplete C4 tetraplegia, may be able to learn to use this device.

  5. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy trainees' operative competency requirements while improving feedback validity and timeliness using a mobile Web-based platform. The Southern Illinois University Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS) was embedded into a website formatted for mobile devices. From March 2013 to February 2014, faculty members were instructed to complete the OPRS form while providing verbal feedback to the operating resident at the conclusion of each procedure. Submitted data were compiled automatically within a secure Web-based spreadsheet. Conventional end-of-rotation performance (CERP) evaluations filed 2006 to 2013 and OPRS performance scores were compared by year of training using serial and independent-samples t tests. The mean CERP scores and OPRS overall resident operative performance scores were directly compared using a linear regression model. OPRS mobile site analytics were reviewed using a Web-based reporting program. Large university-based general surgery residency program. General Surgery faculty used the mobile Web OPRS system to rate resident performance. Residents and the program director reviewed evaluations semiannually. Over the study period, 18 faculty members and 37 residents logged 176 operations using the mobile OPRS system. There were 334 total OPRS website visits. Median time to complete an evaluation was 45 minutes from the end of the operation, and faculty spent an average of 134 seconds on the site to enter 1 assessment. In the 38,506 CERP evaluations reviewed, mean performance scores showed a positive linear trend of 2% change per year of training (p = 0.001). OPRS overall resident operative performance scores showed a significant linear (p = 0.001), quadratic (p = 0.001), and cubic (p = 0.003) trend of change per year of clinical training, reflecting the resident operative experience in our training program. Differences between postgraduate year-1 and postgraduate year-5 overall performance scores were greater with the OPRS (mean = 0.96, CI

  6. Evaluation of automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analysis methods for the metabolomic study of Arabidopsis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qun; David, Frank; Lynen, Frédéric; Rumpel, Klaus; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat

    2011-05-27

    In this paper, automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analysis methods for the metabolomics study were evaluated. A miniaturized and automated derivatisation method using sequential oximation and silylation was applied to a polar extract of 4 types (2 types×2 ages) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a popular model organism often used in plant sciences and genetics. Automation of the derivatisation process offers excellent repeatability, and the time between sample preparation and analysis was short and constant, reducing artifact formation. Retention time locked (RTL) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used, resulting in reproducible retention times and GC-MS profiles. Two approaches were used for data analysis. XCMS followed by principal component analysis (approach 1) and AMDIS deconvolution combined with a commercially available program (Mass Profiler Professional) followed by principal component analysis (approach 2) were compared. Several features that were up- or down-regulated in the different types were detected.

  7. Batch and continuous flow preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines under microwave heating and simultaneous real-time monitoring by Raman spectroscopy. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Sylvain; Vantyghem, Xavier; Radoiu, Marilena; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-09

    Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem's microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized) reaction times.

  8. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  9. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided.

  10. Directing students to profound open-book test preparation : The relationship between deep learning and open-book test time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J.B.; Hofman, W.H.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Considering the growing amount of medical knowledge and the focus of medical education on acquiring competences, using open-book tests seems inevitable. A possible disadvantage of these tests is that students underestimate test preparation. Aims: We examined whether students who used a d

  11. A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Zhen Wen Zhao; Lei Xiong; Bin Xin; Wei Hua Hu; Shao Xiang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for polystyrene was reported.Compared to the conventional dried-droplet method, the efficiency of ionization and signal intensity of mass spectra were improved.The mechanism was also analyzed.

  12. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, J.B.; Soth, L.G.

    1978-04-01

    The objective of the project, conducted by Commonwealth Research Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements that could reduce the overall duration of the outage and achieve an improvement in the plant's availability for power production. Modifications in procedures have been developed and were evaluated during one or more outages in 1977. Conceptual designs have been developed for equipment modifications to the refueling system that could reduce the time required for the refueling portion of the outage. The purpose of the interim report is to describe those conceptual designs and to assess their impact upon future outages. Recommendations are included for the implementation of these equipment improvements in a continuation of this program as a demonstration of plant availability benefits that can be realized in PWR nuclear plants already in operation or under construction.

  13. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Reichel, Mirja; Feil, Yvonne; Eggerstedt, Sven; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael

    2008-10-29

    Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s). However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN) 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application"). Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible application". Large untreated areas were found only

  14. Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Yvonne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data indicate that full efficacy of a hand rub preparation for hygienic hand disinfection can be achieved within 15 seconds (s. However, the efficacy test used for the European Norm (EN 1500 samples only the fingertips. Therefore, we investigated hand coverage using sixteen different application variations. The hand rub was supplemented with a fluorescent dye, and hands were assessed under UV light by a blind test, before and after application. Fifteen non-healthcare workers were used as subjects for each application variation apart from one test which was done with a group of twenty healthcare workers. All tests apart from the reference procedure were performed using 3 mL of hand rub. The EN 1500 reference procedure, which consists of 6 specific rub-in steps performed twice with an aliquot of 3 ml each time, served as a control. In one part of this study, each of the six steps was performed from one to five times before proceeding to the next step. In another part of the study, the entire sequence of six steps was performed from one to five times. Finally, all subjects were instructed to cover both hands completely, irrespective of any specific steps ("responsible application". Each rub-in technique was evaluated for untreated skin areas. Results The reference procedure lasted on average 75 s and resulted in 53% of subjects with at least one untreated area on the hands. Five repetitions of the rub-in steps lasted on average 37 s with 67% of subjects having incompletely treated hands. One repetition lasted on average 17 s, and all subjects had at least one untreated area. Repeating the sequence of steps lasted longer, but did not yield a better result. "Responsible application" was quite fast, lasting 25 s among non-healthcare worker subjects and 28 s among healthcare workers. It was also effective, with 53% and 55% of hands being incompletely treated. New techniques were as fast and effective as "responsible

  15. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jessica; Sherenco, Katrina; Malling, Rachel; Thiele, Erica; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT data from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys are presented, including the length of time to train subjects to target, present hand, and present foot, important responses that can be used to aid in health inspection and treatment. A high percentage of the squirrel and owl monkeys were successfully trained on target and present hand. Present foot, a less natural response, was harder to train and maintain. Although squirrel monkeys did learn to target significantly faster than owl monkeys, the 2 genera did not differ on time to train on subsequent behavior. These data demonstrate that although owl monkeys may require slightly more time to acclimate to a PRT program, it is still possible to establish a PRT program with neotropical primates, and once animals have been introduced to the program, they can learn new responses in a relatively few short sessions.

  16. What Level of Bowel Prep Quality Requires Early Repeat Colonoscopy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Preparation Quality on Adenoma Detection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian T.; Rustagi, Tarun; Laine, Loren

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Current guidelines recommend early repeat colonoscopy when bowel preparation quality is inadequate, defined as inability to detect polyps > 5 mm, but no data link specific bowel preparation categories or scores to this definition. Nevertheless, most physicians use a shortened screening/surveillance interval in patients with intermediate-quality preparation. We determined whether different levels of bowel preparation quality are associated with differences in adenoma detection rates (ADRs: proportion of colonoscopies with ≥1 adenoma) to help guide decisions regarding early repeat colonoscopy—with primary focus on intermediate-quality preparation. METHODS MEDLINE and Embase were searched for studies with adenoma or polyp detection rate stratified by bowel preparation quality. Preparation quality definitions were standardized on the basis of Aronchick definitions (excellent/good/fair/poor/insufficient), and primary analyses of ADR trichotomized bowel preparation quality: high quality (excellent/good), intermediate quality (fair), and low quality (poor/insufficient). Dichotomized analyses of adequate (excellent/good/fair) vs. inadequate (poor/insufficient) were also performed. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The primary analysis, ADR with intermediate- vs. high-quality preparation, showed an odds ratio (OR) of 0.94 (0.80–1.10) and absolute risk difference of −1% (−3%, 2%). ADRs were significantly higher with both intermediate-quality and high-quality preparation vs. low-quality preparation: OR = 1.39 (1.08–1.79) and 1.41 (1.21–1.64), with absolute risk increases of 5% for both. ADR and advanced ADR were significantly higher with adequate vs. inadequate preparation: OR = 1.30 (1.19–1.42) and 1.30 (1.02–1.67). Studies did not report other relevant outcomes such as total adenomas per colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS ADR is not significantly different with intermediate-quality vs. high-quality bowel preparation. Our results confirm

  17. In vitro investigation of the cleaning efficacy, shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of continuous rotary, reciprocating rotary and manual instrumentations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Mohammadi, Abbas; Amirabadi, Foroogh; Ramazani, Mohsen; Ehsani, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Background. Efficient canal preparation is the key to successful root canal treatment. This study aimed to assess the cleaning and shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of rotary, reciprocating and manual instrumentation in canal preparation of primary molars. Methods. The mesiobuccal canals of 64 extracted primary mandibular second molars were injected with India ink. The samples were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. Experimental groups were instrumented with K-file, Mtwo in continuous rotation and Reciproc in reciprocating motion, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The files were discarded after four applications. Shaping ability was evaluated using CBCT. After clearing, ink removal was scored. Preparation time and file fracture or deformation was also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 19 using chi-squared, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results. Considering cleanliness, at coronal third Reciproc was better than K-file (P file (P = 0.001). In the middle third, only Reciproc exhibited better cleaning efficacy than K-file (P = 0.005). In the apical third, no difference was detected between the groups (P = 0.794). Regarding shaping ability, no differences were found between Reciproc and Mtwo (P = 1.00). Meanwhile, both displayed better shaping efficacy than K-file (P file failure occurred. Conclusion. Fast and sufficient cleaning and shaping could be achieved with Mtwo and especially with Reciproc.

  18. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  19. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  20. Mastl is required for timely activation of APC/C in meiosis I and Cdk1 reactivation in meiosis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Diril, M Kasim; Busayavalasa, Kiran; Risal, Sanjiv; Nakagawa, Shoma; Lindkvist, Rebecca; Shen, Yan; Coppola, Vincenzo; Tessarollo, Lino; Kudo, Nobuaki R; Kaldis, Philipp; Liu, Kui

    2014-09-29

    In mitosis, the Greatwall kinase (called microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase like [Mastl] in mammals) is essential for prometaphase entry or progression by suppressing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. PP2A suppression in turn leads to high levels of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation. We have used a mouse model with an oocyte-specific deletion of Mastl to show that Mastl-null oocytes resume meiosis I and reach metaphase I normally but that the onset and completion of anaphase I are delayed. Moreover, after the completion of meiosis I, Mastl-null oocytes failed to enter meiosis II (MII) because they reassembled a nuclear structure containing decondensed chromatin. Our results show that Mastl is required for the timely activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to allow meiosis I exit and for the rapid rise of Cdk1 activity that is needed for the entry into MII in mouse oocytes.

  1. A STUDY OF THE SYNTHESIS OF VERATRYL CYANIDE REQUIRED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR THE PREPARATION OF C-9154 ANTIBIOTIC DERIVATIVE FROM VANILIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Rosilawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of veratryl cyanide [1-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl acetonitril] required as an intermediate for the preparation of C-9154 antibiotic derivative was carried out. The starting material used was vanilin, while the reaction steps consisted of (1 methylation of vanilin, (2 reduction of veratraldehyde, (3 synthesis of veratryl bromide, and (4 treatment of this bromide with KCN. The analysis of the products was carried out using IR, 1H NMR and GC-MS spectrophotometers.             The methylation of vanilin was conducted using dimethylsulfate and NaOH at 100  oC for 2 hours to give 79.3% yield of veratraldehyde. The reduction of veratraldehyde with LiBH4 in ethanol - THF mixture (1:1 v/v at reflux for 4 hours afforded veratryl alcohol in 85.3% yield. This veratryl alcohol was treated with red phosphorous and Br2 in CCl4 at 60 oC for 2 hours to give 1-(2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxy-phenyl bromomethane in 67.4% yield, instead of the desired veratryl bromide [1-3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl bromomethane]. This benzyl bromide derivative was then treated with KCN in the presence of tween 80 as a phase catalyst transsfer in benzene-water solvent system at reflux for 2 hours to yield 1-(2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl acetonitril in 58.5%.   Keywords: Vanilin, veratryl cyanide, C-9154 antibiotic derivative

  2. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  3. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  4. Compression Effects on the Phase Behaviour of Miconazole-Poly (1-Vinylpyrrolidone-Co-Vinyl Acetate) Solid Dispersions-Role of Pressure, Dwell Time, and Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; De Bisschop, Cathérine; Schut, Henk; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Compression of miconazole-poly (1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) solid dispersions prepared by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion was performed to gain insights into effect of compression pressure, dwell time, and preparation method on compression-dependent phase behavior. The solid dispersions prepared by spray drying were initially phase-separated showing two glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the extruded samples showed one single Tg indicating better mixing. Compression caused mixing of spray-dried solid dispersions at high compression pressures and especially high dwell times. The extruded systems showed no statistically significant differences. However, physical mixtures made up from extruded samples containing 20% and 40% of active pharmaceutical ingredient underwent mixing upon compression. Coincidence Doppler measurements were performed to quantify the free volume of PVPVA64 which is a major contributor to the free volume in the solid dispersion matrix. A small but significant difference was found between the open free volume of the pure polymer subjected to varied manufacturing processes. Compression-induced plastic deformation and plastic flow enhances molecular mobility leading to mixing of different domains in solid dispersions. Different manufacturing methods may result in products with similar free volume, thereby showing similar molecular mobility.

  5. Adachi-like chaotic neural networks requiring linear-time computations by enforcing a tree-shaped topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ke; Oommen, B John

    2009-11-01

    The Adachi neural network (AdNN) is a fascinating neural network (NN) which has been shown to possess chaotic properties, and to also demonstrate associative memory (AM) and pattern recognition (PR) characteristics. Variants of the AdNN have also been used to obtain other PR phenomena, and even blurring. An unsurmountable problem associated with the AdNN and the variants referred to above is that all of them require a quadratic number of computations. This is essentially because the NNs in each case are completely connected graphs. In this paper, we consider how the computations can be significantly reduced by merely using a linear number of computations. To achieves this, we extract from the original completely connected graph one of its spanning trees. We then address the problem of computing the weights for this spanning tree. This is done in such a manner that the modified tree-based NN has approximately the same input-output characteristics, and thus the new weights are themselves calculated using a gradient-based algorithm. By a detailed experimental analysis, we show that the new linear-time AdNN-like network possesses chaotic and PR properties for different settings. As far as we know, such a tree-based AdNN has not been reported, and the results given here are novel.

  6. Preparation of fine-grained tungsten heavy alloys by spark plasma sintered W–7Ni–3Fe composite powders with different ball milling time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, D.P., E-mail: dpxiang@hainu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ding, L. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Li, Y.Y.; Chen, G.B. [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao, Y.W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We fabricate fine-grained W–7Ni–3Fe alloys using HEBM assisted SPS method. ► The γ-(Ni, Fe, W) phase is not observed in HEBM raw powders. ► The density of the WHAs gradually decreased with increasing HEBM time. ► The hardness and bending strength of the WHAs show different trends of variation. ► The intergranular fracture was the main bending fracture mode of the WHAs. -- Abstract: The fine-grained tungsten heavy alloys (WHAs) with grain size of about 1–3 μm were successfully prepared by spark plasma sintered W–7Ni–3Fe composite powders with different high-energy ball milling (HEBM) time. This study analyzes the effects of HEBM time not only on the composite powders but on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WHAs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the microstructure and phase evolution rules of powders and alloys, respectively. The γ-(Ni, Fe, W) is not observed in XRD patterns of the ball milled powders. With prolonging HEBM time, the W phase diffraction peak becomes increasingly wider, and its intensity continues to decline. However, the completely amorphous structures are not formed even after HEBM 40 h. The relative density of the WHAs prepared by HEBM assisted SPS technique decreases gradually with increasing the ball milling time. For the WHAs sintered in 1150 °C for 8 min, the W grains grow finer and the content of the γ-(Ni, Fe, W) binding phase greatly increases with prolonging the HEBM time. Meanwhile, over 5 h of HEBM time, the bending strength continuously decreases and the hardness slightly increases. The intergranular fracture of the W grains is the main bending fracture mode in all the WHAs. The microporous of different sizes are distributed on the bending fracture and progressively increased with prolonging the ball milling time.

  7. Characteristics of B2O3 and Fe added into BaFe12O19 permanent magnets prepared at different milling time and sintering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Sari, Ayu Yuswita; Ginting, Delovita; Allan, Yola; Nasruddin M., N.; Sebayang, Kerista

    2016-02-01

    The objective of present work is to investigate the characteristic of BaFe12O19, B2O3-BaFe12O19 and Fe-BaFe12O19 magnets fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature. The characteristic of perrmanen magnet BaFe12O19 with different content of B2O3 and Fe which was fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature were investigated. The powder mixtures were prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The powder were mixtured and prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The mixture powder was then compacted by anisotropic with compressive pressure of 50 N/cm2. The green bodies were sinter at 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200°C and hold for 1 h, separately. The density, magnetic flux density and B-H curve were measured by Archimedes principle, Gauss meter and Permagraph, respectively. The microstructure and phase composition characterization were performed by SEM and XRD. The results of this study are presented in this paper. It shows that addition of Fe (in wet milling) and B2O3 (in dry milling) respectively give a potential benefit to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the magnetic flux density of barium hexaferrite.

  8. Cdc25 Phosphatases Are Required for Timely Assembly of CDK1-Cyclin B at the G2/M Transition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Oleg; Cizmecioglu, Onur; Settele, Florian; Kempf, Tore; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Progression through mitosis requires the coordinated regulation of Cdk1 kinase activity. Activation of Cdk1 is a multistep process comprising binding of Cdk1 to cyclin B, relocation of cyclin-kinase complexes to the nucleus, activating phosphorylation of Cdk1 on Thr161 by the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK; Cdk7 in metazoans), and removal of inhibitory Thr14 and Tyr15 phosphorylations. This dephosphorylation is catalyzed by the dual specific Cdc25 phosphatases, which occur in three isoforms in mammalian cells, Cdc25A, -B, and -C. We find that expression of Cdc25A leads to an accelerated G2/M phase transition. In Cdc25A-overexpressing cells, Cdk1 exhibits high kinase activity despite being phosphorylated on Tyr15. In addition, Tyr15-phosphorylated Cdk1 binds more cyclin B in Cdc25A-overexpressing cells compared with control cells. Consistent with this observation, we demonstrate that in human transformed cells, Cdc25A and Cdc25B, but not Cdc25C phosphatases have an effect on timing and efficiency of cyclin-kinase complex formation. Overexpression of Cdc25A or Cdc25B promotes earlier assembly and activation of Cdk1-cyclin B complexes, whereas repression of these phosphatases by short hairpin RNA has a reverse effect, leading to a substantial decrease in amounts of cyclin B-bound Cdk1 in G2 and mitosis. Importantly, we find that Cdc25A overexpression leads to an activation of Cdk7 and increase in Thr161 phosphorylation of Cdk1. In conclusion, our data suggest that complex assembly and dephosphorylation of Cdk1 at G2/M is tightly coupled and regulated by Cdc25 phosphatases. PMID:20360007

  9. The Timing of Multiple Retrieval Events Can Alter GluR1 Phosphorylation and the Requirement for Protein Synthesis in Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Werner, Craig T.; Parsons, Ryan G.; Gafford, Georgette M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that maintaining a fear memory after retrieval requires de novo protein synthesis. However, no study to date has examined how the temporal dynamics of repeated retrieval events affect this protein synthesis requirement. The present study varied the timing of a second retrieval of an established auditory fear memory…

  10. Statewide Writing Assessment Follow-Up; Federal Reporting Requirements; Preparing the School District Assessment Portfolio. Update # 5. STARS: School-Based Teacher-Led Assessment and Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This update provides information about the Nebraska Statewide Writing Assessment follow-up, the federal reporting of assessment information, and preparing the school District Assessment Portfolio. The information is intended to assist local educators in the reporting of local assessment information in June 2001. The update on the writing…

  11. Sample-first preparation: a method for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of cyclic oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Pin; Su, Chih-Lin; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2007-08-15

    A new sample preparation method for the analysis of cyclic oligosaccharides in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is presented. We call this new technique "sample first method", in which a sample is deposited first and then bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which serve as the SALDI matrixes, are added to the top of the sample layer. The use of the sample first method offers significant advantages for improving shot-to-shot reproducibility, enhancing the ionization efficiency of the analyte, and reducing sample preparation time as compared to the dried-droplet method, wherein samples and bare AuNPs are mixed and dried together. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the signal intensity as calculated from 65 sample spots was 25% when the sample first methods were applied to the analysis of beta-cyclodextrin. The results were more homogeneous as compared to the outcome using dried-droplet preparation of AuNPs (RSD=66%) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (RSD=209%). We also found out that the optimal concentration of AuNP for ionization efficiency is 7.4 nM (4.52x10(12) particles/mL) while the lowest detectable concentration of cyclic oligosaccharides through this approach is 0.25 microM. Except for the cyclic oligosaccharide, the proposed method was also applied to the analyses of other biological samples, including neutral carbohydrate and steroid, aminothiols, and peptides as well as proteins.

