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Sample records for preparation time additional

  1. Preparation of nano-copper as lubrication oil additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; XU Bin-shi; XU Yi; YU He-long; SHI Pei-jing; LIU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Nano-copper used as lubrication oil additive has good tribological property and active self-repairing effect for friction pairs. The reduction in liquid phase for preparing nano-additive is one of the most common method.Nano-copper was prepared by reduction in liquid phase. The different project and routine practice for preparing nano-copper were researched. The dispersion problem of nano-copper was investigated by surface treatment and high dispersion. The particles dimension, the dispersion stability and the purity of nano-copper were characterized by TEM and XRD. The conclusion indicates that the methods of the preparation and dispersion can obtain 20 nm copper additive with good dispersion property in lubrication oil.

  2. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  3. Local Time of Additive Levy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We studied the problem of existence of jointly continuous local time for an additive process.Here, “local time” is understood in the sence of occupation density, and by an additive Lévy process we mean a process X={X(t), t∈Rd+)} which has the decomposition X= X1 X2 … XN. We prove that if the product of it slower index and N is greater than d, then a jointly continuous local time can be obtained via Berman's method.

  4. Properties of the FCC Catalyst Additive Prepared from Guizhou Kaoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlun Xu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a FCC catalyst additive prepared from Guizhou kaoline were extensively investigated. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the crystallinity of NaY zeolite synthesized from this kaoline was 25% and the silica alumina ratio was rk/s ˇ m = 5.05. The catalyst additive prepared from above crystallization product exhibited excellent performance of nickel and vanadium passivation, offered 21% lower coke versus base catalyst, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity.

  5. Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite ceramics with starch additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; NING Xiao-shan; CHEN Ke-xin; XIAO Qun-fang; ZHOU He-ping

    2005-01-01

    Porous ceramics prepared from nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders by adding water soluble starch and insoluble starch were investigated. The results show that small pores of several micrometers or less can be produced by adding water soluble starch as a pore former. Two kinds of starch have different pore forming mechanisms. The permeability of the porous ceramics can be greatly improved by adding the insoluble starch to channel the small pores rather than solely using water soluble starch. The control of permeability can be achieved by adjusting the content ratio of water soluble starch to insoluble starch. Strength tests show the ceramics have rather high strength. Therefore a kind of porous filtering material with small pores, controllable permeability and good strength can be prepared by using starch additives.

  6. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  7. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  8. Additive Manufacturing: Preparing for the Reality of Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    applications.185 The separation between high- and low-end machines in the late 1990s was critical to the current additive manufacturing landscape. The...research into the development and output of high-end additive manufacturing machines continued along a relatively constant and predictable trajectory...technologies required for the low-end additive manufacturing machines led to surprising industry changes. After nearly two decades of a strict industrial

  9. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  10. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TWO CHINESE ANTHRACITES IN THE PRESENCE OF OXIDATIVE ADDITIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双全; 何维军; 王祖讷

    1998-01-01

    This paper broke with the conventional ways of oxidizing and catalyzing. It researcheda new way to prepare activated carbon from anthracites which employed oxidative additives. Itinvestigated the effects of the additive on adsorption and activation rate of the resultant activatedcarbon. The results showed that the new additives not only improved the adsorptivity but alsoincreased the activation rate greatly, which is able to decrease the preparation cost.

  11. Influence of addition of amylase preparation to dough on fermentative activity of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough samples with different content of amylases were investigated immediately after mixing and after 7, 14 and 30 days of frozen storage. The obtained results show that the fermentation time is shorter, both in fresh and frozen samples, when amylase sample 1 was added, compared to dough without enzymes. The addition of amylase 2 to dough resulted in minimal decrease of "rising" time, both is frozen and fresh dough samples. The rising time of fresh samples was shorter when amylase 3 was added to dough. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples is increasing by about 10% compared to the control sample, for all amounts of amylase 1 and 2 added to the do- ugh. The fermentative activity of yeast in frozen samples increased by 5-10%, after keeping of dough with the addition of amylase 1 for 14 days. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples increased compared to the control, for all amounts of added amylase 3 to the dough. In frozen dough samples the fermentative activity of yeast decreased by 10% for all added amounts of amylase 3. Baked goods made of fresh and frozen dough, prepared with the addition of amylase 1, are better than the ones made of control dough sample, considering all evaluated parameters.

  12. Time Well Spent: Preparation for Impromptu Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kevin W.

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that impromptu speaking should be viewed as an event which develops students' organizational ability, creative thinking, audience analysis, and delivery skills. Presents various techniques to aid students and coaches in pre-tournament preparation for impromptu speaking. (MM)

  13. Chaotic time series prediction and additive white Gaussian noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Teck Por [Department of Mathematics, 6M30 Huxley, Imperial College London, 180 Queen' s Gate, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: teckpor@gmail.com; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: elespk@nus.edu.sg

    2007-06-04

    Taken's delay embedding theorem states that a pseudo state-space can be reconstructed from a time series consisting of observations of a chaotic process. However, experimental observations are inevitably corrupted by measurement noise, which can be modelled as Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). This Letter analyses time series prediction in the presence of AWGN using the triangle inequality and the mean of the Nakagami distribution. It is shown that using more delay coordinates than those used by a typical delay embedding can improve prediction accuracy, when the mean magnitude of the input vector dominates the mean magnitude of AWGN.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Preparations for Additional Protocol Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCowan, Janie [ORNL; Cain, Ronald A [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The United States Additional Protocol (AP) with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) entered into force (EIF) January 6, 2009. In anticipation of the EIF, the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243) began the initial DOE AP data call on November 3, 2008. This paper describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) preparation, organization, and development efforts to successfully implement the AP and complete the AP data call. ORNL had 35 days to identify declarable activities and finalize the declaration line items (DLIs) for submission to NA-243. To be able to respond within the required time frame, many preparation activities at ORNL were necessary, such as determining the AP coordinator (APC) and team roles; conducting site awareness training; creating the ORNL Standards-Based Management System (SBMS) procedure Reporting of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities; training personnel; and defining site implementation software tools. Identifying, updating, compiling, reviewing, and submitting the DLIs to NA-243 were all critical activities for successfully implementing the AP and completing the AP data call at ORNL.

  15. Timing of Getter Material Addition in Cementitious Wasteforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawter, A.; Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental immobilization technology for the Hanford sites's low activity waste (LAW), which contains radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. Cast Stone is made of a dry blend 47% blast furnace slag, 45% fly ash, and 8% ordinary Portland cement, mixed with a low-activity waste (LAW). To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to provide a stable domain for the radionuclides of concern. Previous testing conducted with a variety of getters has identified Tin(II)-Apatite and Silver Exchanged Zeolite as promising candidates for Tc and I, respectively. Investigation into the sequence in which getters are added to Cast Stone was performed following two methods: 1) adding getters to the Cast Stone dry blend, and then mixing with liquid waste, and 2) adding getters to the liquid waste first, followed by addition of the Cast Stone dry blend. Cast Stone monolith samples were prepared with each method and leach tests, following EPA method 1315, were conducted in either distilled water or simulated vadose zone porewater for a period of up to 63 days. The leachate was analyzed for Tc, I, Na, NO3-, NO2- and Cr with ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ion chromatography and the results indicated that the Cast Stone with getter addition in the dry blend mix (method 1) has lower rates of Tc and I leaching. The mechanisms of radionuclide release from the Cast Stone were also investigated with a variety of solid phase characterization techniques of the monoliths before and after leaching, such as XRD, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED and other spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA

    2009-09-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided for stationarity of such models. We also study estimation of the proposed model using P-splines, hypothesis testing, asymptotics, selection of the order of the autoregression and of the smoothing parameters and nonlinear forecasting. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate our model in various settings. We illustrate our methodology on a climate data set and show that our model provides more accurate yearly forecasts of the El Niño phenomenon, the unusual warming of water in the Pacific Ocean. © 2009 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  17. Epidural top-up solutions for emergency caesarean section: a comparison of preparation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D N; Borra, P J; Yentis, S M

    2000-04-01

    We compared the preparation times of three solutions commonly used for epidural top-up for emergency Caesarean section. Twenty-two anaesthetists were asked to prepare fresh solutions in random order as quickly as possible: 0.5% bupivacaine 20 ml (B); 2% lidocaine 20 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine (LE); and 0.5% bupivacaine 10 ml and 2% lidocaine 10 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate 2 ml (BLEB). Preparation times for B were approximately half of those for LE, which in turn were approximately half of those for BLEB (P = 0.0001). If local anaesthetic solutions with additives such as epinephrine or bicarbonate are prepared just before emergency Caesarean section, any possible reduction in onset time that they might afford may be offset by the additional preparation time required.

  18. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic column prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamat Turson; Xiao Lei Zhuang; Hui Na Liu; Ping Jiang; Xiang Chao Dong

    2009-01-01

    To make more homogenous organic monolithic structure,reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer(RAFT)process was employed in the synthesis of the clenbuterol imprinted polymer.In the synthesis,the influence of synthetic conditions on the polymer structure and separation efficiency was studied.The result demonstrated that the imprinted columns prepared with RAFT process have higher column efficiency and selectivity than the columns prepared with conventional polymerization in the present study,which may result from the higher surface area,smaller pore size and the narrower globule size distribution in their structures.The result indicated that RAFT polymerization provided better conditions for the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic polymer preparation.

  20. Effect of PVP Additive on Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Razmjouee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP additive on microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies in different synthesis conditions showed the formation of cobalt ferrite and cobalt oxide. Comparing IR spectrum of PVP additive, sol prepared before hydrothermal process and C-0.1PVP3, 190 obtained by FTIR spectroscopy indicated the formation of bond between PVP and surface of metallic hydroxide and cobalt ferrite particles, which prevented them from growing and coarsening. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the morphology of samples. According to vibration sample magnetometer (VSM results, as PVP amount increases from 0.1 to 0.3 volume percent, coercive field increases from 298 to 684 Oe and saturation magnetization decreases from 58 to 51 emu/g.

  1. Preparation and application of cationized pulp fiber as a papermaking wet-end additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wei; FENG Hai-li; QIAN Xue-ren

    2008-01-01

    Cationized pulp fibers (CPF) were prepared by the adsorption of a novel biodegradable cationic ester quaternary ammonium salt (31441) on bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers. The optimized conditions for the CPF preparation were: 4% of 31441 (based on oven-dry pulp), 80°C and 30 min. The CPF was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XPS. Experimental results showed that the CPF improved the retention of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler significantly. With 0.9% CPF (based on oven-dry pulp), the retention of PCC increased from 57.53% to 72.21%. The physical properties of paper were also slightly improved. The tensile strength and burst strength of the paper with CPF were higher than those with CPAM. CPF addition had no effect on the stock drainage.

  2. SELF-INTERSECTION LOCAL TIME OF ADDITIVE LEVY PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉泉; 胡迪鹤

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of existence of jointly continuous self-process X = {X(t), t ∈ RN+)} which has the decomposition X = X1 X2 ... Xv, eachThey prove that if Nrα> d(r - 1), then a jointly continuous local time of Z, i.e. theself-intersection local time of X, can be obtained.

  3. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng

    2015-05-12

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  4. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stergios Vradelis; Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Yalda Sharifi; Otto Buchel; Satish Keshav; Roger W Chapman; Barbara Braden

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient's tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone ( n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules ( n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group ( P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen ( P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome.

  5. Detection of additive outliers in seasonal time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Montañés, Antonio; Sansó, Andreu

    The detection and location of additive outliers in integrated variables has attracted much attention recently because such outliers tend to affect unit root inference among other things. Most of these procedures have been developed for non-seasonal processes. However, the presence of seasonality...... in the form of seasonally varying means and variances affect the properties of outlier detection procedures, and hence appropriate adjustments of existing methods are needed for seasonal data. In this paper we suggest modifications of tests proposed by Shin et al. (1996) and Perron and Rodriguez (2003......) to deal with data sampled at a seasonal frequency and the size and power properties are discussed. We also show that the presence of periodic heteroscedasticity will inflate the size of the tests and hence will tend to identify an excessive number of outliers. A modified Perron-Rodriguez test which allows...

  6. Effects of Dietary Addition of a Low-Pectin Apple Fibre Preparation on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotschki Bartosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of SN-38-Encapsulated Phytantriol Cubosomes Containing α-Monoglyceride Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Noguchi, Shuji; Iwao, Yasunori; Oka, Toshihiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    SN-38 is a potent active metabolite of irinotecan that has been considered as an anticancer candidate. However, the clinical development of this compound has been hampered by its poor aqueous solubility and chemical instability. In this study, we developed SN-38-encapsulated cubosomes to resolve these problems. Six α-monoglyceride additives, comprising monocaprylin, monocaprin, monolaurin, monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin, were used to prepare phytantriol (PHYT) cubosomes by probe sonication. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential values of these systems were around 190-230 nm, 0.19-0.25 and -17 to -22 mV, respectively. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses confirmed that the SN-38-encapsulated cubosomes existed in the Pn̄3m space group both with and without the additives. The monoglyceride additives led to around a two-fold increase in the solubility of SN-38 compared with the PHYT cubosome. The drug entrapment efficiency of PHYT cubosomes with additives was greater than 97%. The results of a stability study at 25°C showed no dramatic changes in the particle size or polydispersity index characteristics, with at least 85% of the SN-38 existing in its active lactone form after 10 d, demonstrating the high stability of the cubosome nanoparticles. Furthermore, approximately 55% of SN-38 was slowly released from the cubosomes with additives over 96 h in vitro under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results show that the SN-38-encapsulated PHYT cubosome particles are promising drug carriers that should be considered for further in vivo experiments, including drug delivery to tumor cells using the enhanced permeability and retention effect.

  8. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance.

  9. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphosphoester-Camptothecin Prodrug with Reduction-Response Prepared via Michael Addition Polymerization and Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xueqiong; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Mingzu; He, Jinlin; Ni, Peihong

    2017-04-26

    Polyphosphoesters (PPEs), as potential candidates for biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, play an important role in material science. Various synthetic methods have been employed in the preparation of PPEs such as polycondensation, polyaddition, ring-opening polymerization, and olefin metathesis polymerization. In this study, a series of linear PPEs has been prepared via one-step Michael addition polymerization. Subsequently, camptothecin (CPT) derivatives containing disulfide bonds and azido groups were linked onto the side chain of the PPE through Cu(I)-catalyzed azidealkyne cyclo-addition "click" chemistry to yield a reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug P(EAEP-PPA)-g-ss-CPT. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and high performance liquid chromatograph analyses, respectively. The amphiphilic prodrug could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. The average particle size and morphology of the prodrug micelles were measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results of size change under different conditions indicate that the micelles possess a favorable stability in physiological conditions and can be degraded in reductive medium. Moreover, the studies of in vitro drug release behavior confirm the reduction-responsive degradation of the prodrug micelles. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay verifies the good biocompatibility of P(EAEP-PPA) not only for normal cells, but also for tumor cells. The results of cytotoxicity and the intracellular uptake about prodrug micelles further demonstrate that the prodrug micelles can efficiently release CPT into 4T1 or HepG2 cells to inhibit the cell proliferation. All these results show that the polyphosphoester-based prodrug can be used for triggered drug delivery system in cancer treatment.

  11. Uses of red mud based catalytic additives in hydrocracking. Pt. 1. Preparation and basic experiments. Einsatz von katalytischen Zusaetzen auf Rotmassebasis beim Hydrocracking. T. 1. Praeparation und Basisversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sourkouni-Argirusi, G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains two sections. In the first section a limited review is presented and the preparation of the red mud based additives is described. The additives are characterized by composition and their catalytic activity in hydrocracking is investigated in a batch autoclave under an initial hydrogen pressure of 12 MPa at 435 C and 30 min residence time. A quantitative characterization of the products is given. Comparisons between the red mud additives and coke respectively a commercial catalyst are made. (orig.)

  12. High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe3Al Intermetallic Alloy Prepared by Additive Manufacturing LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Łyszkowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal oxidation of Fe-28Al-5Cr (at% intermetallic alloy microalloyed with Zr and B (<0.08 at% in air atmosphere, in the temperature range of 1000 to 1200 °C, was studied. The investigation was carried out on the thin-walled (<1 mm elements prepared by Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS from alloy powder of a given composition. Characterization of the specimens, after the oxidation, was conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, with back-scatter detector (BSE and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS attachments. The investigation has shown, that the oxidized samples were covered with a thin, homogeneous α-Al2O3 oxide layers. The intensity of their growth indicates that the material lost its resistance to oxidation at 1200 °C. Structural analysis of the thin-walled components’ has not shown intensification of the oxidation process at the joints of additive layers.

  13. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  14. Effect of Additives on Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Tio/ZnO Nanocomposite Prepared via Sol-Gel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Moradi; Parviz Aberoomand Azar; Sanaz Raeis Farshid; Saeed Abedini Khorrami; Mohammad Hadi Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the sol-gel method with and without addatives such as carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidon, (PVP), and hydroxylpropylcellulose (HPC). The characteristics of the prepared TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were identified by IR spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) methods. The additives have a significant effect on the particle size distribut...

  15. Influence of alcohol additives in the preparation of electrodeposited Pt-Ru catalysts on oxidized graphite cloths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieben, Juan Manuel, E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.ar [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion, Universidad Nacional del Sur, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Duarte, Marta M.E.; Mayer, Carlos E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion, Universidad Nacional del Sur, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-03-03

    Research highlights: > Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by potential pulse electrodeposition from solutions containing EtOH or EG at pH 2 and 5. > The catalyst particle size, loading and dispersion were influenced by solution pH and alcohol addition. > The deposits prepared at pH 2 exhibited large irregular agglomerates while those prepared at pH 5 presented smaller globular particles. > Pt-Ru system prepared using EG at pH 5 exhibited the best performance for CH{sub 3}OH oxidation. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by multiple cycles of potentiostatic pulses from aqueous diluted chloroplatinic acid and ruthenium chloride solutions in the presence of ethanol or ethylene glycol at pH 2 and 5. SEM images showed that the metallic deposit prepared at pH 2 consisted of large irregular agglomerates, whereas smaller globular particles were obtained at pH 5. In addition, the average particle size was considerably decreased in the presence of the stabilizers. The supported Pt-Ru alloys were tested as catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode was obtained with ethylene glycol as additive at pH 5.

  16. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 μm. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin

  17. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental fatigue and temporal preparation in simple reaction-time performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Steinborn, Michael B; Chatterjee, Anjan; Sturm, Walter; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Performance decrements attributed to mental fatigue have been found to be especially pronounced in tasks that involve the voluntary control of attention. Here we explored whether mental fatigue from prolonged time on task (TOT) also impairs temporal preparation for speeded action in a simple reaction-time task. Temporal preparation is enabled by a warning signal presented before the imperative stimulus and usually results in shorter reaction time (RT). When the delay between warning and imperative stimuli - the foreperiod (FP) - varies between trials, responses are faster with longer FPs. This pattern has been proposed to arise from either voluntary attentional processes (temporal orienting) or automatic trial-to-trial learning (trace conditioning). The former account suggests a selective RT increase on long-FP trials with fatigue; the latter account suggests no such change. Over a work period of 51 min, we found the typical increase in overall RT but no selective RT increase after long FPs. This additivity indicates that TOT-induced mental fatigue generally reduces cognitive efficiency but leaves temporal preparation under time uncertainty unaffected. We consider this result more consistent with the trace-conditioning account of temporal preparation.

  19. The Newsvendor Problem with Different Delivery Time, Resalable Returns, and an Additional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Fue; Chi, Yunjia; Zheng, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    .... Considering demands for different delivery time, we explore a newsvendor model with resalable returns and an additional order to optimize the procurement decision under a stochastic demand distribution...

  20. PREPARATION OF POLYETHERSULFONE ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES FOR MILK CONCENTRATION AND EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES ON THEIR MORPHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Madaeni; A. Rahimpour

    2005-01-01

    Polyethersulfone membranes were prepared from quaternary systems containing N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as solvent, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as constant additive and acetic acid, acetone and water as variable additives. Phase inversion via immersion precipitation was employed for manufacturing of membranes. The prepared films were immersed in the mixture of pure water and 2-propanol (30/70 vol%) as the non-solvent. Acetic acid caused an increment in the flux at high polymer concentration (16wt%) and a decline in the flux at low polymer concentrations (10 wt% and 13 wt%). Acetone and water as the solvent in the casting solution declined the flux at any polymer concentration tested. The morphology and performance of the prepared membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and separation experiments using milk as the feed.

  1. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion, etc. were determined. The received biofuel was tested at oil refinery and its bench tests with a positive effect were also carried out. Technical requirements and technological regulation (temporary on manufacture of this biodiesel fuel were prepared.

  2. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  3. Preparation and Application of Cationic Modified Cellulose Fibrils as a Papermaking Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cationic modified cellulose fibrils obtained by reacting the cellulose fibrils with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EPTMAC. The physical and chemical properties of unmodified cellulose fibrils (UMCF and cationic modified cellulose fibrils (CMCF were characterized by SEM, FTIR, degree of substitution, colloid titration, zeta potential, and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results showed that, after cationization, surface charge density and zeta potential reversed, thermal stability decreased, and new functional groups appeared, while the surface morphology did not show much difference from the UMCF. With the addition of three kinds of additives (UMCF, CMCF, and cationic starch (CS to BCTMP, the addition of UMCF and CMCF had little effect on zeta potential, while the addition of CS changed zeta potential obviously. With the increasing of additive amount, the bulk of paper sheets added CMCF did not change obviously, while the bulk of paper sheets added UMCF and CS decreased rapidly. With regard to physical strength, all the three kinds of additives could improve the tensile index and tear index; the tensile index of paper sheets added CS was higher than that of added UMCF and CMCF, while the tear index of paper sheets added CMCF was the highest among the three additives.

  4. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 2429.22 Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery. 2429.22 Section 2429.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS...

  5. Preparation of Polyethylene Composites Containing Silver(I) Acylpyrazolonato Additives and SAR Investigation of their Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Fabio; Palmucci, Jessica; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Marangoni, Mirko; Ferraro, Stefano; Giovannetti, Rita; Scuri, Stefania; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario; Maldonado Hodar, Francisco José; Gunnella, Roberto

    2016-11-02

    Novel composite materials PEn (n = 1-9) have been prepared by an easily up-scalable embedding procedure of three different families of Ag(I) acylpyrazolonato complexes in polyethylene (PE) matrix. In details, PE1-PE3 composites contain polynuclear [Ag(Q(R))]n complexes, PE4-PE6 contain mononuclear [Ag(Q(R))(L)m] complexes and PE7-PE9 are loaded with mononuclear [Ag(Q(R)) (PPh3)2] complexes, respectively (where L = 1-methylimidazole or 2-ethylimidazole, m = 1 or 2, and HQ(R) = 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-RC(═O)-5-pyrazolone, where in detail HQ(fb), R = -CF2CF2CF3; HQ(cy), R = -cyclo-C6H11; HQ(be), R = -C(H)═C(CH3)2). The PEn composites, prepared by using a 1:1000 w/w silver additive/polyethylene ratio, have been characterized in bulk by IR spectroscopy and TGA analyses, which confirmed that the properties of polyethylene matrix are essentially unchanged. AFM, SEM, and EDX surface techniques show that silver additives form agglomerates with dimensions 10-100 μm on the polyethylene surface, with a slight increment of surface roughness of pristine plastic within 50 nm. However, the elastic properties of the composites are essentially the same of PE. The antibacterial activity of all composites has been tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) and results show that two classes of composites, PE1-PE3 and PE4-PE6, display high and persistent bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity, comparable to PE embedded with AgNO3. By contrast, composites PE7-PE9 exhibit a reduced antibacterial action. Contact and release tests in several conditions for specific migration of Ag(+) from plastics, indicate a very limited but time persistent release of silver ions from PE1-PE6 composites, thus suggesting that they are potential antibacterial materials for future applications. Instead, PE7-PE9 almost do not release silver, only trace levels of silver ions being detected, in accordance with their reduced antibacterial action. None of the composites is

  6. Evaluation and additional recommendations for preparing a whole blood control material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Nilda E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The assessment of an easy to prepare and low cost control material for Hematology, available for manual and automated methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Aliquots of stabilized whole blood were prepared by partial fixation with aldehydes; the stability at different temperatures (4. 20 and 37 °C during periods of up to 8-9 weeks and aliquot variability with both methods were controlled. RESULTS: Aliquot variability with automated methods at day 1, expressed as CV% (coefficient of variation was: white blood cells (WBC 2.7, red blood cells (RBC 0.7, hemoglobin (Hb 0.6, hematocrit (Hct 0.7, mean cell volume (MCV 0.3, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH 0.6, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 0.7, and platelets (PLT 4.6. The CV (coefficient of variation percentages obtained with manual methods in one of the batches were: WBC 23, Hct 2.8, Hb 4.5, MCHC 5.9, PLT 41. Samples stored at 4ºC and 20ºC showed good stability, only a very low initial hemolysis being observed, whereas those stored at 37ºC deteriobed a rapidly (metahemoglobin formation, aggregation of WBC and platelets, as well as alteration of erythrocyte indexes. CONCLUSIONS: It was confirmed that, as long as there is no exposure to high temperatures during distribution, this material is stable, allowing assessment, both esternal and internal, for control purposes, with acceptable reproductivity, both for manual and auttomatic methods.

  7. Evaluation and additional recommendations for preparing a whole blood control material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda E. Fink

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The assessment of an easy to prepare and low cost control material for Hematology, available for manual and automated methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Aliquots of stabilized whole blood were prepared by partial fixation with aldehydes; the stability at different temperatures (4. 20 and 37 °C during periods of up to 8-9 weeks and aliquot variability with both methods were controlled. RESULTS: Aliquot variability with automated methods at day 1, expressed as CV% (coefficient of variation was: white blood cells (WBC 2.7, red blood cells (RBC 0.7, hemoglobin (Hb 0.6, hematocrit (Hct 0.7, mean cell volume (MCV 0.3, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH 0.6, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 0.7, and platelets (PLT 4.6. The CV (coefficient of variation percentages obtained with manual methods in one of the batches were: WBC 23, Hct 2.8, Hb 4.5, MCHC 5.9, PLT 41. Samples stored at 4ºC and 20ºC showed good stability, only a very low initial hemolysis being observed, whereas those stored at 37ºC deteriobed a rapidly (metahemoglobin formation, aggregation of WBC and platelets, as well as alteration of erythrocyte indexes. CONCLUSIONS: It was confirmed that, as long as there is no exposure to high temperatures during distribution, this material is stable, allowing assessment, both esternal and internal, for control purposes, with acceptable reproductivity, both for manual and auttomatic methods.

  8. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Materials and methods: Additional tasks were classified as “additional test request” and “additional sample”. We collected those incidences from the lab...

  9. Effectiveness of Constant Time Delay on Teaching Snack and Drink Preparation Skills to Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Funda; Gursel, Oguz

    2005-01-01

    A multiple probe design with probe conditions across behaviors was used to evaluate effectiveness of constant time delay on teaching snack and drink preparation skills to children with mental retardation. In addition, generalization effects across settings, time, and materials, and maintenance effects were examined. Three students between the ages…

  10. Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe combined effects of tumbling marination methods (Vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8 and 10 h on quality characteristics of prepared boneless pork chops were investigated. The results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly increased the pH, product yield, cohesiveness, resilience, sensory tenderness and overall flavor (p<0.05 compared with IT method, and CT method also significantly decreased the pressing loss, cooking loss, shear force value (SFV, hardness and chewiness (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increasing from 4 h to 10 h, the product yield and sensory attributes of prepared pork chops increased at first and then decreased, whereas the pressing loss, cooking loss, SFV, hardness and chewiness decreased at first and then increased. Additionally, an interaction between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed. These results suggested that CT method of 8 h obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops, which should be adopted.

  11. Preparation of 2-heteroatom substituted 4-oxo-4-arylbutanoates via thio- and aza-Michael addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient regioselective conjugate additions of thiophenols and benzotriazole to 4-aryl-4-oxobut-2-enoates have been achieved under mild conditions. Thus a variety of 2-arylthio-4-oxo-4-arylbutanoates and 2- benzotriazolyl-4-oxo-4-arylbutanoates were conveniently synthesized in good to excellent yields.

  12. Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Composite Prepared using Carbon Wool Conducting Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, S.; Nakamura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Tabuchi, M.

    2011-05-01

    New carbon particles, carbon wool, were utilized as conducting additives for the cathode composite, and the electrochemical properties of the cathode composite were examined. The carbon wool particles exhibit good conductivity (~100S m-1), because they have large fraction (approximately 80%) of sp2 graphite-like component and three-dimensional network structure. Partial replacement of acetylene black with carbon wool has no affect on the low current rate performance but a negative influence on high current rate performance. However, a small addition of carbon wool to the appropriate amount of acetylene black leads to the improvement of high rate capability without a significant reduction of the cathode density. Therefore, it may give us a possibility to obtain the cathode having both high density and high power capability.

  13. Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Composite Prepared using Carbon Wool Conducting Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, S; Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo, 671-2201 (Japan); Tabuchi, M, E-mail: tatsuya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    New carbon particles, carbon wool, were utilized as conducting additives for the cathode composite, and the electrochemical properties of the cathode composite were examined. The carbon wool particles exhibit good conductivity ({approx}10{sup 0}S m{sup -1}), because they have large fraction (approximately 80%) of sp{sup 2} graphite-like component and three-dimensional network structure. Partial replacement of acetylene black with carbon wool has no affect on the low current rate performance but a negative influence on high current rate performance. However, a small addition of carbon wool to the appropriate amount of acetylene black leads to the improvement of high rate capability without a significant reduction of the cathode density. Therefore, it may give us a possibility to obtain the cathode having both high density and high power capability.

  14. Influence of rare earths addition on residual stress of Fe-based coating prepared by brush plating technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Guo; LU Bingwen; HOU Dingding; CUI Xiufang; SONG Jiahui; LIU Erbao

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rare earths (La, Ce and Pr) addition on residual stress in iron coatings prepared by brush plating was investi-gated. The results showed that the addition of rare earth transformed the residual stress in the coating from tensile to compressive. To relieve the residual stress, on the one hand, RE elements segregated at the grain boundaries which restricted the coalescence of the grains and provided more capability of grain deformation. On the other hand, RE elements could purify detrimental element and ab-sorb hydrogen atoms in the coating. Among the three rare earths, elements lanthanum showed the most significant effect on surface morphology and residual stress.

  15. Preparation of polyvinylidene fluoride/cellulose acetate blend membrane with polyethylene glycol additive for apple juice clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Shatila Jihadiyah; Widiastuti, Nurul

    2017-03-01

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)/Cellulose Acetate (CA) blend membrane with polyethylene (PEG) addition of casting solution were synthesised to determine its morphology. This purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of PEG addition to membrane performance and its application to the clarification of apple juice. The membranes were prepared from polymer blends of CA and PVDF, dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as solvent, and PEG as additive. Phase inversion was used to prepare membranes by mixing the polymer blends, solvent and additive to be reacted at temperature 60 °C for 24 hours. The variation of PEG weight percentage were 0, 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The addition of PEG increased porosity and fluxes, but decreased membrane rejection. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were applied to evaluate the morphology of membranes, which investigated increasing of pore size, pore distribution, and surface roughness. Apple juice clarification by membrane with 1% PEG was obtained 95,1% clearer than the pure sample.

  16. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmwald, Paul M. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  17. REPRESENTATION OF ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND LOCAL TIMES FOR JUMP MARKOV PROCESSES AND THEIR FUNCTIONAL LIMIT THEOREM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋义文; 刘禄勤

    2003-01-01

    The representation of additive functionals and local times for jump Markovprocesses are obtained. The results of uniformly functional moderate deviation and theirapplications to birth-death processes are also presented.

  18. Investigation of hydrogen atom addition to vinyl monomers by time resolved ESR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckert, D.; Mehler, K.