  12. Reaction time analysis of two types of motor preparation for speech articulation: action as a sequence of chunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2003-06-01

    Reaction time (RT) prior to speech articulation increased as a function of response complexity. The RT findings formed 2 patterns, each of which was a different Response Complexity x Paradigm (choice RT vs. simple RT) interaction. That result extends previous findings from manual button-pressing tasks (S. T. Klapp, 1995) to a different action modality. Two different types of response programming, INT and SEQ, are assumed in the interpretation. Whereas INT can be identified with response programming within a word, SEQ fits a different interpretation related to timing of onsets of speech units. A critical assumption is that a long response is represented as a sequence of chunks; that organization is subject to manipulation. New findings suggest some modifications of the previous theory.

  13. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  14. How many research nurses for how many clinical trials in an oncology setting? Definition of the Nursing Time Required by Clinical Trial-Assessment Tool (NTRCT-AT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Alessandra; Mazzocco, Ketti; Stucchi, Sara; Magon, Giorgio; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Passoni, Claudia; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Tonali, Alessandra; Profeta, Teresa; Saiani, Luisa

    2017-02-01

    Few resources are available to quantify clinical trial-associated workload, needed to guide staffing and budgetary planning. The aim of the study is to describe a tool to measure clinical trials nurses' workload expressed in time spent to complete core activities. Clinical trials nurses drew up a list of nursing core activities, integrating results from literature searches with personal experience. The final 30 core activities were timed for each research nurse by an outside observer during daily practice in May and June 2014. Average times spent by nurses for each activity were calculated. The "Nursing Time Required by Clinical Trial-Assessment Tool" was created as an electronic sheet that combines the average times per specified activities and mathematic functions to return the total estimated time required by a research nurse for each specific trial. The tool was tested retrospectively on 141 clinical trials. The increasing complexity of clinical research requires structured approaches to determine workforce requirements. This study provides a tool to describe the activities of a clinical trials nurse and to estimate the associated time required to deliver individual trials. The application of the proposed tool in clinical research practice could provide a consistent structure for clinical trials nursing workload estimation internationally.

  15. Consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including examinations of bacteria risks; Konsekvenser ved solvarmeforberedte beholdere i bygningsreglementet herunder undersoegelse af risici for bakteriegener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Kaersgaard, K. [Teknologisk Inst., SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Bagh, L. [Teknologisk Inst., Miljoedivisionen (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A larger dissemination of solar heating units must be expected, if requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating are introduced in the building regulations. However, this may have effects, which have to be discussed beforehand, just as it has to be decided how the regulations can be put into practice. 1) The aim is to examine and discuss the consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including connections with other legislation, potential, consequences for the building services sector and proposals for rules in the building regulations (exceptions etc.) 2) Furthermore, the aim is to explain the risk of bacteria in tanks prepared for solar heating according to existing or new additional studies. It must be explained whether tanks prepared for solar heating will result in an increased number of bacteria in the water compared to traditional hot water tanks and - if possible - whether the change is caused by the increased volume of the tank (the water stays in the tank for a longer period) or changed temperature conditions which favours growth of bacteria at a certain incubation temperature. (EHS)

  16. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  17. An investigation on influential factors of patient-controlled epidural analgesic requirement over time for upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Hua Hu

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Our analyses provided valuable information about the factors associated with PCEA consumption over time after upper abdominal surgery. However, the mechanism of how these factors interact over the course of time awaits further investigation.

  18. The effect of oxidation time on the parameters of ITO/Si solar cell prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S. A; Afifi, H. H; El-hefnawi, S. H; Eliwa, A.Y [Electronic Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO/N-Si) solar cells have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. The silicon wafers are heated at 500 Celsius degrees with different oxidation time (2-20 min). The best values obtained for ITO/Si solar cell output parameters; open circuit voltage V{sub o}c, short circuit current density J{sub s}c, fill factor FF and efficiency {eta} are 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7 and 10.1% respectively. The preceding results were obtained under conditions of 5 minutes oxidation time and the surface area equal to 8 mm{sup 2} when the light intensity is 50 MW/ cm{sup 2}. The values of V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF and {eta} are affected strongly by the varying the oxidation time. This paper is devoted to explain the effect of the interfacial layer SiO{sub 2} thickness on the ITO/Si solar cell parameters as deduced from the I-V and C-V measurements. [Spanish] Mediante tecnicas de pirolisis de dispersion se han fabricado celdas solares de oxido de Indio estanado ITO/N-Si. Las obleas de silicon se calientan a 500 con diferentes tiempos de oxidacion (2-20 min.) Los mejores valores obtenidos para los parametros de produccion de las celdas solares ITO-Si de voltaje en circuito abierto V{sub o}c densidad de corriente de corto circuito J{sub s}c factor de llenado FF y eficiencia {eta} son de 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7% y 10.1% respectivamente los resultados precedentes se obtuvieron bajo condiciones de 5 minutos de tiempo de oxidacion y la superficie del area=8 mm{sup 2} cuando la intensidad de la luz es de 50mW/Cm{sup 2}. Los valores de V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF y {eta} se afectan fuertemente por la variacion del tiempo de oxidacion. Este articulo esta dedicado a explicar el efecto del espesor de la capa interfacial de SiO{sub 2} en los parametros de la celda solar ITO-Si como se deduce de las mediciones I-V y C-V.

  19. Numeracy Competence Requirements for Admission to Undergraduate Degree Programmes: A Case Study of a Programme to Prepare Pre-Registration Nursing Student Candidates for a Numeracy Entrance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Beattie; Perkins, Andrew; Fritsch, Lynn Faller; Burke, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Some undergraduate programmes require evidence of baseline numeracy skills as a condition of entry. With a widened entry gate into higher education and a recognised "mathematics problem" in society, students wishing to enrol onto degree programmes that require evidence of numeracy often find it difficult to provide such evidence.…

  20. 13 CFR 108.1220 - Requirement for NMVC Company to file financial statements at the time of request for a draw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... file financial statements at the time of request for a draw. 108.1220 Section 108.1220 Business Credit... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1220 Requirement for NMVC Company to file financial statements at the time of...

  1. Effect of Etching Time on Optical and Thermal Properties of p-Type Porous Silicon Prepared by Electrical Anodisation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous silicon (PSi layers were formed on p-type silicon (Si wafer. The six samples were anodised electrically with 30 mA/cm2 fixed current density for different etching times. The structural, optical, and thermal properties of porous silicon on silicon substrates were investigated by photoluminescence (PL, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The thickness and porosity of the layers were measured using the gravimetric method. The band gap of the samples was measured through the photoluminescence (PL peak and absorption spectra, then they were compared. It shows that band gap value increases by raising the porosity. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS was carried out for measuring the thermal diffusivity (TD of the samples.

  2. Effect of Milling Time on Al-Fe-Cr-20 Wt. % Al2O3composite Prepared Through Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameedur Rehman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges towards achieving a homogeneous distribution of the ceramic phase in the metal matrix composites is agglomeration of the reinforcement particles. Mechanical alloying is among the most important processing techniques used for manufacturing of metal matrix composites (MMCs.An attempt was made to synthesize Al-Fe-Cr-Al2O3composites synthesized through mechanical alloying. Al2O3 is used as reinforcement. Ethanol (5 wt. % has been used as a process control agent (PCA. Mechanical alloying is carried out in a conventional ball mill using stainless steel grinding media at 115 rpm in the argon environment for 5h, 10h and 15h. The ball to powder weight ratio was maintained at 20:1. The characterization of the ball milled powder was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Showed the formation of a homogeneous phase for all compositions after milling for 15 h. XRD patterns were recorded for the milled powders, and analyzed using Williamson–Hall method and Scherrer’s equation to determine the lattice strain and grain size.EDX is performed to check the contamination of composites during the mechanical alloying.XRD is used to study structural evolution of synthesized aluminium composite. Effect of milling time is investigated on synthesized Al-Fe-Cr-20 wt. % Al2O3 composites.

  3. TiCl4 Pretreatment and Electrodeposition Time Investigations of ZnO Photoelectrodes Preparation for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiCl4 pretreatment is used in the fabrication of high performance photoanodes for dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this paper, TiCl4 pretreatment was used on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO before fabricating ZnO films by electrochemical method. The effects of TiCl4 pretreatment on some important parameters of solar cells, such as short-circuit current (Jsc and filling factor, were investigated. The morphology of ZnO films was changed after TiCl4 pretreatment, which can offer large surface area to absorb much more dyes. When the time of electrodeposition was 3 min, the dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiCl4 pretreatment ZnO films showed more superior photoelectrochemical performance. The parameters of DSSCs are greatly improved. The DSSC based on ZnO films after TiCl4 pretreatment has a very promising value for fabricating high performance solar cells.

  4. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  5. Wax-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system of sophora flavescens Aiton: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Caihong; Cheng, Gang; Ren, Jungang; Wu, Gaolei

    2009-02-01

    A wax-matrix time-dependent colon-specific tablet (WM-TDCS) was studied. Wax-matrix tablet core consisting of semi-synthetic glycerides, as a wax polymeric expanding agent, carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), and NaCl was prepared, and Sophora flavescens Aiton (ASF, extracts of traditional Chinese medicine) was used as model drug. The wax-matrix ASF tablets core was coated with Eudragit NE 30 D as the inner coating materials and with Opadry OY-P-7171 as the outer coating materials. The in vitro release behaviors of the coated tablets were examined and then in vivo absorption kinetics of the coated tablets in dogs was further investigated. The volume of the tablet core was markedly increased at 37 degrees C because of the expand effect of polymer semi-synthetic glycerides and CMS-Na. The drug release from WM-TDCS was more stable than TDCS in vitro and in vivo. The lag time of ASF release was also controlled by the thickness of the inner coating layer. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release. ASF wax-matrix tablets coated with Eudragit NE 30 D and Opadry OY-P-7171 using the regular coating technique could be designed to achieve a lag time of 3 h in the small intestinal tract.

  6. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs achieves fast timing required for time-of-flight PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, M F; Levin, C S

    2015-05-07

    The design of combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems presents a number of challenges to engineers, as it forces the PET system to acquire data in a space constrained environment that is sensitive to electro-magnetic interference and contains high static, radio frequency and gradient fields. In this work we validate fast timing performance of a PET scintillation detector using a potentially very compact, very low power, and MR compatible readout method in which analog silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) signals are transmitted optically away from the MR bore with little or even no additional readout electronics. This analog 'electro-optial' method could reduce the entire PET readout in the MR bore to two compact, low power components (SiPMs and lasers). Our experiments show fast timing performance from analog electro-optical readout with and without pre-amplification. With 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals and Excelitas SiPMs the best two-sided fwhm coincident timing resolution achieved was 220 +/- 3 ps in electrical mode, 230 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical with preamp mode, and 253 +/- 2 ps in electro-optical without preamp mode. Timing measurements were also performed with Hamamatsu SiPMs and 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm crystals. In the future the timing degradation seen can be further reduced with lower laser noise or improvements SiPM rise time or gain.

  7. 33 CFR 150.503 - What are the time interval requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls? 150.503 Section 150.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters... maintenance on survival craft falls? (a) Each fall used in a launching device for survival craft or rescue boats must be turned end-for-end at intervals of not more than 30 months. (b) Each fall must be...

  8. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-12 - Extension of time to make contributions to satisfy requirements of section 412.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-12 Extension of time to make...

  9. Specifying of requirements for spatio-temporal data in map by eye-tracking and space-time-cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Stanislav; Voženílek, Vit

    2013-03-01

    One of the most objective methods of map use evaluation (in terms of reading, analysis and interpretation. is an analysis of eye movements of map reader, known as eye-tracking method. GazePlots and HeatMaps as the most commonly used visualization methods of eye-tracking data cannot effectively express the change of time. The authors introduce a Space-Time-Cube for spatio-temporal visualization. It displays the map at the base of the cube (axes X and Y) while Z axis is used to represent time. Spatial and temporal components of a map are shown together, and relationship between space and time can be revealed. During the authors' research, the user interaction over the map legend of agriculture of the Czech Republic school maps was tested. Space-Time-Cube displayed both components (spatial and temporal) together and allowed easy visual analysis of four respondents' (map readers') work with a map. Using Space- Time-Cube for visual analysis provides satisfactory results, although this form of visualization is not widespread and for someone it may seem complex and confusing.

  10. Preparation of porous styrenics-based monolithic layers for thin layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Tan, Tianwei; Svec, Frantisek

    2013-11-01

    Monolithic 50 μm thin poly(4-methylstyrene-co-chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) layers attached to 6.0 cm × 3.3 cm glass plates have been prepared, using a thermally initiated polymerization process. These layers had a well-defined porous structure with a globular morphology demonstrated with SEM images and exhibited superhydrophobic properties characterized with a water contact angle of 157°. They were then used for thin-layer chromatography of peptides and proteins fluorescently labeled with fluorescamine. The spots of individual separated compounds were visualized using UV light, and their identities were confirmed with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The presence of chloromethylstyrene units in the polymer enabled hypercrosslinking via a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, and led to monoliths with much larger surface areas, which were suitable for separations of small dye molecules.

  11. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  12. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Sarah E.; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián;

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudon......Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry...... occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure...

  13. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. J., E-mail: sebastien.weber@cea.fr; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B. [Commissariat l’Energie Atomique, Laser, Interactions and Dynamics Laboratory (LIDyL), DSM/IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Böttcher, M.; Huetz, A.; Picard, Y. J. [ISMO, UMR 8214, Université Paris-Sud, Batiment 350, Orsay (France)

    2015-03-15

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  14. Prolonged time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents in neuromuscular preparations of small crayfish and a membrane current triggered by glutamate channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Martin, C; Pareto, A

    1988-08-31

    Single channel currents activated by glutamate were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique in the abdominal superficial extensor muscle and the claw opener muscle of small (1-3 months old) and large (greater than 16 months old) crayfish. It was found that in small crayfish the time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents was prolonged by a factor of about 4 in these two preparations. In the abdominal superficial extensor muscle, single channel currents activated by 5 mmol/l glutamate had a mean burst length of tau = 2-3 ms in large crayfish and a mean burst length of tau = 8-9 ms in small crayfish. In the claw opener, for large crayfish tau congruent to 0.5 ms and for small crayfish tau = 1.5-2.5 ms resulted (500 mumol/l glutamate). Moreover, single channel currents with long time courses often slowly increased their amplitudes during the open time of the channel and current amplitudes did not decline completely to the baseline after channel closing. In addition, single channel currents with relatively constant amplitude were often followed by a small increasing and decreasing membrane current. The latter results suggest that glutamate channel gating might trigger a membrane current.

  15. Dose and timing requirements for immunogenicity of viral poultry vaccine antigen: investigations of emulsion-based depot function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans G A; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2007-10-01

    The release requirements for vaccine antigens delivered by adjuvants with presumed depot function are poorly understood. Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are routinely used in many poultry vaccines. They strongly activate antibody production, and are regarded as a depot from which antigens are slowly released, resulting in prolonged antigen residence. However, from earlier studies we concluded that W/O adjuvant activity is partly based on the immunostimulatory activity of the oil phase. Here we assess the dose and regimen requirements for viral antigen in immunization experiments in chickens. Three-week-old to 4-week-old White Leghorn chickens were repeatedly injected with inactivated infectious bursal disease virus antigen over 48 days. Our aim was to compare the antibody responses in repeatedly injected animals, receiving fractioned doses of antigen, with the responses in animals receiving only one injection of the full dose of antigen formulated in either a W/O emulsion or in saline. We observed that repeated administration of small amounts of antigen results in a gradual increase of specific humoral immune responses during the immunization regimen. Immunization with a higher first dose evoked an early higher antibody response, which, however, reached a similar plateau level at the end of the regimen. When compared with lower first-dose regimens, a slow decline of serum antibody titre 2 weeks after the end of antigen injections indicated that repeated injection of small doses of antigen indeed mimics the efficacy of depot-forming adjuvants. All regimens of fractioned antigen in saline, however, proved less effective, when compared with a single-dose vaccination of the cumulative amount of antigen formulated in a W/O emulsion. From our data we confirm that W/O emulsions are very effective vaccine vehicles for improving antigen-specific humoral responses in chickens, owing to a combination of antigen residence-prolonging activity and direct immune stimulation.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  17. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, David C; Glein, Christopher R; Zahnle, Kevin J; McKay, Christopher P

    2005-06-01

    Life is constructed from a limited toolkit: the Periodic Table. The reduction of oxygen provides the largest free energy release per electron transfer, except for the reduction of fluorine and chlorine. However, the bonding of O2 ensures that it is sufficiently stable to accumulate in a planetary atmosphere, whereas the more weakly bonded halogen gases are far too reactive ever to achieve significant abundance. Consequently, an atmosphere rich in O2 provides the largest feasible energy source. This universal uniqueness suggests that abundant O2 is necessary for the high-energy demands of complex life anywhere, i.e., for actively mobile organisms of approximately 10(-1)-10(0) m size scale with specialized, differentiated anatomy comparable to advanced metazoans. On Earth, aerobic metabolism provides about an order of magnitude more energy for a given intake of food than anaerobic metabolism. As a result, anaerobes do not grow beyond the complexity of uniseriate filaments of cells because of prohibitively low growth efficiencies in a food chain. The biomass cumulative number density, n, at a particular mass, m, scales as n (> m) proportional to m(-1) for aquatic aerobes, and we show that for anaerobes the predicted scaling is n proportional to m (-1.5), close to a growth-limited threshold. Even with aerobic metabolism, the partial pressure of atmospheric O2 (P(O2)) must exceed approximately 10(3) Pa to allow organisms that rely on O2 diffusion to evolve to a size approximately 10(3) m x P(O2) in the range approximately 10(3)-10(4) Pa is needed to exceed the threshold of approximately 10(2) m size for complex life with circulatory physiology. In terrestrial life, O(2) also facilitates hundreds of metabolic pathways, including those that make specialized structural molecules found only in animals. The time scale to reach P(O(2)) approximately 10(4) Pa, or "oxygenation time," was long on the Earth (approximately 3.9 billion years), within almost a factor of 2 of the Sun

  19. Improving the safety of health information technology requires shared responsibility: It is time we all step up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Belmont, Elisabeth; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-14

    In 2011, an Institute of Medicine report on health information technology (IT) and patient safety highlighted that building health-IT for safer use is a shared responsibility between key stakeholders including: "vendors, care providers, healthcare organizations, health-IT departments, and public and private agencies". Use of electronic health records (EHRs) involves all these stakeholders, but they often have conflicting priorities and requirements. Since 2011, the concept of shared responsibility has gained little traction and EHR developers and users continue to attribute the substantial, long list of problems to each other. In this article, we discuss how these key stakeholders have complementary roles in improving EHR safety and must share responsibility to improve the current state of EHR use. We use real-world safety examples and outline a comprehensive shared responsibility approach to help guide development of future rules, regulations, and standards for EHR usability, interoperability and security as outlined in the 21st Century Cures Act. This approach clearly defines the responsibilities of each party and helps create appropriate measures for success. National and international policymakers must facilitate the local organizational and socio-political climate to stimulate the adoption of shared responsibility principles. When all major stakeholders are sharing responsibility, we will be more likely to usher in a new age of progress and innovation related to health IT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Number of Image Acquisitions and Procedural Time Required for Transarterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with and without Tumor-Feeder Detection Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Iwazawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the number of image acquisitions and procedural time required for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE with and without tumor-feeder detection software in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 50 cases involving software-assisted TACE (September 2011–February 2013 and 84 cases involving TACE without software assistance (January 2010–August 2011. We compared the number of image acquisitions, the overall procedural time, and the therapeutic efficacy in both groups. Results. Angiography acquisition per session reduced from 6.6 times to 4.6 times with software assistance (P<0.001. Total image acquisition significantly decreased from 10.4 times to 8.7 times with software usage (P=0.004. The mean procedural time required for a single session with software-assisted TACE (103 min was significantly lower than that for a session without software (116 min, P=0.021. For TACE with and without software usage, the complete (68% versus 63%, resp. and objective (78% versus 80%, resp. response rates did not differ significantly. Conclusion. In comparison with software-unassisted TACE, automated feeder-vessel detection software-assisted TACE for HCC involved fewer image acquisitions and could be completed faster while maintaining a comparable treatment response.

  1. Remote sensing in precision farming: real-time monitoring of water and fertilizer requirements of agricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Arkadi; Ben Asher, Jiftah; Kopeika, Norman S.

    2016-10-01

    The advancements in remote sensing in combination with sensor technology (both passive and active) enable growers to analyze an entire crop field as well as its local features. In particular, changes of actual evapo-transpiration (ET) as a function of water availability can be measured remotely with infrared radiometers. Detection of crop water stress and ET and combining it with the soil water flow model enable rational irrigation timing and application amounts. Nutrient deficiency, and in particular nitrogen deficiency, causes substantial crop losses. This deficiency needs to be identified immediately. A faster the detection and correction, a lesser the damage to the crop yield. In the present work, to retrieve ET a novel deterministic approach was used which is based on the remote sensing data. The algorithm can automatically provide timely valuable information on plant and soil water status, which can improve the management of irrigated crops. The solution is capable of bridging between Penman-Monteith ET model and Richards soil water flow model. This bridging can serve as a preliminary tool for expert irrigation system. To support decisions regarding fertilizers the greenness of plant canopies is assessed and quantified by using the spectral reflectance sensors and digital color imaging. Fertilization management can be provided on the basis of sampling and monitoring of crop nitrogen conditions using RS technique and translating measured N concentration in crop to kg/ha N application in the field.

  2. Interaction between workers during a short time window is required for bacterial symbiont transmission in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Sarah E; Poulsen, Michael; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián; Currie, Cameron R

    2014-01-01

    Stable associations between partners over time are critical for the evolution of mutualism. Hosts employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain specificity with bacterial associates. Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants farm a fungal cultivar as their primary nutrient source. These ants also carry a Pseudonocardia Actinobacteria exosymbiont on their bodies that produces antifungal compounds that help inhibit specialized parasites of the ants' fungal garden. Major workers emerge from their pupal cases (eclose) symbiont-free, but exhibit visible Actinobacterial coverage within 14 days post-eclosion. Using subcolony experiments, we investigate exosymbiont transmission within Acromyrmex colonies. We found successful transmission to newly eclosed major workers fostered by major workers with visible Actinobacteria in all cases (100% acquiring, n = 19). In contrast, newly eclosed major workers reared without exosymbiont-carrying major workers did not acquire visible Actinobacteria (0% acquiring, n = 73). We further show that the majority of ants exposed to major workers with exosymbionts within 2 hours of eclosion acquired bacteria (60.7% acquiring, n = 28), while normal acquisition did not occur when exposure occurred later than 2 hours post-eclosion (0% acquiring, n = 18). Our findings show that transmission of exosymbionts to newly eclosed major workers occurs through interactions with exosymbiont-covered workers within a narrow time window after eclosion. This mode of transmission likely helps ensure the defensive function within colonies, as well as specificity and partner fidelity in the ant-bacterium association.

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana VOZ (Vascular plant One-Zinc finger) transcription factors are required for proper regulation of flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesnik, Helena; Ali, Gul S; Robison, Faith M; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2013-04-15

    Transition to flowering in plants is tightly controlled by environmental cues, which regulate the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, and endogenous signals, which mediate the autonomous and gibberellin pathways. In this work, we investigated the role of two Zn(2+)-finger transcription factors, the paralogues AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering. Single atvoz1-1 and atvoz2-1 mutants showed no significant phenotypes as compared to wild type. However, atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 double mutant plants exhibited several phenotypes characteristic of flowering-time mutants. The double mutant displayed a severe delay in flowering, together with additional pleiotropic phenotypes. Late flowering correlated with elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which encodes a potent floral repressor, and decreased expression of its target, the floral promoter FD. Vernalization rescued delayed flowering of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 and reversed elevated FLC levels. Accumulation of FLC transcripts in atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 correlated with increased expression of several FLC activators, including components of the PAF1 and SWR1 chromatin-modifying complexes. Additionally, AtVOZs were shown to bind the promoter of MOS3/SAR3 and directly regulate expression of this nuclear pore protein, which is known to participate in the regulation of flowering time, suggesting that AtVOZs exert at least some of their flowering regulation by influencing the nuclear pore function. Complementation of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 with AtVOZ2 reversed all double mutant phenotypes, confirming that the observed morphological and molecular changes arise from the absence of functional AtVOZ proteins, and validating the functional redundancy between AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2.

  4. A novel mechanism for direct real-time polymerase chain reaction that does not require DNA isolation from prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki

    2016-06-23

    Typically, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is performed after DNA isolation. Real-time PCR (qPCR), also known as direct qPCR in mammalian cells with weak membranes, is a common technique using crude samples subjected to preliminary boiling to elute DNA. However, applying this methodology to prokaryotic cells, which have solid cell walls, in contrast to mammalian cells which immediately burst in water, can result in poor detection. We successfully achieved PCR elongation with the addition of 1.3 cfu of Cronobacter muytjensii to a newly developed direct qPCR master mix without performing any crude DNA extraction (detection limit of 1.6 × 10(0) cfu/ml for the test sample compared with a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(3) cfu/ml primarily for crude (boiling) or classical DNA isolation). We revealed that the chromosomal DNA retained in prokaryotic cells can function as a PCR template, similarly to the mechanism in in situ PCR. Elucidating this reaction mechanism may contribute to the development of an innovative master mix for direct qPCR to detect genes in a single bacterium with solid cell walls and might lead to numerous novel findings in prokaryotic genomics research.

  5. The circadian clock has transient plasticity of period and is required for timing of nocturnal processes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Dalchau, Neil; Gardner, Michael J; Baek, Seong-Jin; Webb, Alex A R

    2014-01-01

    A circadian rhythm matched to the phase and period of the day-night cycle has measurable benefits for land plants. We assessed the contribution of circadian period to the phasing of cellular events with the light : dark cycle. We also investigated the plasticity of circadian period within the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator. We monitored the circadian oscillator in wild-type and circadian period mutants under light : dark cycles of varying total duration. We also investigated changes in oscillator dynamics during and after the transition from light : dark cycles to free running conditions. Under light : dark cycles, dawn and dusk were anticipated differently when the circadian period was not resonant with the environmental period ('T cycle'). Entrainment to T cycles differing from the free-running period caused a short-term alteration in oscillator period. The transient plasticity of period was described by existing mathematical models of the Arabidopsis circadian network. We conclude that a circadian period resonant with the period of the environment is particularly important for anticipation of dawn and the timing of nocturnal events; and there is short-term and transient plasticity of period of the Arabidopsis circadian network.

  6. Basic training requirements for the use of dental CBCT by dentists: a position paper prepared by the European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Jacobs, R; Levring Jäghagen, E; Lindh, C; Baksi, G; Schulze, D; Schulze, R

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) is a relatively new imaging modality, which is now widely available to dentists for examining hard tissues in the dental and maxillofacial regions. CBCT gives a three-dimensional depiction of anatomy and pathology, which is similar to medical CT and uses doses generally higher than those used in conventional dental imaging. The European Academy of DentoMaxilloFacial Radiology recognizes that dentists receive training in two-dimensional dental imaging as undergraduates, but most of them have received little or no training in the application and interpretation of cross-sectional three-dimensional imaging. This document identifies the roles of dentists involved in the use of CBCT, examines the training requirements for the justification, acquisition and interpretation of CBCT imaging and makes recommendations for further training of dentists in Europe who intend to be involved in any aspect of CBCT imaging. Two levels of training are recognized. Level 1 is intended to train dentists who prescribe CBCT imaging, such that they may request appropriately and understand the resultant reported images. Level 2 is intended to train to a more advanced level and covers the understanding and skills needed to justify, carry out and interpret a CBCT examination. These recommendations are not intended to create specialists in CBCT imaging but to offer guidance on the training of all dentists to enable the safe use of CBCT in the dentoalveolar region.

  7. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  8. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: Investigating the contact time required for the diffusion-controlled monolayer underpotential deposition on impacting nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutress, Ian J.; Rees, Neil V.; Zhou, Yi-Ge; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-09-01

    Recent work on faradaic processes occurring during thermal nanoparticle-electrode collisions contrasts significantly from analogous research using ultrasonically-driven microparticles, where no faradaic signals were found. It is suggested that this might be explained by the differences in both particle size and contact time. To investigate this, we present results from adapted Monte Carlo random walk simulations. Using the underpotential deposition of thallium onto silver nanoparticles as a model system, it is found that an estimated minimum contact time of ca. 10-4 s is required to deposit a complete monolayer (from a 10 mM solution) onto a nanoparticle of radius 45 nm.

  9. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1β Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B Callaway

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is a major global health threat and can lead to life-threatening hemorrhagic complications due to immune activation and cytokine production. Cross-reactive antibodies to an earlier dengue virus infection are a recognized risk factor for severe disease. These antibodies bind heterologous dengue serotypes and enhance infection into Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. One crucial cytokine seen elevated in severe dengue patients is IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine matured by the inflammasome. We used a highly-physiologic system by studying antibody-dependent enhancement of IL-1β in primary human monocytes with anti-dengue human monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients. Antibody-enhancement increased viral replication in primary human monocytes inoculated with supernatant harvested from Vero cells infected with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2 16681. Surprisingly, IL-1β secretion induced by infectious supernatant harvested from two independent Vero cell lines was not enhanced by antibody. Secretion of multiple other inflammatory cytokines was also independent of antibody signaling. However, IL-1β secretion did require NLRP3 and caspase-1 activity. Immunodepletion of dengue virions from the infectious supernatant confirmed that virus was not the main IL-1β-inducing agent, suggesting that a supernatant component(s not associated with the virion induced IL-1β production. We excluded RNA, DNA, contaminating LPS, viral NS1 protein, complement, and cytokines. In contrast, purified Vero-derived DENV-2 16681 exhibited antibody-enhancement of both infection and IL-1β induction. Furthermore, C6/36 mosquito cells did not produce such an inflammatory component, as crude supernatant harvested from insect cells infected with DENV-2 16681 induced antibody-dependent IL-1β secretion. This study indicates that Vero cells infected with DENV-2 16681 may produce inflammatory components

  10. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1β Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Justin B; Smith, Scott A; Widman, Douglas G; McKinnon, Karen P; Scholle, Frank; Sempowski, Gregory D; Dittmer, Dirk P; Crowe, James E; de Silva, Aravinda M; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus is a major global health threat and can lead to life-threatening hemorrhagic complications due to immune activation and cytokine production. Cross-reactive antibodies to an earlier dengue virus infection are a recognized risk factor for severe disease. These antibodies bind heterologous dengue serotypes and enhance infection into Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. One crucial cytokine seen elevated in severe dengue patients is IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine matured by the inflammasome. We used a highly-physiologic system by studying antibody-dependent enhancement of IL-1β in primary human monocytes with anti-dengue human monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients. Antibody-enhancement increased viral replication in primary human monocytes inoculated with supernatant harvested from Vero cells infected with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) 16681. Surprisingly, IL-1β secretion induced by infectious supernatant harvested from two independent Vero cell lines was not enhanced by antibody. Secretion of multiple other inflammatory cytokines was also independent of antibody signaling. However, IL-1β secretion did require NLRP3 and caspase-1 activity. Immunodepletion of dengue virions from the infectious supernatant confirmed that virus was not the main IL-1β-inducing agent, suggesting that a supernatant component(s) not associated with the virion induced IL-1β production. We excluded RNA, DNA, contaminating LPS, viral NS1 protein, complement, and cytokines. In contrast, purified Vero-derived DENV-2 16681 exhibited antibody-enhancement of both infection and IL-1β induction. Furthermore, C6/36 mosquito cells did not produce such an inflammatory component, as crude supernatant harvested from insect cells infected with DENV-2 16681 induced antibody-dependent IL-1β secretion. This study indicates that Vero cells infected with DENV-2 16681 may produce inflammatory components during dengue virus

  11. No Superiority of Treatment With Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery System-Methylphenidate Over Short/Medium-Acting Methylphenidate Preparations in the Rate and Timing of Injuries in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Kodesh, Arad; Weizman, Abraham

    Methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to reduce the risk for injuries. In the present study, the rate and timing of injuries were compared among the various MPH preparations (4 and 6-8 vs 12 hour-acting) in children with ADHD. This real-world retrospective study covered the years 2011 to 2013. Participants included 2042 youngsters (aged 4-18 years, 13.01 ± 3.2 years; 71.8% males and 28.2% females) diagnosed with ADHD according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria and treated with various MPH preparations. They were divided into 2 groups by their treatment preparation as follows: MPH-immediate release (MPH-IR)-4 hour-acting pooled with MPH-slow release/long-acting (MPH-SR/LA)- 6 to 8 hour-acting versus osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system-MPH (OROS-MPH; Concerta)-12 hour-acting that consisted of pooling of OROS-MPH only and OROS-MPH combined with the other MPH preparations. The monthly rates of injury, specifically, late injury (occurrence between 4:00 p.m. to midnight) and for multiple injuries, the time interval between injuries, were assessed. No significant differences in monthly rate of nonfatal injuries were found between OROS-MPH with or without 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-formulations versus only 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-preparations (P = 0.53). Neither were differences found in the between-injury time interval (P = 0.83) or in late-injury-rates (P = 0.37) between those groups. This real-world-naturalistic study in the community demonstrates that, in ADHD pediatric populations, OROS-MPH preparation is not superior to short/medium-acting (4/6-8 hours) MPH preparations regarding the rate and timing of injuries.

  12. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  13. Batch and continuous flow preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines under microwave heating and simultaneous real-time monitoring by Raman spectroscopy. An exploratory study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiaens, Sylvain; Vantyghem, Xavier; Radoiu, Marilena; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem's...

  14. A Natural Experiment on the Effect of Time Given for Quizzes on Veterinary Student Performance in a Required Principles of Anesthesia Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H

    2017-09-08

    Assessments can cause significant distress in veterinary students and are listed as some of the greatest causes of academic stress. The purpose of this natural experiment was to determine if there is a relationship between amount of time given to complete quizzes and the students' score on the quiz. The Principles of Anesthesia course is required of all students. Quizzes are administered at the start of a class period and spaced throughout the course to cover 2-4 lectures per quiz. Once the allotted time has passed (3-6 minutes), students are notified they have 2 minutes to return the quiz to the instructor. To complete the quiz, students had 3 minutes in 2012 and 2013, 4 minutes in 2014, 5 minutes in 2015, and 6 minutes in 2016. The average quiz score was significantly lower with 3 minutes than with 4 or 6 minutes. Students in the bottom quartile scored significantly higher with 4, 5, or 6 minutes than with 3 minutes. Students in the upper quartile scored significantly higher with 4 minutes than with 3 minutes and with 4 minutes than with 5 minutes. The time provided for students to complete a free-response quiz was not associated with student performance once a certain minimum time (4 minutes) was provided. Providing students an appropriate, but not excessive, amount of time to complete assessments will allow for appropriately applied assessments and preserve time dedicated to instruction.

  15. So much to do, so little time. To accomplish the mandatory initiatives of ARRA, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has set forth legislation for the healthcare community to achieve adoption of electronic health records (EHR), as well as form data standards, health information exchanges (HIE) and compliance with more stringent security and privacy controls under the HITECH Act. While the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONCHIT) works on the definition of both "meaningful use" and "certification" of information technology systems, providers in particular must move forward with their IT initiatives to achieve the basic requirements for Medicare and Medicaid incentives starting in 2011, and avoid penalties that will reduce reimbursement beginning in 2015. In addition, providers, payors, government and non-government stakeholders will all have to balance the implementation of EHRs, working with HIEs, at the same time that they must upgrade their systems to be in compliance with ICD-10 and HIPAA 5010 code sets. Compliance deadlines for EHRs and HIEs begin in 2011, while ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure code sets compliance is required by October 2013 and HIPAA 5010 transaction sets, with one exception, is required by January 1, 2012. In order to accomplish these strategic and mandatory initiatives successfully and simultaneously, healthcare organizations will require significant and thoughtful planning, prioritization and execution.

  16. 关于年度财务决算管理要求及报表编制问题理解%Understanding of Management Requirements on Annual Financial Accounts and Statement Preparation Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君燕

    2014-01-01

    作为集团公司每年要求各部及子公司对本年度各项任务指标完成情况进行分析说明,出具决算报表。通过对财务预算到财务决算的编制及执行,就年度财务决算管理的标准、要求,财务报表编制的涵盖内容及相关主要指标的理解与大家进行分享。%As a group company, it asks departments and subsidiaries to analyze the completion situation of the tasks in the year and issue final statements. Through the preparation and execution of financial budget and the financial accounts, the author shows her understanding on the standard and requirements of annual financial accounts management, the covering content and key indicators of the financial statement preparation to share with others.

  17. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  18. The Effect of Time Intervals on Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface during Preparation of a Titanium Abutment: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoofi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Thermal injury during dental implant placement and restoration is a clinical concern as it may cause bone damage and compromise osseointegration. The threshold level for heat-induced cortical bone necrosis is 47°C for 60 seconds. Objectives: To measure the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when a two-piece or one-piece abutment was prepared in vertical and horizontal direction using various time intervals. Materials and Methods: Three groups of samples (n = 24, one-piece and two-piece implant and natural teeth, were used in this study to compare the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface. This study used cooling system in the 10, 20, 30, and 60 seconds time intervals. The Thermocouples (K type were attached to each sample at the crestal, middle and apical points. To have a similar condition with the oral cavity, each implant was embedded separately in transparent acrylic resin in a 37°C water bath. To have a constant cutting pressure, the turbine was fixed on the stable stand and a 100 g counterweight hanged to it. Then, the bath was fixed in front of it and cutting started at vertical and horizontal directions for 10, 20, 30, 60 seconds. Results: The maximum decrease from 37°C was observed in two-piece implant at the apical point (3.95°C after 60 seconds and the minimum decrease was seen in one-piece implant at the crestal point (0.6°C after 60 seconds. Also the minimum increase was observed in the natural teeth at the apical point (0.15°C at 10 seconds and the maximum temperature increase was seen in one-piece implant at the apical point (1.95°C at 20 seconds. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that to reduce the thermal damage on the bone tissue, an intermittent cut up to 20 seconds is acceptable. Cutting one-piece implant caused more heat transfer than that of two-piece implant

  19. The use of a prospective audit proforma to improve door-to-mask times for acute exacerbations chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Howes, T Q; Parker, M; Roberts, C M

    2014-12-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an evidence based management of acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD. Previous national and international audits of clinical practice have shown variation against guideline standards with significant delays in initiating NIV. We aimed to map the clinical pathway to better understand delays and reduce the door-to-NIV time to less than 3 hours for all patients with acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD requiring this intervention, by mandating the use of a guideline based educational management proforma.The proforma was introduced at 7 acute hospitals in North London and Essex and initiated at admission of the patient. It was used to record the clinical pathway and patient outcomes until the point of discharge or death. Data for 138 patients were collected. 48% of patients commenced NIV within 3 hours with no reduction in door-to-mask time during the study period. Delays in starting NIV were due to: time taken for review by the medical team (101 minutes) and time taken for NIV to be started once a decision had been made (49 minutes). There were significant differences in door-to-NIV decision and mask times between differing respiratory on-call systems, p < 0.05). The introduction of the proforma had no effect on door-to-mask times over the study period. Main reasons for delay were related to timely access to medical staff and to NIV equipment; however, a marked variation in practice within these hospitals was been noted, with a 9-5 respiratory on-call system associated with shorter NIV initiation times.

  20. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemica...

  1. Large, but not small, antigens require time- and temperature-dependent processing in accessory cells before they can be recognized by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    of antigen presentation we used the proliferative response of appropriately primed T cells during a co-culture with the paraformaldehyde-fixed and antigen-exposed presenting cells. We demonstrate that the large synthetic polypeptide antigen, dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine, requires processing. After an initial...... time-lag of 30 min this antigen is fully processed within 2 to 4 of culture at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the immunogenic heptapeptide, angiotensin III, can be presented by pre-fixed accessory cells, viz. without any prior processing. Antigen processing was found to be temperature...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Nursing Manpower Requirements: Traditional Staffing Methodology versus Patient Classification System at Madigan Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    intake monitoring more often than TID. CODE (B) Patient requires assistance at mealtime for prepar- ation of food (cutting meat, opening containers...CARE - Time spent in the presence of the patient and/or family ; preparation and tear-down time for direct care tasks are in- cluded since these times

  3. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Mosharrafian; Hossein Afshar; Maryam Farbod; Zahra Baniameri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds.Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was u...