    1983-07-01

    By means of time resolved ESR spectroscopy in the microsecond time scale the H atom addition to different vinyl monomers was investigated. The H atoms produced by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions show a strong recombination CIDEP effect which also allows the recombination rate constant of H atoms to be determined. By analysis of ESR time profiles with the modified Bloch equations the relaxation times T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, the polarization factors and the chemical rate constants with scavengers were obtained. Besides the H atom addition rate constants to different vinyl monomers the structure of the monomer radical was determined for acrylic acid.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposite Polymer Membranes Containing Functionalized SnO2 Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scipioni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research of new nanocomposite proton-conducting membranes, SnO2 ceramic powders with surface functionalization have been synthesized and adopted as additives in Nafion-based polymer systems. Different synthetic routes have been explored to obtain suitable, nanometer-sized sulphated tin oxide particles. Structural and morphological characteristics, as well as surface and bulk properties of the obtained oxide powders, have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, N2 adsorption, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, thermal investigations, water uptake (WU measurements, and ionic exchange capacity (IEC tests have been used as characterization tools for the nanocomposite membranes. The nature of the tin oxide precursor, as well as the synthesis procedure, were found to play an important role in determining the morphology and the particle size distribution of the ceramic powder, this affecting the effective functionalization of the oxides. The incorporation of such particles, having sulphate groups on their surface, altered some peculiar properties of the resulting composite membrane, such as water content, thermo-mechanical, and morphological characteristics.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Sintering Additives Coated Si3N4 from Heterogeneous Nucleation Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sintering additives such as Al2O3 and/or Y2O3 were coated on the surfaces of Si3N4 particles via heterogeneousnucleation processing using a buffered pH solution as the precipitation reagent. They nucleated and grew only onthe surfaces of Si3N4 and did not form sol particles in solution by TEM observation. The isoelectric point (IEP) ofcoated Si3N4 was different from that of as-received Si3N4. The IEP of Al(OH)3-coated Si3N4 occurred at pH8.4,which is close to that of alumina. When Al(OH)3-coated Si3N4 particles were coated with Y(OH)3, the IEP of coatedSi3N4 powder shifted from pH8.4 to pH9.2, similar to that of yttria. In addition, the rheological data showed thatAl2O3 and/or Y2O3 coated Si3N4 suspension is nearly Newtonian and that added Si3N4 suspension shows a shearrate thinning behavior.

  1. An LMI Approach to H∞ Performance Analysis of Continous-Time System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrastawa Ridwan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of H∞ performance analysis for continous–time systems with two additive time-varying delays in the state. Our objective is focused on stability analysis of a continuous system with two time-varying delays with an H∞ disturbance attenuation level γ. By exploiting Lyapunov-Krasovski functional and introducing free weighting matrix variables, LMI stability condition have been derived.

  2. Preparation and Tribological Performance of Novel Organotin Compound as Lubricant Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁德; 陶德华; 赵源; 曹卫国; 张建华; 付尚发

    2004-01-01

    Oil-soluble stannous naphthenate (SN) is synthesized by using naphthenatic acid and SnO. And its molecular structure is confirmed by IR and multielement oil analyzer (MOA). The tribological performances of the organotin as lubricant additive are evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester. These experiments indicate that the wear scar diameter (WSD) and friction coefficient are diminished while the load-carrying capability increased by comparison with that of base oil. The elemental composition of the boundary lubricating film is examined by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Synergistic effect is found in the load-carrying capability of the complex of SN and sulfured olefin. The analytical results of AES indicate that the good performance of stannous naphthenate is attributed to the formation of a boundary lubricating film containing Sn on the rubbed surface.

  3. Fast detection of Noroviruses using a real-time PCR assay and automated sample preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Michael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoV have become one of the most commonly reported causative agents of large outbreaks of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide as well as sporadic gastroenteritis in the community. Currently, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays have been implemented in NoV diagnosis, but improvements that simplify and standardize sample preparation, amplification, and detection will be further needed. The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR offers such refinements. Methods We have designed a new real-time RT-PCR assay on the LightCycler (LC with SYBR Green detection and melting curve analysis (Tm to detect NoV RNA in patient stool samples. The performance of the real-time PCR assay was compared with that obtained in parallel with a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for antigen detection by testing a panel of 52 stool samples. Additionally, in a collaborative study with the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Health office, Stuttgart (Germany the real-time PCR results were blindly assessed using a previously well-established nested PCR (nPCR as the reference method, since PCR-based techniques are now considered as the "gold standard" for NoV detection in stool specimens. Results Analysis of 52 clinical stool samples by real-time PCR yielded results that were consistent with reference nPCR results, while marked differences between the two PCR-based methods and antigen ELISA were observed. Our results indicate that PCR-based procedures are more sensitive and specific than antigen ELISA for detecting NoV in stool specimens. Conclusions The combination of automated sample preparation and real-time PCR provided reliable diagnostic results in less time than conventional RT-PCR assays. These benefits make it a valuable tool for routine laboratory practice especially in terms of rapid and appropriate outbreak-control measures in health-care facilities and other settings.

  4. The Additive-multiplicative Hazards Mo del for Multiple Typ e of Recurrent Gap Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-xian; Liu Ji-cai; Guan Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent event gap times data frequently arise in biomedical studies and often more than one type of event is of interest. To evaluate the effects of covariates on the marginal recurrent event hazards functions, there exist two types of hazards models: the multiplicative hazards model and the additive hazards model. In the paper, we propose a more flexible additive-multiplicative hazards model for multiple type of recurrent gap times data, wherein some covariates are assumed to be additive while others are multiplicative. An estimating equation approach is presented to estimate the regression parameters. We establish asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators.

  5. Role of boron addition on the consolidation and properties of steel composites prepared by SPS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iwona Sulima

    2015-12-01

    Composites reinforced with 8 vol% TiB2 were subjected to the consolidation process by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the addition of boron (1 vol%) introduced to the steel matrix has a significant effect on the composite microstructure, as well as physical, mechanical and tribological properties. The full density of 97–99% was obtained in the composites sintered at a temperature of 1100°C. The steel–8% TiB2–1% B composite sintered at 1100°C for 30 min was characterized by the highest microhardness (465 HV0.3) and Young's modulus (229 GPa), combined with the best compressive strength (1150 MPa) and abrasive wear resistance ( = 0.25 and (disc) = 207.78 × 10−6 mm3 N−1m−1). The microstructure and chemical composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The examinations have revealed the presence of numerous fine complex borides in the microstructure of the steel–8% TiB2 and steel–8% TiB2–1% B composites.

  6. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Additional tasks were classified as "additional test request" and "additional sample". We collected those incidences from the laboratory information system (LIS), and calculated their evolution over time. We also calculated the monthly TAT for troponin for Emergency department (ED) patients, as the difference between the verification and LIS registration time. A median time of 30 minutes was our indicator target. TAT results and tests workload in summer were compared to the rest of the year. Over a 10-year period, the technologists in the SL performed 51,385 additional tasks, a median of 475 per month. The workload was significantly higher during the summer (45,496 tests) than the rest of the year (44,555 tests) (P = 0.019). The troponin TAT did not show this variation between summer and the rest of the year, complying always with our 30 minutes indicator target. The technicians accomplished a significant number of additional tasks, and the workload kept increasing over the period of 10 years. That did not affect the TAT results.

  7. Asymptotics on Semiparametric Analysis of Multivariate Failure Time Data Under the Additive Hazards Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-bin Liu; Liu-quan Sun; Li-xing Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Many survival studies record the times to two or more distinct failures on each subject. The failures may be events of different natures or may be repetitions of the same kind of event. In this article, we consider the regression analysis of such multivariate failure time data under the additive hazards model. Simple weighted estimating functions for the regression parameters are proposed, and asymptotic distribution theory of the resulting estimators are derived. In addition, a class of generalized Wald and generalized score statistics for hypothesis testing and model selection are presented, and the asymptotic properties of these statistics are examined.

  8. Phosphorus- and sulfur-containing oligopiperylene as an additive to lubricating oils and process for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresnev, V.V.; Kafiyatullina, S.T.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Stepanov, E.A.; Yunusov, O.A.

    1980-02-25

    For the purpose of strengthening the antioxidant, antiwear, and antiseizing properties of additives for lubricating oils it is proposed to use as additive a phosphorus- and sulfur-containing oligopiperylene of the formula, (iso-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/O)/sub 2/P(S)O-(CH/sub 2/CH=CHCH(CH/sub 3/)/sub 6/)(CH/sub 2/CHACH/sub 2/CH(CH/sub 3/))/sub 4/OP(S)(O-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/-iso)/sub 2/, where A = SP(S)(O-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/ -iso)/sub 2/, and a process for preparing it has been developed. The oligopiperylenediol is caused to react with diisopropyldithiophosphoric acid in benzene medium in the presence of benzoyl peroxide at a temperature of 80-82/sup 0/.

  9. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  10. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  11. Dedicated robotics team reduces pre-surgical preparation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lasser

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance; Two-sample t-test for unequal variances. Results: The first and last 100 cases were found to have similar age (P=0.27, BMI (P=0.11, and ASA (P=0.09. The average preoperative times were 66. 4 and 53.4 min, respectively (P<0.05. The second 100 patients treated were found to have a significantly shorter preoperative time when compared to the first 100 patients (P<0.05. When the first 100 cases were divided into cohorts of 10 cases the mean preoperative time for the first through fourth cohorts were 80.5, 69.3, 78.8, and 64.7 min, respectively. After treatment of our first 30 patients we found a significant drop in preoperative time. This persisted throughout the remainder of our experience. Conclusions: From the time of patient arrival a number of tasks are accomplished by the non-physician operating room staff during RALRP. The use of a consistent staff can decrease preoperative setup times and, therefore, the overall length of surgery.

  12. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Times required for cavity preparation using ultrasonic tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Pfeiffer, Peter; Tütüncü, Rengin

    1999-01-01

    Poster for: Date/Event/Venue: 10.03.99-13.03.99 77th General Session & Exhibition of the IADR Vancouver The purpose of this study was to evaluate the required time for opening the proximal cavities using three ultrasonic tips of different sizes and fine diamond inlay bur followed by ultrasonic tip.

  14. Times required for cavity preparation using ultrasonic tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Pfeiffer, Peter; Tütüncü, Rengin

    1999-01-01

    Poster for: Date/Event/Venue: 10.03.99-13.03.99 77th General Session & Exhibition of the IADR Vancouver The purpose of this study was to evaluate the required time for opening the proximal cavities using three ultrasonic tips of different sizes and fine diamond inlay bur followed by ultrasonic tip.

  15. Preparation and characterization of new dental porcelains, using K-feldspar and quartz raw materials. Effect of B2O3 additions on sintering and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Guerfa, Fatiha; Harabi, Esma; Benhassine, Mohamed-Tayeb; Foughali, Lazhar; Zaiou, Soumia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of temperature and boric oxide (B2O3) addition on sintering and mechanical properties of a newly developed dental porcelain (DP) prepared from local Algerian raw materials. Based on a preliminary work, the new selected composition was 75wt.% feldspar, 20wt.% quartz and 5wt.% kaolin. It was prepared by sintering the mixture at different temperatures (1100-1250°C). The optimum sintering conditions gave a relatively higher density (2.47g/cm(3)) and excellent mechanical properties. The three point flexural strength (3PFS) and Martens micro-hardness of dental porcelains were 149MPa and 2600MPa, respectively. This obtained 3PFS value is more than four times greater than that of hydroxyapatite (HA) value (about 37MPa) sintered under the same conditions. However, the sintering temperature was lowered by about 25 and 50°C for 3 and 5wt.% B2O3 additions, respectively. But, it did not improve furthermore the samples density and their mechanical properties. It has also been found that B2O3 additions provoke a glass matrix composition variation which delays the leucite formation during sintering.

  16. Preparation and tribological properties of surface-modified nano-Y2O3 as additive in liquid paraffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Ye, Fei; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Xiaoling; Diao, Guiqiang

    2012-12-01

    Surface-modified nano-Y2O3 was prepared by a coupling-grafting method with vinyl methylerichlorosilane and methyl methacrylate as the coupling agent and grafting agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The tribological properties of the surface-modified nano-Y2O3 as additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball tester. The results show that the nano-Y2O3 keeps its original crystalline structure after surface modification, and the modified nano-Y2O3 forms a core-shell structure with an average particle size of 24.5 nm. The maximum non-seizure load (PB value) and sintered load (PD value) increase by 25% and 26.9%, respectively, when compared with those of liquid paraffin, and the wear scar diameter (WSD) also decrease by 21% when 0.10% surface-modified nano-Y2O3 was added. The protective inorganic-organic film formed by nano-Y2O3 and organic modifiers plays an important role in the improved tribological properties of liquid paraffin.

  17. Effect of Additives on Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Tio/ZnO Nanocomposite Prepared via Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Moradi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the sol-gel method with and without addatives such as carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, polyvinylpyrrolidon, (PVP, and hydroxylpropylcellulose (HPC. The characteristics of the prepared TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were identified by IR spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS methods. The additives have a significant effect on the particle size distribution and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites was investigated for decolorization of methyl orange (MO in water under UV-irradiation in a batch reactor and the results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites have been increased by CMC, PEG, PVP, and HPC, respectively. SEM has shown that the particle size distribution of TiO2/ZnO nanocomposite in the presence of HPC was better than the other samples.

  18. Effect of organic additives on mechanical properties of SiC ceramics prepared by a modified gelcasting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple gel system of isobutylene and maleic anhydride (PIBM was used to prepare SiC ceramics. The rheological behaviour of the SiC slurries was investigated as function of organic additives. The SiC slurries with 0.2 wt.% PIBM and 0.2 wt.% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH showed low viscosity, which was favourable for casting SiC green bodies. In order to obtain homogeneous green bodies, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA was used to assist the dispersion of carbon black in the slurries, and polyethylene glycol (PEG was added to inhibit the surface exfoliation of green bodies. The content of PVA was controlled carefully to avoid the warpage of green bodies during the drying process. Finally, homogeneous defect-free SiC green bodies were successfully fabricated via aqueous gelcasting. The SiC ceramics sintered at 2100 °C (prepared from slurries with solid content of 60 wt.% showed an average flexural strength of 305.7 MPa with porosity of 19.92%.

  19. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.

  20. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; Plichta, Jennifer; Zeira, Ohad; Rivera, Randy; Wang, Susan; Pottle, Bill; Leung, Calvin; Vicens, Carrie; Tao, Christine; Beers, Craig; Fung, Grace; Levine, Jacob; Yoo, Jaeshin; Jackson, Joanna; Saikkonen, Kelly; Zimmerman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  1. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  2. Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Keiko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Terauchi, Kaede; Hoshi, Masako; Ikenaga, Sachiko; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2014-01-01

    The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

  3. Amorphization and thermal stability of aluminum-based nanoparticles prepared from the rapid cooling of nanodroplets: effect of iron addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Deng, Huiqiu; Deng, Lei; Hu, Wangyu

    2015-03-07

    Despite an intensive investigation on bimetallic nanoparticles, little attention has been paid to their amorphization in the past few decades. The study of amorphization on a nanoscale is of considerable significance for the preparation of amorphous nanoparticles and bulk metallic glass. Herein, we pursue the amorphization process of Al-based nanoparticles with classic molecular dynamics simulations and local structural analysis techniques. By a comparative study of the amorphization of pure Al and Fe-doped Al-based nanodroplets in the course of rapid cooling, we find that Fe addition plays a very important role in the vitrification of Al-based nanodroplets. Owing to the subsurface segregated Fe atoms with their nearest neighbors tending to form relatively stable icosahedral (ICO) clusters, the Fe-centred cluster network near the surface effectively suppresses the crystallization of droplets from surface nucleation and growth as the concentration of Fe attains a certain value. The glass formation ability of nanodroplets is suggested to be enhanced by the high intrinsic inner pressure as a result of small size and surface tension, combined with the dopant-inhibited surface nucleation. In addition, the effect of the size and the added concentration of nanoparticles on amorphization and the thermal stability of the amorphous nanoparticles are discussed. Our findings reveal the amorphization mechanism in Fe-doped Al-based nanoparticles and provide a theoretical guidance for the design of amorphous materials.

  4. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiao [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); He, Jie [School of Life Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Zhiwei, E-mail: zhiweili@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Fluorosilane was selected as the modifier according to similar miscibility principle. • Fluorosilane surface-modified LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully prepared. • Fluorosilane can enhance dispersibility of LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles in fluorosilicone oils. • Fluorosilane can improve the stability of LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles. • LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles prove excellent anti-wear and friction-reducing capacities. - Abstract: LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles surface-modified with fluorosilane were synthesized by surface modification technology. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared surface-modified LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The tribological properties of surface-modified LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that 3-(heptafluoroisopropoxy)propyltriethoxysilane as the modifier is able to improve the dispersibility of LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles in fluoro silicone oil. Moreover, when the optimum concentration, 0.08 wt.% of fluorosilane surface-modified LaF{sub 3} is added into fluoro silicone oil, as-synthesized fluorosilane surface-modified LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit excellent anti-wear as additive in fluoro silicone oil. The wear scar diameter under the optimum concentration is always smaller than that under the lubrication of fluoro silicone oil alone. Especially, when the load is 500 N, 600 N and 700 N, the wear scar diameter is reduced by 17%, 43% and 42%, respectively. In addition, during the friction process, LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles are deposited on the rubbed steel surface to form LaF{sub 3} deposition layer which functions jointly with the boundary lubricating film thereby resulting in improved tribological

  5. Vacuum infusion equipment design and the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Setyarso, G.

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic of composite material is greatly influenced by the manufacture method of composite. The conventional method that has been used such as hand lay-up and spray up are simple and easy to apply but the composite tend to have a void in it because of the air trapped during the manufacture process. Vacuum infusion is one of the modern composite manufacture process which can replace the conventional method. The problem of this method happens when the resin infusion time become longer due to the addition of reinforcement layers. When the resin infusion time is longer than the resin's gel time, the resin will become gel and not able to flow into the mold. In order to overcome this problem, a study that observe the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time is needed. In this study, vacuum infusion equipment for composite materials manufacturing process that are designed consists of: 1×1m glass as the mold, 1L PVC tube for the resin container, 1L glass tube for the resin trap, and ‘A HP vacuum pump with 7 CFM vacuum speed. The resin that is used in this study is unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and the fiber used as reinforcement is fiber glass. It is observed that the more number of reinforcement layers the longer resin infusion time will be. The resin infusion time (in seconds) from two until six layers respectively for the area of 15×20cm are: 88, 115, 145, 174, 196; for the area of 15×25cm are: 119, 142, 168, 198, 235; and for the area of 15×35cm are: 181, 203, 235, 263, 303. The maximum reinforcement layers that can be accommodated for each 15×20cm, 15×25cm, and 15×35cm area are respectively 31 layers, 29 layers, and 25 layers.

  6. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-08-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance.

  7. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  8. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  9. Carbon doped PDMS: conductance stability over time and implications for additive manufacturing of stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rocha, Rui; Osorio, Luis; Almeida, Miguel; de Almeida, Anibal; Ramachandran, Vivek; Tabatabai, Arya; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-03-01

    Carbon doped PDMS (cPDMS), has been used as a conductive polymer for stretchable electronics. Compared to liquid metals, cPDMS is low cost and is easier to process or to print with an additive manufacturing process. However, changes on the conductance of the carbon based conductive PDMS (cPDMS) were observed over time, in particular after integration of cPDMS and the insulating polymer. In this article we investigate the process parameters that lead to improved stability over conductance of the cPDMS over time. Slight modifications to the fabrication process parameters were conducted and changes on the conductance of the samples for each method were monitored. Results suggested that change of the conductance happens mostly after integration of a pre-polymer over a cured cPDMS, and not after integration of the cPDMS over a cured insulating polymer. We show that such changes can be eliminated by adjusting the integration priority between the conductive and insulating polymers, by selecting the right curing temperature, changing the concentration of the carbon particles and the thickness of the conductive traces, and when possible by changing the insulating polymer material. In this way, we obtained important conclusions regarding the effect of these parameters on the change of the conductance over time, that should be considered for additive manufacturing of soft electronics. Also, we show that these changes can be possibly due to the diffusion from PDMS into cPDMS.

  10. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending <1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut

  13. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  14. Analysis of time to event outcomes in randomized controlled trials by generalized additive models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Argyropoulos

    Full Text Available Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking.By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population.PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data.By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial results under proportional and

  15. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  16. Preparation and tribological properties of inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/dialkyl pentasulfide as additive in PEG-600 aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiju; Xu, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuxuefeng@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Gan; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-15

    The inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and dialkyl pentasulfide (DPS), in which DPS was incorporated into β-CD cavities, was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The tribological properties of the complex used as lubricant additive in PEG 600 aqueous solution were investigated by a four-ball tester. The complex exhibited better tribological properties than β-CD under different loads, and also showed better anti-friction performance than DPS in the latter half of the test duration. The tribological action mechanism of the complex on a steel surface was studied according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The β-CD molecules of the complexes were decomposed into various molecular fragments and the DPS molecules were released under the friction condition. It revealed that thiolate and ferrous sulfide (FeS) films formed by DPS played a major role, and iron alkoxide and carbon deposition films formed by the friction fragments of β-CD mainly exhibited anti-friction property on FeS-to-FeS interface. The interactions among different films led to the formation of a mixed boundary lubrication film.

  17. Identifiability of Additive, Time-Varying Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has provided a set of necessary and sucient conditions for identifiability of additive step faults (e.g., lock-in-place actuator faults, constant bias in the sensors) using state augmentation. This paper extends these results to an important class of faults which may affect linear, time-invariant systems. In particular, the faults under consideration are those which vary with time and affect the system dynamics additively. Such faults may manifest themselves in aircraft as, for example, control surface oscillations, control surface runaway, and sensor drift. The set of necessary and sucient conditions presented in this paper are general, and apply when a class of time-varying faults affects arbitrary combinations of actuators and sensors. The results in the main theorems are illustrated by two case studies, which provide some insight into how the conditions may be used to check the theoretical identifiability of fault configurations of interest for a given system. It is shown that while state augmentation can be used to identify certain fault configurations, other fault configurations are theoretically impossible to identify using state augmentation, giving practitioners valuable insight into such situations. That is, the limitations of state augmentation for a given system and configuration of faults are made explicit. Another limitation of model-based methods is that there can be large numbers of fault configurations, thus making identification of all possible configurations impractical. However, the theoretical identifiability of known, credible fault configurations can be tested using the theorems presented in this paper, which can then assist the efforts of fault identification practitioners.

  18. Type of oral solid medication packaging and medication preparation time in nursing homes: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cready, C M; Hudson, C; Dreyer, K

    2017-06-05

    Medication administration is a substantial portion of the workday in nursing homes, with the medication preparation step being the most time-consuming. However, little is known about how medication preparation time is affected by the type of packaging used for oral solid medications (ie, tablets/capsules). We examined the effects of two types of packaging. As fewer steps are associated with strip packaging compared to bingo card packaging, we hypothesized that the increase in medication preparation seconds per resident with each additional oral solid medication would be smaller when strip packaging was used. A total of 430 medication preparations conducted by eight nurses during the regularly scheduled morning medication administration period in two nursing homes-using strip packaging and bingo card packaging, respectively-were observed. Each medication preparation observation was matched to its corresponding medication administration record and observations averaged across resident. Using the resident sample (N=149), we estimated three regression models (adjusting the standard errors for the clustering of resident by nurse). The first model regressed medication preparation seconds on the number of oral solid medications. The second model added the type of packaging used and the control variables (type of unit [long-term care, post-acute care], the number of one-half pills and the dosage form diversity in the preparation). To test our hypothesis, the third model added an interaction term between the number of oral solid medications and the type of packaging used. As hypothesized, all else equal, the number of oral solid medications tended to increase medication preparation time per resident in both nursing homes, but the increase was smaller in the strip packaging nursing home (Phome increased medication preparation by an average of 13 seconds (b=13.077), whereas each oral solid medication administered in the strip packaging nursing home increased medication

  19. The Newsvendor Problem with Different Delivery Time, Resalable Returns, and an Additional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fue Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a B2C scenario, the retailer is confronted with two kinds of demand. One requires an immediate delivery after placing an order, while the other prefers a delayed shipment due to some personal reasons. Considering demands for different delivery time, we explore a newsvendor model with resalable returns and an additional order to optimize the procurement decision under a stochastic demand distribution. The impact of the proportion of the instant delivery needs and the return rate on the order quantity and the expected profit is illustrated through numerical tests. It is shown that the expected profit decreases as the ratios of immediate delivery needs and returned products increase. Besides, if the sum of the percentage of the instant delivery needs and the return rate is less than 1, the expected profit is always greater than the result if the sum of them is equal to or greater than 1. Management implications are also discussed.

  20. Robust H∞ control of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ali M.; Saravanakumar, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent robust H∞ control for a class of uncertain systems with two additive time-varying delays. A new suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the LKF is derived. By applying a convex optimization technique, new delay-dependent robust H∞ stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Based on the stability criteria, a state feedback controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparison results show that our results are less conservative than the existing methods. Project supported by the Fund from the Department of Science and Technology of India (Grant No. SR/FTP/MS-039/2011).

  1. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Musa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4 in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers.

  2. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD.

  3. Impact of Educational Cartoon on Pediatric Bowel Preparation Quality at Time of Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maxwell MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate if addition of educational cartoon to pediatric bowel preparation instructions improves the quality of bowel preparation and patient experience. Methods: Patients were randomized to control group receiving standard bowel preparation instructions or intervention group receiving additional educational cartoon. To objectively rate bowel preparation, a blinded endoscopist completed numeric Ottawa score (0-14, with 0 being best. The family also completed a questionnaire rating the bowel preparation process. Results: Data from 23 patients were analyzed. Mean Ottawa score in the intervention group compared with controls was not significantly different (mean scores 3.73 and 3.33, respectively; P = .384. Level of education was significantly correlated with better Ottawa score in the overall population (ρ = −.462, P = .026 and within the control group (ρ = −.658, P = .02. Both groups of patients reported positive experience with bowel preparation. Conclusion: There may be benefit to further investigation of this educational cartoon in parents with less than college level education or non-English-speaking families in larger population of patients.

  4. 氟硅树脂石膏防水剂的制备与应用%Application and preparation of water-proofing fluorin silicon gypsum additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 李国忠

    2011-01-01

    以有机氟﹑有机硅以及(甲基)丙烯酸酯为原料,采用溶液聚合的方法制备了氟硅树脂防水剂,探讨了软硬单体配比、反应温度和单体投入方式对防水剂性能的影响,确定了工艺参数。研究了此防水剂对石膏试样耐水性能的影响。试验结果表明:该氟硅树脂石膏防水剂对石膏试样的短期防水性能具有显著改善,但长期使用时,防水性能有一定程度的削弱。%Organic fluorine,organic silicon,and(methyl) acrylate are used to prepare a water-proofing gypsum additive which is a fluorosilicon resin by liquor polymerization method.Effects of soft hard monomer ratio,reaction temperature and the introducing model of monomers on the properties of the waterproofing additive are discussed,and the process parameters are determined.Experiment shows that the early waterproofing performance of gypsum samples with the additive is significantly improved,but the water resistance is weakened to a certain extent for a long time.

  5. 40 CFR 270.140 - What else must the Director prepare in addition to the draft RAP or notice of intent to deny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the draft RAP or notice of intent to deny? 270.140 Section 270.140 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.140 What else must the Director prepare in addition to the draft RAP or notice of intent to deny? Once the Director has...

  6. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guangli

    2011-08-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115h), and less than that with glucose (181h) or Fe(III) (353h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149h (25mM) to 251h (50mM) and 526h (100mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600μg/cm2 for all amendments except Fe(Sh{cyrillic}) (1650μg/cm2). Wastewater produced 91mW/m2, with the other MFCs producing 50mW/m2 (fumarate) to 103mW/m2 (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Solid Matrix Transformation and Tracer Addition using Molten Ammonium Bifluoride Salt as a Sample Preparation Method for Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cynthia M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Koppenaal, David W.; Chan, George C.; Mao, Xianglei; Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard

    2017-09-08

    Laser ablation (LA) is a means of sample introduction to inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) that avoids acid dissolution and chemical separation steps conventionally associated with solid sample analysis. At the same time, certain features of LA-ICP-MS are often mentioned in critical reviews including solid matrix variability and its influence on the ablation process, matrix dependent elemental fractionation, lack of matrix matched standards for external calibration, and limitations to internal calibration because it is challenging to add and distribute spikes into solid samples. In this paper we introduce the concept of a synergistic minimal sample preparation method that is used in combination with LA-ICP-MS as a means to overcome these limitations. The aim of this minimal sample preparation procedure is to reactively transform the original matrix to a more consistent matrix for LA-based analysis, thus reducing the effects of matrix variability, while enabling the addition of tracers. In conjunction with ICP-MS, we call this MTR-LA-ICP-MS, where MTR is derived from matrix transformation including the option to add tracers

  8. Space and Time Resolved Spectroscopy during the Preparation of Hydrogenation Catalyst Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa Alonso, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837342

    2009-01-01

    The development of space and time resolved spectroscopic methods to image space and time dependent heterogeneities in catalyst bodies during preparation is of paramount importance for the development of more efficient and sustainable chemical processes. There are a large number of physicochemical

  9. Preparation and tribological properties of surface-modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additive in liquid paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lin, E-mail: gych@gdut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang Lin; Ye Fei; Sun Ming; Cheng Xiaoling; Diao Guiqiang [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was for the first time used as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified by a coupling-grafting method shows good dispersibility in liquid paraffin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface-modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} considerably improves the tribological performances of liquid paraffin. - Abstract: Surface-modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared by a coupling-grafting method with vinyl methylerichlorosilane and methyl methacrylate as the coupling agent and grafting agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The tribological properties of the surface-modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball tester. The results show that the nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} keeps its original crystalline structure after surface modification, and the modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms a core-shell structure with an average particle size of 24.5 nm. The maximum non-seizure load (P{sub B} value) and sintered load (P{sub D} value) increase by 25% and 26.9%, respectively, when compared with those of liquid paraffin, and the wear scar diameter (WSD) also decrease by 21% when 0.10% surface-modified nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was added. The protective inorganic-organic film formed by nano-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and organic modifiers plays an important role in the improved tribological properties of liquid paraffin.

  10. Addition of Zinc Improves the Physical Stability of Insulin in the Primary Emulsification Step of the Poly(lactide-co-glycolide Microsphere Preparation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar Manoharan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of zinc on insulin stability during the primary emulsification step of poly(lactide-co-glycolide microspheres preparation by the water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation technique was evaluated. Insulin was emulsified at homogenization speeds of 5000 and 10,000 rpm. Insulin was extracted from the primary w/o emulsion by a method previously reported from our laboratory and analyzed by comprehensive analytical techniques. The differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of insulin with zinc showed a single peak around 83 °C with calorimetric enthalpy values similar to native insulin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of extracted insulin showed a single intense band around 6 kDa, demonstrating the preservation of primary structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that no degradation products were formed during the homogenization process. Insulin aggregates residing at the w/o interfaces were found to be of non-covalent nature. In addition, observation of a single characteristic peak for insulin at m/z 5808 in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirmed the absence of insulin degradation products and covalent dimers. Presence of zinc preserved the secondary structure of insulin as indicated by circular dichroism. In conclusion, these results show that with the addition of zinc, insulin stability can be improved during the primary emulsification step.

  11. Effect of temperature and time on microstructure and surface functional groups of activated carbon fibers prepared from liquefied wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers were prepared from liquefied wood through stream activation. The effects of activation temperature and time on the microstructure and surface functional groups of the liquefied wood activated carbon fibers (LWACFs were studied using analysis of burning behavior, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and SEM. The results showed that the burn-off value of the LWACFs increased gradually with the increase in temperature or time. All the LWACFs were far from being structurally graphitized, and in general, as temperature or time increased, the degree of graphitization and thickness of crystal structure increased. In addition, the LWACFs possessed rich micropores, and their specific surface area, pore volume, micropore size, and mesopore quantity were directly related to the activation temperature or time. The maximum specific surface area was found to be 2641 m2/g. The fractal dimension values of all samples were close to 3, indicating that their surfaces were very rough. Furthermore, with an increase in temperature or time, the elemental content of carbon increased, while that of oxygen decreased. Meanwhile, as the temperature or time increased, the relative content of graphitic carbon decreased, whereas that of carbon bonded to oxygen-containing functions increased. The surface of samples prepared at higher temperature or with longer time formed a considerable amount of holes.

  12. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  13. Curriculum Type and Sophomore Students' Preparation Time for the USMLE Step 1 Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Boyd F.; Cariaga-Lo, Liza

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen medical students in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum reported that on average they spent twice as much time preparing for step 1 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination as did 52 students in the traditional lecture-based curriculum at the same school. Different learning approaches were also employed. (SLD)

  14. 45 CFR 1211.1-8 - Time for preparation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time for preparation and presentation. 1211.1-8 Section 1211.1-8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR... presentation. (a) Both a volunteer and a volunteer's representative, if another volunteer or an employee...

  15. Using Enhanced Podcasts to Augment Limited Instructional Time in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hart, Juliet E.; Kellems, Ryan O.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher education programs are limited in terms of available face-to-face instructional time for preparing general education teacher candidates to work with students with exceptionalities. Given this constraint, developing innovative use of technologies may assist in meeting the demand for highly qualified teachers for such students. In this…

  16. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  17. Timetabling and Extracurricular Activities: A Study of Teachers' Attitudes towards Preparation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Richard, George

    2012-01-01

    Many models of timetabling exist in secondary schools in Western educational jurisdictions. This study examines whether or not teachers teaching a full course load without preparation time during a semester are willing to volunteer to participate in extracurricular activities. This research was conducted in a rural school district in British…

  18. Measuring Parent Time Scarcity and Fatigue as Barriers to Meal Planning and Preparation: Quantitative Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. Methods: A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the…

  19. Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Prepared by Solvent-Deficient Precipitation (SDP: Effects of Washing, Promoter Addition Step, and Drying Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Brunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel, solvent-deficient precipitation (SDP method for catalyst preparation in general and for preparation of iron FT catalysts in particular is reported. Eight catalysts using a 23 factorial design of experiments to identify the key preparation variables were prepared. The catalysts were characterized by electron microprobe, N2 adsorption, TEM, XRD, and ICP. Results show that the morphology of the catalysts, i.e., surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, crystallite sizes, and promoter distribution are significantly influenced by (1 whether or not the precursor catalyst is washed, (2 the promoter addition step, and (3 the drying condition (temperature. Consequently, the activity, selectivity, and stability of the catalysts determined from fixed-bed testing are also affected by these three variables. Unwashed catalysts prepared by a one-step method and dried at 100 °C produced the most active catalysts for FT synthesis. The catalysts of this study prepared by SDP compared favorably in activity, productivity, and stability with Fe FT catalysts reported in the literature. It is believed that this facile SDP approach has promise for development of future FT catalysts, and also offers a potential alternate route for the preparation of other catalysts for various other applications.

  20. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  1. Balancing development costs and sales to optimize the development time of product line additions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Griffin, A.; Hultink, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Development teams often use mental models to simplify development time decision making because a comprehensive empirical assessment of the trade-offs across the metrics of development time, development costs, proficiency in market-entry timing, and new product sales is simply not feasible. Surprisin

  2. Balancing development costs and sales to optimize the development time of product line additions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Griffin, A.; Hultink, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Development teams often use mental models to simplify development time decision making because a comprehensive empirical assessment of the trade-offs across the metrics of development time, development costs, proficiency in market-entry timing, and new product sales is simply not feasible. Surprisin

  3. Poly(ethylene glycols as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mascitti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene glycols (PEGs, as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG. A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  4. Improvements and Additions to NASA Near Real-Time Earth Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechini, Matthew; Boller, Ryan; Baynes, Kathleen; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexandar; King, Jerome; Thompson, Charles; Roberts, Joe; Rodriguez, Joshua; Gunnoe, Taylor; hide

    2016-01-01

    For many years, the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has worked closely with the Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) system to provide near real-time imagery visualizations of AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), and recently VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) science parameters. These visualizations are readily available through standard web services and the NASA Worldview client. Access to near real-time imagery provides a critical capability to GIBS and Worldview users. GIBS continues to focus on improving its commitment to providing near real-time imagery for end-user applications. The focus of this presentation will be the following completed or planned GIBS system and imagery enhancements relating to near real-time imagery visualization.

  5. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  6. Time limited psychodynamic group therapy: Predictors of patients seeking additional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    were the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI-II), non-symptomatic Psychodynamic Focus, retrospective outcome evaluations, and socio-demographic and psychiatric variables. At follow-up, 57.6% of the patients had been seeking additional treatment...

  7. Effect of Zr Addition on Glass-Forming Ability and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Nd-Al-B Alloys Prepared by Suction Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Qin; XU Hui; TAN Xiao-Hua; MENG Tao

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic behaviors of the Fe--Nd-AI-B alloys prepared by suction casting with zirconium addition are investigated. With the small amount of zirconium addition, the magnetic properties of the alloys change from hard magnetic property to soft magnetic property. The proper addition of Zr (6%) not only improves the glass forming ability, but also suppresses the crystallization. From the scanning electron microscopy of the [(Fe0.53Nd0.37Al0.10)0.96B0.04]94Zr6 alloy and the local average elemental compositions determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, the amorphous phase with a composition of Fe47Nd38Al12Zr3 in the alloy can be observed. The bulk amorphous Fe47Nd38Al12Zr3 alloy is prepared by suction casting exhibiting good glassforming ability and soft magnetic behavior.

  8. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  9. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  10. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-han Wang; Chun-mei Wang; Hua-xin Tang; Cheng-ji Zuo; Hong-ming Xu

    2009-01-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition tim-ing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its appli-cation, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NO while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recir-culation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NO is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  11. Influence of the Addition of Minced Fish on the Preparation of Fish Sausage: Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Amanda M T; Vidal, Ana C C; Schiassi, Maria C E V; Reis, Tatiana; Pimenta, Carlos; Pimenta, Maria E S G

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of minced fish (MF) inclusion on the acceptance of tilapia sausages. One hundred consumers participated in the sensory acceptance test in relation to the attributes appearance, color, aroma, flavor, texture, overall impression, and purchase intent. The tests were conducted using the same composition of ingredients, varying only the raw material (MF and fillet), resulting in 5 different formulations. To represent the results of the sensory attributes, we generated internal preference maps through principal component analysis and parallel factor analysis, as well as frequency histograms. The data showed greater acceptability for the sample produced with 50% MF, although all had shown satisfactory results. We conclude that inclusion of MF can be suitable in the preparation of fish sausage due to high consumer acceptance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Background Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. Methods This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG) system with a rapid preparation time intended for use in emergency medicine and prehospital care. The novel system comprises a quick-applicati...

  13. Bifurcated method and apparatus for floating point addition with decreased latency time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a method for performing floating point addition of a pair of floating point binary numbers each expressed as a mantissa and an exponent. The method comprises the steps of alignment of the mantissas, addition of the aligned mantissas and postnormalization of the mantissa of the sum. The improvement described here comprises: comparing the exponents of the two floating point numbers prior to the alignment step; simultaneously performing two separate calculations along first and second separate parallel paths as follows: calculating a first sum in the first path as if the difference of the exponents is either 0 or 1, including performing the alignment step by at most a one place right shift of one mantissa; simultaneously calculating a second sum in the second path as if the difference of the exponents is greater than 1, including performing the postnormalization step by at most a one place shift of the mantissa of the second sum; selecting between the first sum and the second sum after simultaneously performing the two calculations.

  14. Effects of boron addition and austempering time on microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra L, F.V. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Bedolla-Jacuinde, A., E-mail: abedollj@icloud.com [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Mejía, I. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Zuno, J. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Maldonado, C. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-11

    The present work analyzes the effect of boron addition to an Austempered Ductile Iron, in amounts from zero to 120 ppm. It has been found that boron has a strong effect on the equivalent carbon content, resulting in an increase on the precipitated graphite volume and a decrease in the dissolved carbon content in the matrix. This in turn, increases the ferrite volume fraction in the as-cast conditions from 0.24 in the base alloy to 0.78 for the iron with 120 ppm of boron. Furthermore, a decrease in the nodularity from 100% in the base alloy to 83% with 120 ppm of boron has been observed. During austempering, the transformation to ausferrite was faster and lower volumes of martensite and unstable austenite were detected when boron increased; this promoted lower hardness values, 239 HV for the base iron and 189 HV for the 120 ppm boron alloy. The increase in hardness and strength, typical for the start of bainite formation, were not observed in the boron added irons, but just in the base alloy. Under this basis, it is assumed that at least the addition of 60 ppm of boron extended the optimal processing window. The higher values of strength and ductility were obtained for the alloy with 60 ppm of boron; these results are discussed in terms of the graphitizing effect of boron in these irons and the reduced amount of carbon dissolved in austenite.

  15. The eff ect of addition of selected milk protein preparations on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and physicochemical properties of fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intake of fermented milk products, especially yoghurts, has been systematically increasing for a few decades. The purpose of this work was to obtain milk products fermented with a mix of bacterial cultures (yoghurt bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophillus LA-5 and enriched with selected milk protein preparations. Secondly, the aim of the work was to determine physiochemical and rheological properties of the obtained products. Material and methods. The following additives were applied in the experiment: whey protein concen- trate (WPC 65, whey protein isolate (WPI, demineralised whey powder (SPD, caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP, α-lactalbumin (α-la, sodium caseinate (KNa and calcium caseinate (KCa. Milk was fermented using probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophillus LA-5 and a typical yoghurt culture. The products were analysed in terms of the survivability of bacterial cells during refrigerated storage, rheological properties and syneresis. Fermented milk products were obtained using blends of bacterial strains: ST-B01:Lb-12 (1:1, ST-B01:Lb-12:LA-5 (1:1:2. Results. Milk beverages fermented with typical yoghurt bacteria and LA-5 strain showed intensive syner- esis. The addition of LA-5 strain caused formation of harder acid gels, comparing to typical yoghurts. Milk products which were prepared from skimmed milk possessed higher values of hardness and consistency coefficient. The increase of concentrations of milk preparations (except of WPI did not cause significant differences in the hardness of acidic gels obtained by fermentation of mixed culture with a probiotic strain. Conclusion. The applied preparations improved physiochemical properties of the milk beverages which were prepared with a probiotic strain. The increase of protein milk preparations concentration resulted in a gradual decrease of the secreted whey. Among the products that were made of full milk powder and were subjected to three weeks of refrigerated storage

  16. Batch arrival retrial queue with delay time and additional multi-optional repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sumitha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with MX/G/1 retrial queue with unreliable server and multi-optional repair. It is assumed that the server is subject to active breakdowns and the repair of the failed server starts after a random amount of time. Restoration of the failed server is done with two phases, first essential and second multi optional. After completion of the repair the server continues the interrupted service and it is not allowed to accept new customers until the interrupted customer leaves the system. The retrial, service, delay and repair times are arbitrarily distributed. The model is analysed using the supplementary variable technique and the probability generating function of system size at random epoch and stochastic decomposition are obtained. Performance measures and reliability indices to predict the behaviour of the system are derived.

  17. Changing dynamics: Time-varying autoregressive models using generalized additive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Laura F; Hamaker, Ellen L; Vigo, Daniel E; Aubert, André; Borsboom, Denny; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2017-09-01

    In psychology, the use of intensive longitudinal data has steeply increased during the past decade. As a result, studying temporal dependencies in such data with autoregressive modeling is becoming common practice. However, standard autoregressive models are often suboptimal as they assume that parameters are time-invariant. This is problematic if changing dynamics (e.g., changes in the temporal dependency of a process) govern the time series. Often a change in the process, such as emotional well-being during therapy, is the very reason why it is interesting and important to study psychological dynamics. As a result, there is a need for an easily applicable method for studying such nonstationary processes that result from changing dynamics. In this article we present such a tool: the semiparametric TV-AR model. We show with a simulation study and an empirical application that the TV-AR model can approximate nonstationary processes well if there are at least 100 time points available and no unknown abrupt changes in the data. Notably, no prior knowledge of the processes that drive change in the dynamic structure is necessary. We conclude that the TV-AR model has significant potential for studying changing dynamics in psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The effect of different levels of sunflower head pith addition on the properties of model system emulsions prepared from fresh and frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Karakaya, Mustafa; Tiske, Sümeyra Sultan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sunflower head pith on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Oil/water (O/W) model emulsion systems were prepared from fresh and frozen beef by the addition of the pith at five concentrations. Emulsion capacity (EC), stability (ES), viscosity (EV), colour and flow properties of the prepared model system emulsions were analyzed. The pith addition increased the EC and ES and the highest EC and ES values were reached when 5% of pith added; however, further increase in the pith concentration caused an inverse trend in these values. Fresh beef emulsions had higher EC and ES values than did frozen beef emulsions. One percent pith concentration was the critic level for the EV values of fresh beef emulsions. EV values of the emulsions reached a maximum level at 5% pith level, followed by a decrease at 7% pit level.

  19. Preparation of (Z)-α,β-disubstituted enamides via palladium-catalyzed addition of boronic acids to ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanfa; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Gangguo

    2014-10-03

    A Pd-catalyzed, highly regio- and stereoselective addition of boronic acids to ynamides has been realized. This protocol generates (Z)-α,β-disubstituted enamides in high yields with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity under the mild reaction conditions, thereby providing a good complementary method for the diverse synthesis of multifunctional enamides. A wide collection of functional groups are found to be tolerated. It represents a straightforward and useful means to assemble stereodefined enamides from readily available starting materials.

  20. Photovoltaic Capacity Additions: The optimal rate of deployment with sensitivity to time-based GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplican Ravikumar, Dwarakanath

    Current policies subsidizing or accelerating deployment of photovoltaics (PV) are typically motivated by claims of environmental benefit, such as the reduction of CO2 emissions generated by the fossil-fuel fired power plants that PV is intended to displace. Existing practice is to assess these environmental benefits on a net life-cycle basis, where CO2 benefits occurring during use of the PV panels is found to exceed emissions generated during the PV manufacturing phase including materials extraction and manufacture of the PV panels prior to installation. However, this approach neglects to recognize that the environmental costs of CO2 release during manufacture are incurred early, while environmental benefits accrue later. Thus, where specific policy targets suggest meeting CO2 reduction targets established by a certain date, rapid PV deployment may have counter-intuitive, albeit temporary, undesired consequences. Thus, on a cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) basis, the environmental improvements attributable to PV might be realized much later than is currently understood. This phenomenon is particularly acute when PV manufacture occurs in areas using CO2 intensive energy sources (e.g., coal), but deployment occurs in areas with less CO 2 intensive electricity sources (e.g., hydro). This thesis builds a dynamic Cumulative Radiative Forcing (CRF) model to examine the inter-temporal warming impacts of PV deployments in three locations: California, Wyoming and Arizona. The model includes the following factors that impact CRF: PV deployment rate, choice of PV technology, pace of PV technology improvements, and CO2 intensity in the electricity mix at manufacturing and deployment locations. Wyoming and California show the highest and lowest CRF benefits as they have the most and least CO2 intensive grids, respectively. CRF payback times are longer than CO2 payback times in all cases. Thin film, CdTe PV technologies have the lowest manufacturing CO2 emissions and

  1. Preparation and Tribological Properties of Dual-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 were synthesized and then dual-coated with silane coupling agent (KH-570 and OP-10 in sequence in order to be dispersed stably in water as lubricant additives. The tribological properties and the application performance in Q235 steel machining of the nanoparticles as water-based lubricant additives were investigated on an MSR-10D four-ball tribotester and on a bench drilling machine, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to analyze the worn surface. The results show that the surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles can remarkably improve the load-carrying capacity, the friction reducing, and anti wear abilities of pure water. The wear scar diameter and the coefficient of friction of the water-based lubricating fluids with TiO2 nanoparticles decreased, and the thick deep furrows on the surface of wear scar also decreased obviously with the increase of TiO2 concentration. The power consumption in drilling process was lower and the cutting surface was smoother using the water-based lubricating fluids added TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the fluid without addition. The reason for nanoparticles improving tribological properties of water based lubricating fluid might be the formation of a dynamic deposition film during rubbing process according to analysis of the worn surface.

  2. Preparation of LiNbO{sub 3} nanoparticles using poly(L-lysine) as a biomolecular additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youngjoon; Lee, Sang-Yup, E-mail: leessy@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-03-01

    The effects of poly(L-lysine) as a biomolecular additive on the synthesis of LiNbO{sub 3} were investigated. PLL is a widely-studied biomolecule containing amino groups that can interact with solid inorganic clusters. The addition of PLL to a LiNbO{sub 3} precursor solution enhanced the aggregation of the produced LiNbO{sub 3} nanoparticles. This aggregation was induced by the electrical attraction of PLL with LiNbO{sub 3} nanoparticles, and was enhanced with increasing PLL molecular weight. Furthermore, the association of PLL with LiNbO{sub 3} nanoparticles was increased by the addition of methanol, which enhanced the miscibility of PLL with the precursor solution working as a co-solvent. The LiNbO{sub 3} nanoparticles generated with PLL exhibited piezoelectric properties without post-thermal treatment, suggesting that PLL contributes to the piezoelectricity. The results of this study are intriguing in terms of the potential for diverse engineering nanomaterials synthesis through a biomolecule that can also improve the physicochemical properties. - Highlights: • Piezoelectric lithium niobate nanoparticles were synthesized with poly(L-lysine). • High molecular weight poly(L-lysine) and co-solvent promoted aggregation of nanoparticles. • Poly(L-lysine) enhanced piezoelectricity of lithium niobate nanoparticles.

  3. THE EFFECT OF Mo ADDITION ON COERCIVITY OF NdFeB SINTERED MAGNET PREPARED BY BLENDING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q.Zhou; M.G. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Alloy modification, accompanying with proper heat treatment, is commonly used to improve the thermal stability of NdFeB magnet. Traditional alloy modification is performed through melting process with alloy elements to form the multi-alloy. In doing so, these alloy elements not only are introduced into the inter-granular boundaries, but partly into the main phase, thus decreasing to some extent the magnetism of the main phase. In this paper, the blending method is used to prepare the Nd22Fe71B/Mo sintered magnet, and its magnetic properties and microstructures are investigated. The results show that by adding 1.5% (mass fraction) Mo, the intrinsic coercivity Hc of the magnet reaches the maximum value of 1719.36KA/m, while continually increasing the amount of Mo has a less effect on iHc Microstructures analysis indicates that Mo-free Nd-Fe-B magnet has not uniform grains in size, while that with Mo element has uniform grains in size and smooth grain boundaries. Experiments show that after the NdFeB magnet is sintered at 1273K and annealed at 873K, the added Mo element could prevent the equilibrium transformation between the main phase and Nd-rich phase, thus resulting in the precipitation of fine second main phase (Nd2Fe14-xMoxB) from the main phase boundaries, preventing the nucleation and expansion of anti-magnetic domain, and enhancing the coercivity.

  4. Preliminary studies towards the preparation of reactive 3-pyrrolin-2-ones in conjugate addition reactions for the syntheses of potentially bioactive 2-pyrrolidinones and pyrrolidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Jose C.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, (UFF) Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: alvesjcf@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Pyrrolin-2-ones and 2-pyrrolidinones are moieties often found in the structure of several biologically active natural products and 3-pyrrolin-2-ones are valuable starting materials in organic synthesis due to their ability to react as acceptors in conjugate addition reactions. In this article we report the initial results about the performed study aiming at the syntheses of reactive 3-pyrrolin-2-ones in conjugate addition reactions and the preparation of a potential precursor for the synthesis of the nootropic (+/-)-nebracetam. (author)

  5. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  6. Time, Sense and Meaning in Three Votic Songs (with Reference to Estonian and Setu Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madis Arukask

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates Votic, Estonian and Setu Kalevala-metric folk songs, which describe a dialogue between a living person and his or her deceased relative. The analysis centres on religious truth in poetic texts, relying on corresponding approaches by Ülo Valk and Aado Lintrop. As the observed texts are no longer mytho-epic stories or laments, the question about the meaning in lyro-epic discourse is discussed and particular attention is paid to the changes in concepts of time, the plot and characters of the songs. The author introduces the key concept ‘epiphany’ as a tool constructing meaning and merging the actual situation, the song text and personal emotions into a creative whole for the singer and/ or the audience.

  7. Characterizations of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique with Different Additives for the Photoelectrochemical Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. C. Halin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique using different additives, namely, polyethylene glycol and ethylene glycol. It was found that the organic additives added had a significant influence on the formation of Cu2O films and lead to different microstructures and optical properties. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Based on the FESEM micrographs, the grain size of film prepared using polyethylene glycol additive has smaller grains of about 83 nm with irregular shapes. The highest optical absorbance film was obtained by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The Cu2O thin films were used as a working electrode in the application of photoelectrochemical solar cell (PESC.

  8. Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. P.; Qian, M.; Liu, N.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, G. Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-03-01

    An advantage of the powder-bed-based metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes is that the powder can be reused. The powder reuse or recycling times directly affect the affordability of the additively manufactured parts, especially for the AM of titanium parts. This study examines the influence of powder reuse times on the characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V powder, including powder composition, particle size distribution (PSD), apparent density, tap density, flowability, and particle morphology. In addition, tensile samples were manufactured and evaluated with respect to powder reuse times and sample locations in the powder bed. The following findings were made from reusing the same batch of powder 21 times for AM by selective electron beam melting: (i) the oxygen (O) content increased progressively with increasing reuse times but both the Al content and the V content remained generally stable (a small decrease only); (ii) the powder became less spherical with increasing reuse times and some particles showed noticeable distortion and rough surfaces after being reused 16 times; (iii) the PSD became narrower and few satellite particles were observed after 11 times of reuse; (iv) reused powder showed improved flowability; and (v) reused powder showed no measurable undesired influence on the AM process and the samples exhibited highly consistent tensile properties, irrespective of their locations in the powder bed. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  9. 'It is Time to Prepare the Next patient' Real-Time Prediction of Procedure Duration in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Paalvast, M; Meeuwsen, F C; Tax, D M J; van Dijke, A P; Wauben, L S G L; van der Elst, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2016-12-01

    Operating Room (OR) scheduling is crucial to allow efficient use of ORs. Currently, the predicted durations of surgical procedures are unreliable and the OR schedulers have to follow the progress of the procedures in order to update the daily planning accordingly. The OR schedulers often acquire the needed information through verbal communication with the OR staff, which causes undesired interruptions of the surgical process. The aim of this study was to develop a system that predicts in real-time the remaining procedure duration and to test this prediction system for reliability and usability in an OR. The prediction system was based on the activation pattern of one single piece of equipment, the electrosurgical device. The prediction system was tested during 21 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, in which the activation of the electrosurgical device was recorded and processed in real-time using pattern recognition methods. The remaining surgical procedure duration was estimated and the optimal timing to prepare the next patient for surgery was communicated to the OR staff. The mean absolute error was smaller for the prediction system (14 min) than for the OR staff (19 min). The OR staff doubted whether the prediction system could take all relevant factors into account but were positive about its potential to shorten waiting times for patients. The prediction system is a promising tool to automatically and objectively predict the remaining procedure duration, and thereby achieve optimal OR scheduling and streamline the patient flow from the nursing department to the OR.

  10. Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, M.; Chudinova, E.; Syrtanov, M.; Koptioug, A.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  11. Preparation of TiO2 anatase nanocrystals by TiCl4 hydrolysis with additive H2SO4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Li

    Full Text Available A new methodology was developed to synthesize uniform titania anatase nanocrystals by the hydrolysis of titanium chloride in sulfuric acid aqueous solutions at 0-90°C. The samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction (ED, and an Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The effects of the reaction temperature, mole ratio of SO(4(2- to Ti(4+, and the calcinations temperature on the particle size and crystal phase were investigated. Depending on the acidity, the hydrolysis temperature, and the calcination temperature, rhombic anatase nanocrystals sizes in the range of 10 nm to 50 nm were obtained. In the additive of sulfuric acid, Raman spectra and electron diffraction confirmed that the nanoparticles are composed of anatase TiO(2. No other titania phases, such as rutile or brookite, were detected.

  12. Changes in DNA fragmentation during sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Natalia; Uriondo, Heydy; Papier, Sergio; Checa, Miguel Angel; Sueldo, Carlos; Alvarez Sedó, Cristian

    2013-07-01

    To compare the DNA fragmentation of semen samples established by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) after incubation in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for different time periods. Comparative prospective study. Center for reproductive medicine. Twenty-seven semen samples from infertile patients. None. Semen analysis and DNA fragmentation assays (TUNEL) were performed. Two groups were established: A) normal TUNEL (DNA fragmentation significantly decreased after centrifugation gradient, regardless of the initial levels of the sample. Samples with TUNEL ≥ 20% were more susceptible to a significant increase in DNA fragmentation over time, with similar increases being observed over time for samples that were incubated in HA or PVP. These data may be relevant for sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a flowing system: Influence of Cu2+ additives on induction time and crystalline phase transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmany, Y.; Putranto, W. A.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muryanto, S.

    2016-04-01

    Scaling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is commonly found in piping systems in oil, gas, desalination and other chemical processes. The scale may create technical problems, leading to the reduction of heat transfer, increase of energy consumption and unscheduled equipment shutdown. This paper presents crystallization scaling experiments and evaluation of the effect of Cu2+ additives on the induction time and calcium carbonate transformation. The crystals precursors were prepared using equimolar of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 resulted in concentrations of 3000 ppm Ca2+ in the solution. The Cu2+ in amounts of 0, 1 and 10 ppm was separately added in the solution. The flow rates (20, 35, and 60 mL/min) and elevated temperatures (27, 35 and 45°C) were selected in the study. The induction time for crystallization of CaCO3 was observed by measuring the solution conductivity over time, while the phase transformation of calcium carbonate was examined by XRD method and SEM/EDX. It was found that the conductivity remained steady for a certain period reflecting to the induction time of crystal formation, and then decreased sharply afterwards,. The induction time was increased from 34 and 48 minutes in the presence of Cu additives (1 and 10 ppm), depending on the flow rates and temperature observed. In all the experiments, the Cu2+ addition leads to the reduction of mass of crystals. Apparently, the presence of Cu2+ could inhibit the CaCO3 crystallization. In the absence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals obtained were a mixture of vaterite and calcite. In the presence of Cu2+ and at elevated temperature, the crystals formed were aragonite and calcite. Here, the presence of Cu2+ additives might have controlled the crystal transformation of CaCO3.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coating on 5005 Aluminum Alloy with Red Mud as an Electrolyte Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shifeng; Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Youbin

    2017-10-01

    A coating with red mud as an electrolyte additive was applied to 5005 aluminum alloy using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The phase composition of the coating was investigated using X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the microstructure and composition profiles of the coating. The coating/substrate adhesion was determined by scratch testing. The corrosion behaviors of the substrate and coating were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicated that the PEO coating with red mud consisted mainly of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, with small amounts of Fe2O3, CaCO3, and CaTiO3. The surface of the coating was the color of the red mud. The coating had a uniform thickness of about 80 μm and consisted of two main layers: a 6- μm porous outer layer and a 74- μm dense inner layer, which showed typical metallurgical adhesion (coating/substrate adhesion strength of 59 N). The coating hardness was about 1142 HV, much higher than that of the substrate (60 HV). The corrosion potential E corr and corrosion current density i corr of the coating were estimated to be -0.743 V and 3.85 × 10-6 A cm-2 from the PDP curve in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution, and the maximum impedance and phase angle of the coating were 11 000 Ω and -67 deg, respectively, based on EIS. PEO coating with red mud improved the surface properties and corrosion resistance of 5005 aluminum alloy. This study also shows a potential method for reusing red mud.

  15. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  16. The influence of fish age, salt level, and Mtgase addition on the quality of gels prepared from unwashed mince of farmed meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Carlos; Ribeiro, Bernardo; Mendes, Rogério

    2014-06-01

    The potential of using the unwashed mince of farmed meagre as raw material for the preparation of heat-induced gel products was assessed taking into account the effect of age (small size 2kg meagre), lower salt levels (1.0%, w/w, vs 2.5%, w/w), and microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) incorporation (0.0%, w/w, vs 0.5%, w/w). Heat-induced gel products from > 2 kg fish were of superior quality. Salt reduction from 2.5% to 1.0% (w/w) was detrimental for textural quality, particularly, of gels prepared from >2 kg meagre mince. MTGase addition improved texture. Moreover, MTGase incorporation led to a greater importance of non-covalent hydrophobic bonding.

  17. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  18. Rapid identification of polymer additives by atmospheric solid analysis probe with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Li, Ailin; Lv, Surong

    2014-10-15

    A method using an atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) assisted by a pre-built MS library was found to be efficient in fast and direct analysis of additives for polymers. By this method, sample pretreatment could be eliminated from the additives identification process. Some crucial parameters, such as desolvation gas temperature, corona current, sample cone voltage and collision energy, should be optimized. A MS library of 100 polymer additives, including phenols (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076), hydroxyl phenyl benzotriazole derivatives (Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327, Tinuvin 328), hindered amines (Tinuvin 944, Tinuvin 770) and plasticizers, was built based on the optimized conditions. To verify the application of the MS library, the ASAP-QTOFMS method was applied to identify complex additives, a simulated polypropylene (PP) sample and a real polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) sample purchased from a local market. By searching the exact mass, and comparing the MS and MS/MS spectra of samples with standards in the MS library, complex additives such as Irganox GX 2921, as well as additives in PP and PMMA samples, could be identified quickly and easily. The determination of mass accuracy increased the confidence of peak identification as well. Moreover, the results also provided information of the characterization for PP and PMMA polymers. A rapid identification method has been developed for polymer additives by ASAP-QTOFMS. A MS library of 100 polymer additives was built by this method. Using ASAP-QTOFMS assisted by the pre-built MS library, polymer additives can be quickly identified. This method was found to be a promising tool in the rapid analysis of additives in polymers and polymer matrices. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Reducing time and increasing sensitivity in sample preparation for adherent mammalian cell metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Matthew A; Burant, Charles F; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-05-01

    A simple, fast, and reproducible sample preparation procedure was developed for relative quantification of metabolites in adherent mammalian cells using the clonal β-cell line INS-1 as a model sample. The method was developed by evaluating the effect of different sample preparation procedures on high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry quantification of 27 metabolites involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle on a directed basis as well as for all detectable chromatographic features on an undirected basis. We demonstrate that a rapid water rinse step prior to quenching of metabolism reduces components that suppress electrospray ionization thereby increasing signal for 26 of 27 targeted metabolites and increasing total number of detected features from 237 to 452 with no detectable change of metabolite content. A novel quenching technique is employed which involves addition of liquid nitrogen directly to the culture dish and allows for samples to be stored at -80 °C for at least 7 d before extraction. Separation of quenching and extraction steps provides the benefit of increased experimental convenience and sample stability while maintaining metabolite content similar to techniques that employ simultaneous quenching and extraction with cold organic solvent. The extraction solvent 9:1 methanol: chloroform was found to provide superior performance over acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol with respect to metabolite recovery and extract stability. Maximal recovery was achieved using a single rapid (∼1 min) extraction step. The utility of this rapid preparation method (∼5 min) was demonstrated through precise metabolite measurements (11% average relative standard deviation without internal standards) associated with step changes in glucose concentration that evoke insulin secretion in the clonal β-cell line INS-1.

  20. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure asteroseismic targets. If not accounted for, the presence of planetary transits in the photometric time series often greatly complicates or even hinders these asteroseismic analyses. This drives the need for specialised methods of preprocessing data to make them suitable for asteroseismic analysis. In this paper we present the KASOC Filter, which is used to automatically prepare data from the Kepler/K2 mission for asteroseismic analyses of solar-like planet host stars. The methods are very effective at removing unwanted signals of both instrumental and planetary origins and produce significantly cleaner photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a ...

  1. X-ray peak broadening analysis of Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys prepared under different milling times and BPR using size strain plot (SSP) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Hosseinzadeh; J Baedi; A Khorsand Zak

    2014-08-01

    Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method at different milling times of 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 70 h and ball powder ratios (BPR) of 10 : 1, 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The structures of prepared powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The broadening of the diffraction peaks were analysed using size strain plot (SSP) method and the lattice strain and crystallite size of the nanocrystals were calculated. In addition, the typical morphological studies were performed by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocrystals decreased with the milling time and BPR increases; whereas, the lattice constant () increased. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) study of the powder prepared at 50 h and BPR 30 : 1 showed that the sample exhibits both the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties in nanocrystallite size range.

  2. Influence of preparation procedure and ferric oxide nanoparticles addition on transport properties of homogeneous cation-exchange SPPO/SPVC membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FARHAD HEIDARY; ALI NEMATI KHARAT; ALIREZA KHODABAKHSHI; SAYED SIAVASH MADAENI

    2017-08-01

    Homogeneous cation-exchange membranes were prepared through evaporation and phase inversion methodsusing sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (SPPO) and sulfonated polyvinylchloride as binders. The effectof polymers blend’s ratio and preparation method on structure and electrochemical properties of the prepared membraneswere evaluated. The microstructures of the membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) andthe sulfonation of polyvinylchloride was confirmed by elemental analyses. Moreover, the membranes performance wasevaluated by ion-exchange capacity (IEC), fixed ion concentration, membrane potential, transport number, permselectivity,areal resistance, ionic permeability, flux of ions, current efficiency, membrane oxidative stability, mechanical properties andwater content tests. The results indicated that IEC and water content were affected by the SPPO content and microstructuresof the membranes. The results showed increased efficiency and suitable electrochemical properties for membranes preparedby the evaporation method in comparison with others. Also, Fe$_2$O$_3$ nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by a simple sonochemical reaction between ferric chloride and NaOH. The results revealed that the addition of different amounts of Fe$_2$O$_3$ nanoparticles to the polymeric matrix could affect the hydrophilicity and transport properties of ion-exchange membranes.