  4. Small Body GN&C Research Report: A Guidance and Control Technique for Small-Body Proximity Operations with Guaranteed Guidance Resolvability and Required Thruster Silent Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet

    2005-01-01

    The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.

  5. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  6. Automated sample preparation for CE-SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M Eleanor; Vizel, Alona; Hutterer, Katariina M

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, CE with SDS (CE-SDS) places many restrictions on sample composition. Requirements include low salt content, known initial sample concentration, and a narrow window of final sample concentration. As these restrictions require buffer exchange for many sample types, sample preparation is often tedious and yields poor sample recoveries. To improve capacity and streamline sample preparation, an automated robotic platform was developed using the PhyNexus Micro-Extractor Automated Instrument (MEA) for both the reduced and nonreduced CE-SDS assays. This automated sample preparation normalizes sample concentration, removes salts and other contaminants, and adds the required CE-SDS reagents, essentially eliminating manual steps during sample preparation. Fc-fusion proteins and monoclonal antibodies were used in this work to demonstrate benefits of this approach when compared to the manual method. With optimized conditions, this application has demonstrated decreased analyst "hands on" time and reduced total assay time. Sample recovery greater than 90% can be achieved, regardless of initial composition and concentration of analyte.

  7. Comparison of the time required to create secondary fracture of separated file fragments by using ultrasonic vibration under various canal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Yoshitsugu; O'Leary, Le; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    Nickel-titanium files often separate because of mechanical fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine safe preparation techniques for separated file removal by using ultrasonics. Fifty nickel-titanium file fragments were divided into 5 groups. An ultrasonic tip was activated on a file fragment positioned between dentin blocks simulating several canal conditions: Group 1 consisted of the fragment protruding from a pair of straight dentin blocks. For group 2, the fragment was also positioned between 2 straight dentin blocks except one block was positioned 1 mm more apically than the other block, simulating a troughed area that is often created during file removal attempts. For groups 3-5, the fragment was positioned similarly as group 2 but between blocks with 30°, 45°, and 60° curvatures, respectively. The time it took for secondary fracture to occur was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. Fragments with dentin wall supporting on the opposite side of ultrasonic activation site resisted fracture significantly longer than those without it. Fragments in 30° and 45° curved blocks took significantly longer to fracture than the other groups (Fisher protected least significant difference, P ultrasonic tip was applied to the inner curvature of the canal. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Uniform requirements are instructions to authors on how to prepare manuscripts.If authors prepare their manuscripts in the style specified in these requirements, editors of the participating journals will not return the manuscripts for changes in style before considering them for publication.In the publishing process, however, the journals may alter accepted manuscripts to conform with details of their publication styles.

  9. The cell cycle timing of centromeric chromatin assembly in Drosophila meiosis is distinct from mitosis yet requires CAL1 and CENP-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Elaine M; Beier, Nicole L; Gorgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V; Karpen, Gary H

    2012-01-01

    CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote.

  10. The cell cycle timing of centromeric chromatin assembly in Drosophila meiosis is distinct from mitosis yet requires CAL1 and CENP-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M Dunleavy

    Full Text Available CENP-A (CID in flies is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote.

  11. The Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Assembly in Drosophila Meiosis Is Distinct from Mitosis Yet Requires CAL1 and CENP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote. PMID:23300382

  12. Army Materiel Requirements to Support the Continental United States Military Mobilization Base Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Level of Organization AMC ............... Army Materiel Command AMOPS ............. Army Mobilization and Operations Planning System AMPC ...Military Personnel Center ( AMPC ) uses an automated mobilization manpower (MOB MAN) requirements data manipulator system to prepare time- phased

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of hemodilution on kaolin-based activated clotting time predicted heparin requirement using a heparin dose-response technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Junko; Hagihira, Satoshi; Mori, Testu; Kodaka, Mitsuharu; Nishiyama, Keiko; Ozaki, Makoto; Komori, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    The heparin dose-response (HDR) technique is based on activated clotting time (ACT) response to a fixed-dose heparin bolus, which varies substantially among patients. It is unclear, however, whether hemodilution-associated reductions in coagulation and anticoagulation factors affect the HDR slope. For in vitro hemodilution, aliquots of whole blood from healthy volunteers were diluted 9:1 and 8:2 v/v with normal saline. For in vivo hemodilution, a prospective observational study was performed on 46 patients who underwent elective cardiovascular surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. HDR slope, antithrombin (AT) activity, complete blood count, and other coagulation parameters were compared after induction of anesthesia and after hemodilution with 500 ml of intravenous fluid. In vitro 10 and 20 % hemodilution significantly increased the HDR slope relative to baseline, reducing the heparin requirement. Hemodilution of heparinized samples significantly prolonged ACT, whereas there was no significant change in non-heparinized blood. The percent changes in fibrinogen and AT activity were significantly greater at 20 % than those of the other coagulation variables. In vivo, hemodilution significantly increased the HDR slope and reduced heparin requirement. The percent change in fibrinogen due to hemodilution was significantly greater than the change in AT activity. Target ACTs of 300 and 450 s were not achieved in 83.3 and 53.8 % of patients, respectively. In vitro and in vivo hemodilution significantly increased the HDR slope and reduced the requirement for heparin. In vitro, the HDR slope did not change in parallel but became steeper, depending on the degree of hemodilution.

  14. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures.

  15. Improvement of availability of PWR nuclear plants through the reduction of the time required for refueling/maintenance outages, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The objective of this project is to identify improvements in procedures and equipment which will reduce the time required for refueling/maintenance outages at PWR nuclear power plants. The outage of Commonwealth Edison Zion Station Unit 1 in March through May of 1976 was evaluated to identify those items which caused delays and those work activities that offer the potential for significant improvements toward reducing its overall duration. Thus, the plant's availability for power production would be increased. Revisions in procedures and some equipment modifications were implemented and evaluated during the Zion Unit 2 refueling/maintenance outage beginning in January 1977. Analysis of the observed data has identified benefits available through improved refueling equipment and also areas where additional new, innovative refueling, or refueling-related equipment should be beneficial. A number of specific design concepts are recommended as a result of Phase 1. In addition, a new master planning mechanism is described for implementation during subsequent planned outages at Zion Station. This final report describes the recommended conceptual designs and planning mechanism and assesses their impact upon future outages. Their effect on savings in refueling time, labor, and radiation exposure is discussed. The estimated economic payoff for these concepts was found to be of such significance that an additional phase of the program is warranted. During this extended phase, a more detailed engineering study should be undertaken to determine the cost of implementation along with more specific estimates of the benefits for PWR plants already in operation or under construction.

  16. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  17. Integrated Work Management: Preparer, Course 31883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The preparer (also called the “planner”) plays a key role in the integrated work management (IWM) process at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Integrated Work Management: Preparer (COURSE 31883), describes the IWM roles and responsibilities of the preparer. This course also discusses IWM requirements that must be met by the preparer.

  18. The large observatories maintenance management: tools and strategies for maintenance manuals preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, F.; Pozzobon, M.; Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Giacomel, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large Observatories require enormous efforts in preparing the Maintenance Manuals. The possibility to adopt a standardised system, associated to centralized data base and software tools is investigated. This strategy implies a revolution of Maintenance Manuals: from information collection (paper-based), to a modular approach where data modules are used. The initial efforts associated to data modules preparation is compensated by several benefits (time savings for end-users, reduced training requirements, reduced equipment down-time). Moreover, cost savings in the preparation process, even for different equipment, is also possible. Finally, this standardised strategy will assure compatibility between different programs or partners.

  19. Effect of the annealing and the spraying time on the properties of CZTS thin films prepared by the "Spray sandwich" technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubi, S.; Bitri, N.; Bouzouita, H.; Abaab, M.; Ly, I.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated synthesis conditions and some properties of sprayed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films to determine the best preparation conditions for the realization of CZTS-based photovoltaic solar cells. The thin films are made by means of spraying sandwich. To optimize the preparation conditions of the CZTS films, two series of experiments are performed. In the first series, the sprayed duration was changed from 20 to 60 min. In each series, effect annealing was investigated. The X-ray diffraction shows, on one hand, that the best crystalline was obtained after annealing for 60 min as sprayed duration. On the other hand, these CZTS films exhibit the Kesterite structure with preferential orientation along the [112] direction. Raman spectrum indicated the presence of principal Stannite peak 336 cm-1. SEM showed that the surface of CZTS was uniform. After the annealing treatment, we estimated the optical band-gap energy of the CZTS thin film exhibiting the best crystalline as 1.5 eV which is quite close to the optimum value for a solar cell.

  20. 番茄叶片基因组DNA快速制备技术及其在基于实时荧光定量PCR的转基因检测中的应用%Techniques for rapid preparation of tomato leaf DNA and its application in real-time quantitative PCR-based transgene detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟; 朱长青; 刘小花; 陈昆松; 徐昌杰

    2011-01-01

    Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Cv. Micro-Tom) leaf as material, a simple and rapid DNA preparation protocol was established. This method required only 2-20 mm2 leaf with only one extraction solution and involved one pipetation and one centrifugation each. No precipitation was required. The suitable volume of prepared DNA solution, as PCR template, for real-time quantitative PCR was determined to be 0.1-0.2 μL in 12.5 μL final reaction volume. The excessive template DNA solution was confirmed to reduce PCR efficiency and even can result in PCR failure. This technique for rapid preparation of DNA and a compatible real-time quantitative PCR were successfully applied in transgene detection of tomato plants.%以番茄(Solanum lycopersicumL.cv.Micro-Tom)叶片为试材,建立了一种简便快速制备叶片基因组DNA的方法.2~20 mm2的叶片即可满足制备要求,制备过程只需一种提取试剂、只涉及1次移液和1次离心操作,不涉及沉淀.确定了所制备的DNA用于实时荧光定量PCR的合适用量为0.1~0.2 μL(反应总体积为12.5 μL),发现过量模板的使用可降低PCR效率且可导致扩增失败.该项DNA快速制备及相适应的实时荧光定量PCR技术已成功应用于番茄转基因植株检测.

  1. Bioactivity-based ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for NF-κB inhibitors identification in Chinese Medicinal Preparation Bufei Granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingxin, Cui; Min, Fu; Mengge, Zhou; Nianwei, Chang; Ye, Pan; Min, Jiang; Zengtao, Sun; Gang, Bai

    2016-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations have become effective treatments for many diseases. However, their active ingredients are still uncertain and difficult to identify. In this study, we propose a strategy that integrates ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) and bioactive (NF-κB inhibitor) luciferase reporter assay systems for the rapid determination of various anti-inflammatory compounds of TCM preparations. In this way, Bufei Granule (BFG), a TCM preparation used for the clinical therapy of asthma, was analyzed by the two ways of component identification and activity detection. Potential anti-inflammatory constituents were screened by NF-κB activity assay systems and simultaneously identified according to the mass spectrometry data. Three structural types of NF-κB inhibitors (caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids and Pentacyclic triterpenes) were characterized. Further cytokine detection confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of the potential NF-κB inhibitors. Compared with conventional chromatographic separation and inhibitory activity detection, integrating UPLC/Q-TOF-MS identification and virtual validation was more convenient and more reliable. This strategy clearly demonstrates that MS data-based fingerprinting is a meaningful tool not only in identifying constituents in complex matrix but also in directly screening for powerful trace ingredients in TCM preparations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Professional preparation in physical education: changing labor market and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Tani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.

  3. Requirements for the register of physical persons for the preparation, use and handling radioactive sources; Requisitos para o registro de pessoas fisicas para o preparo, uso e manuseio de fontes radioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-15

    This norm establishes the process for register of superior level profession nals enabled to the preparation, using, and handling of radioactive sources. This norm applies to the physical persons candidates applying to the register for preparation, use and handling of radioactive sources in radioactive installations at the industry, agriculture, teaching and researching.

  4. Design Automation Systems for Production Preparation : Applied on the Rotary Draw Bending Process

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Intensive competition on the global market puts great pressure on manufacturing companies to develop and produce products that meet requirements from customers and investors. One key factor in meeting these requirements is the efficiency of the product development and the production preparation process. Design automation is a powerful tool to increase efficiency in these two processes. The benefits of automating the production preparation process are shortened led-time, improved product perfo...

  5. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations

  6. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  7. Preparation of a Microbial Time-temperature Indicator by Using the Vegetative Form of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for Monitoring the Quality of Chilled Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shahrokh Esfahani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Time-temperature indicators are used in smart packaging, and described as intelligent tools attached to the label of food products to monitor their timetemperature history. Since the previous studies on microbial time-temperature indicators were only based on pH-dependent changes, and they were long-time response indicators, in the present work, a new microbial time-temperature indicator was designed by using the alpha amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens vegetative cells.Material and Methods: The designed time-temperature indicator system consists of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, specific substrate medium and iodine reagent. The relation of the timetemperatureindicator’ response to the growth and metabolic activity (starch consumption and production of reduced sugars of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the time-temperature indicator was considered at 8 and 28˚C. Finally, in order to adjust time-temperature indicator endpoint, the effect of the inoculum level was investigated at 8ºC.Results and Conclusion: In the designed system, a color change of an iodine reagent to yellow progressively occurs due to the starch hydrolysis. The effect of the inoculum level showed the negative linear relationship between the levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculated in the medium and the endpoints of the time-temperature indicators. The endpoints were adjusted to 156, 72 and 36 hours at the inoculum levels of 102, 104 and 106 CFU ml-1, respectively. The main advantages of the time-temperature indicator is low cost and application for monitoring the quality of chilled food products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  8. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  9. Culture conditions and sample preparation methods affect spectrum quality and reproducibility during profiling of Staphylococcus aureus with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J E; Zhang, L; Borror, C M; Rago, J V; Sandrin, T R

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a promising tool to rapidly characterize Staphylococcus aureus. Different protocols have been employed, but effects of experimental factors, such as culture condition and sample preparation, on spectrum quality and reproducibility have not been rigorously examined. We applied MALDI-TOF MS to characterize a model system consisting of five methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MRSA) under two culture conditions (agar and broth) and using two sample preparation methods [intact cell method and protein extraction method (PEM)]. The effects of these treatments on spectrum quality and reproducibility were quantified. PEM facilitated increases in the number of peaks and mass range width. Broth cultures further improved spectrum quality in terms of increasing the number of peaks. In addition, PEM increased reproducibility in samples prepared using identical culture conditions. MALDI imaging data suggested that the improvement in reproducibility may result from a more homogeneous distribution of sample associated with the broth/PEM treatment. Broth/PEM treatment also yielded the highest rate (96%) of correct classification for MRSA. Taken together, these results suggest that broth/PEM maximizes the performance of MALDI-TOF MS to characterize S. aureus. Two culture conditions (agar or broth) and two sample preparation methods (intact cell or protein extraction) were evaluated for their effects on profiling of Staphylococcus aureus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicated that MALDI-enabled profiling of S. aureus is most effective when cultures are grown in broth and processed using a protein extraction-based approach. These findings should enhance future efforts to maximize the performance of this approach to characterize strains of S. aureus. © 2013

  10. Impact of a program combining pre-authorization requirement and post-prescription review of carbapenems: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, T; De Pontfarcy, A; Emirian, A; About, F; Berdougo, B; Brun-Buisson, C; Lesprit, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact on carbapenems use of a program combining pre-authorization requirement and systematic post-prescription review of carbapenems prescriptions. The program was implemented in a 1,230-bed teaching tertiary hospital. Monthly carbapenems consumption was analyzed using a controlled interrupted time-series method and compared to that of vancomycin before and after implementation of the intervention. Compared to the pre-intervention period (14 monthly points), a significant and sustained decrease of carbapenems consumption [1.66 defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 patient-days; p = 0.048] was observed during the intervention period (12 monthly points), despite an increasing trend in incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) isolates (0.02/1,000 patient-days per month; p = 0.093). As expected, vancomycin consumption was unaffected by the intervention. A total of 337 prescriptions were reviewed in the intervention period; most were microbiologically documented (81.3%; ESBL-PE: 39.2%). Three of four (76.6%) carbapenems prescriptions were modified within a median [interquartile range] of 2 [1; 4] days, either after infectious disease physician (IDP) advice (48.4%) or by ward physicians (28.2%). Most changes included de-escalating (52.2%) or reducing the planned duration (22.2%), which resulted in a median duration of treatment of only 3 [2; 7] days. The median length of stay and mortality rate were not influenced by the intervention. This reasonably practicable antimicrobial stewardship program including controlled delivery and systematic reevaluation of carbapenems prescriptions was able to reduce their use in our hospital, despite a rising ESBL-PE incidence.

  11. Structural properties of intrinsic and doped nc-Si:H films prepared by RFMS: Study as function of deposition time and substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfedal, A.; Bouizem, Y.; Benlakehal, D.; Sib, J.D.; Kebab, A.; Chahed, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Materiaux pour l' Electronique Universite d' Oran (Algeria); Baghdad, R. [Laboratoire de Genie Physique, Universite Ibn Khaldoun, Tiaret (Algeria); Zellama, K. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the structural properties of the intrinsic and the (n or p) doped nc-Si:H samples deposited by RFMS technique during different deposition times (3 and 30 minutes) at low growth temperatures (room temperature and 100 C) under the same experimental conditions of the plasma leading to optimized films. Our results clearly show that the crystallization occurs in the doped films during the first times of the growth, while it is not yet initiated for the intrinsic films in the same plasma conditions. The crystallization is more important in the p doped samples, and is not achieved during the first times of the growth. The thick films are more crystallized even the low growth temperatures and contain low quantity of hydrogen than the thin ones. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Study on characteristics of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction with different adsorption times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myeong-Soo; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were adsorbed on a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoporous film by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different adsorption times to study the influences of different SILAR adsorption times on CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The optical properties of CdS sensitized TiO2 films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The particle size of the CdS QDs was approximated using the effective mass approximation theory from the absorbance spectra. The photovoltaic characteristics of the CdS QDSCs were analyzed by I- V characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under air mass 1.5 illumination. As a result, the particle size of the CdS QDs became larger and light harvesting was enhanced with increasing SILAR adsorption time. The maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the CdS QDSCs (1.86%) was obtained at the SILAR adsorption time of 30 min with the highest short circuit current density and lowest charge transfer resistance.

  13. Effects of Reaction Time on Preparation Technology of Compound Borax Solution%反应时间对复方硼砂溶液制备工艺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮英; 蒋磊; 林伊梅; 李宏智

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reaction time of Compound borax solution during preparation process. METHODS: According to preparation technology of Compound borax solution, the content change of 3 components, ie. Dicarbonate, phenol and borax in solution A and solution B were investigated after 0, 30, 35, 45, 60, 120, 150, 180, 240, 270, 720 and 1 440 min. The reaction time was determined and preparation technology was validated. RESULTS: The contents of 3 components in samples had no significant difference before and after the reaction time of 240 to 1 440 min at 25 ℃. In validation test, the contents of components in 3 batches of samples were in line with the standard. CONCLUSION: For the preparation of Compound borax solution, the reaction time of solution A and B is 240 min probably.%目的:确定复方硼砂溶液制备过程中的反应时间.方法:按照复方硼砂溶液的制备工艺,分别考察A液与B液室温下混合反应不同时间(0、30、35、45、60、120、150、180、240、270、720、1 440 min)后制备的样品中的3组分即碳酸氢钠、苯酚和硼砂含量的变化,确定完成反应的时间并进行工艺验证.结果:室温25℃下反应240~1 440 min内的样品中3组分的含量前后比较均无显著性差异,工艺验证中3批样品中各组分含量均符合规定.结论:复方硼砂溶液制备中A液与B液反应时间以240 min为宜.

  14. Effect of oxidation time on the microstructure and properties of ceramic coatings prepared by microarc oxidation on 7A04 superhard aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Chen, Hui; Miao, Jingguo; Du, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Under the sodium aluminates’ system, microarc oxidation treatment was conducted on the superhard aluminum alloy 7A04 for different times. The microstructure of microarc oxidation ceramic layer was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of different oxidation times on the adhesion strength of ceramic layer and substrate, the morphology of surface and cross-section, the phase composition and the electrochemical properties were studied. The results indicated that the connection of the coating and substrate appears to be metallurgical bonding and dense ceramic layer, and the surface is in a “volcanic vent” morphology, which is composed of γ-Al2O3 and little α-Al2O3. The corrosion resistance of ceramic layer is improved significantly in contrast with that of the substrate.

  15. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim when...