  3. Graphene nanoplatelets prepared by electric heating Acid-treated graphite in a vacuum chamber and their use as additives in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Cameron; Wu, Yiliang; Gardner, Sandra; Zhu, Shiping

    2014-11-26

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were prepared from acid-treated expandable graphite using a novel method of electric heating the graphite in an evaporation chamber under high vacuum, followed by solvent exfoliation. Such prepared graphene nanoplatelets, the eGNPs, were compared to GNPs prepared from two conventional methods: thermal expansion in an isothermal oven followed by solvent exfoliation (oGNPs), and direct solvent exfoliation (sGNPs), using various characterization techniques including UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the eGNPs were very thin, with a thickness of 4-16 nm, and showed no oxidation. On the other hand, oGNPs exhibited much thicker sheets, upward of 40 nm, and the sGNPs showed a high degree of oxidation. Utilizing the high purity eGNPs as an additive in PQT-12 semiconductor layer has been shown to improve the mobility by a factor of 2 in thin-film transistor devices.

  4. Predicting the Survival Time for Bladder Cancer Using an Addi-tive Hazards Model in Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili TAPAK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One substantial part of microarray studies is to predict patients’ survival based on their gene expression profile. Variable selection techniques are powerful tools to handle high dimensionality in analysis of microarray data. However, these techniques have not been investigated in competing risks setting. This study aimed to investigate the performance of four sparse variable selection methods in estimating the survival time.Methods: The data included 1381 gene expression measurements and clinical information from 301 patients with bladder cancer operated in the years 1987 to 2000 in hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, Spain, France, and England. Four methods of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, smoothly clipped absolute deviation, the smooth integration of counting and absolute deviation and elastic net were utilized for simultaneous variable selection and estimation under an additive hazards model. The criteria of area under ROC curve, Brier score and c-index were used to compare the methods.Results: The median follow-up time for all patients was 47 months. The elastic net approach was indicated to outperform other methods. The elastic net had the lowest integrated Brier score (0.137±0.07 and the greatest median of the over-time AUC and C-index (0.803±0.06 and 0.779±0.13, respectively. Five out of 19 selected genes by the elastic net were significant (P<0.05 under an additive hazards model. It was indicated that the expression of RTN4, SON, IGF1R and CDC20 decrease the survival time, while the expression of SMARCAD1 increase it.Conclusion: The elastic net had higher capability than the other methods for the prediction of survival time in patients with bladder cancer in the presence of competing risks base on additive hazards model.Keywords: Survival analysis, Microarray data, Additive hazards model, Variable selection, Bladder cancer 

  5. Effects of Additive AlCl3 on Crystal Phase, Particle Size and Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Prepared by HF-PCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiping XU; Yanping SUN; Xinmou CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 was prepared by high frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition (HF-PCVD). The effects of additive AlCl3 on crystal phase, particle size and microstructural parameters of TiO2 nanocrystallites were investigated by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocrystallites obtained experimentally are mixture of anatase and rutile, the uniform diameters of particles are about 30 nm. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile was accelerated by AlCl3, and rutile content is increased from 26.7 wt pct to 53.6 wt pct with increasing of addition of AlCl3 from 0.0 wt pct to 5.0 wt pct. The particle size is reduced and the size distribution becomes very narrow. The crystal lattice constants have the trend to decrease, and cell volumes appear as shrinkable.

  6. Preparation of nanosize Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for methanol synthesis by phase transfer with metal surfactant. 2: Effect of additives and chain length of surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Z.; Chen, S.; Peng, S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1996-09-25

    Nanosize Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for methanol synthesis were prepared by the metal surfactant phase transfer technique. The effects of chain length of surfactant and additives were studied. It was found that the longer the organic chain of surfactant, the more stable the sol particles and the larger the surface area of catalyst. The decomposition temperature of surfactants with longer chains was also higher. For the preparation of Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, the surfactant organic chain should not be longer than 11 carbon atoms. A synergist could be used to improve surfactant efficiency. A stabilizing agent was used to strength the stability of sol particles in water. The time needed for oil-water separation was reduced markedly by using a demulsifying agent. The optimal mole ratios of synergist, stabilizing agent, and demulsifying agent to surfactant were, respectively, 0.6, 0.6, and 1.

  7. Effects of preparation time and trial type probability on performance of anti- and pro-saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jordan E; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control optimizes responses to relevant task conditions by balancing bottom-up stimulus processing with top-down goal pursuit. It can be investigated using the ocular motor system by contrasting basic prosaccades (look toward a stimulus) with complex antisaccades (look away from a stimulus). Furthermore, the amount of time allotted between trials, the need to switch task sets, and the time allowed to prepare for an upcoming saccade all impact performance. In this study the relative probabilities of anti- and pro-saccades were manipulated across five blocks of interleaved trials, while the inter-trial interval and trial type cue duration were varied across subjects. Results indicated that inter-trial interval had no significant effect on error rates or reaction times (RTs), while a shorter trial type cue led to more antisaccade errors and faster overall RTs. Responses following a shorter cue duration also showed a stronger effect of trial type probability, with more antisaccade errors in blocks with a low antisaccade probability and slower RTs for each saccade task when its trial type was unlikely. A longer cue duration yielded fewer errors and slower RTs, with a larger switch cost for errors compared to a short cue duration. Findings demonstrated that when the trial type cue duration was shorter, visual motor responsiveness was faster and subjects relied upon the implicit trial probability context to improve performance. When the cue duration was longer, increased fixation-related activity may have delayed saccade motor preparation and slowed responses, guiding subjects to respond in a controlled manner regardless of trial type probability.

  8. Storage Time and Temperature Effects on Histamine Production in Tuna Salad Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Benner, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP), also known as histamine (Hst) poisoning, has been associated with consumption of scombroid-type fish, including tuna and tuna fish products. Preparation of commercial tuna salad contaminated with Hstproducing bacteria (HPB), combined with time-temperature abuse, can present a food safety hazard. A potential source of HPB is raw ingredients, such as celery and onions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether raw ingredients can be a source of HPB and to ascertain the effects of storage time (up to 4 days or 4 weeks) and temperature (4, 10, 18, 25, 30°C) on growth and Hst production by high-HPB (>1,000 ppm of Hst) in tuna salad preparations. Pantoea-Erwinia, Erwinia persicinus, Erwinia spp., and Enterobacter pyrinus isolated from celery in this study were used to inoculate tuna salad and tuna salad with celery or onion. HPB numbers were 0.7 to 4.3 log most probable number per g higher in the presence of celery or onion versus plain tuna salad (3:1 tuna:mayonnaise). E. pyrinus-inoculated plain tuna salad and tuna salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 2 days at 30°C and 4 days at 25°C. E. pyrinus-inoculated salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 4 days at 18°C and 2 weeks at 10°C. Raw celery can introduce HPB into tuna salad, which can cause SFP if the product is time-temperature abused. Tuna salad products must be refrigerated at ≤4°C to prevent growth and Hst production by the HPB used in this study, to protect consumers from potential SFP.

  9. The Coronal Tooth Fractures: Preliminary Evaluation of a Three-Year Follow-Up of the Anterior Teeth Direct Fragment Reattachment Technique Without Additional Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice G, Lo; A., Alibrandi; F, Lipari; A, Lizio; F, Lauritano; G, Cervino; M, Cicciù

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research is to describe and to analyse the long-term results and the clinical steps of direct fragment reattachment technique with no additional tooth preparation, used to treat crown fracture. This technique achieves the clinical success, combining satisfactory aesthetic and functional results with a minimally invasive approach. Methods: The 3 years follow-up included 9 patients (5 males, 4 females) with coronal fracture. In all the cases the fragment was available and intact. The authors illustrate the adhesive procedure used. Under local anaesthesia and after positioning the rubber dam, both the tooth and the fragment surface were etched, rinsed and applied by the adhesive system in order to obtain the retention of the fractured part to the tooth without additional tooth preparation or resin cement. Results: The statistical analysis shows the good performances of direct fragment reattachment technique. After 36 months, in 22.2% of the cases, the detachment was observed of the bonded fragment and in 11.1% of patients, complications were recorded. Conclusion: Our clinical experience shows how the ultra-conservative procedure used is fast, easy and offers a long term predictability; it also allows good functional and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:28839475

  10. TEMPO addition into pre-irradiated fluoropolymers and living-radical graft polymerization of styrene for preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sawada.shinnichi@jaea.go.j [Conducting Polymer Materials Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Maekawa, Yasunari, E-mail: maekawa.yasunari@jaea.go.j [Conducting Polymer Materials Research Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We prepared proton exchange membranes (PEMs) by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO)-mediated living-radical graft polymerization (LRGP) of styrene into fluoropolymer films and subsequent sulfonation. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films were first irradiated and then treated with TEMPO solutions in various solvents. TEMPO addition was confirmed by the test of styrene grafting into TEMPO-treated films at 60 deg. C, at which the LRGP never proceeds. This test enabled us to differentiate the LRGP from the conventional graft polymerization. In order to gain a deep insight about TEMPO-addition reaction, the TEMPO-penetration behavior into the base polymer films was examined by a permeation experiment and computer simulation. Xylene and dioxane were appropriate solvents for the complete introduction of TEMPO into PVDF and ETFE films, respectively. Then, the LRGP of styrene was performed based on the fully TEMPO-capped films at 125 deg. C with various solvents. By using an alcoholic solvent, the degree of grafting was enhanced and it reached a maximum of 38%. This grafted film was sulfonated to prepare a PEM showing an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq/g and proton conductivity of 1.6x10{sup -1} S/cm.

  11. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone-Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henss, Anja; Hild, Anne; Rohnke, Marcus; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-06-07

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.

  12. Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anese, Monica; Bot, Francesca; Panozzo, Agnese; Mirolo, Giorgio; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of ultrasound processing on tomato pulp containing no sunflower oil, or increasing amounts (i.e. 2.5%, 5% and 10%), on lycopene concentration and in vitro bioaccessibility at time zero and during storage at 5 °C. Results confirmed previous findings in that ultrasonication was responsible for cell breakage and subsequent lycopene release in a highly viscous matrix. Neither the ultrasound process nor oil addition affected lycopene concentration. A decrease of approximately 35% lycopene content occurred at storage times longer than 15 days, due to isomerisation and oxidation reactions. No differences in lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility were found between the untreated and ultrasonically treated samples; this parameter decreased as a consequence of oil addition. Losses of lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility ranging between 50% and 80% occurred in the untreated and ultrasonically treated tomato pulps with and without oil during storage, mainly due to carotenoid degradation.

  13. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Maikel; Schuman, Els; van Eekert, Miriam; van Riel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10-15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time.

  14. Time-lapse cinematography in living Drosophila tissues: preparation of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ilan; Parton, Richard M

    2006-11-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been an extraordinarily successful model organism for studying the genetic basis of development and evolution. It is arguably the best-understood complex multicellular model system, owing its success to many factors. Recent developments in imaging techniques, in particular sophisticated fluorescence microscopy methods and equipment, now allow cellular events to be studied at high resolution in living material. This ability has enabled the study of features that tend to be lost or damaged by fixation, such as transient or dynamic events. Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila are shared with the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties in keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick hazy cytoplasm. This protocol outlines the preparation of major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping them alive.

  15. First-time parents are not well enough prepared for the safety of their infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E J van Beelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unintentional falls and poisonings are major causes of death and disability among infants. Although guidelines are available to prevent these injuries, safety behaviours are not performed by parents, causing unnecessary risks. Little is known about safety behaviours of first-time parents and whether they behave according to these guidelines. AIMS/OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare safety behaviours of first-time parents with those of non-first-time parents and to determine correlates of unsafe behaviour of parents of infants. We used self-report questionnaires to assess safety behaviours in a cross-sectional study sample. METHODS: A total of 1439 parents visiting a preventive youth healthcare centre in the Netherlands were invited to complete a questionnaire with regard to the prevention of falls and poisonings. Parents were categorized into first-time parents and non-first-time parents. Correlates of parents' child safety behaviours were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS/OUTCOME: Most respondents were mothers (93.2%; 48.2% of families were first-time parents. The mean age of the infants was 7.2 months (SD 1.1; range 4-12, 51.8% were boys, and 34.5% of infants could crawl. First-time parents were more likely not to have a stair gate installed (OR 16.46; 95% CI 12.36-21.93; were more likely to store cleaning products unsafely (OR 4.55; 95% CI 3.59-5.76; and were more likely to store medicines unsafely (OR 2.90; 95% CI 2.31-3.63 than non-first-time parents. First-time parents were more likely to not have a window guard installed (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08-2.15 (all P<0.05. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: First-time parents are not well prepared for the safety of their infant, causing unnecessary risks. The various parents' safety behaviours were influenced by different variables, for example, age of the infant, crawling of the infant, mother's educational level, mother's ethnicity, self

  16. Deposition Time and Thermal Cycles of Fabricating Thin-wall Steel Parts by Double Electrode GMAW Based Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition time for fabricating the thin-wall part as well as the peak temperature of the substrate during the process was analyzed in the double electrode gas metal arc welding (DE-GMAW based additive manufacturing (AM. The total deposition time and the interlayer idle time of the manufacturing process decreased with the increasing of the bypass current under the same interlayer temperature and the same deposition rate. The thermal cycling curves illustrated that the peak temperature of the substrate was lower in the DE-GMAW base AM under the same conditions. When depositing the thin-wall parts, the DE-GMAW based AM can reduce the heat input to the substrate and improve the fabrication efficiency, compared with the GMAW based AM.

  17. The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Serina J; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Brown, Kelly R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training (ET) on inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) and if an additional inspiratory load during ET (ET+IL) would further improve inspiratory muscle strength, IMF, and time-trial performance. 15 subjects were randomly divided to ET (n=8) and ET+IL groups (n=7). All subjects completed six weeks of exercise training three days/week at ∼70%V̇O2peak for 30min. The ET+IL group breathed through an inspiratory muscle trainer (15% PImax) during exercise. 5-mile, and 30-min time-trials were performed pre-training, weeks three and six. Inspiratory muscle strength increased (p0.05) extent. ET and ET+IL groups improved (ptraining following the 5-mile time-trial. In conclusion, these data suggest ET leads to less IMF, ET+IL improves inspiratory muscle strength and IMF, but not different than ET alone.

  18. The Effect of Lime Addition on the Setting Time and Strength of Ambient Cured Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Andi Arham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations of geopolymer as the alternative binders in concrete is the necessity of heat curing. This study aimed to produce fly ash geopolymer binder subjected to ambient curing by adding a small proportion of lime and varying the activator dosage. The Class F fly ash from Mpanau coal-fired power plant was mixed with alkaline solution consists of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide with Na2O dosage of 5%, 7%, and 9%. To achieve ambient cured paste, 8%, 9%, and 10% slaked lime was added as the substitute for the fly ash. The setting time test was conducted for each mix and the compressive strength was performed at age of 7, 14 and 28 days. The test result shows that the setting time of the fly ash based geopolymer paste can be controlled by adding a small proportion of slaked lime. The addition of lime increased strength but decreased the setting time.

  19. Real-time interferometric monitoring and measuring of photopolymerization based stereolithographic additive manufacturing process: sensor model and algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Rosen, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing is poised for growth and innovations, it faces barriers of lack of in-process metrology and control to advance into wider industry applications. The exposure controlled projection lithography (ECPL) is a layerless mask-projection stereolithographic additive manufacturing process, in which parts are fabricated from photopolymers on a stationary transparent substrate. To improve the process accuracy with closed-loop control for ECPL, this paper develops an interferometric curing monitoring and measuring (ICM&M) method which addresses the sensor modeling and algorithms issues. A physical sensor model for ICM&M is derived based on interference optics utilizing the concept of instantaneous frequency. The associated calibration procedure is outlined for ICM&M measurement accuracy. To solve the sensor model, particularly in real time, an online evolutionary parameter estimation algorithm is developed adopting moving horizon exponentially weighted Fourier curve fitting and numerical integration. As a preliminary validation, simulated real-time measurement by offline analysis of a video of interferograms acquired in the ECPL process is presented. The agreement between the cured height estimated by ICM&M and that measured by microscope indicates that the measurement principle is promising as real-time metrology for global measurement and control of the ECPL process.

  20. Preparation of surface-modified lanthanum fluoride-graphene oxide nanohybrids and evaluation of their tribological properties as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuizhen; Hou, Xiao; Li, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaohong; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    Oleic acid surface-modified Lanthanum trifluoride-graphene oxide (OA-LaF3-GO) nanohybrids were successfully prepared by surface modification technology. The morphology and phase structure of as-prepared samples were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman spectrometry and thermogravimetry. The results revealed that OA were bonded onto the surface of LaF3-GO nanohybrids. Subsequently, the tribological properties of OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined on a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Tribological results showed that OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids had excellent friction reduction and antiwear ability at the loading of 0.5 wt.% OA-LaF3-GO nanohybrids, compared to liquid paraffin alone. The results of energy dispersive spectrometer revealed that improved tribological properties resulted from OA-LaF3-GO could transfer to the rubbed steel surface and decompose to form protective layers, which help to improve tribological properties.

  1. Preparation of an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase by planetary ball milling of Mg with10 wt% MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Song, Myoung Youp

    2016-11-01

    In order to prepare an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase, 90 wt% Mg+10 wt% MgH2 (named Mg-10MgH2) was milled under hydrogen atmosphere in a planetary ball mill for different durations (2 h, 5 h, and 10 h). The hydrogen absorption and release properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with those of purchased pure MgH2 samples. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h had the largest quantity of hydrogen released at 648 K for 100 min of 5.96 wt%. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h released 0.11 wt% H for 10 min, 4.85 wt% H for 30 min, and 5.83 wt% H for 60 min at 648 K at the first cycle. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h absorbed 5.39 wt% H for 5 min and 5.92 wt% H for 60 min at 648 K at the second cycle. Dehydriding curves were also obtained at the first cycle of Mg-10MgH2 samples milled for 5 h using Mg powder with or without sieving (200 mesh). The dehydriding curve at 648 K of a Mg-10MgH2 sample milled for 5 h in the planetary ball mill was compared with that of the sample milled for 24 h in a horizontal ball mill.

  2. In Vitro Comparison of Instrumentation Time and Cleaning Capacity between Rotary and Manual Preparation Techniques in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahrololoomi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning ability and instrumentation time of manual and rotary methods used for preparation of primary an-terior teeth.Materials and Methods: Forty-four primary anterior teeth were used in this experi-mental study. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals. The samples were divided into three groups according to the instrument and preparation technique. In group I the root canals were manually instrumented with K-files. Rotary Flexmaster instruments were used for canal preparation in Group II, and the samples in Group III (control were not instrumented. After canal preparation, the teeth were cleared with methyl salicilate and the removal of India ink was measured in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. The incidence of file breakage and instrumentation time was recorded in the three study groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and t-tests.Results: There was no significant difference in cleaning capacity between the two tech-niques, but a significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Working time was significantly shorter when using the rotary system. No file fracture was observed during the study period.Conclusion: Regarding the shorter working time for rotary instrumentation and the similar cleaning ability of the two techniques, the application of the rotary system is suggested for preparation of decidious root canals during pulpectomy.

  3. Mean First-Passage Time of a Bistable Kinetic Model Driven by Multiplicative Coloured Noise and Additive White Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢崇伟; 梅冬成

    2003-01-01

    We study the transient properties of a bistable kinetic system driven by correlated noises for the cases of multiplicative coloured noise and additive white noise. The mean first-passage time (MFPT) of the system is calculated.From numerical computations we find that: (i) The MFPT of the bistable system are affected by the correlation time of multiplicative coloured noise τ and the cross-correlation strength between noises λ and, τ and λ play the same roles in the MFPT. (ii) The MFPT corresponding to weakly correlated noises and strongly correlated noises exhibits the very different behaviour and there is a one-peak structure in the MFPT for strongly correlated noises. The peak grows highly as τ increases, which means that the noisy colour causes the suppression effect of the escape rate to become more pronounced.

  4. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-05-08

    Although clinical applications such as emergency medicine and prehospital care could benefit from a fast-mounting electroencephalography (EEG) recording system, the lack of specifically designed equipment restricts the use of EEG in these environments. This paper describes the design and testing of a six-channel emergency EEG (emEEG) system with a rapid preparation time intended for use in emergency medicine and prehospital care. The novel system comprises a quick-application cap, a device for recording and transmitting the EEG wirelessly to a computer, and custom software for displaying and streaming the data in real-time to a hospital. Bench testing was conducted, as well as healthy volunteer and patient measurements in three different environments: a hospital EEG laboratory, an intensive care unit, and an ambulance. The EEG data was evaluated by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists and compared with recordings from a commercial system. The bench tests demonstrated that the emEEG system's performance is comparable to that of a commercial system while the healthy volunteer and patient measurements confirmed that the system can be applied quickly and that it records quality EEG data in a variety of environments. Furthermore, the recorded data was judged to be of diagnostic quality by two experienced clinical neurophysiologists. In the future, the emEEG system may be used to record high-quality EEG data in emergency medicine and during ambulance transportation. Its use could lead to a faster diagnostic, a more accurate treatment, and a shorter recovery time for patients with neurological brain disorders.

  5. GEKF,GUKF and GGPF based prediction of Chaotic time-series with additive and multiplicative noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xue-Dong; Song Zhi-Huan

    2008-01-01

    On the assamption that random interruptions in the observation process are modelled by a sequence of independent Bernoulli random variables,this paper generalize the extended Kalmau filtering(EKF),the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF)and the Gaussian particle filtering(GPF)to the case in which there is a positive probability that the observation in each time consists of noise alone and does not contain the chaotic signal(These generalized novel algorithms are referred to as GEKF,GUKF and GGPF correspondingly in this paper).Using weights and network output of neural networks to constitute state equation and obserwtion equation for chaotic time-series prediction to obtain the linear system state transition equation with continuous update scheme in an online fashion,and the prediction results of chaotic time series represented by the predicted observation value,these proposed novel algorithms are applied to the prediction of Mackey-Glass time-series with additive and multiplicative noises.Simulation results prove that the GGPF provides a relatively better prediction performance in comparison with GEKF and GUKF.

  6. Effect of Na2CO3 Addition on Carbothermic Reduction of Copper Smelting Slag to Prepare Crude Fe-Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Yao, Weijie; Xu, Wuqi; Chen, Jinan

    2017-09-01

    Copper smelting slag is a useful secondary resource containing high iron and copper, which can be utilized to prepare crude Fe-Cu alloy by a direct reduction-magnetic separation process for making weathering-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to recover iron and copper from the slag by direct reduction since the iron mainly occurs in fayalite and the copper is held in copper sulfide. Therefore, enhancement reduction of copper slag is conducted to improve the recovery of copper and iron. Additives such as Na2CO3 has been proven to be capable of reinforcing the reduction of refractory iron ore. In this research, the effect of Na2CO3 on the carbothermic reduction of copper slag was investigated, and phase transformations during reduction and the distributing characteristics of iron and copper in the alloy and non-metallic phases of the reduced pellets were also studied. The results show that the metallization rate of iron and copper was increased with the addition of Na2CO3, leading to higher iron and copper recovery in Fe-Cu alloy powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results confirm that Na2CO3 is capable of enhancing the reduction of fayaltie, copper silicate and copper sulfide, which agrees well with thermodynamic analysis. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism of copper slag was demonstrated based on systematic experimental observations.

  7. Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433 cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4 nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed.

  8. Poly(Lactic Acid) Hemodialysis Membranes with Poly(Lactic Acid)-block-Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Copolymer As Additive: Preparation, Characterization, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Fu; Yu, Xuemin; Xue, Lixin

    2015-08-19

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) hemodialysis membranes with enhanced antifouling capability and hemocompatibility were developed using poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PLA-PHEMA) copolymers as the blending additive. PLA-PHEMA block copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation (RAFT) polymerization from aminolyzed PLA. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) were applied to characterize the synthesized products. By blending PLA with the amphiphilic block copolymer, PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes were prepared by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method. Their chemistry and structure were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes with high PLA-PHEMA contents exhibited enhanced hydrophilicity, water permeability, antifouling and hemocompatibility. Especially, when the PLA-PHEMA concentration was 15 wt %, the water flux of the modified membrane was about 236 L m(-2) h(-1). Its urea and creatinine clearance was more than 0.70 mL/min, lysozyme clearance was about 0.50 mL/min, BSA clearance was as less as 0.31 mL/min. All the results suggest that PLA-PHEMA copolymers had served as effective agents for optimizing the property of PLA-based membrane for hemodialysis applications.

  9. Preparation of lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles surface-capped by tributyl phosphate and evaluation of their tribological properties as lubricant additive in liquid paraffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Hou, Xiao; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-02-01

    LaF3 nanoparticles surface-capped by tributyl phosphate (denoted as TBP-LaF3) were prepared by in situ surface modification route. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared TBP-LaF3 nanoparticles were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of as-synthesized TBP-LaF3 nanoparticles was evaluated based on thermogravimetric analysis, and their tribological properties as additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester. Moreover, the morphology of worn steel surfaces was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, and the composition and chemical state of typical elements on worn steel surfaces were examined with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that as-synthesized TBP-LaF3 nanoparticles possess good thermal stability and excellent anti-wear and load-carrying capacities as well as good friction-reducing ability. This is because, on the one hand, TBP as the surface-modifier is able to improve the dispersibility of LaF3 nanoparticles in liquid paraffin and allows good adsorption of LaF3 nanoparticles on sliding steel surfaces. On the other hand, active P element of TBP can form tribochemical reaction film on sliding steel surfaces. As a result, the boundary lubricating film consisting of adsorbed LaF3 nanoparticles and tribochemical reaction film results in greatly improved friction-reducing and anti-wear abilities as well as load-carrying capacity of the lubricant base stock and gives rise to significantly reduced friction and wear of the steel-steel sliding pair.

  10. Preparation of Magnesium Hydroxide Flame Retardant with Additives%添加剂辅助制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红进

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium hydroxide is a kind of flame retardant with high anti -flame effect, which is widely used in high polymer, such as plastic, rubber. In the experiment, synthesis reaction - hydrothermal treatment the flame - retardant magnesium hydroxide is prepared by the two -stpe way( ammonia synthesis reaction - hydrothermal treatment) with the help of additives and the products are detected by XRD, SEM and TEM methods. The results show that; ethylenediamine, n - butylamine and sodium stearate have enhancing effect on the preparation of Magnesium hydroxide , flame retardant, especially for the combination of n - butylamine and sodium stearate, and ethanol has no effect in this aspect.%氢氧化镁因具有良好的阻燃效果而被广泛应用于塑料、橡胶等高聚物中.实验使用两步法(氨水合成—水热处理法)在几种添加剂辅助条件下制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂粉体,对制备出的粉体进行了XRD、SEM和TEM表征.结果表明,加入有机添加剂对水热制备氢氧化镁阻燃剂影响较大,乙二胺、正丁胺、硬脂酸钠对制备阻燃型氢氧化镁具有促进作用,正丁胺和硬脂酸钠复合使用效果更佳,而无水乙醇未表现出促进作用.

  11. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  12. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  13. Determination of mass diffusion coefficients of oxygenated fuel additives in air using digital real-time holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maogang; Guo, Ying; Zhong, Qiu; Zhang, Ying

    2009-02-01

    In this work, an experimental system based on digital real-time holographic interferometry for measuring the mass diffusion coefficients of fluid is introduced. The method of processing interference fringe hologram is also introduced thoroughly. By uncertainties analysis and experimental verification, the accuracy of this system is validated. The experimental uncertainties in temperature and mass diffusion coefficient are estimated to be no greater than ± 0.16 K and ± 0.2 %, respectively. On this basis, the mass diffusion coefficients of three fuel additives, diethyl 1,6-hexanedioate (diethyl adipate, DEA), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) in air were measured at T = (278.15 to 338.15) K under atmospheric pressure, and polynomial was fitted by the experimental data.

  14. Metabolic and energetic aspects of biohydrogen production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum: The effects of hydraulic retention time and peptone addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Lin, Che-An; Liu, I-Chun; Wu, Chao-Wei; Cheng, Hai-Hsuan

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the microbial metabolism and energy demand in fermentative biohydrogen production using Clostridium tyrobutyricum FYa102 at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) over a period of 1-18 h. The hydrogen yield shows a positive correlation with the butyrate yield, the B/A ratio, and the Y(H2)/2(Y(HAc)+Y(HBu)) ratio, but a negative correlation with the lactate yield. A decrease in HRT, which is accompanied by an increased biomass growth, tends to decrease the B/A ratio, due presumably to a higher energy demand for microbial growth. The production of lactate at a low HRT, however, may involve an unfavorable change in e(-) equiv distribution to result in a reduced hydrogen production. Finally, the relatively high hydrogen yields observed in the bioreactor with the peptone addition may be ascribed to the utilization of peptone as an additional energy and/or amino-acid source, thus reducing the glucose demand for biomass growth during the hydrogen production process.

  15. Thermal aging of traditional and additively manufactured foams: analysis by time-temperature-superposition, constitutive, and finite-element models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Small, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lewicki, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Duoss, E. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spadaccini, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pearson, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Maxwell, R. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    Cellular solids or foams are a very important class of materials with diverse applications ranging from thermal insulation and shock absorbing support cushions, to light-weight structural and floatation components, and constitute crucial components in a large number of industries including automotive, aerospace, electronics, marine, biomedical, packaging, and defense. In many of these applications the foam material is subjected to long periods of continuous stress, which can, over time, lead to a permanent change in structure and a degradation in performance. In this report we summarize our modeling efforts to date on polysiloxane foam materials that form an important component in our systems. Aging of the materials was characterized by two measured quantities, i.e., compression set and load retention. Results of accelerated aging experiments were analyzed by an automated time-temperaturesuperposition (TTS) approach, which creates a master curve that can be used for long-term predictions (over decades) under ambient conditions. When comparing such master curves for traditional (stochastic) foams with those for recently 3D-printed (i.e., additively manufactured, or AM) foams, it became clear that AM foams have superior aging behavior. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. This indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material.

  16. EFFECT OF WASTE MINERAL ADDITIVES ON FLOW STABILITY OVER TIME IN SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE MIXES WITH LOW CLINKER CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Grabiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary solutions in concrete technology are varied, and consist in e.g. the use of new generation concretes, including the most spectacular achievement of the 1990s – self-compacting concrete (SCC being the subject of continuous research, as well as protection of the environment against excessive anthropogenic pressures, such as carbon dioxide which is a major emission substance from the cement industry. The studies analysed the possibilities for replacing part of the clinker binder (cement CEM I 42.5 R in self-compacting concrete with three types of waste mineral additives: fly ash, limestone powder, and granite powder. Focus was placed on key technological characteristics of concrete mixes: air content and rheological properties, maximal diameter of slump-flow and changes thereof over time, as well as the mix’s flow time into the 500 mm diameter, determining the flow dynamics. 28-day compressive strength of the concrete was recognised as a secondary property which in self-compacting concretes results from achieving the right range of the mix’s rheological properties. Concretes were produced using gravel-sand aggregate in 3-fraction composition and a high-efficiency superplasticiser. The studies were conducted as a planned experiment in the 3-ingredient mixes plan.

  17. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  18. Waiting Time for Coronal Preparation and the Influence of Different Cements on Tensile Strength of Metal Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilione Kruschewsky Costa Sousa Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of post-cementation waiting time for core preparation of cemented cast posts and cores had on retention in the root canal, using two different luting materials. Sixty extracted human canines were sectioned 16 mm from the root apex. After cast nickel-chromium metal posts and cores were fabricated and luted with zinc phosphate (ZP cement or resin cement (RC, the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 according to the waiting time for core preparation: no preparation (control, 15 minutes, or 1 week after the core cementation. At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5 mm/min until failure. Two-way ANOVA (time versus cement and the Tukey tests (P < 0.05 showed significantly higher (P < 0.05 tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation.

  19. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  20. Deficits in agency in schizophrenia, and additional deficits in body image, body schema and internal timing, in passivity symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyran Trent Graham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency, as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber hand illusion with syn-chronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay, and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference be-tween clinical subgroups (sense of agency, and some quantitative (specific differences de-pending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema. Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition, suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self

  1. Effect of fermentation time and vegetable concentrate addition on quality parameters of organic Botifarra Catalana, a cured-cooked sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrinyà, Núria; Bou, Ricard; Rius, Núria; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2012-07-11

    The effects of the addition of two different sources of nitrite (pure NaNO2 or a nitrate-rich vegetable concentrate) and three different fermentation times with nitrate-reducing cultures (6, 12, or 24 h at 16 °C) on microbial counts, pH, residual nitrate and nitrite amounts, and susceptibility to oxidation of botifarra catalana sausage were studied. Moreover, curing efficiency, color, tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, oxidative status, and consumer acceptability of these sausages were assessed after vacuum packaging and storage at 4 °C for up to 180 days. Residual nitrate and nitrite amounts were lower than the limits established by the European Union for organic meat products. Longer periods of fermentation produced higher meat curing efficiency ratios, whereas consumer acceptability scores were highest for sausages with added vegetable concentrate. Storage of the sausages caused small quality changes. Therefore, these results indicate that vegetable concentrate is a useful alternative for organic cured-cooked meat products.

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUORIDE EMISSION FROM FIVE CLAY MINERALS AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE,HEATING TIME AND ADDITION OF CALCIUM COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of fluoride emission from five clay minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite, and allophane) as affected by temperature, heating time and addition of calcium compounds were studied. Marked increase of the fluoride emission rate was noticed with increase of temperature. The fluoride release, began at 500 ℃-600 ℃, and the main bulk of the fluoride emission occurred at the temperature of about 800 ℃. The loss of crystalline water was primarily responsible for the increase of fluoride emission. When minerals were heated at 800 ℃, The fluoride emission rate from the clay minerals reached the highest after heating for 1 hour. The samples treated by CaO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2, and CaSO4 had 55.45%, 59.58%, 46.45%, 54.31%, 31.25% reduction in the fluoride emission from montmorillonite at the temperature of 800 ℃, respectively. CaCO3 had the highest fluoride fixing capacity compared to other calcium compounds.

  3. Preparation and time-resolved fluorescence study of RGB organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Ding, Ran; Wang, Hai-Yu; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    In this work, large-size tetracene- and pentacene-doped 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl)-benzene (BSB-Me) crystals were prepared with physical vapor transfer technique. The photoluminescence emission can be adjusted from blue to green and even to red by changing the doping. Their fluorescence features are

  4. Limiting Time and Expanding the Mind: Using Limited Preparation in the Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert J., III

    This paper discusses the different types of presentations employed in various forms of impromptu and limited preparation speaking assignments in public speaking, interpersonal communication, and argumentation instruction. It also highlights the benefits associated with each activity, for example, improved thinking skills. The paper's presentations…

  5. Preparation and time-resolved fluorescence study of RGB organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Ding, Ran; Wang, Hai-Yu; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    2013-01-01

    In this work, large-size tetracene- and pentacene-doped 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl)-benzene (BSB-Me) crystals were prepared with physical vapor transfer technique. The photoluminescence emission can be adjusted from blue to green and even to red by changing the doping. Their fluorescence features are in

  6. Preparation for Full Time Employment: A Capstone Experience for Students in Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Gregory T.; Cannon, Karen J.; Stedman, Nicole L.; Telg, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    This practice paper describes the development and implementation of a senior capstone course for communication and leadership development for undergraduate students. The resulting course is a unique combination of experiential skill development and career preparation. The success of this course provides students with an important and meaningful…

  7. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job.

  8. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  9. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  10. Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The impact of acidification with citric acid, addition of EDTA or water blanching at high temperature, and short time (HTST) conducted at 90°C for 4 min, on the retention of vitamin C (L-AA and DHAA) and β-carotene was studied in mango purée 30 min after crushing. HTST blanching prior to matrix disruption into purée resulted in complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and minor residual activity (8%) of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO). The retention of total vitamin C was 100% in blanched purées and in purée with EDTA and about 90% in purées at pH 3.9 and 5.0. Acidification, blanching, and addition of EDTA preserved vitamin C mainly as L-AA, while complete conversion into DHAA was observed in purée at pH 5.0. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene was between 65 and 72%, with the highest value in purée with EDTA and the lowest value in purée of blanched mango. The ratio of 13-cis-β-carotene in fresh mango was 8.2 ± 0.5% that increased significantly after blanching and in purée at pH 5.0.

  11. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05, whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.

  12. 超低VOC无添加内墙底漆的研制%Preparation of Ultra-low-VOC Additive-Free Interior Wall Primer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳军; 马文杰

    2013-01-01

    采用低成膜温度的自交联苯丙乳液,不添加成膜助剂和二醇类防冻剂,制备了高性能超低VOC内墙环保底漆.该研究主要从乳液及其用量的选择,消泡性、贮存稳定性、抗泛碱性和附着力的改进,环保润湿剂和防霉杀菌剂的筛选等几个方面讨论了底漆的研制过程.研究结果表明:自交联苯丙乳液用量为30%,pH调节剂AMP-95和疏水改性分散剂用量分别为0.25%和1.00%时,合理选用各种颜填料和助剂,制得的底漆具有良好的消泡性、贮存稳定性、抗泛碱性和附着力等,且VOC含量不超过国标限量值的2.5%.%High performance and ultra-low-VOC interior wall environment-friendly primer was prepared using low film-forming temperature self-crosslinking styrene-acrylate emulsion,with no any coalescents and diol anti-freezer.This paper discussed the development of title product in terms of the choice of emulsion and its amount,improvement of defoaming ability,storage stability,anti-efflorescence and adhesion,and the selection of environmental friendly wetting agents and mildew fungicides.The results showed that the primer could provide excellent defoaming ability,storage stability,anti-efflorescence and adhesion,and the VOC content less than 2.5% of the secified limit in national standard when the self-crosslinking styrene-acrylate emulsion was 30%,AMP-95 0.25%,hydrophobically modified dispersant 1.00%,as well as selected pigments,fillers and additives.

  13. Studies on applicability of press-coated tablets using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in the outer shell for timed-release preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, E; Uemura, K; Kobayashi, M

    2000-08-10

    Press-coated tablets, containing diltiazem hydrochloride (DIL) in the core tablet and coated with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the outer shell, were examined for applicability as timed-release tablets with a predetermined lag time and subsequent rapid drug release phase. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a rotary tabletting machine and their DIL dissolution behavior was evaluated by the JP paddle method. The results indicated that tablets with the timed-release function could be prepared, and that the lag times were prolonged as the viscosity of HPC and the amount of the outer shell were increased. The lag times could be controlled widely by the above method, however, the compression load had little effect. Two different kinds of timed-release press-coated tablets that showed lag times of 3 and 6 h in the in vitro test (denoted PCT(L3) and PCT(L6), respectively) were administered to beagle dogs. DIL was first detected in the plasma more than 3 h after administration, and both tablets showed timed-release. The lag times showed a good agreement between the in vivo and in vitro tests in PCT(L3). However, the in vivo lag times were about 4 h in PCT(L6) and were much shorter than the in vitro lag time. The dissolution test was performed at different paddle rotation speeds, and good agreement was obtained between the in vivo and in vitro lag times at 150 rpm. This suggested that the effects of gastrointestinal peristalsis and contraction should also be taken into consideration for the further development of drug delivery systems.

  14. Aging Time Effect on Porous Characteristics of Natural Mud-based Silica Prepared by Hydrothermal-Coprecipitation Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaid, A.; Hidayat, N.; Munasir

    2017-05-01

    In this present study, we report the influence of aging time on porous characteristics and chemical bonding within structurally related silicates of silica. The silica was well prepared by using a combination of hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. Local natural mud from Sidoarjo, Indonesia was preferred as a starting material, rather than the expensive commercial ones. The aging time was set at 20, 24, 28, and 32 hours. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) test revealed that the produced porous silica has a purity of 98.9%. The Fourier Transform of Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed that ≡Si-OH and ≡Si-O -Si≡ functional groups were found in the samples. The pores of the silica, after Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, found to be macropore and mesopore. The prepared silica with different porous characteristics were strongly influenced by the chemical activities during the synthesis, known as syneresis and Ostwald processes.

  15. Characteristics of B2O3 and Fe added into BaFe12O19 permanent magnets prepared at different milling time and sintering temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Sari, Ayu Yuswita; Ginting, Delovita; Allan, Yola; Nasruddin M., N.; Sebayang, Kerista

    2016-02-01

    The objective of present work is to investigate the characteristic of BaFe12O19, B2O3-BaFe12O19 and Fe-BaFe12O19 magnets fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature. The characteristic of perrmanen magnet BaFe12O19 with different content of B2O3 and Fe which was fabricated at different milling time and sintering temperature were investigated. The powder mixtures were prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The powder were mixtured and prepared by dry and wet milling at various milling time. The mixture powder was then compacted by anisotropic with compressive pressure of 50 N/cm2. The green bodies were sinter at 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200°C and hold for 1 h, separately. The density, magnetic flux density and B-H curve were measured by Archimedes principle, Gauss meter and Permagraph, respectively. The microstructure and phase composition characterization were performed by SEM and XRD. The results of this study are presented in this paper. It shows that addition of Fe (in wet milling) and B2O3 (in dry milling) respectively give a potential benefit to reduce the sintering temperature and improve the magnetic flux density of barium hexaferrite.

  16. Low dose powdered activated carbon addition at high sludge retention times to reduce fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, Maxime; Marel, van der Perry; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Rulkens, Wim; Temmink, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    The addition of a low concentration of PAC (0.5 g L−1 of sludge, i.e. a dose of 4 mg L−1 of wastewater), in combination with a relatively long SRT (50 days), to improve membrane filtration performance was investigated in two pilot-scale MBRs treating real municipal wastewater. Continuous filterabili

  17. Low dose powdered activated carbon addition at high sludge retention times to reduce fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, M.J.J.; Marel, van der P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    The addition of a low concentration of PAC (0.5 g L-1 of sludge, i.e. a dose of 4 mg L-1 of wastewater), in combination with a relatively long SRT (50 days), to improve membrane filtration performance was investigated in two pilot-scale MBRs treating real municipal wastewater. Continuous filterabili

  18. Usage of Working Time for Preparation and Cutting of Cloth in Garments’ Production

    OpenAIRE

    Beļakova, Dana; Ziemele, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Production working time expenditure management and standardizing is vital in the present global apparel production market to be able to compete in the market.Working time expenditure is connected with production quality, costs and productivity and by using appropriate working time expenditure determinationmethods, it is possible to find production margins, improve working methods and to find a midway between production costs and worker salaries. Therefore it isimportant to carry out working t...

  19. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Yeong Na; Boseok Kang; Dong Hun Sin; Kilwon Cho; Yeong Don Park

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time ...

  20. The preparation of tourists to the ski sports tours in a limited time in order to prevent injuries and accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkov A.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare indicators of testing tourist skiers at different stages of the preparatory period to ski sports hike of third grade. Determine the effectiveness of training programs created to the tourists Categorical ski sports to prevent injuries and accidents in a limited time. Material: The study involved 13 people aged from 21 to 65 (4 women and 9 men with different experiences of hiking trails and various levels of total tourist preparedness. Results: The test results obtained before beginning the process of preparation are treated upon its completion, and immediately after passing categorical hike. In practice, the effectiveness of the proposed training programs of tourists to ski sports tours is proved. Conclusions : The created program can be recommended to tourist clubs, associations and organizations as the base in preparation for ski sports campaigns for the prevention of accidents and injuries.

  1. Novel wireless electroencephalography system with a minimal preparation time for use in emergencies and prehospital care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakab, Andrei; Kulkas, Antti; Salpavaara, Timo; Kauppinen, Pasi; Verho, Jarmo; Heikkilä, Hannu; Jäntti, Ville

    2014-01-01

    .... The novel system comprises a quick-application cap, a device for recording and transmitting the EEG wirelessly to a computer, and custom software for displaying and streaming the data in real-time to a hospital...

  2. Direct targeted glycation of the free sulfhydryl group of cysteine residue (Cys-34) of BSA. Mapping of the glycation sites of the anti-tumor Thomsen-Friedenreich neoglycoconjugate vaccine prepared by Michael addition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Wael L L; Kottari, Naresh; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Randell, Edward; Roy, René; Banoub, Joseph H

    2014-12-01

    We present in this manuscript the characterization of the exact glycation sites of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-BSA vaccine (TF antigen:BSA) prepared using a Michael addition reaction between the saccharide antigen as an electrophilic acceptor and the nucleophilic thiol and L-Lysine ε-amino groups of BSA using different ligation conditions. Matrix laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the neoglycoconjugates prepared with TF antigen:protein ratios of 2:1 and 8:1, allowed to observe, respectively, the protonated molecules for each neoglycoconjugates: [M + H](+) at m/z 67,599 and 70,905. The measurements of these molecular weights allowed us to confirm exactly the carbohydrate:protein ratios of these two synthetic vaccines. These were found to be closely formed by a TF antigen:BSA ratios of 2:1 and 8:1, respectively. Trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the series of released glycopeptide and peptide fragments. De novo sequencing affected by low-energy collision dissociation tandem mass spectrometry was then employed to unravel the precise glycation sites of these neoglycoconjugate vaccines. Finally, we identified, respectively, three diagnostic and characteristic glycated peptides for the synthetic glycoconjugate possessing a TF antigen:BSA ratio 2:1, whereas we have identified for the synthetic glycoconjugate having a TF:BSA ratio 8:1 a series of 14 glycated peptides. The net increase in the occupancy sites of these neoglycoconjugates was caused by the large number of glycoforms produced during the chemical ligation of the synthetic carbohydrate antigen onto the protein carrier. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Poly(ethylene glycol)s as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ruben; Taydakov, Ilya; Tonucci, Lucia; d’Alessandro, Nicola; Lamaty, Frederic; Martinez, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Summary The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene) glycols (PEGs), as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG). A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  4. Robust preparation and manipulation of protected qubits using time--varying Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Coudreau, Thomas; Dubessy, Romain; Andreoli, Daria; Milman, Pérola

    2011-01-01

    We show that it is possible to initialize and manipulate in a deterministic manner protected qubits using time varying Hamiltonians. Taking advantage of the symmetries of the system, we predict the effect of the noise during the initialization and manipulation. These predictions are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Our study shows that the topological protection remains efficient under realistic experimental conditions.

  5. Increased reaction times and reduced response preparation already starts at middle age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Kamphuis, Janine; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Generalized slowing characterizes aging and there is some evidence to suggest that this slowing already starts at midlife. This study aims to assess reaction time changes while performing a concurrent low-force and high-force motor task in young and middle-aged subjects. The high-force motor task is

  6. Influence of mechanical alloying time on the properties of Fe3Al intermetallics prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengchang Jia; Qing He; Jie Meng; Lina Guo

    2007-01-01

    The Fe3Al-based intermetallics were prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the influence of milling time on the properties of materials was investigated. The phase identification was investigated by X-ray, and the surface morphology and fractography were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties such as bending strength, strain, and microhardness were tested. The results show that Fe reacts with Al completely to form Fe3Al during short SPS processing time. The relative densities of the sintered samples were nearly 100%. The mechanical properties of the sintered samples can be improved along with the milling time. The representative values are the bend strength of 1327 MPa and the microhardness of 434.

  7. When the brain is prepared to learn: enhancing human learning using real-time fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Julie J; Hinds, Oliver; Ofen, Noa; Thompson, Todd W; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-01-02

    The rate of learning or memory formation varies over time for any individual, partly due to moment-to-moment fluctuation of brain state. Functional neuroimaging has revealed the neural correlates of learning and memory, but here we asked if neuroimaging can causally enhance human learning by detection of brain states that reveal when a person is prepared or not prepared to learn. The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) is essential for memory formation for scenes. Here, activation in PHC was monitored in real-time, and scene presentations were triggered when participants entered "good" or "bad" brain states for learning of novel scenes. Subsequent recognition memory was more accurate for scenes presented in "good" than "bad" brain states. These findings show that neuroimaging can identify in real-time brain states that enhance or depress learning and memory formation, and knowledge about such brain states may be useful for accelerating education and training. Further, the use of functional neuroimaging as a causal, rather than correlative, tool to study the human brain may open new insights into the neural basis of human cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS) for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Bhandari; Tony Gill; Stuart Phinn

    2012-01-01

    Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of image...

  9. Guideline for preparing comprehensive extension of time (EoT claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ahmed Ali Alnaas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any project faces delays and disruptions especially the mega/complex projects of today, with many interfaces. Proving delay and/or disruption is not an easy task and it is a time consuming process especially in the mega/complex projects with thousands of activities, lots of details and interfaces with the involvement of many stakeholders. The different methods that are used to prove delays, as explained in industry standards and handbooks, are theoretical and could be applied in the small simple projects with few numbers of activities but the same methods cannot easily be applied on mega/complex projects. Proving delays in mega/complex projects, whose schedules contain thousands of activities with many interfaces and lot of causes for delay and disruption is a complicated process and involves lots of details. When any degree of complexity in the project is examined, it becomes more difficult for the project team to record the delays and disruption events properly because they are always busy dealing with the site issues and other project pressures. In order for the contractors to be successful, a time extension claim or disruption claims should adequately establish causation and liability and assist in demonstrating the extend of time-related damages experienced as a direct result of the delay events relied upon. The process of recording the delays and disruption is a dynamic process and needs continuous involvement from the planning team with the support from all other departments.

  10. Preparing Landsat Image Time Series (LITS for Monitoring Changes in Vegetation Phenology in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Bhandari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series of images are required to extract and separate information on vegetation change due to phenological cycles, inter-annual climatic variability, and long-term trends. While images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM sensor have the spatial and spectral characteristics suited for mapping a range of vegetation structural and compositional properties, its 16-day revisit period combined with cloud cover problems and seasonally limited latitudinal range, limit the availability of images at intervals and durations suitable for time series analysis of vegetation in many parts of the world. Landsat Image Time Series (LITS is defined here as a sequence of Landsat TM images with observations from every 16 days for a five-year period, commencing on July 2003, for a Eucalyptus woodland area in Queensland, Australia. Synthetic Landsat TM images were created using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM algorithm for all dates when images were either unavailable or too cloudy. This was done using cloud-free scenes and a MODIS Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR product. The ability of the LITS to measure attributes of vegetation phenology was examined by: (1 assessing the accuracy of predicted image-derived Foliage Projective Cover (FPC estimates using ground-measured values; and (2 comparing the LITS-generated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and MODIS NDVI (MOD13Q1 time series. The predicted image-derived FPC products (value ranges from 0 to 100% had an RMSE of 5.6. Comparison between vegetation phenology parameters estimated from LITS-generated NDVI and MODIS NDVI showed no significant difference in trend and less than 16 days (equal to the composite period of the MODIS data used difference in key seasonal parameters, including start and end of season in most of the cases. In comparison to similar published work, this paper tested the STARFM algorithm in a new (broadleaf forest environment and also

  11. Performance analysis for time-frequency MUSIC algorithm in presence of both additive noise and array calibration errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodja, Mohamed; Belouchrani, Adel; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2012-12-01

    This article deals with the application of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) to the direction finding problem using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)algorithm. A comparative performance analysis is performed for the method under consideration with respect to that using data covariance matrix when the received array signals are subject to calibration errors in a non-stationary environment. An unified analytical expression of the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) error estimation is derived for both methods. Numerical results show the effect of the parameters intervening in the derived expression on the algorithm performance. It is particularly observed that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and high Signal to sensor Perturbation Ratio (SPR) the STFD method gives better performance, while for high SNR and for the same SPR both methods give similar performance.

  12. Zoom-TOFMS: addition of a constant-momentum-acceleration "zoom" mode to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elise A; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a new mass spectrometry concept called zoom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS). In our zoom-TOFMS instrument, we combine two complementary types of TOFMS: conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) TOFMS to provide complete mass-spectral coverage as well as enhanced resolution and duty factor for a narrow, targeted mass region, respectively. Alternation between CEA- and CMA-TOFMS requires only that electrostatic instrument settings (i.e., reflectron and ion optics) and ion acceleration conditions be changed. The prototype zoom-TOFMS instrument has orthogonal-acceleration geometry, a total field-free distance of 43 cm, and a direct-current glow-discharge ionization source. Experimental results demonstrate that the CMA-TOFMS "zoom" mode offers resolution enhancement of 1.6 times over single-stage acceleration CEA-TOFMS. For the atomic mass range studied here, the maximum resolving power at full-width half-maximum observed for CEA-TOFMS was 1,610 and for CMA-TOFMS the maximum was 2,550. No difference in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was observed between the operating modes of zoom-TOFMS when both were operated at equivalent repetition rates. For a 10-kHz repetition rate, S/N values for CEA-TOFMS varied from 45 to 990 and from 67 to 10,000 for CMA-TOFMS. This resolution improvement is the result of a linear TOF-to-mass scale and the energy-focusing capability of CMA-TOFMS. Use of CMA also allows ions outside a given m/z range to be rejected by simple ion-energy barriers to provide a substantial improvement in duty factor.

  13. Effects of temperature and deposition time on the RF- sputtered CdTe films preparation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Camacho-Espinosa; Rosendo, E.; T. Díaz; A. I. Oliva; V. Rejon; Peña, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by rf-sputtering at different substrate temperatures (room temperature (RT), 100, 150, 200, and 250 °C) and deposition times (30, 60, and 90 min). The applied power and vacuum pressure were maintained fixed for all depositions. A mean value of 18 .5 nm/s on the deposition rate was maintained for films deposition. The surface morphology, rms-roughness, and grain size of the sputtered-films were obtained from atomic force microscopy and scanning elec...

  14. Automated preparation of Kepler time series of planet hosts for asteroseismic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) is to provide asteroseismic analyses on Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). However, asteroseismic analysis of planetary host stars presents some unique complications with respect to data preprocessing, compared to pure...... photometric time series than the original data. The methods are automated and can therefore easily be applied to a large number of stars. The application of the filter is not restricted to planetary hosts, but can be applied to any solar-like or red giant stars observed by Kepler/K2....

  15. Simple and cost effective apparatus for silver staining of polyacrylamide gels with sequential reagents addition and real time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurye, Praveen; Basu, Arpita; Gupta, Angshuman

    2014-06-01

    Highly reproducible results in molecular biology depend a lot on effective staining and destaining methods. Silver staining of polyacrylamide DNA and protein gel has been adopted widely in the molecular biology laboratories for detecting a very low nanogram range of sample. An efficient staining of a polyacrylamide gel requires a number of well controlled and highly sensitive steps that often becomes tiresome when done manually or when there are a number of gels to be stained simultaneously. Since, silver staining is a multistep procedure that requires proper fixation and exchange of substance, a reliable protocol is necessary and a simple apparatus may be an added advantage to carry out the steps with ease and safety. Here, we describe a simple and cost effective device made from off-the-shelf components for some established silver staining protocols. Staining is done on a tray while six graduated bottles with a liquid delivery stopcock each, is connected to the tray through silicon tubing. The used up solution is drained off completely from the staining tray through a liquid outlet stopcock using vacuum pressure. The system is fixed with a camera connected to a computer for effective control of the staining process in each step. The apparatus provides the researchers with efficient staining and real time monitoring of gels without the need for handling toxic chemicals.

  16. Processing of recognition information and additional cues: A model-based analysis of choice, confidence, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of recognition information has focused on testing the recognition heuristic (RH. On the aggregate, the noncompensatory use of recognition information postulated by the RH was rejected in several studies, while RH could still account for a considerable proportion of choices. These results can be explained if either a a part of the subjects used RH or b nobody used it but its choice predictions were accidentally in line with predictions of the strategy used. In the current study, which exemplifies a new approach to model testing, we determined individuals' decision strategies based on a maximum-likelihood classification method, taking into account choices, response times and confidence ratings simultaneously. Unlike most previous studies of the RH, our study tested the RH under conditions in which we provided information about cue values of unrecognized objects (which we argue is fairly common and thus of some interest. For 77.5% of the subjects, overall behavior was best explained by a compensatory parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS strategy. The proportion of subjects using an enhanced RH heuristic (RHe was negligible (up to 7.5%; 15% of the subjects seemed to use a take the best strategy (TTB. A more-fine grained analysis of the supplemental behavioral parameters conditional on strategy use supports PCS but calls into question process assumptions for apparent users of RH, RHe, and TTB within our experimental context. Our results are consistent with previous literature highlighting the importance of individual strategy classification as compared to aggregated analyses.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of electrospun nanofibers containing pectin and time-dependent polymers aimed for colonic drug delivery of celecoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhgari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun nanofibers of celecoxib using combination of time-dependent polymers with pectin to achieve a colon-specific drug delivery system for celecoxib. Materials and Methods:Formulations were produced based on two multilevel 22 full factorial designs. The independent variables were the ratio of drug:time-dependent polymer (X1 and the amount of pec­tin in formulations (X2. Electrospinning process was used for preparation of nanofibers. The spinning solutions were loaded in 5 mL syringes. The feeding rate was fixed by a syringe pump at 2.0 mL/h and a high voltage supply at range 10-18 kV was applied for electrospinning. Electrospun nanofibers were collected and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and drug release in the acid and buffer with pH 6.8 with and without pectinase. Results:Electrospun nanofibers of celecoxib with appropriate morphological properties were produced via electrospinning process. Drug release from electrospun nanofibers was very low in the acidic media; while, drug release in the simulated colonic media was the highest from formulations containing pectin. Conclusion: Formulation F2 (containing drug:ERS with the ratio of 1:2 and 10% pectin exhibited acceptable morphological characteristics and protection of drug in the upper GI tract and could be a good candidate as a colonic drug delivery system for celecoxib.

  18. [Time for cleaning and room preparation: connection between surgery size and professional perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Marla Andréia Garcia; de Fusco, Suzimar Fátima Benato; Gonalves, Ivana Regina; Caldeira, Sílvia Maria; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Yoo, Hugo Hyung Bok

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to verify the association between time needed for room cleaning (TLPS) and the surgery size, and related advantages and difficulties faced by the circulator of the room asszgned to this task. A mixed method, with a transverse quantitative, retrospective approach, using a sample of 3095 surgeries performed,from January to June 2011, and a qualitative approach using a Thematic Content Analysis of statements from 11 circulators, was used. The average TLPS was smaller in size 1 surgeries, increasing in sizes 2, 3 and 4, with a significant difference. Advantages reported included organization and size of staff and difficulties reported related to sharp, bladed materials mixed with surgical instruments and a reduced number of cleaning professionals. The larger the size, the higher the TLPS. Surgical teams operating in the Surgical Center interfere directly in the process, facilitating or hindering the achievement of institutional goals related to quality and productivity.

  19. Time for cleaning and room preparation: connection between surgery size and professional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Andréia Garcia de AVILA

    Full Text Available The objective was to verify the association between time needed for room cleaning (TLPS and the surgery size, and related advantages and difficulties faced by the circulator of the room assigned to this task. A mixed method, with a transverse quantitative, retrospective approach, using a sample of 3095 surgeries performed, from January to June 2011, and a qualitative approach using a Thematic Content Analysis of statements from 11 circulators, was used. The average TLPS was smaller in size 1 surgeries, increasing in sizes 2, 3 and 4, with a significant difference. Advantages reported included organization and size of staff, and difficulties reported related to sharp, bladed materials mixed with surgical instruments and a reduced number of cleaning professionals. The larger the size, the higher the TLPS. Surgical teams operating in the Surgical Center interfere directly in the process, facilitating or hindering the achievement of institutional goals related to quality and productivity.

  20. Study of the effect of solar flares on VLF signals during D-layer preparation or disappearance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    "Very Low Frequency" (VLF) is one of the bands of the Radio waves having frequency 3-30 KHz, which propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In relation to propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, low mass and high mobility cause electrons to play a vital role. Electrons are not distributed uniformly in the ionosphere and depending on this factor, ionosphere has different layers namely D, E and F. Different ionospheric layers generally exist during day and night time. During day-time when the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere is Sun, the lower most layer of ionosphere is D-layer. But during the night-time when Sun is absent and cosmic ray is the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere, this D-layer disappears and E-layer becomes the lower most region of the ionosphere. Normally, patterns of VLF signal depend on regular solar flux variations. However, during solar flares extra energetic particles are released from Sun, which makes the changes in the ionization of the ionosphere and these changes can perturb VLF signal amplitude. Usually if a solar flare occurs during any time of day, it only affects the amplitude and phase of the VLF signals. But in the present work, we found the if the flare occurs during D-layer preparation / disappearance time, then it will not only affect to amplitude and phase of the VLF signals but also to terminator times of VLF signals. We have observed that the sun set terminator time of the VLF signals shifted towards night time due to the effect of a M-class solar flare which occurred during the D-layer disappearance time. The shift is so high that it crossed 5σ level. We are now trying to a make model using the ion-chemistry and LWPC code to explain this observed effect.

  1. Effect of additional of microbial growth factors combined with and without microbe preparate on growth performance of Etawah-cross goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius thalib

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbial growth factors (FPM combined with and without microbe preparate (SM on growth of Etawah-crossgoat has been conducted for 14 weeks, including 2 weeks of adaptation period. Animals used were 24 male goats of Etawahcross (PE with a mean liveweight of 17.73 ± 1.80 kg. The animals were randomly distributed into 3 treatment groups. Eachgroup consisted of 8 animals. All animals were fed elephant grass (ad lib. + concentrate containing 16% crude protein (1.0% oflive weight as basal diet. The treatment groups were : I. Control (K; II. K + FPM; III. K + SM + FPM. Measurements recordedwere: feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG, dry matter digestibility (in vitro and in vivo DMDs, as well as rumenecosystem. All animals were placed in metabolism cages for 2 weeks for determination of in vivo DMD. The results showed thatFPM combined with and without SM improved the performance of both rumen ecosystem and host animals. Compared tocontrol, combination of FPM with SM increased the following parameters significantly (P<0.05: ADG (55 vs. 36 g; DMI (645vs. 609 g head-1 day-1; in vivo DMD (74 vs. 69%; FCR (12 vs. 17; in vitro DMD (49 vs. 46%; colony number of bacteria percell number of protozoa (3.09 x 104 vs. 1.12 x 104; VFA content (3.53 vs. 2.82 mg ml-1; NH3-N content (68 vs. 56 mg l-1; pH(6.78 vs. 6.65. Microbe preparate enhanced the effect of FPM on VFA content so that the combination of FPM and SM(treatment III significantly increased the VFA content as compared to the control (P<0.05.

  2. Statistical propeties of a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation for different correlation times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁贵云; 曹力; 张莉; 吴大进

    2003-01-01

    We study a system for a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation. The analytical expression of the stationary intensity distribution (SID) for the laser is derived in the case of three different correlation times. The influences of each stochastic parameter on the SID are discussed, the the skewness, λ3(O) of the single-mode laser are investigated. We find that there are colourful phase transitions for the SID above a threshold, and re-entrant transitions induced by the "colour" of the additive noises. Further research of the not only increases with the additive noise correlation time τ2 and the cross-correlation time τs, but also the quality of the output of laser beams is optimized.

  3. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of a periodically driven linear system with multiplicative and periodically modulated additive white noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Lu-Chun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) of a periodically driven time-delayed linear system with multiplicative white noise and periodically modulated additive white noise is investigated. In the condition of small delay time, an approximate analytical expression of output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained. The analytical results indicate that (1) there exists a resonance peak in the curve for SNR versus time delay; (2) the time delay will suspend the SR dramatically for SNR versus other parameters of the system, such as noise intensity, correlation intensity, and signal frequency, once a certain value is reached, the SR phenomenon disappears.

  4. Aza‐Michael addition reaction: Post‐polymerization modification and preparation of PEI/PEG‐based polyester hydrogels from enzymatically synthesized reactive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Stuparu, Mihaiela C.; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    monomers provides the polyesters, which carry an activated carbon‐carbon double bond in the polymer backbone. These electron deficient alkenes represent suitable aza‐Michael acceptors and can be engaged in a nucleophilic addition reaction with small molecular mono‐amines (aza‐Michael donors) to yield...

  5. Preparation and Use of Aziridino Alcohols as Promoters for the Enantioselective Addition of Dialkylzinc Reagents to N-(Diphenylphosphinoyl) IminesImines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Guijarro, David; Andersson, Pher G.

    1997-01-01

    A set of chiral aziridino alcohols has been synthesised, either from amino acids (serine, threonine or allo-threonine) or via Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation/dihydroxylation of simple prochiral olefins. The ligands mediate the addition of diethylzinc to N-phosphinoylimines, with up to 94...

  6. Preparation of pre-reduced pellet using pyrite cinder containing nonferrous metals with high temperature chloridizingreduction roasting technology—Effect of CaCl2additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 朱德庆; 洪澜; 陈瑶; 许继芳; 伍凌

    2015-01-01

    The role of CaCl2 during the high temperature chloridizing-reduction roasting process was investigated, aiming at acquiring high strength blast furnace burden with high iron grade and low nonferrous metals content. The effects of CaCl2 dosage on pelletizing, preheating and reduction were investigated. The results show that CaCl2 can improve the wet drop strength but reduces the thermostability of pyrite cinder green balls. When the dosage of CaCl2 exceeds 1%, the compressive strength of preheated pellets decreases while the growth of iron oxide particles is improved. Furthermore, the compressive strength of pre-reduced pellets increases but the metallization degree of pre-reduced pellets decreases with CaCl2 additive. The removal tests indicate that Zn can be removed completely without CaCl2 additive, Cu is removed only under the condition with CaCl2 additive and part of Pb must be removed by CaCl2 additive.