  17. Effect of Prolonged Preparation time on the Quality of Fresh Frozen Plasma and cold Precipitation%延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆和冷沉淀质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study and analysis to extend the time of preparation of impact on the quality of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Methods To collect fresh frozen plasma,a total of 40 doses,prep-aration time is 6 h,8 h,10 h and 12 h,its average can be divided into control group and observation group, control group of fresh frozen plasma preparation time for 10 h and 12 h,the preparation of fresh frozen plasma in the observation group for 6 h and 8 h,tome of quick-freezing machine should be used in two groups was car-ried out on the preparation of fresh frozen plasma quick-frozen,precipitation and the cold fresh frozen plasma preparation,detection of two groups of fresh frozen plasma clotting factorⅧcontent,and fibrinogen in cryoⅧcontent and blood coagulation factors. Results Observation group of fresh frozen plasma coagulation factorⅧcontent,as well as cold precipitation of clotting factor Ⅷ content were higher than control group( P 0. 05). Conclusion To extend the time of preparation of fresh frozen plasma clotting factor Ⅷ content has great influence,while the impact on the content of fibrinogen.%目的:研究和分析延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆和冷沉淀质量的影响。方法收集新鲜冰冻血浆共40人份,制备的时间分别是6 h、8 h、10 h和12 h,将其平均分为对照组和观察组,对照组中的新鲜冰冻血浆的制备时间为10 h和12 h,观察组中的新鲜冰冻血浆的制备时间为6 h和8 h,两组均使用多美达速冻机对制备的新鲜冰冻血浆进行速冻,并用新鲜冰冻血浆进行冷沉淀的制备,检测两组新鲜冰冻血浆的凝血因子Ⅷ的含量,以及冷沉淀中纤维蛋白原和凝血因子Ⅷ的含量。结果观察组新鲜冰冻血浆的凝血因子Ⅷ含量,以及冷沉淀中的凝血因子Ⅷ的含量均高于对照组( P0.05)。结论延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子Ⅷ含量有着很大影响,而对纤维蛋白原的含量的影响则不大。

  18. Preparation of pH-time dependent colon-targeted tablet of Combretastatin A4 phosphate%pH敏感时滞型Combretastatin A4磷酸酯二钠结肠定位片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇; 李佳; 夏枚; 高敬轩; 贺英菊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To prepare the pH-time dependent Colon-targeted tablet of Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P-CT).METHODS The time layer was prepared with a certain percent of EC and PEG6000 by direct compression.The pH sensitive layer was prepared with Eudragit Ⅱ and Eudragit Ⅲ by sparying coating technique.RESULTS The drug in the core tablets with time layer did not release until 4 hours in the small intestine medium when the proportion of EC and PEG-6000 was 8 ∶ 1 and hardness ofthe tablets was 14.340 kg·cm-1.The release was not influenced by gastric emptying when the pH-sensitive layer was weighted at 5%.CONCLUSION The pH-time dependent Colon-targeted tablets can achieve expected effect of positioning release in the colon through regulating the proportion of EC and PEG-6000,the hardness of the tablets with time layer and the coating thickness of pH-sensitive layer.%目的 制备pH敏感时滞型CA4P结肠靶向片(CA4P-CT).方法 以一定比例的EC和PEG6000为时滞型材料,采用压制包衣法制备时滞层,以肠溶丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ、Ⅲ为pH敏感层材料,采用喷雾包衣法制备pH敏感层.结果 当ECPEG6000(8∶1)、压制包衣后片子硬度为14.340 kg·cm-1时,时滞层可控制药物在人工肠液中4h后释药;pH敏感层增重5%,可保证靶向片的时滞不受胃排空的影响.结论 通过调整时滞层材料比例、压制包衣片硬度及肠溶层包衣厚度,包衣片可基本达到结肠定位释药的预期效果.

  19. Allele-specific real-time PCR testing for minor HIV-1 drug resistance mutations: assay preparation and application to reveal dynamic of mutations in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dong-xing; LI Jing-yun; LI Han-ping; LI Lin; ZHUANG Dao-min; JIAO Li-yan; WANG Zheng; BAO Zuo-yi; LIU Si-yang; LIU Yong-jian

    2010-01-01

    Background It is very important for the clinical management to test for minor HIV-1 resistance mutations accurately and sensitively. The conventional genotypic assays of HIV drug resistance detection based on sequencing can only discriminate the mutations which present in more than 20%-30%. The aim of this study was to evaluate allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) to detect the resistance-related mutations located at positions 103, 184 and 215.Methods We developed the allele-specific PCR assay, using the most common drug resistance mutations in Chinese AIDS patients, K103N, M184V/I, T215F/Y as a model system. The standards were constructed by cloning the wild-type and mutant DNA fragments into the T-vector. We designed specific primers to discriminate mutant templates in the real-time PCR using SYBR green as a fluorescence reporter. And then we evaluated the ASPCR assay and tested 140clinical samples using this method.Results The sensitivities of ASPCR assay were 0.04% for K103N, 0.30% for M1841, 0.40% for M184V, 0.03% for T215F and 0.02% for T215Y. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 0.42. One hundred and forty plasma samples were tested by ASPCR and dynamic resistance curves of ten patients were obtained.Conclusions Drug resistance emerged half a year after the start of antiretroviral therapy. The mutation of T215Yemerged 1 to 1.5 years after starting treatment and then increased rapidly. The ASPCR assay we developed was a sensitive, accurate and rapid method to detect the minor HIV-1 variants and it can provide earlier and more drug-resistance information for HIV research and AIDS antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Alternative sample preparation methods for MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.B.; Buchanan, M.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Czartoski, T.J. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI), sample preparation has been a limiting step in the applicability of this important technique for mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. A number of variations on the original sample preparation method for have been described. The {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} method of MALDI sample preparation requires mixing a solution containing the analyte and a large excess of matrix, and allowing a small volume of this solution to dry on a probe tip before insertion into the mass spectrometer. The resulting sample can fairly inhomogeneous. As a result, the process of aiming the desorption laser at a favorable spot on the dried sample can be tedious and time-consuming. The authors are evaluating several approaches to MALDI sample preparation, with the goal of developing a faster and more reproducible method.

  1. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  2. Time and frequency requirement for the earth and ocean physics applications program. [characteristics and orbital mechanics of artificial satellites for data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of time and frequency standards to the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program (EOPAP) is discussed. The goals and experiments of the EOPAP are described. Methods for obtaining frequency stability and time synchronization are analyzed. The orbits, trajectories, and characteristics of the satellites used in the program are reported.

  3. Deterministic joint remote state preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Nguyen Ba, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bich, Cao Thi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, University of Education No. 1, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Don, Nung Van [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-09-26

    We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared. -- Highlights: → Deterministic joint remote state preparation via EPR pairs is proposed. → Both general single- and two-qubit states are studied. → Differently from all existing protocols, in ours the receiver participates actively. → This is for the first time such a strategy is adopted.

  4. Required time delay from 99mTc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Gerda; de Nijs, Robin; Hogh-Rasmussen, Esben;

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min....

  5. Timed conditional null of connexin26 in mice reveals temporary requirements of connexin26 in key cochlear developmental events before the onset of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Tang, Wenxue; Kim, Yeunjung; Lin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the Gjb2 gene, which encodes a gap junction protein connexin26 (Cx26), are the most prevalent form of hereditary deafness in humans and represent about half of non-syndromic congenital deafness cases in many ethnic populations. Cochlear potassium (K+) recycling in mature cochlea is required for normal hearing. It is thought that gap junctions are essential for K+ recycling and that Gjb2 mutations cause Gjb2-associated deafness by disrupting K+ recycling in mature cochlea. Here we present evidence showing that Gjb2 is required for normal development of the neonatal organ of Corti prior to the onset of the hearing in mice. In the conditional Gjb2 null (cCx26 null) mice, ribbon synapses in inner hair cells remained poorly developed, the afferent type I fibers failed to finish the refinement process to form convergent innervation to individual inner hair cells. The spontaneous depolarizing activities in the supporting cells, which normally diminish in the wild type cochleae after postnatal day 8 (P8), remained strong in the cochlea after P8 in the mutant mice. Furthermore, the deafness phenotype was readily generated only if the Cx26 expression in the organ of Corti was significantly reduced before P6. Similar amount of Cx26 reduction in more mature cochleae had a much weaker effect in damaging the hearing sensitivity. Our findings indicated that Cx26 plays essential roles in the maturation process of the organ of Corti prior to the establishment of high K+ in the endolymph and the onset of hearing. These results suggest that successful treatment of Cx26 deafness requires early intervention before the cochlea fully matures.

  6. New experiences on the time required for the appearance of fluoric cachexia in the guinea pig following ingestion of various fluorine salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H.; Chausse, P.

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the time it took guinea pigs to develop cachexia after being given sodium fluosilicate or sodium fluoride. Results indicate that a dose-response relationship existed following the ingestion of the fluorine salts in relation to the time it took to produce cachexia. In addition, sodium fluosilicate was found to be more toxic than sodium fluoride. In guinea pigs which were given approximately 1/30 to 1/36 of the lethal dose, cachexia was produced from 44 to 70 days later. In guinea pigs given even smaller doses, cachexia did not appear for one to two years.

  7. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  8. Remote preparation of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C H; Leung, D W; Shor, P W; Winter, A; Bennett, Charles H; Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie W.; Shor, Peter W.; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication but also gives rise to a trade-off between these two resources in the appropriate setting. We discuss this problem from first principles, including the various choices one may follow in the definitions of the actual resources. Our main result is a general method of remote state preparation for arbitrary states of many qubits, at a cost of 1 bit of classical communication and 1 bit of entanglement per qubit sent. In this "universal" formulation, these ebit and cbit requirements are shown to be simultaneously optimal by exhibiting a dichotomy. This then yields the exact trade-off c...

  9. Transient Supersaturation Supports Drug Absorption from Lipid-Based Formulations for Short Periods of Time, but Ongoing Solubilization Is Required for Longer Absorption Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Matthew F; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2017-02-06

    The current studies sought to explore the impact of drug supersaturation and precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs), on in vivo absorption using a coupled in vitro digestion-in vivo perfusion absorption model. Fenofibrate absorption was evaluated from a number of LBFs with different solubilization and supersaturation capacities, and conditions at the absorptive membrane manipulated by changing perfusion conditions, intestine segment lengths, and by the conduct of experiments in the presence or absence of suspended/precipitated drug. LBF dispersion and digestion resulted in varying periods of supersaturation across the different formulations. Even fleeting (5-10 min) periods of supersaturation were able to drive flux across a perfused 10 cm intestinal segment for up to 60 min, although over longer infusion periods (60-80 min) flux dropped in the absence of ongoing drug solubilization and supersaturation. In contrast, the presence or absence of precipitated/suspended drug, had little impact on drug flux. When perfused intestinal segment lengths were extended, the role of initial supersaturation was attenuated and ongoing solubilization conditions became the primary driver of absorptive flux. The data suggest that for highly permeable drugs such as fenofibrate, a short period of supersaturation at the absorptive membrane may be sufficient to drive absorptive drug flux in spite of significant drug precipitation on formulation dispersion or digestion in vitro. In contrast, where longer periods of absorption are required, for example, at higher doses, the requirement for ongoing solubilization and supersaturation becomes more apparent.

  10. 冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响%Influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Methods 93 samples of fresh frozen plasma collected from September of 2013 to December of 2012 were selected and divided into 3 groups, 31 samples in each group. The fresh frozen plasma in 3 groups were prepared cryoprecipitate at the 6th, 8th, 10th hours respectively. The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups were detected and compared. Results The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The preparation time of cryoprecipitate within 10 hours after collecting the fresh frozen plasma had no influence on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen.%目的:分析冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响。方法选取2013年9月至2013年12月采集的93份新鲜冰冻血浆,均分为3组(各31份),分别于6h、8h、10h再将各组新鲜血浆制备成冷沉淀。对3组冷沉淀中纤维蛋白原及凝血Ⅷ因子含量进行测定并进行对比分析。结果制备时间分别为6h、8h、10h的3组冷沉淀中凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论全血采集后10h内不同时间点制备冷沉淀对其凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量无较大影响。

  11. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part I: workable options for every size practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that platelet-rich preparations applied to surgical sites, injuries, or wounds are a safe and effective way to promote soft tissue healing and bone growth. Various protocols have been developed for preparing platelet-rich preparations, with subtle but important differences between them. Unfortunately, only a minority of clinicians use platelet-rich preparations, such as platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin, in their practice, possibly due to confusion about the different methods and their advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the different types of preparations are described to help guide the selection of the best method for any size practice. Classic methods generally require large volumes of blood and can be expensive, complicated, and time-intensive. Simpler protocols have been developed recently, which require relatively inexpensive equipment and small blood volumes and, thus, may be more applicable for small clinical practices. Platelet-rich preparations accelerate healing at earlier time points to reduce discomfort and the potential for adverse outcomes, including infection, poor wound closure, and delays in forming strong bone for subsequent procedures (such as implants). However, platelet-rich preparations may also improve long-term outcomes in patients expected to have impaired healing, such as with lifestyle choices (eg, smoking), medications (eg, steroids), diseases (eg, diabetes, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis), and aging, by supplementing the deficient wound environment to restore proper healing. Therefore, both large and small clinical practices would benefit from utilizing platelet-rich preparations to enhance healing in their patients.

  12. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  13. Evaluation of ultrasonic and ErCr:YSGG laser retrograde cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Faria-Junior, Norberto; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato; Camargo Villela Berbert, Fábio Luiz

    2009-05-01

    Root end cavity preparation techniques aim to create a clean and properly shaped cavity in a short time. Although the use of ultrasonics has been widely recommended, a laser can also be used. This study evaluated the time required and quality of retrograde cavity preparations using ultrasonics or ErCr:YSGG laser. Thirty single-rooted teeth were instrumented, root filled, submitted to apicectomies, and grouped. Root end cavities were prepared by using the following: group 1 (G1): CVD (6.1107-6) ultrasonic retrotips (CVD-Vale, São José dos Campos, Brazil); group 2 (G2): EMS (DT-060/Berutti) ultrasonic retrotips (EMS, LeSentier, Switzerland); and group 3 (G3): ErCr:YSGG (G6/Waterlase; Biolase Technology, San Clemente, CA) laser tips. The time taken to complete the preparation was recorded. Epoxy resin replicas of the root apices were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The parameters for evaluation were the presence of fractures, and the quality of the preparations. The Waterlase showed the highest mean time for preparation of the root end cavities (p 0.05). Fractures in the cavosurface angle occurred only in G2. G1 and G2 showed better scores for quality of preparation than G3 (p < 0.05). These results suggest that root end cavities should be prepared by ultrasonic tips.

  14. Sonochemically preparation and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 nanocatalyst: Effects of ultrasound irradiation time and power on catalytic properties and activity in dry reforming of CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Salar; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahmani, Farhad

    2017-09-01

    The catalytic performance of nanostructured Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 catalysts, prepared by ultrasound-assisted impregnation method was examined in the dry reforming of methane. The effect of irradiation power and irradiation time have been studied by changing time (0, 20, 80min) and power of the sonication (30, 60, 90W) during the synthesis which resulted in different physiochemical properties of the nanocatalyst. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, PSD, EDX, TEM, TPR-H2, BET, FTIR and TG analyses. Based on the characterization results, ultrasound treatment endowed the sample with more uniform and smaller nanoparticles; higher surface area, stronger metal-support interaction and more homogenous dispersion. Moreover, the analyses exhibited smaller particles with higher surface area and less population of particle aggregates at longer and highly irradiated nanocatalysts. The nanocatalyst irradiated at 90W for 80min (the longest irradiation time and the most intense power) showed a uniform morphology and a very narrow particles size distribution. More than 65% of particles of this nanocatalyst were in the range of 10-30nm. Activity tests demonstrated that employing ultrasound irradiation during impregnation improves feed conversion and products yield, reaching values close to equilibrium. Among sonicated nanocatalysts, with increasing power and time of irradiation, the nanocatalyst represents higher activity. The superior performance amongst the various bimetallic catalysts tested was observed over the catalyst with 90W and 80min ultrasonic irradiation which is stable in 24h time on stream test. The excellent anti-coking performance of this bimetallic catalyst, confirmed by TG and FESEM analyses of spent catalyst, is closely related to the promoting effect of sonication on the metal-support interaction, Ni dispersion and particle size; and probably, the synergy between metallic species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HINGULIYA MANIKYARASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamdar Mahesh Prabhakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasashastra deals with the preparation of medicines mainly with the help of Mercury, minerals, metals and other herbs. It is our prime duty to develop basic standards at every step of drug preparation. The aim of the present research work was to study pharmaceutical and analytical aspect of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. For Pharmaceutical study the method used was the observations regarding time, temperature, cardinal stages, finished product and consumption of fuel. Temperature range for Hinguliya Manikyarasa was also studied. For Physicochemical study Crystallographic study, NPS test along with Chemical analysis of the same drug was done. The Result obtained as Hinguliya Manikyarasa requires 94 hours for preparation and the average temperature recorded for Mrudu Agni was 132.230C, for Madhyamagni was 303.660C and that for Tivra Agni was 499.830C. All the parameters like Time, Temperature and the amount of fuel used as parameters for standardization of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. The Nambury Phased Spot Test was used to identify and establish spot standards for the samples of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. The crystallographic study suggests that the compound Hinguliya Manikyarasa is a mixture of Sulphur, Arsenic Sulphide and Mercuric Sulphide. Another observation was As2S3 was found converted to AsS irreversibly.

  16. Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno R. Bohm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of time asymmetry in quantum physics is discussed. On the basis of a mathematical theorem, the Stone-von Neumann theorem, the solutions of the dynamical equations, the Schrödinger equation (1 for states or the Heisenberg equation (6a for observables are given by a unitary group. Dirac kets require the concept of a RHS (rigged Hilbert space of Schwartz functions; for this kind of RHS a mathematical theorem also leads to time symmetric group evolution. Scattering theory suggests to distinguish mathematically between states (defined by a preparation apparatus and observables (defined by a registration apparatus (detector. If one requires that scattering resonances of width Γ and exponentially decaying states of lifetime τ=h/Γ should be the same physical entities (for which there is sufficient evidence one is led to a pair of RHS's of Hardy functions and connected with it, to a semigroup time evolution t_0≤t<∞, with the puzzling result that there is a quantum mechanical beginning of time, just like the big bang time for the universe, when it was a quantum system. The decay of quasi-stable particles is used to illustrate this quantum mechanical time asymmetry. From the analysis of these processes, we show that the properties of rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions are suitable for a formulation of time asymmetry in quantum mechanics.

  17. Strong-Driving-Assisted Probabilistic State Preparation in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen-Biao

    2006-01-01

    An alternative scheme is proposed for preparing the superpositions of coherent states with controllable weighting factors along a straight line for a cavity field. The scheme is based on the interaction of a single-mode cavity field with a resonant two-level atom driven by a strong classical field. It is in contrast to the previous methods used in cavity QED of injecting a coherent state into a cavity via a microwave source. In the scheme, the interaction between the cavity mode and atoms is fully resonant, thus the required interaction time is greatly shortened. Moreover, the present scheme requires smaller numbers of operations. In view of decoherence, a reduction of interaction time and numbers of operations for the state preparation is very important for experimental implementation of quantum state engineering.

  18. Required time delay from (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G.; de, Nijs R.; Hogh-Rasmussen, E.

    2008-01-01

    and 90 min after (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection, and the patients were scanned 30 and 90 or 60 and 90 min after (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection. For evaluation of differences between the images obtained at various time points after injection, two different methods were used. The z-map method was used to subtract images...... 42-84 years) with normal cerebral blood flow distribution and 31 patients (17 females; mean age 67; range 38-84) with reduced rCBF distribution were included. Images were obtained with a three-headed Philips IRIX SPECT scanner with high-resolution collimators. The healthy subjects were scanned 30, 60...