  7. Preparation of pre-reduced pellet using pyrite cinder containing nonferrous metals with high temperature chloridizing- reduction roasting technology-Effect of CaCl2 additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 朱德庆; 洪澜; 陈瑶; 许继芳; 伍凌

    2015-01-01

    The role of CaCl2 during the high temperature chloridizing-reduction roasting process was investigated, aiming at acquiring high strength blast furnace burden with high iron grade and low nonferrous metals content. The effects of CaCl2 dosage on pelletizing, preheating and reduction were investigated. The results show that CaCl2 can improve the wet drop strength but reduces the thermostability of pyrite cinder green balls. When the dosage of CaCl2 exceeds 1%, the compressive strength of preheated pellets decreases while the growth of iron oxide particles is improved. Furthermore, the compressive strength of pre-reduced pellets increases but the metallization degree of pre-reduced pellets decreases with CaCl2 additive. The removal tests indicate that Zn can be removed completely without CaCl2 additive, Cu is removed only under the condition with CaCl2 additive and part of Pb must be removed by CaCl2 additive.

  8. Preparation of a Rapidly Forming Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-based Hydrogel by a Thiol–Michael Addition Click Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sui, Xiaofeng; van Ingen, Lennard; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of a rapidly forming redox responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PFS-PEG)-based hydrogel is described, achieved by a thiol-Michael addition click reaction. PFS bearing acrylate side groups (PFS-acryl) was synthesized by side group modification of

  9. Combined action of time-delay and colored cross-associated multiplicative and additive noises on stability and stochastic resonance for a stochastic metapopulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Zong, De-Cai; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the transition between the stable state of a big density and the extinction state and stochastic resonance (SR) for a time-delayed metapopulation system disturbed by colored cross-correlated noises are investigated. By applying the fast descent method, the small time-delay approximation and McNamara and Wiesenfeld's SR theory, we investigate the impacts of time-delay, the multiplicative, additive noises and colored cross-correlated noise on the SNR and the shift between the two states of the system. Numerical results show that the multiplicative, additive noises and time-delay can all speed up the transition from the stable state to the extinction state, while the correlation noise and its correlation time can slow down the extinction process of the population system. With respect to SNR, the multiplicative noise always weakens the SR effect, while noise correlation time plays a dual role in motivating the SR phenomenon. Meanwhile, time-delay mainly plays a negative role in stimulating the SR phenomenon. Conversely, it could motivate the SR effect to increase the strength of the cross-correlation noise in the SNR-β plot, while the increase of additive noise intensity will firstly excite SR, and then suppress the SR effect.

  10. Effect of Ni addition on the preparation of Al2O3–TiB2 composites using high-energy ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3–TiB2 composites were synthesized using high-energy ball milling from starting powders containing Al, TiO2, and B2O3. To explore the effect of the addition of another ductile metallic phase during milling, 15 wt.% Ni was added to a sample of the starting powders. The phase transformations and microstructure of the milled powder mixtures were investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results showed that the Ni addition facilitated the mechanochemical reaction between the Al, TiO2, and B2O3. Before the appearance of the Al2O3–TiB2 composite, the intermediate product NiAl was formed by a gradual exothermic reaction. With continued milling, the final phases of Al2O3–TiB2 and Ni were obtained.

  11. Assessing direct analysis in real-time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the rapid identification of additives in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L K; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2009-12-01

    The ambient ionization technique direct analysis in real time (DART) was characterized and evaluated for the screening of food packaging for the presence of packaging additives using a benchtop mass spectrometer (MS). Approximate optimum conditions were determined for 13 common food-packaging additives, including plasticizers, anti-oxidants, colorants, grease-proofers, and ultraviolet light stabilizers. Method sensitivity and linearity were evaluated using solutions and characterized polymer samples. Additionally, the response of a model additive (di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) was examined across a range of sample positions, DART, and MS conditions (temperature, voltage and helium flow). Under optimal conditions, molecular ion (M+H+) was the major ion for most additives. Additive responses were highly sensitive to sample and DART source orientation, as well as to DART flow rates, temperatures, and MS inlet voltages, respectively. DART-MS response was neither consistently linear nor quantitative in this setting, and sensitivity varied by additive. All additives studied were rapidly identified in multiple food-packaging materials by DART-MS/MS, suggesting this technique can be used to screen food packaging rapidly. However, method sensitivity and quantitation requires further study and improvement.

  12. The influence of taste on swallowing apnea, oral preparation time, and duration and amplitude of submental muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, L P; Huckabee, M-L; Sharma, S; Tooley, T P

    2007-02-01

    Prior research has documented a modulating effect of taste on swallowing. We hypothesized that presentation of tastant stimuli would be a significant variable in swallowing-respiratory coordination, duration of oral bolus preparation, and submental muscle contraction. Twenty-three healthy females were presented with 1-cm(3) gelatin samples flavored with 4 tastants of increasing intensities. Visual analogue scale ratings of perceived intensity of each were used to identify relative equivalent concentrations across the 4 tastants. Data were then collected during ingestion of 5 trials of the 4 equivalent tastants using measurements of nasal airflow and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) to record biomechanical measures. Chi-square analysis failed to identify a statistically significant influence of taste on the phase location of swallowing apnea. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated significant taste effects for oral preparation time, submental sEMG amplitude, and duration (P Swallow duration for sour, salty, and bitter tastants were longer than sweet and neutral tastants. Sour tastants resulted in the greatest amplitude of submental muscle contraction during swallowing. This study supports existing research that found that sour substances were swallowed with more effort when compared with other tastes.

  13. Preparation and performance evaluation on humic acid fluid loss additive for oil-based drilling fluid%油基钻井液用腐殖酸类降滤失剂的研制与性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵泽

    2014-01-01

    使用有机胺对腐殖酸进行亲油改性,研制出一种适合油基钻井液用的腐殖酸类降滤失剂FLA180。室内性能评价表明,采用4%FLA180配制的密度为2.0 g/cm3油包水乳化钻井液在180℃高温下中压滤失量为0 mL、高温高压滤失量为9 mL;具有较强的抗钻屑和盐污染能力;同时该降滤失剂具有降粘作用,有利于提高机械钻速,适用于高温高压深井。通过性能比较,该降滤失剂降滤失性能优于国内主要应用的油基降滤失剂性能。%A fluid loss additive named FLA180 in oil-based drilling fluid is PrePared by reacting organic amine with humic acid. Indoor Performance evaluation shows under high temPerature of 180℃,API filtra-tion loss and HTHP filtration of water in-oil emulsion drilling fluid,which contains 4% FLA180,with the density of 2. 0 g/cm3 ,and the Pressure filtration is 0 mL and 9 mL;Having a strong ability to resist drill-ing cuttings and salt Pollution;At the same time,the fluid loss agent have a viscosity effect,which is bene-ficial to imProve the rate of Penetration,so it is suitable for high temPerature and high Pressure deeP well. Through the Performance comParison,fluid loss Performance of the fluid loss additive FLA180 is suPerior to fluid loss Performance of main fluid loss additives used at home in oil-based drilling.

  14. Meal preparation and cleanup time and cardiometabolic risk over 14 years in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Nackers, Lisa M.; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Baylin, Ana; Burns, John W.; Powell, Lynda H.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine whether baseline levels and longitudinal changes in meal preparation and cleanup time are associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women. Methods Subjects were 2755 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation, a multi-ethnic, longitudinal cohort study. The five diagnostic components of the metabolic syndrome and meal preparation/cleanup time were assessed repeatedly across 14 years of follow-up (spanning 1996–2011) at seven U.S. sites. Mixed-effects logistic and ordered logistic models tested associations between meal preparation/cleanup time and odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome and its individual diagnostic components. Results Women who spent more time preparing and cleaning up meals at baseline, or demonstrated greater increases in this activity, had greater increases over time in their odds of having metabolic syndrome and in the number of metabolic syndrome components for which they met criteria. Adjusted associations were observed between meal preparation/cleanup time and hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not abdominal obesity. Conclusions In midlife women, greater meal preparation/cleanup time is associated with the development of an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. Public health interventions should place greater emphasis on cooking healthfully, not just cooking frequently. PMID:25490602

  15. Meal preparation and cleanup time and cardiometabolic risk over 14 years in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Nackers, Lisa M; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Baylin, Ana; Burns, John W; Powell, Lynda H; Kravitz, Howard M

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether baseline levels and longitudinal changes in meal preparation and cleanup time are associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women. Subjects were 2755 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multi-ethnic, longitudinal cohort study in the United States. The five diagnostic components of the metabolic syndrome and meal preparation/cleanup time were assessed repeatedly across 14 years of follow-up (spanning 1996-2011) at seven U.S. sites. Mixed-effects logistic and ordered logistic models tested associations between meal preparation/cleanup time and odds of meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome and its individual diagnostic components. Women who spent more time preparing and cleaning up meals at baseline, or demonstrated greater increases in this activity, had greater increases over time in their odds of having metabolic syndrome and in the number of metabolic syndrome components for which they met criteria. Adjusted associations were observed between meal preparation/cleanup time and hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not abdominal obesity. In midlife women, greater meal preparation/cleanup time is associated with the development of an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. Public health interventions should place greater emphasis on cooking healthfully, not just cooking frequently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied the additive hazard model to predict the survival time of patient with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma and determine the effective genes, using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefa Jafarzadeh Kohneloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have shown that effective genes on survival time of cancer patients play an important role as a risk factor or preventive factor. Present study was designed to determine effective genes on survival time for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predict the survival time using these selected genes. Materials & Methods: Present study is a cohort study was conducted on 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For these patients, 2042 gene expression was measured. In order to predict the survival time, the composition of the semi-parametric additive survival model with two gene selection methods elastic net and lasso were used. Two methods were evaluated by plotting area under the ROC curve over time and calculating the integral of this curve. Results: Based on our findings, the elastic net method identified 10 genes, and Lasso-Cox method identified 7 genes. GENE3325X increased the survival time (P=0.006, Whereas GENE3980X and GENE377X reduced the survival time (P=0.004. These three genes were selected as important genes in both methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the elastic net method outperformed the common Lasso method in terms of predictive power. Moreover, apply the additive model instead Cox regression and using microarray data is usable way for predict the survival time of patients.

  17. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrasting Perspectives of Anesthesiologists and Gastroenterologists on the Optimal Time Interval between Bowel Preparation and Endoscopic Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal time interval between the last ingestion of bowel prep and sedation for colonoscopy remains controversial, despite guidelines that sedation can be administered 2 hours after consumption of clear liquids. Objective. To determine current practice patterns among anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists regarding the optimal time interval for sedation after last ingestion of bowel prep and to understand the rationale underlying their beliefs. Design. Questionnaire survey of anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists in the USA. The questions were focused on the preferred time interval of endoscopy after a polyethylene glycol based preparation in routine cases and select conditions. Results. Responses were received from 109 anesthesiologists and 112 gastroenterologists. 96% of anesthesiologists recommended waiting longer than 2 hours until sedation, in contrast to only 26% of gastroenterologists. The main reason for waiting >2 hours was that PEG was not considered a clear liquid. Most anesthesiologists, but not gastroenterologists, waited longer in patients with history of diabetes or reflux. Conclusions. Anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists do not agree on the optimal interval for sedation after last drink of bowel prep. Most anesthesiologists prefer to wait longer than the recommended 2 hours for clear liquids. The data suggest a need for clearer guidelines on this issue.

  19. Intrinsic dependence of the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared via chemical methods with addition of chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, E.C. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Tenório, Mayara A. [Departamento de Física, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, UFS, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Mecena, S.G.; Zucolotto, B.; Silva, L.S. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Jesus, C.B.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, C. P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Meneses, C.T. [Núcleo de Pós-Graduação em Física, Campus Prof. José Aluísio de Campos, UFS, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effect of addition of different chelating agents on the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles produced by the combining of both co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods is reported. The Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that our samples are single phase (space group: Fd-3m) with small average sizes. The weight losses observed in the thermogravimetric measurements together with the M×H curves show that the organic contamination coming from chelating agent decomposition can give rise to misinterpretation of the magnetization measurements. Besides, analyses of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization measurements and the M×H curves measured at room temperature allows us to state that both the average blocking temperature and particles size distribution are sensitive to the kind of chelating agent. - Highlights: Superparamagnetism. Chelating agents. Organic contamination.

  20. Effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the properties of mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics prepared by an infiltration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayal, N.; Dey, O.; Chakrabarti, O.

    2013-10-01

    Mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics were synthesized by infiltrating a powder compact of SiC and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a liquid precursor of mullite which on subsequent heat treatment at 1300-1500 degree centigrade produced mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics. The effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and sintering temperature on phase composition, microstructure, oxidation degree of SiC, flexural strength, porosity and pore size distribution were studied. Due to enhance oxidation and well developed neck formation by the addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} a high strength 49 MPa was achieved for the porous mullite bonded SiC ceramics with porosity 28 vol %. (Author)

  1. Prolonged time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents in neuromuscular preparations of small crayfish and a membrane current triggered by glutamate channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Martin, C; Pareto, A

    1988-08-31

    Single channel currents activated by glutamate were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique in the abdominal superficial extensor muscle and the claw opener muscle of small (1-3 months old) and large (greater than 16 months old) crayfish. It was found that in small crayfish the time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents was prolonged by a factor of about 4 in these two preparations. In the abdominal superficial extensor muscle, single channel currents activated by 5 mmol/l glutamate had a mean burst length of tau = 2-3 ms in large crayfish and a mean burst length of tau = 8-9 ms in small crayfish. In the claw opener, for large crayfish tau congruent to 0.5 ms and for small crayfish tau = 1.5-2.5 ms resulted (500 mumol/l glutamate). Moreover, single channel currents with long time courses often slowly increased their amplitudes during the open time of the channel and current amplitudes did not decline completely to the baseline after channel closing. In addition, single channel currents with relatively constant amplitude were often followed by a small increasing and decreasing membrane current. The latter results suggest that glutamate channel gating might trigger a membrane current.

  2. Assessment of the aerobic preparation and bottom ash addition as pretreatment steps before landfilling: impact on methanogenesis kinetics and leachate parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Alicia A; Motte, Antoine; Pallier, Virginie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève; Ponthieux, Arnaud

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on assessing the impact of two types of waste pretreatment: addition of bottom ashes and aerobic pretreatment on both the onset and kinetics of methanogenesis and the evolution of different parameters in the leachate. It also studies the correlation between methane production and the different parameters measured in the leachate produced. A total of six 68-L pilots were thus used with fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) shredded to a 40-mm size. After 14 months of landfilling, the control has produced less than 10 NLkg(-1)DM, which corresponds to around 7% of its biochemical methane potential (BMP). Nevertheless, on one hand for aerobically pretreated waste, the lag phase before the onset of methanogenesis is significantly reduced to 0.9 month compared to more than 1 year for the control. In addition to that, on average 110 NLkg(-1)DM (90% of the BMP) is produced within around 6.5 months. On the other hand, the waste with added bottom ash shows a slight improvement of the lag phase over the control for one of the duplicate: 6.1 months of lag phase. At this stage, on average of 26 NLkg(-1)DM waste are detected (22% of the BMP) no final conclusion concerning the impact of bottom ashes could be made. The data obtained for the leachate parameters agrees with the observations on methane production. Statistical correlation study shows that the two components of the corrected PCA interpret 76% of the variability of the data: SUVA (specific UV absorbance at 254 nm) and HPI(*) (% of hydrophilic compounds) are identified as interesting parameters for following up the biodegradation in landfill conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, Y. C.

    2010-04-01

    Fine-sized LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives. Citric acid, ethylene glycol, and Drying Control Chemical Additive (DCCA) were used as organic additives and improved the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the cathode particles. The LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives were of micro size and had slightly aggregated morphologies. The initial discharge capacities of the LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions without organic additive changed from 169 mAhg-1 to 190 mAhg-1 when the x changed from 0 to 0.1. However, the initial discharge capacities of the cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives changed from 196 mAhg-1 to 218 mAhg-1. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode particles obtained from the spray solution with organic additives was maintained after the 20th cycle at a current density of 0.1 C.

  4. Effect of Y2O3 addition on the properties of mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics prepared by an infiltration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal, N.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics were synthesized by infiltrating a powder compact of SiC and Y2O3 with a liquid precursor of mullite which on subsequent heat treatment at 1300-1500 ºC produced mullite bonded porous SiC ceramics. The effect of Y2O3 content and sintering temperature on phase composition, microstructure, oxidation degree of SiC, flexural strength, porosity and pore size distribution were studied. Due to enhance oxidation and well developed neck formation by the addition of Y2O3 a high strength 49 MPa was achieved for the porous mullite bonded SiC ceramics with porosity 28 vol %.Se han sintetizado materiales porosos de SiC-Mullita mediante la infiltración de polvo prensado de SiC y Y2O3 con un precursor líquido de mullita, el cual con un tratamiento térmico posterior a 1300-1500 °C da lugar a los materiales porosos de SiC-Mullita. Se estudió el efecto del contenido de Y2O3 y la temperatura de sinterización en la constitución mineralógica, en la microestructura, en el grado de oxidación del SiC, la resistencia a la flexión, la porosidad total y su distribución de tamaño. Debido a la oxidación y a la mejora en la formación de los cuellos por la adición de Y2O3, se alcanzan altos valores de resistencia, 49 MPa, para estos materiales porosos de SiC-Mullita con porosidad 28 % en volumen.

  5. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  6. Preparation, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics, heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of NTOxDNAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haixia; Yan, Biao; Li, Zhaona; Guan, Yulei; Song, Jirong; Xu, Kangzhen; Hu, Rongzu

    2009-09-30

    NTOxDNAZ was prepared by mixing 3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNAZ) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in ethanol solution. The thermal behavior of the title compound was studied under a non-isothermal condition by DSC and TG/DTG methods. The kinetic parameters were obtained from analysis of the DSC and TG/DTG curves by Kissinger method, Ozawa method, the differential method and the integral method. The main exothermic decomposition reaction mechanism of NTOxDNAZ is classified as chemical reaction, and the kinetic parameters of the reaction are E(a)=149.68 kJ mol(-1) and A=10(15.81)s(-1). The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with continuous C(p) mode of microcalorimeter. The standard mole specific heat capacity of NTOxDNAZ was 352.56 J mol(-1)K(-1) in 298.15K. Using the relationship between C(p) and T and the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion) was obtained.

  7. Preparation and characterization of zirconia-yttria porous ceramics with addition of potassium iodide; Preparacao e caracterizacao de ceramicas porosas de zirconia-itria com adicao de iodeto de potassio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, S.G.M.; Muccillo, R., E-mail: sabrina.carvalho@usp.br, E-mail: muccillo@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CCTM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Porous zirconia stabilized with 8 mol% of yttria were prepared by adding different amounts of KI followed by its removal upon sintering. The thermal removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and dilatometric measurements. The samples were prepared and sintered at 1400 deg C/2h. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and topographic analysis of polished and thermally etched surface to evaluate pore content. The additive content was evaluated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, showing that KI was removed during sintering. The electrical behavior was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. The X- ray diffraction analyses show that all samples are single phase, cubic fluorite-type. The impedance diagrams allowed evaluating the increase in intergranular and intragranular resistivity with increasing content of pores. (author)

  8. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles: Effect of Precursor Reagents, Temperature, Irradiation Time, and Additives on Nano-ZnO Morphology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón P. Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different variables (precursor reagents, temperature, irradiation time, microwave radiation power, and additives addition on the final morphology of nano-ZnO obtained through the microwave assisted technique has been investigated. The characterization of the samples has been carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM in transmission mode, infrared (FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that all the above-mentioned variables influenced to some extent the shape and/or size of the synthetized nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of an anionic surfactant (sodium di-2-ethylhexyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT to the reaction mixture allowed the synthesis of smaller hexagonal prismatic particles (100 nm, which show a significant increase in UV absorption.

  9. Blood glucose and liver function in dogs administered a xylitol drinking water additive at zero, one and five times dosage rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.G. Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to determine the safety of a drinking water additive that reduces plaque and calculus in dogs, and contains xylitol as an active ingredient. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 15 crossbred dogs that were randomly divided into three groups and had their drinking water treated for 14 days with either: i a commercial health care product (BreathaLyser Plus at the recommended dosage, ii an experimental health care product (BreathaLyser Plus containing five times the amount of xylitol, or iii a placebo of purified water with a colour additive. Results demonstrated that the continuous administration of a commercial, drinking water, oral health product containing xylitol, at one and five times the normal inclusion rate, does not cause hypoglycemia or alter liver function in dogs.

  10. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  11. The value of reporting pressure-time integral data in addition to peak pressure data in studies on the diabetic foot: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, S A; Waaijman, R

    2013-02-01

    In plantar pressure studies on the diabetic foot, pressure-time integral data is often analyzed and reported next to peak pressure data, mostly because of its assumed additional value. The aim was to assess this additional value by systematically reviewing the relevant literature. The MEDLINE database was searched for original articles that report both pressure-time integral and peak pressure data measured in the diabetic foot. Eligible articles were assessed according to differences in reported results between both parameters, the quality of discussion and specific conclusions drawn on pressure-time integral data, and the added value of the pressure-time integral data. All 35 eligible papers described studies on gait. Differences in reported results between parameters were found to be clear, minimal, or absent in 15, 8, and 12 papers, respectively. In 15 papers, the pressure-time integral results were discussed with respect to the peak pressure results, but in only 5 papers the explanation given for reported differences was considered meaningful. Specific conclusions were drawn in 11 papers. Some added value was found in 10 papers, but in all papers one or more limitations to this value applied. The study findings suggest that the added value of reporting pressure-time integral data is limited. Unless clear benefit can be shown such, as that ulceration can be better predicted using pressure-time integral than using peak pressure data, the reporting of pressure-time integral data seems redundant to express the plantar loading in the diabetic foot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of mobile phase additives on qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Guan, Tianye; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yanna; Xing, Lu; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Du, Ping; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Xiaoyi; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2013-07-05

    This study was to systematically investigate the effect of mobile phase additives, including ammonia water, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium chloride and water (as a control), on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fifteen representative ginsenosides based on liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). To evaluate the influence of mobile phase additives on qualitative performance, the quality of the negative mode MS/MS spectra of ginsenosides produced by online LC-Q-TOF/MS analyses, particularly the numbers and intensities of fragment ions, were compared under different adduct ion states, and found to be strongly affected by the mobile phase additives. When 0.02% acetic acid was added in the mobile phase, the deprotonated ginsenosides ions produced the most abundant product ions, while almost no product ion was observed for the chlorinated ginsenoside ions when 0.1mM ammonium chloride was used as the mobile phase additive. On the other hand, sensitivity, linear range and precision were adopted to investigate the quantitative performance affected by different mobile phase additives. Validation results of the LC-Q-TOF/MS-based quantitative performance for ginsenosides showed that ammonium chloride not only provided the highest sensitivity for all the target analytes, but also dramatically improved the linear ranges, the intra-day and inter-day precisions comparing to the results obtained using other mobile phase additives. Importantly, the validated method, using 0.1mM ammonium chloride as the mobile phase additive, was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginsenoside Extract at 200mg/kg. In conclusion, 0.02% acetic acid was deemed to be the most suitable mobile phase additive for qualitative analysis of ginsenosides, and 0.1mM ammonium chloride in mobile phase could lead to the best quantitative performance. Our results reveal that

  13. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  15. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Srivastava and Jitendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga-doped zinc oxide (ZnO thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ~10−3 mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5–1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga–ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001 preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ~9 × 10−3 Ω cm and optical transparency of ~65–90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn, zinc interstitial (Zni, oxygen vacancy (Vo and oxygen interstitial (Oi. Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  16. Effect of zinc addition and vacuum annealing time on the properties of spin-coated low-cost transparent conducting 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-12-01

    Pure and 1 at% gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared with a low-cost spin coating technique on quartz substrates and annealed at 500 °C in vacuum ∼10(-3) mbar to create anion vacancies and generate charge carriers for photovoltaic application. Also, 0.5-1.5 at% extra zinc species were added in the precursor sol to investigate changes in film growth, morphology, optical absorption, electrical properties and photoluminescence. It is shown that 1 at% Ga-ZnO thin films with 0.5 at% extra zinc content after vacuum annealing for 60 min correspond to wurtzite-type hexagonal structure with (0001) preferred orientation, electrical resistivity of ∼9 × 10(-3) Ω cm and optical transparency of ∼65-90% in the visible range. Evidence has been advanced for the presence of defect levels within bandgap such as zinc vacancy (VZn), zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (Vo) and oxygen interstitial (Oi). Further, variation in ZnO optical bandgap occurring with Ga doping and insertion of additional zinc species has been explained by invoking two competing phenomena, namely bandgap widening and renormalization, usually observed in semiconductors with increasing carrier concentration.

  17. Mechanism Underlying Time-dependent Cross-phenomenon between Concentration-response Curves and Concentration Addition Curves: A Case Study of Sulfonamides-Erythromycin mixtures on Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoyu; Ge, Hongming; Zheng, Min; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a phenomenon in which the concentration-response curves (CRCs) for mixtures cross the curves for concentration addition model when predicting or judging joint toxic actions. However, mechanistic investigations of this phenomenon are extremely limited. In this study, a similar phenomenon was observed when we determined the joint toxic actions of sulfonamides (SAs) and erythromycin (ERY) on Escherichia coli (E. coli), which we named the “cross-phenomenon”, and it was characterized by antagonism in the low-concentration range, addition in the medium-concentration range, and synergism in the high-concentration range. The mechanistic investigation of the cross-phenomenon was as follows: SAs and ERY could form a double block to inhibit the bacterial growth by exhibiting a synergistic effect; however, the hormetic effect of SAs on E. coli led to antagonism in the low-concentration range, resulting from the stimulation of sdiA mRNA expression by SAs, which increased the expression of the efflux pump (AcrAB-TolC) to discharge ERY. Furthermore, this cross-phenomenon was observed to be a time-dependent process induced by the increase of both the concentration and extent of stimulation of sdiA mRNA with exposure time. This work explains the dose-dependent and time-dependent cross-phenomenon and provides evidence regarding the interaction between hormesis and cross-phenomenon.

  18. A Branch and Bound Algorithm and Iterative Reordering Strategies for Inserting Additional Trains in Real Time: A Case Study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of supporting the process of adapting railway infrastructure and future traffic needs, we have developed a method to insert additional trains efficiently to an existing timetable without introducing large consecutive delays to scheduled trains. In this work, the problem is characterized as a job-shop scheduling problem. In order to meet the limited time requirement and minimize deviations to the existing timetable, the modification that consists of retiming or reordering trains is implemented if and only if it potentially leads to a better solution. With these issues in mind, the problem of adding train paths is decomposed into two subproblems. One is finding the optimal insertion for a fixed order timetable and the other is reordering trains. The two subproblems are solved iteratively until no improvement is possible within a time limit of computation. An innovative branch and bound algorithm and iterative reordering strategy are proposed to solve this problem in real time. Unoccupied capacities are utilized as primary resources for additional trains and the transfer connections for passengers can be guaranteed in the new timetable. From numerical investigations, the proposed framework and associated techniques are tested and shown to be effective.

  19. 锐钛矿相TiO2纳米纤维制备与摩擦学性能%Preparation of Anatase TiO2 Nanofiber and Its Tribological Properties as Additive in Liquid Paraffin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 阴翔宇; 张月; 钱建华

    2013-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanofiber was prepared via an available alkaline hydrothermal method and surface modified. The obtained products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The as-prepared TiO2 nanofiber could be well dispersed in liquid paraffin, and its tribological properties as additive were evaluated with a four-ball tester. The results showed that the as-prepared TiO2 nanofiber exhibited good performance in anti-wear and friction-reduction, load-carrying capacity, and extreme pressure properties. When addition amount of the as-prepared TiO2 nanofiber was 1.5% of mass fraction in liquid paraffin, the best anti-friction wear reducing and bearing capacity enhancing were obtained, which made the TiO2 nanofiber promising for green lubricating oil additives.%采用简便且可重复性较好的碱熔法制备锐钛矿相TiO2,采用简便的表面修饰技术对其进行表面改性,得到TiO2纳米纤维,并采用XRD、SEM和FT-IR方法对其进行表征.利用四球摩擦试验机考察其作为油品润滑添加剂的摩擦学性能.结果表明,所合成的TiO2纳米纤维为锐钛矿相结构,结晶度和纯度较高,而且在油品中具有良好的分散性;TiO2纳米纤维具有良好的抗磨减摩性能,并能够很好地提高油品承载能力,当其加入量为1.5%(质量分数)时,抗磨减摩以及提高承载能力的效果最好.这些特性使得锐钛矿相TiO2纳米纤维有望在未来成为绿色润滑油添加剂.

  20. 阳离子醚化改性聚乙烯醇干强剂的合成及应用%Preparation and Application of Styrene-acrylic Emulsion Modified by Cationic-etherified PVA as a Dry Strength Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹辉波; 肖舒; 何静

    2012-01-01

    With poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) , styrene (St) , ethyl acrylate (BA) , and acrylamide (AM)as main monomers, hydroxy propyl methacrylate ( HPMA) as functional monomer, methacroylcholine chloride ( DMC) as cationic-functional monomer, and glycidyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride ( GTMAC) as cationic etherifying agent, the dry strength additive was prepared by semi-continuous emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization technique. The morphology of the emulsion particles and the treated paper were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The result indicated that the Zeta potential of the emulsion has maximum and the dispersion system would be more stable when the dosage of DMC was 1. 5% on the whole monomers. When the amount of GTMAC was 1. 5% , the increase of dry strength was 24. 7% and folding endurance was 36 times. When the amount of HPMA was 1. 5% ~ 2. 0% on the whole monomers , the paper possessed higher dry tensile strength and folding endurance.%以聚乙烯醇(PVA)、苯乙烯(St)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)、丙烯酰胺(AM)为基础单体,甲基丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPMA)为功能单体,甲基丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵(DMC)为阳离子功能单体,2,3-环氧丙基三甲基氯化铵(GTMAC)为阳离子醚化剂,采用无皂乳液聚合法合成了阳离子醚化改性聚乙烯醇干强剂乳液;通过透射电镜(TEM)和扫描电镜(SEM)分别对干强剂乳液颗粒形态和纸张纤维形态进行表征和检测.结果表明,当HPMA用量为1.5%(对单体总质量而言,下同)时,干强剂乳液Zeta电位最大,体系较稳定;当GTMAC用量为1.5%时,纸张抗张强度的增幅为24.7%,耐折度的增幅为157%;当HPMA用量为1.5%~2.0%时,纸张的抗张强度和耐折度均较高.

  1. ''In-house'' pharmacological management for computed tomography coronary angiography: heart rate reduction, timing and safety of different drugs used during patient preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, Erica; Tedeschi, Carlo; Seitun, Sara; Ruffini, Livia; Aldrovandi, Annachiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Palumbo, Alessandro A.; Martini, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tarantini, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Cardiology, Padua (Italy); Weustink, Annick C.; Meijboom, Willem B.; Mollet, Nico R.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cademartiri, Filippo [Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Parma, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Parma (Italy); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria - Parma, Department of Radiology c/o Piastra Tecnica - Piano 0, Parma (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the effect, timing and safety of different pharmacological strategies during 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA). From the institutional database of CT-CA we enrolled 560 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. The type of drug preparation (group 1 = no treatment; group 2 = oral metoprolol; group 3 = other; group 4 = intravenous (IV) atenolol; group 5 = IV atenolol + nitrates; NR = non-responders), timing, and adverse effects were recorded. Heart rate (HR) during different preparation phases was recorded. Four adverse effects were recorded, none of which was attributable to pharmacological treatment. In all groups, except group 1, the HR on arrival was significantly reduced by the pharmacological treatment (p < 0.01). Group 4 showed the best (-16 {+-} 8 bpm) HR reduction. There was no significant effect on HR due to nitrates (p = 0.49), while a slight increase due to contrast material was noted (p < 0.05). Average time required for preparation was 44 {+-} 25 min. Groups 4 and 5 showed the most effective timing (8 {+-} 9 min and 8 {+-} 8 min, respectively; p < 0.01). Pharmacological preparation in patients undergoing CT-CA is safe and effective. Best results in terms of HR reduction and fast preparation are obtained with IV administration of beta-blockers. (orig.)

  2. Laboratory preparation questionnaires as a tool for the implementation of the Just in Time Teaching in the Physics I laboratories: Research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Sanchez, Melba J.; Forero, Oscar M.

    2017-06-01

    The implementation of the JiTT (Just in Time Teaching) strategy is presented to increase the previous preparation of students enrolled in the subject Physics Laboratory I offered at the Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Colombia. In this study, a laboratory preparation questionnaire (CPL) was applied as a tool for the implementation of JiTT combined with elements of mediated learning. It was found that the CPL allows to improve the students’ experience regarding the preparation of the laboratory and the development of the experimental session. These questionnaires were implemented in an academic manager (Moodle) and a web application (lab.ciencias.uis.edu.co) was used to publish the contents essential for the preparation of the student before each practical session. The most significant result was that the students performed the experimental session with the basic knowledge to improve their learning experience.

  3. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  4. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharrafian, Shahram; Afshar, Hossein; Farbod, Maryam; Baniameri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds. Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves. Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198). Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838). The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680). Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. PMID:28127329

  5. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mosharrafian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds.Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves.Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198. Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838. The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680.Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. Keywords: Dental Etching; Composite Resins; Dentin; Tooth, Deciduous

  6. Additional in-series compliance reduces muscle force summation and alters the time course of force relaxation during fixed-end contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Dean L; Launikonis, Bradley S; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-11-15

    There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, because of their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties; however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear. To establish the influence of series compliance on force summation, we studied electrically evoked doublet contractions in the cane toad peroneus muscle in the presence and absence of a compliant artificial tendon. Additional series compliance reduced tetanic force by two-thirds, a finding predicted based on the force-length property of skeletal muscle. Doublet force and force-time integral expressed relative to the twitch were also reduced by additional series compliance. Active shortening over a larger range of the ascending limb of the force-length curve and at a higher velocity, leading to a progressive reduction in force-generating potential, could be responsible. Muscle-tendon interaction may also explain the accelerated time course of force relaxation in the presence of additional compliance. Our findings suggest that a compliant tendon limits force summation under constant-length conditions. However, high series compliance can be mechanically advantageous when a muscle-tendon unit is actively stretched, permitting muscle fibres to generate force almost isometrically, as shown during stretch-shorten cycles in locomotor activities. Restricting active shortening would likely favour rapid force development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. 利用钠盐助磨剂制备超细黄铁矿粉体的界面光学特性%Interfacial and optical characteristics of pyrite ultrafine powder prepared using sodium salts as grinding additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 尹周澜; 陈启元

    2012-01-01

    以超细黄铁矿粉体为研究对象,利用吸光度法研究黄铁矿在液相中添加六偏磷酸钠、油酸钠、硅酸钠、多聚磷酸钠、十二烷基硫酸钠后的分散性.研究结果表明:含有表面活性基团的油酸钠和十二烷基硫酸钠对于黄铁矿具有较好的分散效果.对这2种效果较好的添加剂的分散条件如pH、超声时间的影响进行分析,并对黄铁矿在这两种添加剂中的界面性质包括沉降曲线、表面电位和润湿性进行研究.在此基础上,用红外光谱对油酸钠和十二烷基硫酸钠作为助磨剂时制备黄铁矿超细粉体的光学性质结合扫描电镜进行研究,结果表明在研磨过程中黄铁矿粉体有部分硫被氧化成硫酸根,油酸钠与十二烷基硫酸钠助磨剂的使用有利于降低黄铁矿研磨过程中的氧化程度.%Using pyrite ultrafine powder as the object of this work, the dispersion of pyrite in different sodium salt additives such as sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium oleate, sodium silicate, sodium polyphosphate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate was analyzed with spectrometry. The results indicate that two surfactants namely sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate show better disperisibility for pyrite. The effects of some dispersion conditions such as pH and ultronication time on the disperisibility of dium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate were analyzed. The interfacial properties of pyrite dispersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate solutions were investigated with precipitation curve, zeta potentiometry, and wettability. Based on these results, pyrite ultrafine powder was prepared using sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate as grinding additives, whose optical characteristics were studied by FTIR spectrometry in cooperation with scanning electron microscopy. The FTIR spectra indicate that although some parts of sulfur in pyrite are oxidized into sulfate during the grinding, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate can

  8. Effect of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as feed additive on the rumen bacterial population in non-lactating cows quantified by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Guertler, P; Pfaffl, M W; Eisenreich, R; Wiedemann, S; Schwarz, F J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, added to a maize silage- and grass silage-based total mixed ration (TMR) at least 14 h before feeding, on the rumen bacterial population were investigated. Six non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were allocated to three treatment groups using a duplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 31-day periods (29 days of adaptation and 2 days of sampling). Treatments were control TMR [69% forage and 31% concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis] or TMR with 13.8 or 27.7 ml/kg of feed DM of Roxazyme G2 liquid with activities (U/ml enzyme preparation) of xylanase 260 000, β-glucanase 180 000 and cellulase 8000 (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland). The concentrations of 16S rDNA of Anaerovibrio lipolytica, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Treponema bryantii, and their relative percentage of total bacteria in rumen samples obtained before feeding and 3 and 7 h after feeding and from two rumen fractions were determined using real-time PCR. Sampling time had only little influence, but bacterial numbers and the composition of the population differed between the transition layer between rumen fluid and the fibre mat (fraction A) and the rumen fluid (fraction B) highlighting the importance to standardize sampling. The 16S rDNA copies of total bacteria and the six bacterial species as well as the population composition were mainly unaffected by the high levels of exogenous enzymes supplemented at all sampling times and in both rumen fractions. Occasionally, the percentages of the non-fibrolytic species P. ruminicola and A. lipolytica changed in response to enzyme supplementation. Some increases in the potential degradability of the diet and decreases in lag time which occurred collaterally indicate that other factors than changes in numbers of non-particle-associated bacteria are mainly responsible for the effects of

  9. Research development of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria%利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述日; 吴清平; 吴军林

    2011-01-01

    主要从两个方面介绍了利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂的发展状况:一方面是关于益生菌(双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发针对不同人群的特定益生菌功能性食品添加剂的发展前景;另一方面是关于细菌代谢产物(乳酸链球菌素、溶菌酶、聚赖氨酸)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发细菌素相关的新型功能性食品添加剂的发展前景.%The progress of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria was introduced from two aspects. On the one hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) ,and the prospects of developing specific probiotic functional food additives for different groups of people. On the other hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of bacterial metabolites (nisin,lysozyme, polylysine) ,and the prospects of developing the new bacteriocin-related functional food additives.

  10. Evaluation of automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analysis methods for the metabolomic study of Arabidopsis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qun; David, Frank; Lynen, Frédéric; Rumpel, Klaus; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat

    2011-05-27

    In this paper, automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analysis methods for the metabolomics study were evaluated. A miniaturized and automated derivatisation method using sequential oximation and silylation was applied to a polar extract of 4 types (2 types×2 ages) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a popular model organism often used in plant sciences and genetics. Automation of the derivatisation process offers excellent repeatability, and the time between sample preparation and analysis was short and constant, reducing artifact formation. Retention time locked (RTL) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used, resulting in reproducible retention times and GC-MS profiles. Two approaches were used for data analysis. XCMS followed by principal component analysis (approach 1) and AMDIS deconvolution combined with a commercially available program (Mass Profiler Professional) followed by principal component analysis (approach 2) were compared. Several features that were up- or down-regulated in the different types were detected.

  11. Batch and continuous flow preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines under microwave heating and simultaneous real-time monitoring by Raman spectroscopy. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Sylvain; Vantyghem, Xavier; Radoiu, Marilena; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-09

    Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem's microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized) reaction times.

  12. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  13. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  14. Directing students to profound open-book test preparation : The relationship between deep learning and open-book test time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J.B.; Hofman, W.H.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Considering the growing amount of medical knowledge and the focus of medical education on acquiring competences, using open-book tests seems inevitable. A possible disadvantage of these tests is that students underestimate test preparation. Aims: We examined whether students who used a d

  15. A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Zhen Wen Zhao; Lei Xiong; Bin Xin; Wei Hua Hu; Shao Xiang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for polystyrene was reported.Compared to the conventional dried-droplet method, the efficiency of ionization and signal intensity of mass spectra were improved.The mechanism was also analyzed.

  16. Effects of the addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate on setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH of MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, A; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, W T; Felippe, M C S; Wan, W S; Teixeira, C S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate nanoparticulate calcium carbonate (NPCC) using transmission electron microscopy and the effects of NPCC addition to MTA in regard to the setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH. The experimental groups were G1 (MTA), G2 (MTA with 5% NPCC) and G3 (MTA with 10% NPCC). The tests followed ISO and ADA standards. The specimens in the dimensional change and compressive strength tests were measured immediately after setting, after 24 h and after 30 days. In the solubility test, rings filled with cement were weighed after setting and after 30 days. The pH was measured after 24 h and 30 days. The data were analysed with the ANOVA, Tukey's and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 5%). The setting time was reduced (P  G2 > G3). The solubility test revealed a difference amongst the groups when the specimens were hydrated: G2 > G1 > G3 and dehydrated: G3 > G2 > G1. The pH of the groups was similar at 24 h with higher values in each group after 30 days (P MTA accelerated the setting time, decreased compressive strength and, after 30 days, resulted in lower dimensional change (G2), higher solubility and a higher pH. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  19. Sulfite Additives

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The CMA recommends that sulfites be banned as food preservatives when satisfactory and safe alternatives are available. When there is no suitable substitute strict labelling requirements on foods should be imposed for sulfite additives. The association supports the efforts of the Health Protection Branch of the Department of National Health and Welfare to regulate sulfites in the food and drug industry to prevent adverse reactions in people sensitive to sulfites. The CMA recommends that the D...

  20. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    : 0.55-1.38) than with CERP measures (mean = 0.37, CI: 0.34-0.41). Additionally, there were consistent increases in each of the OPRS subcategories. In contrast to CERPs, the OPRS fully satisfies the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and American Board of Surgery operative assessment requirements. The mobile Web platform provides a convenient interface, broad accessibility, automatic data compilation, and compatibility with common database and statistical software. Our mobile OPRS system encourages candid feedback dialog and generates a comprehensive review of individual and group-wide operative proficiency in real time. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Preparation and evaluation of press-coated aminophylline tablet using crystalline cellulose and polyethylene glycol in the outer shell for timed-release dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Mukai, Baku; Kawamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Namiki, Michihiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Fujii, Makiko

    2002-02-01

    In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet in the form of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and coated with crystalline cellulose (PH-102) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at various molecular weights and mixing ratios in the amounts of PH-102 and PEG as the outer shell (press-coating material), were prepared (chronopharmaceutics). Their applicability as timed-release (delayed-release) tablets with a lag time of disintegration and a subsequent rapid drug release phase was investigated. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a tableting machine, and their aminophylline dissolution profiles were evaluated by the JP paddle method. Tablets with the timed-release characteristics could be prepared, and the lag time of disintegration was prolonged as the molecular weight and the amount of PEG, for example PEG 500,000, in the outer shell were increased. The lag time of disintegration could be controlled by the above-mentioned method, however, the pH of the medium had no effect on disintegration of the tablet and dissolution behavior of theophylline. The press-coated tablet (core tablet:aminophylline 50 mg, L-HPC and PEG 6000; outer shell:PH-102:PEG = 8:2 200 mg) with the timed-release characteristics was administered orally to rabbits for an in vivo test. Theophylline was first detected in plasma more than 2 h after administration; thus, this tablet showed a timed-release characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract. The time (tmax) required to reach the maximum plasma theophylline concentration (Cmax) observed after administration of the press-coated tablet was significantly (p 24) between the press-coated tablet and aminophylline solution. These results suggest that the press-coated aminophylline tablet (with the timed-release characteristic) offers a promising forms of theophylline chronotherapy for asthma.

  2. In vitro investigation of the cleaning efficacy, shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of continuous rotary, reciprocating rotary and manual instrumentations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Mohammadi, Abbas; Amirabadi, Foroogh; Ramazani, Mohsen; Ehsani, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Background. Efficient canal preparation is the key to successful root canal treatment. This study aimed to assess the cleaning and shaping ability, preparation time and file deformation of rotary, reciprocating and manual instrumentation in canal preparation of primary molars. Methods. The mesiobuccal canals of 64 extracted primary mandibular second molars were injected with India ink. The samples were randomly divided into one control and three experimental groups. Experimental groups were instrumented with K-file, Mtwo in continuous rotation and Reciproc in reciprocating motion, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The files were discarded after four applications. Shaping ability was evaluated using CBCT. After clearing, ink removal was scored. Preparation time and file fracture or deformation was also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 19 using chi-squared, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results. Considering cleanliness, at coronal third Reciproc was better than K-file (P file (P = 0.001). In the middle third, only Reciproc exhibited better cleaning efficacy than K-file (P = 0.005). In the apical third, no difference was detected between the groups (P = 0.794). Regarding shaping ability, no differences were found between Reciproc and Mtwo (P = 1.00). Meanwhile, both displayed better shaping efficacy than K-file (P file failure occurred. Conclusion. Fast and sufficient cleaning and shaping could be achieved with Mtwo and especially with Reciproc.

  3. Effect of Hf addition on critical current density of (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films prepared by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Fang, Q.; Guo, Y. Q.; Lu, Y. M.; Bai, C. Y.; Cai, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    The critical current density (Jc) performance of YBCO coated conductors (CCs) under magnetic field has become a considerable limitation for its commercial application in recent years. It is well known that the proper amount of element doping into the CCs is a convenient method to increase flux pinning and then to enhance the Jc. In the present work, we firstly introduce the co-doping of Eu and Hf and study the effect on the performance of YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films. Three types of high temperature superconducting thin films, i.e., YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ, (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ and Hf doped (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ were prepared on the oxide buffered metallic substrates by using trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). The component and structure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Superconducting properties were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. It was revealed that the (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films exhibit better out-plane and in-plane texture compared with the pure YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ thin film. The Jc of (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin film was improved compared with pure YBCO thin film. In case of Hf doping, however, the biaxial texture became worse while the in-field Jc performance was enhanced, implying the increase of flux pinning with proper Hf addition.

  4. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect; Catalyseurs de nickel supportes prepares par la methode de l'hydrazine aqueuse. Proprietes hydrogenantes et stockage d'hydrogene. Effet du support. Effet de l'ajout d'argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, R

    2006-06-15

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, amorphous or crystallized SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, CeO{sub 2} and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N{sub 2}, FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H{sub 2}-TPR, H{sub 2}-adsorption, H{sub 2}-TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO{sub 2} or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  5. Improving the extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a chocolate-based matrix for immunosensing detection: Influence of time, temperature and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Pimentel, Filipa B; Nouws, Henri P A; Silva, Túlio H B; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a complex chocolate-based food matrix was optimized by testing different temperatures, extraction times, and the influence of additives (NaCl and skimmed milk powder) in a total of 36 different conditions. Analyses were carried out using an electrochemical immunosensor. Three conditions were selected since they allowed the extraction of the highest levels of Ara h 6. These extractions were performed using 2g of sample and 20ml of Tris-HNO3 (pH=8) containing: a) 0.1M NaCl and 2g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; b) 1M NaCl and 1g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; and c) 2g of skimmed milk powder at 60°C for 60min. Recoveries were similar or higher than 94.7%. This work highlights the importance to adjust extraction procedures regarding the target analyte and food matrix components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Addition to Rehabilitation for Acute Hamstring Injuries in NFL Players: Clinical Effects and Time to Return to Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Arthur C; Meyer, Susan; Bhadra, Arup K

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have been proposed to hasten soft tissue healing. There is a lack of evidence in the current literature to support their efficacy in elite athletes. To investigate the effects of the addition of PRP to rehabilitation in the treatment of acute hamstring injuries in professional National Football League (NFL) players and to report the time to return to play. Case control study. Ten NFL players with similar hamstring injury patterns were retrospectively divided into 2 groups. The treatment group (PRP; n = 5) was injected with PRP and the control group (non-PRP; n = 5) was not injected; both groups completed a rehabilitation program. The PRP injections were administered under ultrasound guidance with precise localization of the injury site, within 24 to 48 hours of injury. Age, muscle involved, extent of injury, grading, and time to return to play were noted. Descriptive statistics and the exact Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for data analysis. The mean age was 23 years (range, 22-27 years) for the PRP group and 26 years (range, 22-28 years) for the non-PRP group (P = .42). The median longitudinal extent of the injury was 14 cm (range, 9-18 cm) in the PRP group and 15 cm (range, 9-16 cm) in the non-PRP group (P = .77). The average transverse extent of the injury in the PRP and non-PRP groups was 4 cm (range, 1.6-6 cm) and 3.5 cm (range, 2-5 cm), respectively, and the respective average anteroposterior extent was 4 cm (range, 1.9-5 cm) and 2.9 cm (range, 1.5-4 cm). The long head of biceps femoris was most commonly involved (4 in each group), with a single tear of the semimembranosus in each group. The median injury classification was grade 2 in both groups. The median time to return to play was 20 days (range,16-30 days) in the PRP group and 17 days (range, 8-81 days) in the non-PRP group (P = .73). There were no significant differences in recovery from hamstring injury between treatment with PRP and routine rehabilitation. A

  8. 坡缕石载铜复合纳米润滑添加剂的制备及摩擦学性能研究%The Preparation and Tribological Property Study of Palygorskite Carrying Copper Nanometer Lubricant Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建海; 丁旭; 吴雪梅; 周元康; 李屹

    2011-01-01

    使用化学还原法制备坡缕石载铜复合纳米颗粒,以铸铁HT200作为摩擦副,采用MMU-10G摩擦磨损试验机研究该纳米颗粒作为润滑添加剂的摩擦学行为,使用EPMA-1600电子探针、金相显微镜、Genesis能谱仪进行试样磨损面形貌观察和组成元素分析.实验结果表明:该纳米复合颗粒作为润滑添加剂具有优异的减摩效果和良好的抗磨性能,与基础油150N相比,平均摩擦因数下降66.2%,对应的摩擦副试件磨损失重减少80.9%,在试件表面生成由纳米坡缕石和纳米铜共同组成的自修复膜.%Nano-palygorskite carrying nano-copper composites were prepared by chemical reduction and were characterized by XRD and TEM. Their tribological property as lubrication additive were studied on MMU-10G friction and wear testing machine with the TH200 specimen as friction pair. The morphology and chemical composition of the friction surface were investigated by EPMA-1600 electronic probe and EDXA. The results show that the prepared composites as lubrication additive have excellent friction reducing and anti-wear property. Compared with the base lubrication oil, the lubrication oil with nano-palygorskite carrying nano-copper composites make the average friction coefficient decrease by 66. 2% and the wear loss of the test sample decrease by 80. 9% , and there is a self-repairing film on the friction surface constituted by nano-palygorskite and nano-copper.

  9. Effect of Hf addition on critical current density of (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films prepared by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.Y., E-mail: limengyaorz@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Z.Y. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China); Fang, Q. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Guo, Y.Q.; Lu, Y.M.; Bai, C.Y. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China); Cai, C.B., E-mail: cbcai@t.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • This work firstly introduce the Eu and Hf co-doping effect on the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films, prepared on oxide buffered metallic substrates by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). • (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} film showed a very different surface morphology, smooth and regular, compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film, which has never been reported before. • The J{sub c} value under self-field of (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film was obviously improved compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film. • (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film with Hf addition exhibited enhancement of J{sub c} value under magnetic fields. - Abstract: The critical current density (J{sub c}) performance of YBCO coated conductors (CCs) under magnetic field has become a considerable limitation for its commercial application in recent years. It is well known that the proper amount of element doping into the CCs is a convenient method to increase flux pinning and then to enhance the J{sub c}. In the present work, we firstly introduce the co-doping of Eu and Hf and study the effect on the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films. Three types of high temperature superconducting thin films, i.e., YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ}, (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} and Hf doped (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} were prepared on the oxide buffered metallic substrates by using trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). The component and structure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Superconducting properties were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. It was revealed that the (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films exhibit better out-plane and in-plane texture compared with the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin

  10. Culture conditions and sample preparation methods affect spectrum quality and reproducibility during profiling of Staphylococcus aureus with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J E; Zhang, L; Borror, C M; Rago, J V; Sandrin, T R

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a promising tool to rapidly characterize Staphylococcus aureus. Different protocols have been employed, but effects of experimental factors, such as culture condition and sample preparation, on spectrum quality and reproducibility have not been rigorously examined. We applied MALDI-TOF MS to characterize a model system consisting of five methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MRSA) under two culture conditions (agar and broth) and using two sample preparation methods [intact cell method and protein extraction method (PEM)]. The effects of these treatments on spectrum quality and reproducibility were quantified. PEM facilitated increases in the number of peaks and mass range width. Broth cultures further improved spectrum quality in terms of increasing the number of peaks. In addition, PEM increased reproducibility in samples prepared using identical culture conditions. MALDI imaging data suggested that the improvement in reproducibility may result from a more homogeneous distribution of sample associated with the broth/PEM treatment. Broth/PEM treatment also yielded the highest rate (96%) of correct classification for MRSA. Taken together, these results suggest that broth/PEM maximizes the performance of MALDI-TOF MS to characterize S. aureus. Two culture conditions (agar or broth) and two sample preparation methods (intact cell or protein extraction) were evaluated for their effects on profiling of Staphylococcus aureus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicated that MALDI-enabled profiling of S. aureus is most effective when cultures are grown in broth and processed using a protein extraction-based approach. These findings should enhance future efforts to maximize the performance of this approach to characterize strains of S. aureus. © 2013

  11. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  12. Compression Effects on the Phase Behaviour of Miconazole-Poly (1-Vinylpyrrolidone-Co-Vinyl Acetate) Solid Dispersions-Role of Pressure, Dwell Time, and Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; De Bisschop, Cathérine; Schut, Henk; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Compression of miconazole-poly (1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) solid dispersions prepared by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion was performed to gain insights into effect of compression pressure, dwell time, and preparation method on compression-dependent phase behavior. The solid dispersions prepared by spray drying were initially phase-separated showing two glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the extruded samples showed one single Tg indicating better mixing. Compression caused mixing of spray-dried solid dispersions at high compression pressures and especially high dwell times. The extruded systems showed no statistically significant differences. However, physical mixtures made up from extruded samples containing 20% and 40% of active pharmaceutical ingredient underwent mixing upon compression. Coincidence Doppler measurements were performed to quantify the free volume of PVPVA64 which is a major contributor to the free volume in the solid dispersion matrix. A small but significant difference was found between the open free volume of the pure polymer subjected to varied manufacturing processes. Compression-induced plastic deformation and plastic flow enhances molecular mobility leading to mixing of different domains in solid dispersions. Different manufacturing methods may result in products with similar free volume, thereby showing similar molecular mobility.

  13. Preparation of fine-grained tungsten heavy alloys by spark plasma sintered W–7Ni–3Fe composite powders with different ball milling time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, D.P., E-mail: dpxiang@hainu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ding, L. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Li, Y.Y.; Chen, G.B. [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao, Y.W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We fabricate fine-grained W–7Ni–3Fe alloys using HEBM assisted SPS method. ► The γ-(Ni, Fe, W) phase is not observed in HEBM raw powders. ► The density of the WHAs gradually decreased with increasing HEBM time. ► The hardness and bending strength of the WHAs show different trends of variation. ► The intergranular fracture was the main bending fracture mode of the WHAs. -- Abstract: The fine-grained tungsten heavy alloys (WHAs) with grain size of about 1–3 μm were successfully prepared by spark plasma sintered W–7Ni–3Fe composite powders with different high-energy ball milling (HEBM) time. This study analyzes the effects of HEBM time not only on the composite powders but on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WHAs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the microstructure and phase evolution rules of powders and alloys, respectively. The γ-(Ni, Fe, W) is not observed in XRD patterns of the ball milled powders. With prolonging HEBM time, the W phase diffraction peak becomes increasingly wider, and its intensity continues to decline. However, the completely amorphous structures are not formed even after HEBM 40 h. The relative density of the WHAs prepared by HEBM assisted SPS technique decreases gradually with increasing the ball milling time. For the WHAs sintered in 1150 °C for 8 min, the W grains grow finer and the content of the γ-(Ni, Fe, W) binding phase greatly increases with prolonging the HEBM time. Meanwhile, over 5 h of HEBM time, the bending strength continuously decreases and the hardness slightly increases. The intergranular fracture of the W grains is the main bending fracture mode in all the WHAs. The microporous of different sizes are distributed on the bending fracture and progressively increased with prolonging the ball milling time.

  14. Time-resolved XAFS spectroscopic studies of B-H and N-H oxidative addition to transition metal catalysts relevant to hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  15. Sample-first preparation: a method for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of cyclic oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Pin; Su, Chih-Lin; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2007-08-15

    A new sample preparation method for the analysis of cyclic oligosaccharides in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is presented. We call this new technique "sample first method", in which a sample is deposited first and then bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which serve as the SALDI matrixes, are added to the top of the sample layer. The use of the sample first method offers significant advantages for improving shot-to-shot reproducibility, enhancing the ionization efficiency of the analyte, and reducing sample preparation time as compared to the dried-droplet method, wherein samples and bare AuNPs are mixed and dried together. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the signal intensity as calculated from 65 sample spots was 25% when the sample first methods were applied to the analysis of beta-cyclodextrin. The results were more homogeneous as compared to the outcome using dried-droplet preparation of AuNPs (RSD=66%) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (RSD=209%). We also found out that the optimal concentration of AuNP for ionization efficiency is 7.4 nM (4.52x10(12) particles/mL) while the lowest detectable concentration of cyclic oligosaccharides through this approach is 0.25 microM. Except for the cyclic oligosaccharide, the proposed method was also applied to the analyses of other biological samples, including neutral carbohydrate and steroid, aminothiols, and peptides as well as proteins.

  16. Reaction time analysis of two types of motor preparation for speech articulation: action as a sequence of chunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2003-06-01

    Reaction time (RT) prior to speech articulation increased as a function of response complexity. The RT findings formed 2 patterns, each of which was a different Response Complexity x Paradigm (choice RT vs. simple RT) interaction. That result extends previous findings from manual button-pressing tasks (S. T. Klapp, 1995) to a different action modality. Two different types of response programming, INT and SEQ, are assumed in the interpretation. Whereas INT can be identified with response programming within a word, SEQ fits a different interpretation related to timing of onsets of speech units. A critical assumption is that a long response is represented as a sequence of chunks; that organization is subject to manipulation. New findings suggest some modifications of the previous theory.

  17. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  18. Preparation and Self-assembly of Zirconia Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Hui; HONG Zhang-Lian; YANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal method without any additives. This work focuses on the effect of preparation conditions such as the precursor preparation condition and crystallization time of nanocrystallite in autoclave on the properties of as-prepared products. The results indicated that the amount of tetragonal zirconia varied with the preparation conditions. It increased with the increase of the concentration of KOH solution in precursor producing process and reduced with the prolongation of crystallization time. At the same time, the particle size and morphology were also affected by the preparation conditions. In addition,the self-assembled spindle- like aggregates were observed in present works.

  19. One-Time Addition of Nano-TiO2 Triggers Short-Term Responses in Benthic Bacterial Communities in Artificial Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Alexandra; Adams, Erin; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Tong, Tiezheng; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A; Kelly, John J

    2016-02-01

    Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2 on benthic microbial communities. This study used artificial stream mesocosms to assess the effects of a single addition of nano-TiO2 (P25 at a final concentration of 1 mg l(-1)) on the abundance, activity, and community composition of sediment-associated bacterial communities. The addition of nano-TiO2 resulted in a rapid (within 1 day) decrease in bacterial abundance in artificial stream sediments, but bacterial abundance returned to control levels within 3 weeks. Pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes did not indicate any significant changes in the relative abundance of any bacterial taxa with nano-TiO2 treatment, indicating that nano-TiO2 was toxic to a broad range of bacterial taxa and that recovery of the bacterial communities was not driven by changes in community composition. Addition of nano-TiO2 also resulted in short-term increases in respiration rates and denitrification enzyme activity, with both returning to control levels within 3 weeks. The results of this study demonstrate that single-pulse additions of nano-TiO2 to aquatic habitats have the potential to significantly affect the abundance and activity of benthic microbial communities and suggest that interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with environmental matrices may limit the duration of their toxicity.

  20. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  1. The effect of oxidation time on the parameters of ITO/Si solar cell prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandil, S. A; Afifi, H. H; El-hefnawi, S. H; Eliwa, A.Y [Electronic Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO/N-Si) solar cells have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. The silicon wafers are heated at 500 Celsius degrees with different oxidation time (2-20 min). The best values obtained for ITO/Si solar cell output parameters; open circuit voltage V{sub o}c, short circuit current density J{sub s}c, fill factor FF and efficiency {eta} are 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7 and 10.1% respectively. The preceding results were obtained under conditions of 5 minutes oxidation time and the surface area equal to 8 mm{sup 2} when the light intensity is 50 MW/ cm{sup 2}. The values of V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF and {eta} are affected strongly by the varying the oxidation time. This paper is devoted to explain the effect of the interfacial layer SiO{sub 2} thickness on the ITO/Si solar cell parameters as deduced from the I-V and C-V measurements. [Spanish] Mediante tecnicas de pirolisis de dispersion se han fabricado celdas solares de oxido de Indio estanado ITO/N-Si. Las obleas de silicon se calientan a 500 con diferentes tiempos de oxidacion (2-20 min.) Los mejores valores obtenidos para los parametros de produccion de las celdas solares ITO-Si de voltaje en circuito abierto V{sub o}c densidad de corriente de corto circuito J{sub s}c factor de llenado FF y eficiencia {eta} son de 0.48 V, 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.7% y 10.1% respectivamente los resultados precedentes se obtuvieron bajo condiciones de 5 minutos de tiempo de oxidacion y la superficie del area=8 mm{sup 2} cuando la intensidad de la luz es de 50mW/Cm{sup 2}. Los valores de V{sub o}c, J{sub s}c, FF y {eta} se afectan fuertemente por la variacion del tiempo de oxidacion. Este articulo esta dedicado a explicar el efecto del espesor de la capa interfacial de SiO{sub 2} en los parametros de la celda solar ITO-Si como se deduce de las mediciones I-V y C-V.

  2. Effect of Etching Time on Optical and Thermal Properties of p-Type Porous Silicon Prepared by Electrical Anodisation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous silicon (PSi layers were formed on p-type silicon (Si wafer. The six samples were anodised electrically with 30 mA/cm2 fixed current density for different etching times. The structural, optical, and thermal properties of porous silicon on silicon substrates were investigated by photoluminescence (PL, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The thickness and porosity of the layers were measured using the gravimetric method. The band gap of the samples was measured through the photoluminescence (PL peak and absorption spectra, then they were compared. It shows that band gap value increases by raising the porosity. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS was carried out for measuring the thermal diffusivity (TD of the samples.

  3. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amita; Joshi, M. P.; Mondal, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO2 were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO2 nanoparticles for all ablation times. While Surfactant added water ambience is favorable for the growth of rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles but for shorter ablation times of 30 min and 60 min only, for longer ablation time of 90 min anatase phase was also observed along with the rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles. The formation of anatase phase in DI water and rutile and anatase phase in aqueous solution of surfactant is explained on the basis of varying thermodynamic conditions with the two different liquid ambiences and different ablation times.

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.S.; Resch, V.; Otten, L.G.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus st

  5. Effect of Milling Time on Al-Fe-Cr-20 Wt. % Al2O3composite Prepared Through Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameedur Rehman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges towards achieving a homogeneous distribution of the ceramic phase in the metal matrix composites is agglomeration of the reinforcement particles. Mechanical alloying is among the most important processing techniques used for manufacturing of metal matrix composites (MMCs.An attempt was made to synthesize Al-Fe-Cr-Al2O3composites synthesized through mechanical alloying. Al2O3 is used as reinforcement. Ethanol (5 wt. % has been used as a process control agent (PCA. Mechanical alloying is carried out in a conventional ball mill using stainless steel grinding media at 115 rpm in the argon environment for 5h, 10h and 15h. The ball to powder weight ratio was maintained at 20:1. The characterization of the ball milled powder was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Showed the formation of a homogeneous phase for all compositions after milling for 15 h. XRD patterns were recorded for the milled powders, and analyzed using Williamson–Hall method and Scherrer’s equation to determine the lattice strain and grain size.EDX is performed to check the contamination of composites during the mechanical alloying.XRD is used to study structural evolution of synthesized aluminium composite. Effect of milling time is investigated on synthesized Al-Fe-Cr-20 wt. % Al2O3 composites.

  6. TiCl4 Pretreatment and Electrodeposition Time Investigations of ZnO Photoelectrodes Preparation for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiCl4 pretreatment is used in the fabrication of high performance photoanodes for dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this paper, TiCl4 pretreatment was used on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO before fabricating ZnO films by electrochemical method. The effects of TiCl4 pretreatment on some important parameters of solar cells, such as short-circuit current (Jsc and filling factor, were investigated. The morphology of ZnO films was changed after TiCl4 pretreatment, which can offer large surface area to absorb much more dyes. When the time of electrodeposition was 3 min, the dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiCl4 pretreatment ZnO films showed more superior photoelectrochemical performance. The parameters of DSSCs are greatly improved. The DSSC based on ZnO films after TiCl4 pretreatment has a very promising value for fabricating high performance solar cells.