  19. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  20. SLOW MOTION Is Required for Within-Plant Auxin Homeostasis and Normal Timing of Lateral Organ Initiation at the Shoot Meristem in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Daniel; Stacey, Nicola; Breuninger, Holger; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Müller, Dörte; Sicard, Adrien; Leyser, Ottoline; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Lenhard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The regular arrangement of leaves and flowers around a plant's stem is a fascinating expression of biological pattern formation. Based on current models, the spacing of lateral shoot organs is determined by transient local auxin maxima generated by polar auxin transport, with existing primordia draining auxin from their vicinity to restrict organ formation close by. It is unclear whether this mechanism encodes not only spatial information but also temporal information about the plastochron (i.e., the interval between the formation of successive primordia). Here, we identify the Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein SLOW MOTION (SLOMO) as being required for a normal plastochron. SLOMO interacts genetically with components of polar auxin transport, and mutant shoot apices contain less free auxin. However, this reduced auxin level at the shoot apex is not due to increased polar auxin transport down the stem, suggesting that it results from reduced synthesis. Independently reducing the free auxin level in plants causes a similar lengthening of the plastochron as seen in slomo mutants, suggesting that the reduced auxin level in slomo mutant shoot apices delays the establishment of the next auxin maximum. SLOMO acts independently of other plastochron regulators, such as ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 or KLUH/CYP78A5. We propose that SLOMO contributes to auxin homeostasis in the shoot meristem, thus ensuring a normal rate of the formation of auxin maxima and organ initiation. PMID:20139162

  1. Evidence for two concurrent inhibitory mechanisms during response preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Duque, Julie; Lew, David; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Olivier, Etienne; Ivry, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitory mechanisms are critically involved in goal-directed behaviors. To gain further insight into how such mechanisms shape motor representations during response preparation, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and H-reflexes were recorded from left hand muscles during choice reaction time tasks. The imperative signal, which indicated the required response, was always preceded by a preparatory cue. During the post-cue delay period, left MEPs...

  2. Preparation of cluster state in large detuned cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chang-Lin; Gao Guo-Jun; Lu Yan; Li Da-Chuang; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuo-Liang

    2008-01-01

    An experimentally realizable physical scheme for preparing multiqubit cluster states from a large detuned atomcavity interaction is proposed. The scheme is free of any type of measurement and insensitive to the cavity decay, and the cavity field is only virtually excited so that there is no information exchanging between atom and cavity. The time required for the gate operations is very short, which is important for decoherence. We also discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  3. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  4. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts.

  5. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  6. Development of a Real-Time PCR Protocol Requiring Minimal Handling for Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the Fully Automated BD Max System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpke, Alexander H; Hofko, Marjeta; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of health care-associated infections, resulting in significant mortality and a significant economic burden in hospitals. Active surveillance for at-risk populations contributes to the prevention of infections with VRE. The availability of a combination of automation and molecular detection procedures for rapid screening would be beneficial. Here, we report on the development of a laboratory-developed PCR for detection of VRE which runs on the fully automated Becton Dickinson (BD) Max platform, which combines DNA extraction, PCR setup, and real-time PCR amplification. We evaluated two protocols: one using a liquid master mix and the other employing commercially ordered dry-down reagents. The BD Max VRE PCR was evaluated in two rounds with 86 and 61 rectal elution swab (eSwab) samples, and the results were compared to the culture results. The sensitivities of the different PCR formats were 84 to 100% for vanA and 83.7 to 100% for vanB; specificities were 96.8 to 100% for vanA and 81.8 to 97% for vanB The use of dry-down reagents and the ExK DNA-2 kit for extraction showed that the samples were less inhibited (3.3%) than they were by the use of the liquid master mix (14.8%). Adoption of a cutoff threshold cycle of 35 for discrimination of vanB-positive samples allowed an increase of specificity to 87.9%. The performance of the BD Max VRE assay equaled that of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay, which was run in parallel. The use of dry-down reagents simplifies the assay and omits any need to handle liquid PCR reagents.

  7. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  8. Attracting and Preparing Worthy Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Mankichi; Chonan, Mitsuo

    1993-01-01

    Attracting worthy teachers to the compulsory education system in Japan requires attention to three issues: teacher salaries, strengthening initial teacher preparation, and expansion and systemization of teacher training. The one-year beginning teachers' inservice training program began in 1989 in response to the third issue. (IAH)

  9. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carole; Banks, Sam; Day, Michael; Dunn, Phil; Fergus, Victoria; Foster, Mary Sue; Galbraith, Lynn; Hatfield, Thomas A.; Hansen, Mark; Young, Bernard

    Colleges and universities engaged in the preparation of art teachers address a broad range of issues. Questions concerning specific education requirements leading to certification, approaches to curriculum development and assessment, opportunities for clinical experiences, and exposure to teaching methodologies and classroom management strategies…

  10. Practicing Improvisation: Preparing Multicultural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Preparing competent multicultural educators involves a dynamic process requiring constant self-reflection and assisting pre-service teachers to sharpen their cultural vision as they learn to be responsive educators. Reflections on lessons learned as a teacher educator are shared through personal experiences that are identified as keys to prepare…

  11. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  12. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  13. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  14. Outlines of a multiple trace theory of temporal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Sander A; Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP), which accounts for behavior in reaction time (RT) tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1) followed by a target stimulus (S2) that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the foreperiod (FP; the S1-S2 interval) inhibition is applied to prevent premature response, while a wave of activation occurs upon the presentation of S2. On each trial, these actions are stored in a separate memory trace, which, jointly with earlier formed memory traces, starts contributing to preparation on subsequent trials. We show that MTP accounts for classic effects in temporal preparation, including mean RT-FP functions observed under a variety of FP distributions and asymmetric sequential effects. We discuss the advantages of MTP over other accounts of these effects (trace-conditioning and hazard-based explanations) and suggest a critical experiment to empirically distinguish among them.

  15. Sample preparation for atomic spectroscopy: evolution and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Elisabeth de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is the critical step of any analytical protocol, and involves steps from simple dilution to partial or total dissolution. The methods include dry or wet decomposition of the samples in open or closed systems, using thermal, ultrasonic or radiant (infrared, ultraviolet and microwaves energy. This review emphasizes sample preparation for atomic spectroscopy. The present and future tendencies for sample preparation also involve on-line dissolution, extraction of the analytes, speciation, solid sample and slurry analysis, in situ and in vivo procedures, etc. Nowadays the goals are the best result, in the shortest time, with minimum contamination, using the smallest quantities of reagents and samples, and having low residue and waste generation, as well as maintaining the integrity of the sample and the traceability of the results, to have quality and confidence in the measurements as the primordial attributes required by the community and by the users.

  16. [Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloica, Milos; Vulićević, Zoran R; Mandinić, Zoran; Radović, Ivana; Jovicić, Olivera; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient's discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine) for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient's adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry.

  17. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  18. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  19. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  20. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  1. 浸渗时间对无压浸渗制备Al/SiCp陶瓷基合材料的影响%Infiltration Time Effect of Pressureless Infiltration Preparation of Al/SiCp Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃; 高霖; 崔崇; 钱凤

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure, density and rigidity of Al/SiCp ceramic matrix composites prepared by pressureless infiltration, were investigated in this paper. The result indicates that the infiltration in due course of time made Si and Mg diffusion and interface reaction conducted fully,which increased interface wetting property and decreased interface loose and pore,and advanced the a-luminium alloys infiltration. Holding one hour at proper temperature got full infitration, but poor density and low rigidity, while holding three hours got pulverization so two hours shall be a proper parameter.%本文采用无压浸渗法,研究浸渗时间对Al/SiCp陶瓷基复合材料组织、致密度、硬度的影响.浸渗保温时间1h,能浸透,但致密度差,硬度低.保温时间3h,发生粉化现象.结果表明浸渗保温时间2h是无压浸渗较好的工艺参数.

  2. Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

    1953-01-01

    Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

  3. A case study exploring the current issues faced by diploma-prepared nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droskinis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and rapidly progressing field. As the profession changes over time, it is vital to study how these transformations influence the workforce. In this study, the aim was to explore how diploma-prepared nurses are functioning in the acute care setting and how modifications in educational requirements and technological advancement have affected their nursing practice.

  4. Requirements dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Knowing ‘what’ to build is an integral part of an Information System Development, and it is generally understood that this, which is known as Requirements, is achievable through a process of understanding, communication and management. It is currently maintained by the Requirements theorists that successful system design clarifies the interrelations between information and its representations...

  5. Time management for today's workplace demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomack, Bill

    2012-05-01

    As the work force decreases, the workload remains the same or, in many cases, increases. An effective employee must arrange work time to accomplish what needs to be done in the time available. The best way to manage time is to set a goal, develop a plan, and measure the outcome. To manage time requires determining where time is currently spent, taking time at the end of the day to prepare for the next morning, managing appointments, carefully planning projects, and managing phone, electronic, and paper mail. Organization is another step in effectively managing time. An organizational system decreases wasted time. Keeping the desk clear and creating a system to organize mail improves efficiency. Time management also focuses on balance, an overall purpose, and supporting principles. Personal or professional effectiveness does not depend solely on the effort expended, but whether the effort is in the right direction. The challenge of time management is to manage not only time, but also oneself.

  6. Grasping Preparation Enhances Orientation Change Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, T.P.; Kenemans, J.L.; Neggers, S.F.W.

    2011-01-01

    Preparing a goal directed movement often requires detailed analysis of our environment. When picking up an object, its orientation, size and relative distance are relevant parameters when preparing a successful grasp. It would therefore be beneficial if the motor system is able to influence early pe

  7. Sample preparation in biological mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Alexander R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide the researcher with important sample preparation strategies in a wide variety of analyte molecules, specimens, methods, and biological applications requiring mass spectrometric analysis as a detection end-point.

  8. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  9. Method to prepare Semtex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  10. Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1997-01-21

    The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to RL. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary complete the ROI forms with all of the required information, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding.

  11. Induction of labour at term with vaginal prostaglandins preparations: a randomised controlled trial of Prostin vs Propess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shawarby, S A; Connell, R J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the trial was to determine whether a sustained release preparation of prostaglandin E2 (Propess) is better in inducing labour when compared with the more widely used short-acting (instant-release) preparation (Prostin). A randomised controlled clinical trial involving 100 pregnant women at term with an indication for induction of labour was conducted in a district general hospital in the UK over a 1-year period. Women were randomised to receive one of the two preparations. The study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in time to onset of labour, duration of labour, total time from induction to delivery, method of delivery, and analgesia requirements. The number of preparations required to induce labour were significantly less in the Propess group. Our data suggest that both Propess and Prostin are safe and effective in induction of labour, for either primips or multips. However, Prostin use is more cost-effective.

  12. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene / MWCNT Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Saswati; Burghardt, Wesley; Ramanathan, Thillaiyan; Brinson, L. Catherine; Kasimatis, Kosmas; Torkelson, John

    2008-03-01

    Dispersions of multiwall carbon nanotubes in polypropylene are prepared via melt batch mixing and solid-state shear pulverization, and characterized via linear viscoelastic measurements, SEM, polypropylene crystallization kinetics, electrical conductivity and dynamic mechanical analysis. Increasing the intensity or duration of the melt mixing leads to higher dispersion, evidenced by increases in a low-frequency elastic plateau and accelerated PP crystallization kinetics attributed to more effective heterogeneous nucleation. The sample prepared by pulverization exhibits faster crystallization kinetics than any of the melt blended samples, but in contrast shows no measurable low frequency elastic plateau. Electrical conductivity measurements similarly show higher conductivity in melt blended samples. This may be attributable to scission of the nanotubes during pulverization, such that even well dispersed tubes cannot form an entangled network at a given concentration. At the same time, pulverized composites show marked increase in stiffness at low loadings, indicating that tube scission due to pulverization is not catastrophic. Conversely, long mixing times required in melt blending cause substantial thermal degradation of the polymer matrix with a corresponding loss of mechanical properties.

  14. Preparing ground States of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, David; Wocjan, Pawel

    2009-04-03

    Preparing the ground state of a system of interacting classical particles is an NP-hard problem. Thus, there is in general no better algorithm to solve this problem than exhaustively going through all N configurations of the system to determine the one with lowest energy, requiring a running time proportional to N. A quantum computer, if it could be built, could solve this problem in time sqrt[N]. Here, we present a powerful extension of this result to the case of interacting quantum particles, demonstrating that a quantum computer can prepare the ground state of a quantum system as efficiently as it does for classical systems.

  15. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  16. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL PREPARATION IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preparation is a constituent part of overall sports preparation. Conditional training might be defined as a process of improvement of a sportsman’s functional and motor abilities, morphological characteristics, health, as well as the required motor knowledge. Conditional preparation can be might be classified as: general, basic and situational conditional preparation. Programs of the conditional training might be classified as: developing, resuming, recovering, preventive and recovering ones. High level of the general physical preparation enables maximum demonstration of the physical abilities of a sportsman during the stage of improvement of the specific motor abilities. Good general preparation of a sportsman enables him to push beyond his functional limits in order to cope with heavy loads easier, which subsequently enables him to achieve top performance level. Basic conditional preparation assumes the development of the most important judo abilities. Specific conditional preparation is related directly to the execution of different structural elements under the conditional requirements. Situational conditional preparation enables integration of the tactical and conditional training.

  17. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  18. Commentary : Coordination of eye and hand in time and space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H; Sailer, U; Hyona, J; Munoz, DP; Heide, W; Radach, R

    2002-01-01

    Every day of our lives starts with a succession of actions that require eye-hand coordination. From the time we try to turn off the, alarm clock and get dressed, to putting toothpaste on the brush and preparing coffee: all these goal-directed hand movements need to be coordinated with the

  19. Solvothermal method to prepare graphene quantum dots by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Renbing; Zhong, Suting; Wu, Juan; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Yewen; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Tianhe

    2016-10-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been synthesized by different chemical methods in recent years. For conventional chemical methods, it is inevitable to introduce a large amount of impurities in the preparation process. Long time of dialysis process increases the time cost extremely. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method for synthesizing GQDs with the application of hydrogen peroxide in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) environment, which completely avoids the use of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid to treat raw material and introduces no impurity in whole preparation process simultaneously for the first time. Pure GQDs can be obtained after evaporation/redissolution and filtration process with a strong blue emission at 15% quantum yield. This solvothermal method, not requiring dialysis process and complicated equipments, exhibits simple, eco-friendly and low time-cost properties. Besides high quantum yields, the as-prepared GQDs also show good photoluminescence stability in different pH conditions. The optical properties, morphology and structure of GQDs were studied by various equipments, implying potential application in biomedical fields and electronic device.

  20. Analysis of Multi-Stakeholder Requirements Using Requirement Interaction Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohayanti Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software requirements engineering is an imperative phase in the software development life cycle in every project regardless of the project size. In a project, different people are involved in the requirements engineering process, including requirement engineers, stakeholders, end users, and system designers. Amongst them, stakeholders play an essential role. Differences in goals and priorities of multiple stakeholders would make requirements management complex and difficult, which is a huge challenge for requirement engineers. From time to time, new requirements emerge and existing requirements need changes to fulfil stakeholders’ goals. Thus, such situation leads to high requirements volatility and low stability which causes overlapping and conflicting of requirements. The correctness and validity of requirements are of paramount importance as they are the key factors toward a successful system. A deep understanding of requirement management technique that conforms to users’ needs is crucial. Such technique of the concept is applied to the Labour Management System. In this study, we have discussed the implementation of analysis of multi-stakeholder requirements using requirement interaction matrix in the f. The study used real requirements to yield a solid and dependable result. We have documented the requirements using a template and assessed their respective volatility level. An algorithm is constructed to   show   that   the   technique has managed to minimize   the time   used   when   checking requirements.

  1. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  2. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  3. Identification of Drugs in Parenteral Pharmaceutical Preparations from a Quality Assurance and a Diversion Program by Direct Analysis in Real-Time AccuTOFTM-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin L; Mohs, Amanda J; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Alphonse; Peace, Michelle R

    2016-10-01

    In healthcare settings drug diversion and impairment of physicians are major concerns requiring a rapid and efficient method for surveillance and detection. A Direct Analysis in Real Time ion source coupled to a JEOL AccuTOF(TM) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) method was developed to screen parenteral pharmaceutical formulations for potential drug diversion. Parenteral pharmaceutical formulations are also known as injectable formulations and are used with intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular and intra-articular administration. A library was created using the mass spectra data collected by a DART-MS operated in switching mode at 20, 60 and 90 V settings. This library contained 17 commonly encountered drugs in parenteral pharmaceutical formulations that included the surgical analgesic: fentanyl, hydromorphone and morphine; anesthetic: baclofen, bupivacaine, ketamine, midazolam, ropivacaine and succinylcholine; and a mixture of other drug classes: caffeine, clonidine, dexamethasone, ephedrine, heparin, methadone, oxytocin and phenylephrine. Randomly selected 200 de-identified parenteral pharmaceutical formulations containing one or more drugs were submitted for analysis to the FIRM Toxicology Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University Health and were screened using the DART-MS. The drug contents of the de-identified formulations were previously confirmed by a published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The drugs in the formulations were rapidly and successfully identified using the generated library. The DART-MS and HPLC results were in complete agreement for all 200 parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  5. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  6. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  7. Time-bin Entanglement from Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Weihs, Gregor; Predojević, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The desire to have a source of single entangled photon pairs can be satisfied using single quantum dots as emitters. However, we are not bound to pursue only polarization entanglement, but can also exploit other degrees of freedom. In this chapter we focus on the time degree of freedom, to achieve so-called time-bin entanglement. This requires that we prepare the quantum dot coherently into the biexciton state and also build special interferometers for analysis. Finally this technique can be extended to achieve time-bin and polarization hyper-entanglement from a suitable quantum dot.

  8. Exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano: influência da temperatura, tempo e preparo da amostra na estabilidade analítica Cerebrospinal fluid exam: influence of sample preparation, temperature and time on analytical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Dimas

    2008-04-01

    . However, there are a few studies about the stability of its analytes during the pre-analytical stage. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing data about the influence of temperature and storage time, freezing/thawing cycles and pre-treatments (centrifugation, denaturation, serum addition on the stability of CSF analytes. METHOD: A systematic review of articles in the literature was conducted by use of Key words: in English such as "storage", "cerebrospinal fluid", "CSF", "stability", "temperature" and "period", based on data from PubMed, Highwire Press, Lilacs and Amazonas Library, free digital archives of biomedical research articles. RESULTt: The search found nine articles, what results from the lack of studies about this subject. Different CSF constituents were analyzed: number of cells and their morphology, total protein, glucose, lactate, amino acids, creatine, creatinine, biomarkers and enzymes. The methodologies employed were: optical microscopy, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Imunoblot/SDS-PAGE and spectrometry. CONCLUSION: The literature review confirms that the stability of CSF samples is influenced by temperature, storage time and conditions of pre-analytical preparation. The findings of this systematic review may contribute to improving the knowledge about CSF examination, as well as to better understanding the sample stability.

  9. Specialized Preparation for Middle Level Teachers: A National Review of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Penny B.; Faulkner, Shawn A.; Cook, Chris M.; Miller, Nicole C.; Thompson, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Since William Alexander's (1963, 1995) call for attention to the need for specialized middle level teacher preparation in 1963, 45 states have created requirements for middle level certification, licensure, or endorsement (Association for Middle Level Education [AMLE], 2014) which have led to institutions of teacher preparation creating routes…

  10. 76 FR 78816 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... contains final regulations that modify existing regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties... and to improve compliance with the tax return preparer due diligence requirements of section...

  11. How do medical students prepare for flipped classrooms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, RAM; de Kleijn, R.A.M.; ten Cate, TJ; van Rijen, HVM; Westerveld, HE

    A flipped classroom, an approach abandoning traditional lectures and having students come together to apply acquired knowledge, requires students to come to class well prepared. The nature of this preparation is currently being debated. Watching web lectures as a preparation has typically been

  12. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation preparation. 56.6303 Section 56.6303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation preparation. (a) Primers shall be made up only at the time of use and as close to the blast site...

  13. 17 CFR 210.11-02 - Preparation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adjustments may include significant discounts of the historical cost of the acquired assets to their fair... have affected historical financial statements if the transaction had been consummated at an earlier... because they illustrate the possible scope of the change in the registrant's historical financial...

  14. Preparing to grasp emotionally laden stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alice Santos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contemporary theories of motor control propose that motor planning involves the prediction of the consequences of actions. These predictions include the associated costs as well as the rewarding nature of movements' outcomes. Within the estimation of these costs and rewards would lie the valence, that is, the pleasantness or unpleasantness of a given stimulus with which one is about to interact. The aim of this study was to test if motor preparation encompasses valence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The readiness potential, an electrophysiological marker of motor preparation, was recorded before the grasping of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant stimuli. Items used were balanced in weight and placed inside transparent cylinders to prompt a similar grip among trials. Compared with neutral stimuli, the grasping of pleasant stimuli was preceded by a readiness potential of lower amplitude, whereas that of unpleasant stimuli was associated with a readiness potential of higher amplitude. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that the sensorimotor cortex activity preceding the grasping of a stimulus is affected by its valence. Smaller readiness potential amplitudes found for pleasant stimuli could imply in the recruitment of pre-set motor repertoires, whereas higher amplitudes found for unpleasant stimuli would emerge from a discrepancy between the required action and their aversiveness. Our results indicate that the prediction of action outcomes encompasses an estimate of the valence of a stimulus with which one is about to interact.

  15. Preparing to Grasp Emotionally Laden Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Laura Alice Santos; Imbiriba, Luís Aureliano; Russo, Maitê Mello; Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Rodrigues, Erika de C.; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Volchan, Eliane; Vargas, Cláudia Domingues

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary theories of motor control propose that motor planning involves the prediction of the consequences of actions. These predictions include the associated costs as well as the rewarding nature of movements’ outcomes. Within the estimation of these costs and rewards would lie the valence, that is, the pleasantness or unpleasantness of a given stimulus with which one is about to interact. The aim of this study was to test if motor preparation encompasses valence. Methodology/Principal Findings The readiness potential, an electrophysiological marker of motor preparation, was recorded before the grasping of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant stimuli. Items used were balanced in weight and placed inside transparent cylinders to prompt a similar grip among trials. Compared with neutral stimuli, the grasping of pleasant stimuli was preceded by a readiness potential of lower amplitude, whereas that of unpleasant stimuli was associated with a readiness potential of higher amplitude. Conclusions/Significance We show for the first time that the sensorimotor cortex activity preceding the grasping of a stimulus is affected by its valence. Smaller readiness potential amplitudes found for pleasant stimuli could imply in the recruitment of pre-set motor repertoires, whereas higher amplitudes found for unpleasant stimuli would emerge from a discrepancy between the required action and their aversiveness. Our results indicate that the prediction of action outcomes encompasses an estimate of the valence of a stimulus with which one is about to interact. PMID:23024811

  16. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline.

  17. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  19. On the use of ultracentrifugal devices for routine sample preparation in biomolecular magic-angle-spinning NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Boatz, Jennifer C; Wheeler, Travis B; van der Wel, Patrick C A

    2017-02-22

    A number of recent advances in the field of magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR have enabled its application to a range of biological systems of ever increasing complexity. To retain biological relevance, these samples are increasingly studied in a hydrated state. At the same time, experimental feasibility requires the sample preparation process to attain a high sample concentration within the final MAS rotor. We discuss these considerations, and how they have led to a number of different approaches to MAS NMR sample preparation. We describe our experience of how custom-made (or commercially available) ultracentrifugal devices can facilitate a simple, fast and reliable sample preparation process. A number of groups have since adopted such tools, in some cases to prepare samples for sedimentation-style MAS NMR experiments. Here we argue for a more widespread adoption of their use for routine MAS NMR sample preparation.

  20. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  1. Effect of Rubbing Time and Sodium Chloride Concentrations on the Quality of Prepared Chicken%滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑瑞生; 张佳; 王秀江; 李飞燕; 冯晓慧; 罗欣

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of vacuum tumbling on chicken eating quality, values of pH, color, cooking rate , expressible moisture, textural properties and protein extraction by salt of chicken breast were evaluated. The results indicated that under the condition of 0 - 4℃ , increasing the salt concentration ( 0.0% -9.8% ) could significantly increase hydration of protein, content of protein extraction by salt improve the cohesion and springiness of prepared chicken products and reduce hardness, while no significant effect on cohesiveness and gumminess. When extending the tumbling time 0h -14h at 0 -4℃, the content of protein by salt ,the cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess of chicken were increased significantly, while there was no significant effect on the hydration of protein and the hardness of chicken. Tumbling raised the pH value of chicken recuperation products, improved chicken recuperation products color and eating quality.%以鸡胸肉为实验材料,以pH值、肉色、蒸煮出品率、压榨损失、盐溶性蛋白质溶出量和质构特征为评定指标,探讨了滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响。结果表明:在0~4℃环境中,增加食盐水浓度(0.0%~9.8%),可极显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了蒸煮损失率和压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的弹性、咀嚼性和降低肉的硬度,对凝聚性和胶着性影响不显著;延长滚揉时间(0.0h~14.0h)可显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的凝聚性、弹性、咀嚼性和胶着性,而对蒸煮损失率和硬度影响不显著。滚揉处理提高了鸡肉调理制品的pH值、改善了肉色和食用品质。

  2. Preparation and evaluation of veterinary 20% injectable solution of tylosin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A veterinary injectable aqueous solution of the antibiotic tylosin at a concentration of 20% was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 100 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 200 g tylosin tartrate, 500 ml propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol 40 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The preparation was clear yellow viscous aqueous solution free from undesired particles. The preparation complied with the require...

  3. Preparation of alpha sources using magnetohydrodynamic electrodeposition for radionuclide metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra M; Farmer, Dennis E; Johnson, Paula; Cheney, Marcos A; Qian, Shizhi

    2010-02-01

    Expanded use of nuclear fuel as an energy resource and terrorist threats to public safety clearly require the development of new state-of-the-art technologies and improvement of safety measures to minimize the exposure of people to radiation and the accidental release of radiation into the environment. The precision in radionuclide metrology is currently limited by the source quality rather than the detector performance. Electrodeposition is a commonly used technique to prepare massless radioactive sources. Unfortunately, the radioactive sources prepared by the conventional electrodeposition method produce poor resolution in alpha spectrometric measurements. Preparing radioactive sources with better resolution and higher yield in the alpha spectrometric range by integrating magnetohydrodynamic convection with the conventional electrodeposition technique was proposed and tested by preparing mixed alpha sources containing uranium isotopes ((238)U, (234)U), plutonium ((239)Pu), and americium ((241)Am) for alpha spectrometric determination. The effects of various parameters such as magnetic flux density, deposition current and time, and pH of the sample solution on the formed massless radioactive sources were also experimentally investigated.

  4. Energy expenditure of autoperfusing heart-lung preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, F A; Ross, J H; Schwartz, K A; Casey, G; Sanders, O; Eisiminger, R; Magilligan, D J

    1988-11-01

    The autoperfused heart-lung preparation was developed as a method for extending the acceptable donor-to-recipient interval in clinical heart-lung transplantation. Metabolic substrate enhancement has been shown to be necessary for the survival and homeostasis of the functioning preparation. To define basic metabolic requirements and to determine the resting energy expenditure of the working canine heart-lung preparation, two groups were studied. Ten canine heart-lung blocks were placed in a normothermic autoperfusion circuit. In Group 1 (n = 5), a hyperalimentation solution of balanced substrate was infused (15% dextrose, 4.25% amino acids, 8 meq magnesium sulfate, 30 IU/dl insulin, and 10% lipids). In Group 2 (n = 5), no substrate was given. The preparations were ventilated with a mixture of room air and 5% CO2 at a rate of 4 breaths/min to maintain physiological pH. Myocardial function was assessed by cardiac output determinations and mixed venous gases. Pulmonary function was assessed with arterial blood gases. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured with a Metabolic Cart, and the resting energy expenditure was calculated. The mean survival time for Group 1 was 360 minutes, and all preparations were terminated electively. The mean survival time for Group 2 was 219 +/- 43 minutes (p less than 0.01) with congestive heart failure as the common terminal event. All parameters of cardiac function and blood gases remained within physiological limits without significant differences between groups. The resting energy expenditure, a measure of metabolic rate, was 2.5 +/- 0.3 kcal/hr in Group 1 and 1.0 +/- 0.2 in Group 2 at termination (mean +/- SD) (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, R

    2003-10-01

    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  6. Probabilistic remote state preparation by W states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jin-Ming; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider a scheme for probabilistic remote state preparation of a general qubit by using W states. The scheme consists of the sender, Alice, and two remote receivers Bob and Carol. Alice performs a projective measurement on her qubit in the basis spanned by the state she wants to prepare and its orthocomplement. This allows either Bob or Carol to reconstruct the state with finite success probability. It is shown that for some special ensembles of qubits, the remote state preparation scheme requires only two classical bits, unlike the case in the scheme of quantum teleportation where three classical bits are needed.

  7. Preparation of /sup 111/In leukocytes after hemolytic removal of erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    An optimized procedure is described for isolation and high-efficiency radiolabeling of leukocytes using /sup 111/In-oxine. The chief advantages over conventional methods include virtually no loss of leukocytes during washing and separation steps; a significant reduction in the time required to prepare leukocytes for radiolabeling compared to non-hemolytic preparations; a 28% increase in the average labeling efficiency obtained using /sup 111/In-oxine; > 95% cell viability as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test; elimination of contaminating red blood cells from the leukocyte pellet prior to labeling; and 80% survivability at 15 min post injection (measured as per cent of blood activity on leukocyte fraction).

  8. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  9. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  10. Influence of preparation pathway on the glass forming ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lindenberg, Eleanor; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA), i.e. the ease of amorphization of drugs, is mostly investigated using the critical cooling rate upon melt quenching to generate an amorphous product via the thermodynamic pathway. However, amorphous materials can also be prepared via the kinetic pathway by milling...... cooling rate will also have a low minimal milling time and is thus a good glass former........ In this case, the time required to generate an amorphous product is called the minimal milling time. This study investigates the correlation of the GFA between these two pathways. Eighteen compounds were chosen and their GFA was investigated by determining the critical cooling rate and the minimal milling time....... It was observed that drugs, which turned amorphous upon cooling from the melt at slow cooling rates also had a low minimal milling time and vice versa. It was found that the GFA of the studied set of drugs was inherent and independent of the preparation method. It can be concluded that a drug with low critical...

  11. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Abdul Aziz, Norashikin; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.

  12. National Academy of Neuropsychology/Division 40 of the American Psychological Association practice survey of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, Part I: practitioner and practice characteristics, professional activities, and time requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Jerry J; Peck, Edward A; Abramowitz, Carolyn; Etzweiler, Sharon

    2002-05-01

    Leaders of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association determined that current information on the professional practice of clinical neuropsychology within the United States (U.S.) was needed. These two organizations co-sponsored a national survey of U.S. clinical neuropsychologists that was conducted in September 2000. The primary goal of the survey was to gather information on such topics as: practitioner and practice characteristics, economic variables (e.g., experience with major third party payors, such as Medicare and managed care), practice expenses, billing methods, experiences with Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, time spent on various clinical tasks, use of assistants, and income. The adjusted return rate of 33.5% (n = 1,406) reflects the number of surveys returned with sufficient data by licensed doctoral level clinicians with membership in one or both sponsoring organizations. In this first of two articles describing the survey results, characteristics of practitioners and practices, various types of professional activities, and time requirements for clinical tasks are presented and discussed. It was noted that the proportion of women in the field is increasing rapidly. Private practice is the predominant employment setting. Findings also document that members of the two sponsoring organizations are very similar with regard to employment setting, professional characteristics, and weekly activities. That is, involvement in clinical practice and research, as well as private practice versus institutional employment, was very similar between organizations. However, across organizations, work setting (private practice vs. institution) was associated with significant and meaningful differences. Private practitioners have a more diverse set of weekly clinical activities, are less likely to use assistants, and engage in more forensic activities. Across work setting, with

  13. Carbonaceous Chondrite Thin Section Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R.; Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have long posed a challenge for thin section makers. The variability in sample hardness among the different types, and sometimes within individual sections, creates the need for an adaptable approach at each step of the thin section making process. This poster will share some of the procedural adjustments that have proven to be successful at the NASA JSC Meteorite Thin Section Laboratory. These adjustments are modifications of preparation methods that have been in use for decades and therefore do not require investment in new technology or materials.

  14. Effects of post space and post core preparation at different time on apical microleakage with fiber post sealing%桩道及桩核不同时间差预备对根充材料封闭根方微渗漏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖月; 于佳; 王健平; 郭海

    2012-01-01

    背景:桩道及桩核预备过程中高速涡轮机产生的振动可破坏黏固剂与牙根及桩界面内的连续作用力,影响桩核的根方封闭效果.目的:观察不同时间预备桩道及桩核对纤维桩系统根方微渗漏的影响.方法:55 颗离体下颌单根管前磨牙,采用逐步后退法预备根管.将样本分为即刻桩道预备组,2 d 后桩道预备组,1周后桩道预备组,阳性对照组,阴性对照组.每个预备组又随机分成3 个亚组,分别在黏固剂调合15,30,60 min后进行桩核预备后,经染色及透明化处理.在体式显微镜下记录各亚组根方微渗漏得分.结果与结论:1 周后桩道预备组根尖微渗漏值显著高于2 d 后预备组和即刻预备组,差异有显著性意义(P 0.05).提示即刻桩道预备对根尖封闭能起到良好的保护作用.针对纤维桩,同一种黏固剂完全固化后,不同桩核预备时机对其微渗漏无影响.%BACKGROUND: The vibration of high speed turbine handpiece during post space and post core preparation has an adverse effect on the continuous force of the bonding interfaces among the cement, dentin and post core, which influences the apical sealing effect of post core. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of post space and post core preparation at different time on apical microleakage with fiber posts system. METHODS: Totally 55 extracted mandibular premolars each with single root canal were biomechanically prepared by using the step back technique. The samples were divided into five groups randomly: the immediate post space preparation group, 2 days after post space preparation group, 1 week after post space preparation group, a positive control group and a negative control group. Each group was averagely divided into three subgroups and they all were mixed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes on the cements, and then performed post core preparation. After that, all roots were dyed and transparentized. The dyeing scores of apical microleakage in each

  15. Outlines of a Multiple Trace Theory of Temporal Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. Los

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP, which accounts for behavior in reaction time tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1 followed by a target stimulus (S2 that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the foreperiod (the S1 – S2 interval inhibition is applied to prevent premature response, while a wave of activation occurs upon the presentation of S2. On each trial, these actions are stored in a separate memory trace, which, jointly with earlier formed memory traces, starts contributing to preparation on subsequent trials. We show that MTP accounts for classic effects in temporal preparation, including mean reaction time – foreperiod functions observed under a variety of foreperiod distributions and asymmetric sequential effects. We discuss the advantages of MTP over other accounts of these effects (trace-conditioning and hazard-based explanations and suggest a critical experiment to empirically distinguish among them.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Construction Scheduling Problem with Time Restrictions: A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Kuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear power plant construction scheduling, a project is generally defined by its dependent preparation time, the time required for construction, and its reactor installation time. The issues of multiple construction teams and multiple reactor installation teams are considered. In this paper, a hierarchical particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the nuclear power plant construction scheduling problem and minimize the occurrence of projects failing to achieve deliverables within applicable due times and deadlines.

  17. Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient’s discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient’s adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  18. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatopathology is one of the key aspects in dermatological diagnosis and is of immense value to the practicing dermatologist as well as residents pursuing dermatology as a career. It is a visual medium of understanding the subject, and is therefore ideal to be tested similarly. Dermatopathology quiz has become a part and parcel of most scientific deliberations, and is therefore an essential requirement of the postgraduate curriculum. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz is tougher than preparing for a normal clinical quiz because of the lesser importance given for it in the syllabus of postgraduation and also due to the lack of resources either in getting microscopic sessions arranged or due to lack of flair of the subject compared to cosmetology or dermatosurgery. This review was done with the purpose of educating both the students and quizmasters as to how to prepare for a dermatopathology quiz. It is a unique proposal and, therefore, is gathered from more of personal experience, experience gained from watching quizzes conducted by experienced quizmasters, and also from the advice gained from masters of the subject in relation to the quiz.

  19. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  20. Deaf teacher candidates in hearing classrooms: a unique teacher preparation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Lytle, R R

    2000-03-01

    An undergraduate teacher education program at Gallaudet University prepares deaf students in "regular" education. This includes a required full-time internship with hearing students (assisted by sign language interpreters). Graduates then continue in a master's degree program in deaf education, thus acquiring dual certification. Several studies indicate that these deaf candidates progress through the same developmental stages as hearing candidates and that they develop high expectations for deaf learners. Issues related to implementing such a program are discussed.

  1. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or...

  2. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  3. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Joo Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During video capsule endoscopy (VCE, several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG- based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE.

  4. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  5. CT colonography in a Korean population with a high residue diet: Comparison between wet and dry preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.I. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: choibi@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Han, J.K. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eun, H.W. [Ewha Woman' s University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.Y. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, C.J. [Health Care System, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, K.-S. [Chungnam National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    AIM: To compare wet and dry preparation methods for computed tomography colonography (CTC) in terms of preparation quality, interpretation time, and diagnostic performance for polyp detection in a population with a high residue diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=24) received a wet preparation of 4 l polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, and group 2 (n=62) received a dry preparation of phosphor-soda. Abnormal findings, including polyps, and the time required to interpret the CTC images in both groups were documented by a radiologist. CTC findings were compared to those of colonoscopy as a reference standard. Two radiologists evaluated the quality of CTC with regard to residual fluid, faeces, and colonic distension using a four-point scale in consensus. Statistical differences for residual fluid, faeces, distensibility on CTC, and interpretation time between the two groups were analysed. The diagnostic performance of CTC in both groups was also compared. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety polyps in 70 patients were identified using colonoscopy. Regarding the quality of images produced the wet preparation was significantly better than the dry preparation (p<0.05). The average interpretation time was significantly shorter for the wet group (11.7 min) than the dry group (16.4 min) (p<0.05). For per-patient analysis, the positive predictive value (PPV) was significantly better for the wet (100%) than the dry group (79.6%; p=0.025). Sensitivities and PPV for {>=}10 mm polyps were comparable between two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: In a population with a high-residue diet, CTC with wet preparation can be interpreted in a time-efficient manner and is comparable with CTC with dry preparation.

  6. All-ceramic single-tooth restorations: choosing the material to match the preparation--preparing the tooth to match the material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, A

    2008-01-01

    prominently in the discussions between dentists and dental technician. Unfavorable preparation shapes for single crowns will necessitate compromises in terms of the choice of materials that result in high cost but do not offer anything in the way of higher fracture resistance. What constitutes an appropriate all-ceramic restoration for a single tooth? Do all-ceramic single crowns require the same material bulk as multi-unit bridges? Everything would indicate that a suitable preparation geometry allows feldspathic ceramic monoblock crowns to be milled that do not require any extensive finishing efforts such as thermal annealing or in-laboratory veneering while at the same time demanding no compromises in terms of esthetics and load-bearing capacity.

  7. Texas Educational Reform: The Teacher Preparation Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Descamps, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    Recent Texas legislation eliminates undergraduate degrees in education and requires academic majors for certification. Intended and unplanned consequences of the legislation are examined. Discussed are implications for teacher shortages, accreditation of teacher preparation institutions, specific areas (e.g., physical education, elementary…

  8. A Paradigm for EST Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Edwina S.; Balarbar, Corazon V.

    In many countries, suitable English for special purposes (ESP) textbooks and materials are difficult to find. ESP teachers and program coordinators often must develop their own materials, but preparing such materials requires training. One model that has served as a guide to numerous ESP materials projects is the Hutchinson and Waters' model. This…

  9. Instruction on compounded sterile preparations at U.S. schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellums, Mac; Alverson, Susan P; Monk-Tutor, Mary R

    2007-11-01

    The extent of didactic and laboratory instruction related to compounded sterile preparations (CSPs) provided by U.S. schools of pharmacy was studied. A nine-item survey was developed and mailed to the deans of 82 U.S. schools of pharmacy in 2005. The survey instrument was designed to gather basic demographic information about the school of pharmacy, identify availability and characteristics of instruction offered on the compounding of sterile preparations, identify which of 20 topics were covered in either a didactic or laboratory setting, determine how students' skills in sterile preparation were assessed, and identify the compounding environment at the school of pharmacy. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 53 surveys were returned, yielding a response rate of 65%. All schools included some instruction on CSPs; however, only 70% required students to compound on their own (rather than in groups or not at all), and only 21% offered a stand alone course on this topic. Most schools (88%) taught students about U.S. Pharmacopeia chapter 797 standards for sterile compounding. Only 13% of schools felt that their students had adequate training in compounding sterile preparations before graduation; however, most (88.7%) believed that students could only become fully competent in these skills over time in actual practice. A survey sent to deans of pharmacy schools revealed that instruction provided to pharmacy students in preparing CSPs varied widely. Only about a sixth of respondents believed that their students were adequately trained in compounding sterile preparations before graduation.

  10. A fast method to prepare water samples for 15N analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化云; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    Automatic element analyser is often used to prepare organic matters tor 15N analysis. It is seldom used to prepare water samples. Water samples are conventionally dealt with by Kjeldahl-Rittenberg technique. But it requires tedious and labor-intensive sample preparation. A fast and reliable method is proposed in this paper to prepare water samples for 15N analysis.