  7. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  8. Wax-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system of sophora flavescens Aiton: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Caihong; Cheng, Gang; Ren, Jungang; Wu, Gaolei

    2009-02-01

    A wax-matrix time-dependent colon-specific tablet (WM-TDCS) was studied. Wax-matrix tablet core consisting of semi-synthetic glycerides, as a wax polymeric expanding agent, carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), and NaCl was prepared, and Sophora flavescens Aiton (ASF, extracts of traditional Chinese medicine) was used as model drug. The wax-matrix ASF tablets core was coated with Eudragit NE 30 D as the inner coating materials and with Opadry OY-P-7171 as the outer coating materials. The in vitro release behaviors of the coated tablets were examined and then in vivo absorption kinetics of the coated tablets in dogs was further investigated. The volume of the tablet core was markedly increased at 37 degrees C because of the expand effect of polymer semi-synthetic glycerides and CMS-Na. The drug release from WM-TDCS was more stable than TDCS in vitro and in vivo. The lag time of ASF release was also controlled by the thickness of the inner coating layer. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release. ASF wax-matrix tablets coated with Eudragit NE 30 D and Opadry OY-P-7171 using the regular coating technique could be designed to achieve a lag time of 3 h in the small intestinal tract.

  9. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-06

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  11. Study on the new process for preparing the additives with black liquor and the slurry ability for coal water slurry%造纸黑液制水煤浆添加剂新技术和制浆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒旭; 徐江华; 纪明俊; 张宏伟; 白成志

    2001-01-01

    By using the lignin,organic acid and polyose in pulping waste liquid(bl ack liquor),a new process for additive preparation and the cheaper and good qual ities additives for coal water slurry,of which the properties are similar with t he products prepared in 500ml reactor,are developed in 20L reactor by a series o f process sulphonated,condensed and modified and combined.The additives from pul ping waste liquid and other two additives were investigated in the preparation o f coal water slurry.The features of coal water slurry prepared by them are simil ar with or better than the additives which is used in industrial plant.%充分利用造纸黑液中的木质素、有机酸和聚糖类化合物,在20L反应釜中,进行磺化 、缩合、改性复配制取水煤浆添加剂小试放大试验的研究。对义马煤可以制出浓度在63%~6 4% ,流动性好,性能稳定的水煤浆,性能达到或超过目前国内工业TEAXCO气化装置所用的添加 剂。

  12. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF SEMINAL PLASMA, VITAMIN E AND INCUBATION TIME ON POST-THAWED SPERM VIABILITY IN BOAR SEMEN

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. C. Pech- Sansores; F. G. Centurión- Castro; J. C. Rodríguez-Buenfil; J. C. Segura-Correa; J. R. Aké-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma (SP), vitamin E (VE), and incubation time on sperm viability of post-thawed boar semen. Thirty six ejaculates were used and allocated to four treatments: T1, semen + BTS (Belstville Thawing Solution) + 10% SP; T2, semen + BTS + 200¿g/ml VE; T3, semen + BTS + 10% SP + 200¿g/ml VE; T4, semen + BTS (control). Motility (MOT), intact acrosomes (IA), membrane integrity (MI) and mitochondrial activity (MA) were evaluated, at 0 a...

  13. Time resolved studies of the addition reactions of silylenes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the gas phase (an investigation of the strain energies of silirane and silirene rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Dormer, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis reports the measurement of absolute rate constants for number of silylene addition reactions with unsaturated hydrocarbons. The reactions of SiH sub 2 , SiD sub 2 and Me sub 2 Si with alkene and alkynes were studied. The silylenes were formed, in situ, by the photolysis of an organosilicon precursor, and the rate constants obtained by the direct observation of the absorption decay of the silylene reactant. The reactions were studied in the gas phase and their temperature and pressure dependence investigated. The reaction of SiH sub 2 and 1,3-butadiene was investigated and found to be pressure dependent. The following Arrhenius equation was yielded at infinite pressure; log(k supinfinity/cm sup 3 molecule sup - sup 1 s sup - sup 1) = (-9.57 +- 0.05) + (3.22 +- 0.35) kJmol sup - sup 1 /RT ln 10. The reaction was found to proceed via a two-channel pathway, leading to the products vinylsilirane and silacyclopentane. RRKM modelling of the system was carried out and led to the calculation of the strain ...

  14. An active and selective heterogeneous catalytic system for Michael addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoda Keipour; Mohammad A. Khalilzadeh; Abolfazl Hosseini; Afsaneh Pilevar; Daryoush Zareyee

    2012-01-01

    Potassium fluoride doped natural zeolite was found to be an efficient and selective solid base catalyst for 1,4-Michael addition.The catalyst is easily prepared and the workup procedure simplified by simple filtration.All products were obtained in high yields as well as short reaction times.

  15. 稀土Y对SPS烧结TiAl基合金显微组织与力学性能的影响%Effect of Y Addition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiAl-based Alloys Prepared by SPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖树龙; 徐丽娟; 于宏宝; 陈玉勇

    2013-01-01

    TiAl alloys with a composition of Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta(at%) (TA alloy) and Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta-0.225Y(at%) (TAY alloy) were prepared by double mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS).The effect of Y addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys was studied.The results show that the morphology of double mechanical milling powder is regular with sizes in the range of 20~40 μtm.The main phases of TiAl and Ti3Al and few phases of Ti2Al and TiB2 were observed in the SPS bulk samples of TiAl-based alloys.The equiaxed crystal grainmicrostructure was achieved with sizes in the range of 100~400 nm in TA alloy samples.The samples exhibited compressive properties at room temperature with a compressive strength of 2614 MPa and a compression ratio of 20.57%.For TAY alloy,the sizes of equiaxed crystal grain obviously decreased.The samples exhibited compressive properties at room temperature with a compressive strength of 2677 MPa and a compression ratio of 22.91%.The micro-hardness of the SPS bulk samples of TA alloy was obviously higher than that of the SPS bulk samples of TAY alloy.On the base of analysis of fractographs,it showed that the compression fracture transform of the SPS TiAl-based alloys samples was intergranular rupture.%采用双步机械球磨和放电等离子烧结(SPS)相结合的方法制备Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta(at%)和Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta-0.225Y(at%)2种TiAl基合金(简称TA合金和TAY合金),并研究稀土元素Y对TiAl基合金显微组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明,通过双步机械球磨后的粉末形状比较规则,颗粒尺寸范围在20~40 μm之间.经过SPS烧结的TiAl基合金块体主要由TiAl相和Ti3Al相组成,还有少量的Ti2Al相和TiB2相.SPS烧结的TA合金块体试样等轴晶粒的尺寸在100~400 nm之间,合金的室温压缩强度为2614 MPa,压缩率为20.57%;而对于加入了稀土元素Y的TAY合金而言,等轴晶粒尺寸明显减

  16. Preparation of porous styrenics-based monolithic layers for thin layer chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongqin; Lin, Zhixing; Tan, Tianwei; Svec, Frantisek

    2013-11-01

    Monolithic 50 μm thin poly(4-methylstyrene-co-chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) layers attached to 6.0 cm × 3.3 cm glass plates have been prepared, using a thermally initiated polymerization process. These layers had a well-defined porous structure with a globular morphology demonstrated with SEM images and exhibited superhydrophobic properties characterized with a water contact angle of 157°. They were then used for thin-layer chromatography of peptides and proteins fluorescently labeled with fluorescamine. The spots of individual separated compounds were visualized using UV light, and their identities were confirmed with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The presence of chloromethylstyrene units in the polymer enabled hypercrosslinking via a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, and led to monoliths with much larger surface areas, which were suitable for separations of small dye molecules.

  17. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  18. Colorimetric Determination of the Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Reaction Equilibrium Constant with Calibration and Equilibrium Solutions Prepared in a Cuvette by Sequential Additions of One Reagent to the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Barlag, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The well-known colorimetric determination of the equilibrium constant of the iron(III-thiocyanate complex is simplified by preparing solutions in a cuvette. For the calibration plot, 0.10 mL increments of 0.00100 M KSCN are added to 4.00 mL of 0.200 M Fe(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 3], and for the equilibrium solutions, 0.50 mL increments of…

  19. Preparation of a Microbial Time-temperature Indicator by Using the Vegetative Form of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for Monitoring the Quality of Chilled Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shahrokh Esfahani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Time-temperature indicators are used in smart packaging, and described as intelligent tools attached to the label of food products to monitor their timetemperature history. Since the previous studies on microbial time-temperature indicators were only based on pH-dependent changes, and they were long-time response indicators, in the present work, a new microbial time-temperature indicator was designed by using the alpha amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens vegetative cells.Material and Methods: The designed time-temperature indicator system consists of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, specific substrate medium and iodine reagent. The relation of the timetemperatureindicator’ response to the growth and metabolic activity (starch consumption and production of reduced sugars of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the time-temperature indicator was considered at 8 and 28˚C. Finally, in order to adjust time-temperature indicator endpoint, the effect of the inoculum level was investigated at 8ºC.Results and Conclusion: In the designed system, a color change of an iodine reagent to yellow progressively occurs due to the starch hydrolysis. The effect of the inoculum level showed the negative linear relationship between the levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculated in the medium and the endpoints of the time-temperature indicators. The endpoints were adjusted to 156, 72 and 36 hours at the inoculum levels of 102, 104 and 106 CFU ml-1, respectively. The main advantages of the time-temperature indicator is low cost and application for monitoring the quality of chilled food products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  3. Effect of the addition of collagen in the preparation of hydroxyapatite, aiming the application of pulp capping; Efeito da adicao de colageno na preparacao de hidroxiapatita visando a aplicacao como capeador pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Geysy L.; Mendes, Luis C., E-mail: geysylopes@ima.ufrj.br [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano (IMA) - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ. Centro de Tecnologia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work studied the action of collagen (COLL) in the hydroxyapatite (HA) synthesis, produced through sol-gel process, in order to mimetize the chemical composition of dental tissue. The resulting material was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ca/P ratio was determined through EDX - 1,89 e 2,38, with and without collagen, respectively. The FT-IR analysis showed no significant interaction between the constituents of the composite. The R-ray diffractograms indicated an increase of the resolution and intensity of the HA peak. The photomicrographies showed that the preparation method exhibited significantly influence onto the hydroxyapatite morphology, as well as resulted in a homogeneously dispersed composite. (author)

  4. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  5. Influence of Co addition on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of Nanoperm (Fe{sub 1-X}Co{sub X}){sub 75}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 15} type alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipus, J.J.; Blazquez, J.S.; Franco, V. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Conde, A., E-mail: conde@us.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-04-30

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric response of mechanically alloyed (Fe{sub 1-X}Co{sub X}){sub 75}Nb{sub 10}B{sub 15} (X = 0.15 and 0.30) powders have been studied as a function of crystalline fraction. From X-ray diffraction, it was observed that the amorphization process is delayed with the Co addition in the alloy. Crystallization temperature of the amorphous phase developed during milling decreases as Co content increases. Temperature dependence of magnetization curves shows that the Curie temperature of the amorphous phase increases as the Co content increases. The peak magnetic entropy change slowly increases with Co addition for low crystalline fractions and the refrigerant capacity decreases as Co increases in the alloy.

  6. Effects of Lithium Oxide Addition on Sintering Behavior and Electrical Conductivity of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 Ceramics Prepared by Commercial Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Woo; Park, Min-Woo; Lee, Joo-Sin

    2016-05-01

    The densification behavior and electrical conductivity of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 ceramics with lithium oxide concentrations ranging from 0 to 7 mol% were investigated. The sintered density was found to increase with increasing Li2O content up to 2 mol% and then to decrease somewhat upon further Li20 addition. Dense Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 ceramics with 97% of the theoretical density could be obtained by sintering the milled mixture with 2 mol% Li2O addition at 1250 degrees C for 5 h. The conductivity of the 2 mol% Li2O-added specimen showed a maximum value of 4.99 x 10(-3) Ω(-1) x cm(-1) at 700 degrees C. Pure Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 ceramics needed to be sintered at 1550 degrees C in order to obtain an equivalent theoretical density and conductivity. The addition of Li2O was found to promote the sintering properties and electrical conductivities of Gd2O3-doped CeO2.

  7. Dual-emissive nanoarchitecture of lanthanide-complex-modified silica particles for in vivo ratiometric time-gated luminescence imaging of hypochlorous acid† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the new compounds, Fig. S1–S12 and a video showing the real-time uptake and accumulation of HClO in living Daphnia magna using the RTLNP as a probe. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02243j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Wang, Yuanxiu; Cong, Deyuan; Jiang, Yufei

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a ratiometric time-gated luminescence sensory system for in vivo imaging of hypochlorous acid (HClO) by preparing a dual-emissive nanoarchitecture of europium- and terbium-complex-modified silica nanoparticles. The design of this nanoarchitecture is based on our new finding that the strong, long-lived luminescence of the β-diketonate–Eu3+ complex can be rapidly and selectively quenched by HClO. Therefore, the β-diketonate–Eu3+ complex was decorated on the surface of the silica nanoparticles for responding to HClO, while a HClO-insensitive luminescent terbium complex was immobilized in the inner solid core of the nanoparticles to serve as an internal standard. This nanosensing probe combines the advantages of both ratiometric and time-gated detection modes to afford high accuracy and sensitivity. Upon exposure to HClO, the nanoprobe displayed a remarkable luminescence color change from red to green, and the intensity ratio of the green over the red luminescence (I 539/I 607) showed a rapid, sensitive and selective response to HClO. Additionally, the feasibility of using the nanoprobe for intracellular detection of exogenous and endogenous HClO and for real-time mapping of HClO in small laboratory animals has been demonstrated via ratiometric time-gated luminescence imaging microscopy. The results reveal that the constructed nanoarchitecture cloud is a favorable and useful sensing probe for the real-time imaging of HClO in vivo with high specificity and contrast. PMID:28451159

  8. Analysis of electrochemical noise data in both time and frequency domains to evaluate the effect of ZnO nanopowder addition on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ashassi-Sorkhabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy–ZnO nanocomposite coatings have been developed for corrosion protection of steel. Structural characterization of the prepared nanocomposites was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The anti-corrosive properties of the coatings were evaluated by electrochemical noise (EN. On the basis of the EN results in both time and frequency domains, the nanocomposite material with low ZnO concentration (0.1% wt.% was found to be much superior in corrosion protection when tested in aqueous NaCl electrolyte. Finally, EIS measurements were carried out and the data fitted with suitable equivalent circuit. Resistance parameters obtained by both techniques were found to be in relatively good agreement.

  9. No Superiority of Treatment With Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery System-Methylphenidate Over Short/Medium-Acting Methylphenidate Preparations in the Rate and Timing of Injuries in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Kodesh, Arad; Weizman, Abraham

    Methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to reduce the risk for injuries. In the present study, the rate and timing of injuries were compared among the various MPH preparations (4 and 6-8 vs 12 hour-acting) in children with ADHD. This real-world retrospective study covered the years 2011 to 2013. Participants included 2042 youngsters (aged 4-18 years, 13.01 ± 3.2 years; 71.8% males and 28.2% females) diagnosed with ADHD according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria and treated with various MPH preparations. They were divided into 2 groups by their treatment preparation as follows: MPH-immediate release (MPH-IR)-4 hour-acting pooled with MPH-slow release/long-acting (MPH-SR/LA)- 6 to 8 hour-acting versus osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system-MPH (OROS-MPH; Concerta)-12 hour-acting that consisted of pooling of OROS-MPH only and OROS-MPH combined with the other MPH preparations. The monthly rates of injury, specifically, late injury (occurrence between 4:00 p.m. to midnight) and for multiple injuries, the time interval between injuries, were assessed. No significant differences in monthly rate of nonfatal injuries were found between OROS-MPH with or without 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-formulations versus only 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-preparations (P = 0.53). Neither were differences found in the between-injury time interval (P = 0.83) or in late-injury-rates (P = 0.37) between those groups. This real-world-naturalistic study in the community demonstrates that, in ADHD pediatric populations, OROS-MPH preparation is not superior to short/medium-acting (4/6-8 hours) MPH preparations regarding the rate and timing of injuries.

  10. Electrochemical performance evaluations and safety investigations of pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene as a flame retardant electrolyte additive for application in lithium ion battery systems using a newly designed apparatus for improved self-extinguishing time measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagger, Tim; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    A modified self-extinguishing time (SET) device which enhances the reproducibility of the results is presented. Pentafluoro(phenoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (FPPN) is investigated as flame retardant electrolyte additive for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of thermal stability and electrochemical performance. SET measurements and adiabatic reaction calorimetry are applied to determine the flammability and the reactivity of a standard LIB electrolyte containing 5% FPPN. The results reveal that the additive-containing electrolyte is nonflammable for 10 s whereas the commercially available reference electrolyte inflames instantaneously after 1 s of ignition. The onset temperature of the safety enhanced electrolyte is delayed by ≈ 21 °C. Compatibility tests in half cells show that the electrolyte is reductively stable while the cyclic voltammogram indicates oxidative decomposition during the first cycle. Cycling experiments in full cells show improved cycling performance and rate capability, which can be attributed to cathode passivation during the first cycle. Post-mortem analysis of the electrolyte by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms the presence of the additive in high amounts after 501 cycles which ensures enhanced safety of the electrolyte. The investigations present FPPN as stable electrolyte additive that improves the intrinsic safety of the electrolyte and its cycling performance at the same time.

  11. Evaluation and additional recommendations for preparing a whole blood control material Avaliação e recomendações adicionais para a preparação de material sangüíneo integral para controles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda E. Fink

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The assessment of an easy to prepare and low cost control material for Hematology, available for manual and automated methods. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Aliquots of stabilized whole blood were prepared by partial fixation with aldehydes; the stability at different temperatures (4. 20 and 37 °C during periods of up to 8-9 weeks and aliquot variability with both methods were controlled. RESULTS: Aliquot variability with automated methods at day 1, expressed as CV% (coefficient of variation was: white blood cells (WBC 2.7, red blood cells (RBC 0.7, hemoglobin (Hb 0.6, hematocrit (Hct 0.7, mean cell volume (MCV 0.3, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH 0.6, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC 0.7, and platelets (PLT 4.6. The CV (coefficient of variation percentages obtained with manual methods in one of the batches were: WBC 23, Hct 2.8, Hb 4.5, MCHC 5.9, PLT 41. Samples stored at 4ºC and 20ºC showed good stability, only a very low initial hemolysis being observed, whereas those stored at 37ºC deteriobed a rapidly (metahemoglobin formation, aggregation of WBC and platelets, as well as alteration of erythrocyte indexes. CONCLUSIONS: It was confirmed that, as long as there is no exposure to high temperatures during distribution, this material is stable, allowing assessment, both esternal and internal, for control purposes, with acceptable reproductivity, both for manual and auttomatic methods.OBJETIVO: Avaliar material de controle para hematologia, de fácil preparação e baixo custo, que poderá ser usado por métodos manuais e automatizados. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Alíquotas de sangue estabilizado foram preparadas por fixação parcial com aldeídos. Foram estudadas a estabilidade a diferentes temperaturas (4, 20, 37ºC durante períodos de até 8-9 semanas e a variabilidade das alíquotas para ambos os métodos. RESULTADOS: A variabilidade entre alíquotas, expressada em CV% (coeficiente de variação com métodos automatizados no primero dia

  12. Batch and continuous flow preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines under microwave heating and simultaneous real-time monitoring by Raman spectroscopy. An exploratory study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiaens, Sylvain; Vantyghem, Xavier; Radoiu, Marilena; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem's...

  13. The selection and application of anti- brown additives in passion fruit juice preparation%百香果汁褐变抑制剂的选取及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连志超; 何仁; 周晶晶; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    Single factor and orthogonal test are applied on the study of food additives on controlling anti-brown of tropical fruit- passion fruit. The food additives used in the experiment are; Vb-Na, phytic acid, NaCl, CaCl2, ascorbic acid, sodium erythorbate. The order of anti-brown effect in single factor is: Vb-Na > phytic acid > ascorbic acid > sodium erythorbate, but NaCl and CaCl2 do not have any effect. In the orthogonal test, the optimal browning inhibiting concentration of ascorbic acid, Vb-Na and phytic acid are 0. 029% , 0. 06% and 0. 02% , respectively. The absor-bance value of the passion fruit juice with these anti-brown additives was decreased to 0. 165, which accounts for 44. 72% of commercial passion fruit juice in the same condition.%为比较不同褐变抑制剂对热带水果百香果汁褐变抑制的效果,以百香果为研究对象,选取VbNa、植酸、NaCl、CaCl2、抗坏血酸及异抗坏血酸钠作为褐变抑制剂,分别进行单因素和正交抗褐变实验.单因素实验中,抗褐变效果依次为:Vb-Na>植酸>抗坏血酸>异抗坏血酸钠,而NaCl及CaCl2对百香果汁基本不起抗褐变作用.正交实验结果表明:抗坏血酸、Vb-Na、植酸浓度分别为0.029%、0.06%、0.02%时,具有最优的褐变抑制效果,添加该配比褐变抑制剂的百香果汁加热5h后吸光度可低至0.165,仅为市售百香果汁经相同处理后的吸光度0.369的44.72%.

  14. Influences of Organic Additives on Stannate Conversion Coating Prepared on the AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Surface%有机添加剂对AZ91D镁合金锡酸盐转化膜性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵忠财; 王明; 张庆芳

    2015-01-01

    采用化学转化法在镁合金表面制备锡酸盐转化膜.采用硫酸铜点滴实验、电化学交流阻抗(EIS)测试和Tafel曲线、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)测试和X射线衍射分析(XRD)等方法检测膜层的性能.研究了几种有机添加剂(Tartaric acid、Citric acid、Phytic acid、EDTA、Sodium dodecyl sulfate)对膜层耐蚀性的影响,结果表明溶液中添加SDS后,转化膜的硫酸铜点滴时间由35 s提高到了86 s,明显提高转化膜的耐腐蚀性能,膜层的形貌为呈“颗粒”状紧凑的连接到一起,该膜层的主要成分为MgSn(OH)6、Mg(OH)2.%A stannate conversion coating was prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloy surface by a chemical conversion process.The coating performances were tested by CuSO4 drip experiment,EIS,Tafel,SEM and XRD.The effects of some organic additives including tartaric acid,citric acid,phytic acid,EDTA,and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the coating corrosion resistance were studied.The results show that the drip time is increased from 35 to 86 s by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and it could improve the corrosion resistance of the film to a large extent.The morphology of the membrane layer mainly contains MgSn(OH)6 and Mg(OH)2 which is granular-bonded.

  15. Effects of B2O3 Addition on Sintering Behavior and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Mg4Ta2O9 Ceramics Prepared by the Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. D.; Bi, J. X.; Wu, H. T.

    2016-11-01

    Sintering characteristics and microwave dielectric properties of Mg4Ta2O9-5wt% B2O3 ceramics were investigated. With the sintering temperature increasing in the range of 1100∘C-1350∘C, the apparent density, ɛr and Qṡf values increased firstly and then saturated at 1250∘C with excellent microwave properties: ɛr˜12.1, Qṡf˜77,575GHz and τf˜-40ppm/∘C. Compared to the pure MT ceramics, the B2O3 additives effectively decreased the sintering temperature of MT ceramics and had no detrimental effect on the properties of the MT ceramics due to the liquid phase effect.

  16. The Effect of Time Intervals on Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface during Preparation of a Titanium Abutment: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoofi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Thermal injury during dental implant placement and restoration is a clinical concern as it may cause bone damage and compromise osseointegration. The threshold level for heat-induced cortical bone necrosis is 47°C for 60 seconds. Objectives: To measure the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when a two-piece or one-piece abutment was prepared in vertical and horizontal direction using various time intervals. Materials and Methods: Three groups of samples (n = 24, one-piece and two-piece implant and natural teeth, were used in this study to compare the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface. This study used cooling system in the 10, 20, 30, and 60 seconds time intervals. The Thermocouples (K type were attached to each sample at the crestal, middle and apical points. To have a similar condition with the oral cavity, each implant was embedded separately in transparent acrylic resin in a 37°C water bath. To have a constant cutting pressure, the turbine was fixed on the stable stand and a 100 g counterweight hanged to it. Then, the bath was fixed in front of it and cutting started at vertical and horizontal directions for 10, 20, 30, 60 seconds. Results: The maximum decrease from 37°C was observed in two-piece implant at the apical point (3.95°C after 60 seconds and the minimum decrease was seen in one-piece implant at the crestal point (0.6°C after 60 seconds. Also the minimum increase was observed in the natural teeth at the apical point (0.15°C at 10 seconds and the maximum temperature increase was seen in one-piece implant at the apical point (1.95°C at 20 seconds. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that to reduce the thermal damage on the bone tissue, an intermittent cut up to 20 seconds is acceptable. Cutting one-piece implant caused more heat transfer than that of two-piece implant

  17. Standard addition analysis of fluoroquinolones in human serum in the presence of the interferent salicylate using lanthanide-sensitized excitation-time decay luminescence data and multivariate curve resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Valeria A; Tauler, Romà; Ibañez, Gabriela A; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2009-03-15

    Three fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and danofloxacin) have been determined in human serum in the presence of the potential interferent salicylate, by processing lanthanide-sensitized excitation-time decay matrix data for their terbium (III) complexes. The algorithm employed, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares, is one of the few methodologies which permit the achievement of the second-order advantage in the presence of a high degree of overlapping between the time decay profiles for the analyte and the interferent complexes. Furthermore, the presence of analyte-background interactions makes it necessary to employ the standard addition method for successful quantitation. Both simulations and experiments showed that the modified standard addition method was suitable for this purpose, in which the test data matrix was subtracted from the standard addition matrices, and quantitation proceeded using classical external calibration procedure. The analyte concentration ranges were all within the therapeutic range, i.e., 0-6 mgL(-1) in serum, with final concentrations in the measuring cell in the order of 0.2 mgL(-1).

  18. Qualidade e valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu (B. brizantha cv. Marandu produzidas com aditivos ou forragem emurchecida Quality and nutritive value of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizanthia, cv. Marandu silage prepared with additive or wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Bergamaschine

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade e o valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu produzidas com polpa cítrica (PC peletizada, com aditivo enzimático-bacteriano (ABE ou com forragem emuchercida (E: T1 - forragem sem tratamento (controle; T2 - 10% de polpa cítrica peletizada (PC; T3 - aditivo enzimático bacteriano (AEB - SIL-ALL-C4 da Alltech, à base de 5 g/L de água/t de forragem; T4 - forragem picada grosseiramente emurchecida por 4 horas ao sol. O capim foi colhido aos 60 dias de rebrota (24% MS. Para avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade das silagens, foram utilizados 16 novilhos mestiços com 200 kg de PV, que receberam, além das silagens, 1,0 kg de concentrado/animal/dia. O AEB não afetou a composição da silagem, mas a PC e o E aumentaram o teor de MS de 24% para 31 e 48%, respectivamente, e reduziram o pH e os teores de N-NH3 das silagens, que foram, respectivamente, de 4,17 e 4,58 e 6,78 e 7,99% NT. A PC diminuiu os teores de FDN e FDA em 12 e 4 unidades percentuais. O consumo de MS da silagem produzida com capim emurchecido foi superior (111,8 g MS/PV0,75 ao das silagens controle ou com AEB, mas não diferiu do obtido para a silagem com PC, que também não diferiu das demais. Os tratamentos não afetaram a digestibilidade, cujas médias para MS, PB, CT, FDN, FDA e NDT foram 67,0; 65,4; 68,8; 63,0; 62,5; e 65,6%, respectivamente. A PC e o E reduziram a proteólise e estimularam o consumo. A PC, o E e o AEB não melhoraram o valor nutritivo da silagem de capim-marandu colhido com 24% MS.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the quality and nutritive value of marandugrass silages. It was evaluated the followings treatments: T1- forage without treatment (control; T2 - 10% of pelleted citric pulp (CiP; T3 - enzymatic bacterial additive (EBA (SIL-ALL-C4 of Alltech applied at 5 g/L of water/t of forage; T4 - Coarse chopped forage wilted for 4 hours under the sun. The grass was harvested with 60 days of regrowth (24% DM. The intake

  19. An electron spin resonance study for real-time detection of ascorbyl free radicals after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in murine hippocampus or plasma during kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki; Yokoi, Isao

    2010-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR)-silent ascorbate solutions generate a detectable, likely concentration-dependent signal of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR) immediately upon addition of a molar excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We aimed to perform quantitative ESR analysis of AFR in real time after addition of DMSO (AFR/DMSO) to evaluate ascorbate concentrations in fresh hippocampus or plasma following systemic administration of kainate in mice. Use of a special tissue-type quartz cell allowed immediate detection of AFR/DMSO ESR spectra in fresh tissues from mice. AFR/DMSO content was increased significantly in fresh hippocampus or plasma obtained during kainate-induced seizures of mice, reaching maximum levels at 90 min after intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg kainic acid. This suggests that oxidative injury of the hippocampus resulted from the accumulation of large amounts of ascorbic acid in the brain after kainic acid administration. AFR/DMSO content measured on an ESR spectrometer can be used for real-time evaluation of ascorbate content in fresh tissue. Due to the simplicity, good performance, low cost and real-time monitoring of ascorbate, this method may be applied to clinical research and treatment in the future.

  20. 香蕉皮制备绿色钻井液处理剂的作用效能研究%Prepare and Evaluation of Musananalour Peel as Green Drilling Fluid Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高起龙; 马丰云; 张建甲; 陈刚; 赵景瑞; 许仁军

    2013-01-01

    The powder of Musananalour peel was used as water-based drilling fluid addictive, and the performance of drilling fluids with Musananalour peel was evaluated. The results showed that Musananalour peel performed a great effect of reducing fluid loss. As the treat-ment temperature increased, apparent viscosity and plastic viscosity was firstly increased and then reduced, the filtration reduction weaken and was invalid above 150℃. The results of linear bentonite swelling experiment and mud ball experiment presented that water extract of Musananalour peel could inhibit hydration and swelling of clay along with the concentration, excelled to that of 4%KCl solution. The re-sults of compatibility with common drilling fluid additives showed that companying with modified starch the powder of Musananalour peel play a excellent role of viscosity and filtration reduction and lubrication companying with modified starch, filtration reduction and lubrica-tion companying with PAM, viscosity increase and filtration reduction companying with KD-03, and viscosity reduction companying with formula of heteropolysaccharide in Jidong oilfield.%将香蕉皮粉末作为水基钻井液添加剂,性能评价结果表明,香蕉皮粉末具有较好的降滤失作用;随着老化温度的升高,香蕉皮粉末处理水基钻井液粘度先增大后减小,香蕉皮粉末在水基钻井液中降滤失作用逐渐减弱,大于150℃之后几乎失去降滤失作用。线性膨胀率实验和泥球实验表明,香蕉皮粉末水提取液对膨润土的水化膨胀有一定的抑制作用,优于4%氯化钾溶液。配伍性实验结果表明,香蕉皮粉末在改性淀粉体系钻井液中表现出良好的降粘、降滤失和润滑作用,在聚丙烯酰胺体系钻井液中表现出降滤失和润滑作用,在KD-03体系钻井液中表现出增粘、降滤失作用,在杂多糖甙体系钻井液中表现出降粘作用。

  1. 柿子叶制备绿色水基钻井液处理剂及其作用效能研究%Preparation and Evaluation of Persimmon Leaf as Green Drilling Fluid Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 屈鹏飞; 谭汉洮; 宋莹盼; 张建甲; 陈刚; 王欢; 程升

    2014-01-01

    The powder of Persimmon leaf was used as water-based drilling fluid addictive, and the performance of drilling fluids with Persimmon leaf was evaluated. The results showed that Persimmon leaf performed good thick property and effect of reducing fluid loss, and as the treatment temperature increasing, apparent viscosity and plastic viscosity was firstly increased and then reduced, finally increased, the filtration reduction weaken, and losing fluid loss function was 150℃. The results of linear bentonite swelling experiment and mud ball experiment presented that water extract of Persimmon leaf could inhibit hydration and swelling of clay along with the concentration, excelled to that of 4%(w) KCl solution. The results of compatibility with common drilling fluid additives showed that, at 25℃Persimmon leaf could reduce viscosity of modified starch, KD-03 and PAM drilling fluids;at 120℃the viscosity increased, meanwhile the PAM of flocculation was weaken, leading to be stable for the performances of drilling fluid companying with PAM, and it could control filtration.%将柿子叶粉末作为水基钻井液添加剂,性能评价结果表明,柿子叶粉末具有较好的增粘降滤失作用;随着老化温度的升高,柿子叶粉末处理水基钻井液作用效果先增大再减小后又增大,柿子叶粉末在水基钻井液中降滤失作用逐渐减弱,150℃失去降滤失作用。线性膨胀率