  11. PlayMolecule ProteinPrepare: A Web Application for Protein Preparation for Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rosell, Gerard; Giorgino, Toni; De Fabritiis, Gianni

    2017-07-24

    Protein preparation is a critical step in molecular simulations that consists of refining a Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure by assigning titration states and optimizing the hydrogen-bonding network. In this application note, we describe ProteinPrepare, a web application designed to interactively support the preparation of protein structures. Users can upload a PDB file, choose the solvent pH value, and inspect the resulting protonated residues and hydrogen-bonding network within a 3D web interface. Protonation states are suggested automatically but can be manually changed using the visual aid of the hydrogen-bonding network. Tables and diagrams provide estimated pKa values and charge states, with visual indication for cases where review is required. We expect the graphical interface to be a useful instrument to assess the validity of the preparation, but nevertheless, a script to execute the preparation offline with the High-Throughput Molecular Dynamics (HTMD) environment is also provided for noninteractive operations.

  12. Effect of annealing at different time intervals on the structure, morphology and luminescent properties of MgAl2O4:0.3% In3+ nanophosphor prepared by citrate sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, L. T.; Motaung, T. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Motloung, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    Indium-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:03% In3+) spinel powders were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. The effect of annealing period (AP) at a fixed annealing temperature (800 °C) and dopant concentration (0.3% In3+) on the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of the powders were investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed that the crystalline quality and crystallite sizes of the powders were influenced by the AP. Doping with 0.3% In3+ did not influence the major crystal structure of the MgAl2O4 (host) material. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image suggested that the AP influences the particle morphology of the nanophosphor. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image suggested that the crystallites sizes were in the region of 10 nm. The Photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the violet emission at 388 nm and green emission at 560 nm both originated from the host material and there was no evidence of any emission from the dopant (In3+). Increasing the AP up to 2 h lead to luminescence enhancement, while further increase in AP lead to luminescence quenching. The Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates results showed that the emission colour of all samples was in the blue region and it was not tuned by varying the AP.

  13. The role of the RNFA in anterior cruciate ligament graft preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozakis, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic procedures in the United States. Repair of the ACL often requires the use of autografts or allografts, and the RN first assistant (RNFA) often is the team member responsible for preparing the graft. Common grafts used in ACL repair include bone-patellar tendon-bone, hamstring, Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon, and tibialis anterior tendon. The RNFA must be competent in preparing all of these grafts and in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using each graft, such as the reasons for graft choice, and must ensure that all graft-related supplies and equipment are available and ready for use. The ability to prepare all graft types expands treatment options, reduces surgical time, and enhances the role of the RNFA.

  14. Bhanupaka: A Green Process in the Preparation of an Indian Ayurvedic Medicine, Lauha Bhasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Krishnamachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of lauha bhasma, a traditional Indian herbometallic preparation, is in vogue for centuries for the treatment of various ailments related to iron deficiency. The preparation of lauha bhasma requires strict adherence to time-consuming, well-practiced, multistage, and multistep procedures. One of the steps is the treatment of purified metallic ingredients with Triphala decoction (the aqueous extract of Indian gooseberry, Chebulic myrobalans, and Beleric myrobalans in the presence of sunlight (Bhanupaka. The formation of metal complexes due to the reaction of the metallic ingredients with the constituents of Triphala decoction has been ascertained by FTIR spectroscopy and carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyses. Our results demonstrate that Bhanupaka is an essential step in the preparation of lauha bhasma.

  15. On radiation damage in FIB-prepared softwood samples measured by scanning X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Selina; Ogurreck, Malte; Laipple, Daniel; Krywka, Christina; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Cola, Emanuela; Müller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The high flux density encountered in scanning X-ray nanodiffraction experiments can lead to severe radiation damage to biological samples. However, this technique is a suitable tool for investigating samples to high spatial resolution. The layered cell wall structure of softwood tracheids is an interesting system which has been extensively studied using this method. The tracheid cell has a complex geometry, which requires the sample to be prepared by cutting it perpendicularly to the cell wall axis. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling in combination with scanning electron microscopy allows precise alignment and cutting without splintering. Here, results of a scanning X-ray diffraction experiment performed on a biological sample prepared with a focused ion beam of gallium atoms are reported for the first time. It is shown that samples prepared and measured in this way suffer from the incorporation of gallium atoms up to a surprisingly large depth of 1 µm.

  16. Best practices in NCLEX-RN readiness preparation for baccalaureate student success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Karen H; Sewell, Jeanne P; Clark, Deborah J

    2008-01-01

    Success for first-time takers of the NCLEX-RN has implications for the students, faculty, and nursing programs. As the passing standard for the NCLEX-RN has risen, some programs have experienced a corresponding decrease in their graduates' first-time pass rates. This article describes one baccalaureate program's journey from low first-time NCLEX-RN pass rates in 2001 to greater student and program success using a data-based, analytical approach. Although passing an exit exam was a program requirement for 20 years, the change to computerized testing and more in-depth test preparation has enhanced opportunities for success for students and reduced stress among faculty. The resulting best practices for preparing students for NCLEX-RN success are described.

  17. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  18. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  19. Preparation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Tongshu Suppository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Dong, Leilei; Lu, Kuan; Liu, Sisi; Zheng, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) (used for intestinal protection) was added to formulate the Tongshu suppository to improve the pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac, which were assessed in New Zealand rabbits using an orthogonal experimental design. The single-agent Aceclofenac was taken as the control formulation. The concentration-time and drug release curves were drawn, and T max (min), C max (μg·mL(-1)), AUC0→∞ , and MRT were compared using a pharmacokinetic systems program. The formulated Tongshu suppository had moderate hardness, a smooth surface with uniform color, and theoretical drug-loading rate of 8%. Its release rate was in accordance with the drug preparation requirements. The concentration-time curves and drug release curves revealed that the maximum concentrations (C max) were 4.18 ± 1.03 μg·mL(-1) and 3.34 ± 0.41 μg·mL(-1) for the Tongshu and Aceclofenac suppositories, respectively, showing statistically insignificant difference, while the peak times were 34.87 ± 4.69 min and 34.76 ± 6.34 min, respectively, also showing statistically insignificant difference. Compared with the Aceclofenac suppository, the relative bioavailability of the Tongshu suppository was 104.4%, and the difference between them was statistically insignificant. In this experiment, the Tongshu suppository was prepared using the hot-melt method. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies confirmed it had higher bioavailability than the Aceclofenac suppository.

  20. Preparation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Tongshu Suppository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus polysaccharide (APS (used for intestinal protection was added to formulate the Tongshu suppository to improve the pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac, which were assessed in New Zealand rabbits using an orthogonal experimental design. The single-agent Aceclofenac was taken as the control formulation. The concentration-time and drug release curves were drawn, and Tmax (min, Cmax (μg·mL−1, AUC0→∞, and MRT were compared using a pharmacokinetic systems program. The formulated Tongshu suppository had moderate hardness, a smooth surface with uniform color, and theoretical drug-loading rate of 8%. Its release rate was in accordance with the drug preparation requirements. The concentration-time curves and drug release curves revealed that the maximum concentrations (Cmax were 4.18±1.03 μg·mL−1 and 3.34±0.41 μg·mL−1 for the Tongshu and Aceclofenac suppositories, respectively, showing statistically insignificant difference, while the peak times were 34.87±4.69 min and 34.76±6.34 min, respectively, also showing statistically insignificant difference. Compared with the Aceclofenac suppository, the relative bioavailability of the Tongshu suppository was 104.4%, and the difference between them was statistically insignificant. In this experiment, the Tongshu suppository was prepared using the hot-melt method. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies confirmed it had higher bioavailability than the Aceclofenac suppository.

  1. Optimising Lecture Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Christensen, Bo

    the students problems from the educator to the students. By using techniques that put more weight on student participation, cooperation and preparation, I have been able to cut significantly down on the time used for lecturing, allowing more time for student work and reflection. As an example by getting...

  2. Comparing the identification of Clostridium spp. by two Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry platforms to 16S rRNA PCR sequencing as a reference standard: a detailed analysis of age of culture and sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chean, Roy; Kotsanas, Despina; Francis, Michelle J; Palombo, Enzo A; Jadhav, Snehal R; Awad, Milena M; Lyras, Dena; Korman, Tony M; Jenkin, Grant A

    2014-12-01

    We compared the identification of Clostridium species using mass spectrometry by two different Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platforms (Bruker MS and Vitek MS) against 16S rRNA sequencing as the reference standard. We then examined the impact of different sample preparations and (on one of those platforms) age of bacterial colonial growth on the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS systems. We identified 10 different species amongst the 52 isolates by 16S rRNA sequencing, with Clostridium perfringens the most prevalent (n=30). Spectrometric analysis using Vitek MS correctly speciated 47/52 (90.4%) isolates and was not affected by the sample preparation used. Performance of the Bruker MS was dependent on sample preparation with correct speciation obtained for 36 of 52 (69.2%) isolates tested using the Direct Transfer [DT] protocol, but all 52 (100%) isolates were correctly speciated using either an Extended Direct Transfer [EDT] or a Full Formic Extraction [EX] protocol. We then examined the effect of bacterial colonial growth age on the performance of Bruker MS and found substantial agreement in speciation using DT (Kappa=0.62, 95% CI: 0.46-0.75), almost perfect agreement for EDT (Kappa=0.94, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00) and exact agreement for EX (Kappa=1.00) between different days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  4. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture Preparos de solo e épocas de semeadura de forragem para integraç��o lavoura-pecuária na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido, na safra 2008/2009, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, distrófico. Foi utilizado delineamento em parcelas subdivididas, em que cada parcela correspondeu a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e as subparcelas corresponderam a diferentes épocas de semeadura da forrageira Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. Os sistemas de preparo do solo foram os seguintes: grade aradora (GA, arado de discos (AD, cultivo mínimo (CM e semeadura direta (SD; as épocas de semeadura da forrageira foram feitas a 0, 8, 16 e 25 dias após a semeadura do milho (DAS, totalizando 16 tratamentos, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se as características vegetativas e produtivas da cultura do milho. Os preparos de solo influenciaram a altura de plantas e de inserção da primeira espiga, sendo os maiores valores observados no tratamento com grade aradora; a época de semeadura da forrageira n

  5. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  6. Preparation of the W state via cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin; YE Liu

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for preparation of the tripartite W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics is presented in this paper. And the scheme can be generalized to prepare the n-atom W states. The second part of this paper shows how to prepare n-cavity W states. All cavities involved are initially in the vacuum states, thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly loosened.

  7. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  8. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  9. Increased reaction time predicts visual learning deficits in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Lucio; Perfetti, Bernardo; Moisello, Clara; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Eidelberg, David; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the process involved in movement preparation of patients in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) shares attentional resources with visual learning, we tested 23 patients with PD and 13 normal controls with two different tasks. The first was a motor task where subjects were required to move as soon as possible to randomly presented targets by minimizing reaction time. The second was a visual learning task where targets were presented in a preset order and subjects were asked to learn the sequence order by attending to the display without moving. PD patients showed higher reaction and movement times, while visual learning was reduced compared to controls. For PD patients, reaction times, but not movement times, displayed an inverse significant correlation with the scores of visual learning. We conclude that visual declarative learning and movement preparation might share similar attentional and working memory resources. PMID:20568090

  10. Rapid Identification of Bacteria Directly from Positive Blood Cultures by Use of a Serum Separator Tube, Smudge Plate Preparation, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Porter, Vanessa; Mubareka, Samira; Kotowich, Leona; Simor, Andrew E

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of smudge plate growth for bacterial identification from 400 blood cultures. Ninety-seven percent of Gram-negative bacilli and 85% of Gram-positive organisms were correctly identified within 4 h; only eight isolates (2.0%) were misidentified. This method provided rapid and accurate microbial identification from positive blood cultures.

  11. Creativity, Requirements and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hoffmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there room for more creativity in information systems? This article grew out of an AWRE’04 panel discussion on creativity in requirements engineering, and the impact of requirements engineering on creativity in systems engineering and systems use. Both panel and article were motivated by the goal of identifying a framework for understanding creativity in a larger context and thus establishing a potential structure for future research. The authors’ research backgrounds differ widely and, at times, our views conflict – occasionally, quite sharply. We make underlying world views - our own and those of relevant disciplines – explicit; identify the paradox caused by the need to be functionally creative while leaving room for creativity in successive stages; and argue for a multi-paradigm framework for resolving this paradox.

  12. In-situ and Real-time Monitoring of Mechanochemical Preparation of Li2Mg(NH2BH3)4 and Na2Mg(NH2BH3)4 and their Thermal Dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliskov, Nikola; Borgschulte, Andreas; Užarević, Krunoslav; Halasz, Ivan; Lukin, Stipe; Milošević, Sanja; Milanović, Igor; Grbović Novaković, Jasmina

    2017-09-13

    For the first time, in-situ monitoring of uninterrupted mechanochemical synthesis of two bimetallic amidoboranes,M2Mg(NH2BH3)4 (M = Li, Na), by means of Raman spectroscopy has been applied. This approach allowed real-time observation of key intermediate phases and a straightforward follow-up of the reaction course. Detailed analysis of time-dependent spectra revealed a two-step mechanism through MNH2BH3.NH3BH3 adducts as key intermediate phases which further reacted with MgH2, giving M2Mg(NH2BH3)4 as final products. The intermediates partially take a competitive pathway toward the oligomeric M(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3) phases. The crystal structure of the novel bimetallic amidoborane Li2Mg(NH2BH3)4 was solved from high-resolution powder diffraction data and showed an analogous metal coordination as in Na2Mg(NH2BH3)4, but a significantly different crystal packing. Li2Mg(NH2BH3)4 thermally dehydrogenates releasing highly pure H2 in the amount of 7 wt% and at a lower temperature then its sodium analogue making it significantly more viable for practical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  14. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  15. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Telling time from analog and digital clocks: A multiple-route account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Does the naming of clocks always require conceptual preparation? To examine this question, speakers were presented with analog and digital clocks that had to be named in Dutch using either a relative (e.g., "quarter to four") or an absolute (e.g., "three forty-five") clock time expression format.

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  18. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  19. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  1. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  2. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  3. Preparing Today's Nursing Students for Tomorrow's Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Federal directives, nursing and nursing education associations, as well as accrediting bodies emphasize the importance of integrating health information technology and EHRs into nursing practice. Additionally, informatics is a required competency of baccalaureate nursing graduates. Nursing education's efforts to enhance students' learning in the area of electronic documentation is at its peak. The goal of enabling nurses to make healthcare safer, more effective, efficient, patient-centered, timely and equitable can only be achieved if a variety of technologies are clearly integrated into nursing education. Therefore, some schools have developed educational innovations to incorporate academic EHRs. As the mental health setting is unique, extraordinary attention has to be provided during the education of electronic documentation. Nursing education efforts must focus on interventions that provide resources that enhance the participant's knowledge and skills related to electronic documentation in a variety of clinical settings. Additionally, implementing academic EHRs in clinical settings offers nursing educators an opportunity to note the benefits. The state of nursing education depends on the accessibility to utilize academic EHRs in the nursing curriculum within the clinical setting to effectively prepare students for real-word practice.

  4. On-chip electromembrane extraction for monitoring drug metabolism in real time by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in any bioanalytical procedure and very often the most challenging step in method development. Most of the currently used methods require a relatively large amount of sample and are time consuming. Here, we describe a new approach based on electromembrane...... extraction (EME) integrated in microfluidic polymer chips. This procedure is fast, requires only small amounts of sample, and may thus be used for monitoring drug metabolism and the formation of metabolites in real time....

  5. Dataset Preparation in Datamining Analysis Using Horizontal Aggregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Data mining an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science, is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Preparing a data set for analysis is generally the most time consuming task in a data mining project, requiring many complex SQL queries, joining tables, and aggregating columns. Existing SQL aggregations have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal de normalized layout, which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. In this paper proposed three fundamental methods to evaluate horizontal aggregations: 1. CASE: Exploiting the programming CASE construct; 2.SPJ: Based on standard relational algebra operators; 3. PIVOT: Using the PIVOT operator, which is offered by some DBMSs

  6. The time window of MRI of murine atherosclerotic plaques after administration of CB2 receptor targeted micelles : inter-scan variability and relation between plaque signal intensity increase and gadolinium content of inversion recovery prepared versus non-prepared fast spin echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, B. C. M. Te; Bovens, S. M.; van de Kolk, C. W. A.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; ten Hove, M.; van der Weerd, L.; Poelmann, R.; Strijkers, G. J.; Pasterkamp, G.; van Echteld, C. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Single fast spin echo scans covering limited time frames are mostly used for contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaque biomarkers. Knowledge on inter-scan variability of the normalized enhancement ratio of plaque (NER(plaque)) and relation between NER(plaque) and gadolinium content for inversi

  7. 75 FR 14539 - Furnishing Identifying Number of Tax Return Preparer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ..., will increase tax compliance and allow taxpayers to be confident that the tax return preparers to whom... required to obtain and use a PTIN as the exclusive preparer identifying number and undergo a tax-compliance... testing, continuing education, and tax compliance checks. The Report contemplates that only...

  8. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.12 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) When to... determined by the responsible corporation official to be required. PADC may prepare an environmental... and services; (ix) Social and economic; (x) Historic and aesthetic; and (xi) Other relevant factors...

  9. 29 CFR 780.911 - Preparation for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation for transportation. 780.911 Section 780.911... Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.911 Preparation for transportation....

  10. 7 CFR 3407.10 - Preparation of environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are pertinent to environmental concerns, a supplement to the EA may be required. Supplements to EAs... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental assessments. 3407.10... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.10 Preparation of environmental assessments. (a) Format and content. An EA...

  11. Preparation modifications for damaged vital posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingburg, H T; Jacobi, R; Brackett, S E

    1985-04-01

    The preservation of a severely damaged tooth with a cast restoration requires that the preparation be modified to make use of remaining tooth structure. Preexisting preparation features, such as boxes and isthmuses, and new ones, such as boxes, grooves, and pin holes, are employed to provide adequate retention and resistance. When destruction of coronal tooth structure exceeds one-half of the clinical crown, a pin-retained amalgam or composite resin core should be used to build up the tooth to receive a cast restoration.

  12. Preparing for thesis and viva: some practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy-Jane

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a thesis and then undertaking the viva is challenging even for the most experienced of researchers. This paper offers stylistic practicalities, reflects on thesis and viva preparation, and discusses the research regulations and submission requirements of higher education institutions (HEIs). Issues such as the use of the first person, how best to locate research in the professional setting, research regulations and codes of practice are discussed, along with some guiding principles to enable effective viva preparation. It is derived from experience as a doctoral student, supervisor and examiner, and focuses on questions most frequently asked by doctoral students.

  13. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with multiple ..... for activated carbon production - A review. Renewable & Sustainable. Energy ...

  14. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... requires considering all potential impacts associated with the construction of the correctional...

  15. Rapid porcelain veneers: smile design, preparation, and cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, D S

    2001-11-01

    A technique for replacing existing porcelain veneers has been presented. Technique for smile design, tooth preparation, and cementation were described. The objective was to meet the patient's aesthetic expectations while also meeting functional requirements.

  16. Guide to preparing SAND Reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided.

  17. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation.

  18. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  19. An automatic robotic system for three-dimensional tooth crown preparation using a picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yuchun; Lv, Peijun

    2014-09-01

    Laser techniques have been introduced into dentistry to overcome the drawbacks of traditional treatment methods. The existing methods in dental clinical operations for tooth crown preparation have several drawbacks which affect the long-term success of the dental treatment. To develop an improved robotic system to manipulate the laser beam to achieve safe and accurate three-dimensional (3D) tooth ablation, and thus to realize automatic tooth crown preparation in clinical operations. We present an automatic laser ablation system for tooth crown preparation in dental restorative operations. The system, combining robotics and laser technology, is developed to control the laser focus in three-dimensional motion aiming for high speed and accuracy crown preparation. The system consists of an end-effector, a real-time monitor and a tooth fixture. A layer-by-layer ablation method is developed to control the laser focus during the crown preparation. Experiments are carried out with picosecond laser on wax resin and teeth. The accuracy of the system is satisfying, achieving the average linear errors of 0.06 mm for wax resin and 0.05 mm for dentin. The angle errors are 4.33° for wax resin and 0.5° for dentin. The depth errors for wax resin and dentin are both within 0.1 mm. The ablation time is 1.5 hours for wax resin and 3.5 hours for dentin. The ablation experimental results show that the movement range and the resolution of the robotic system can meet the requirements of typical dental operations for tooth crown preparation. Also, the errors of tooth shape and preparation angle are able to satisfy the requirements of clinical crown preparation. Although the experimental results illustrate the potential of using picosecond lasers for 3D tooth crown preparation, many research issues still need to be studied before the system can be applied to clinical operations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry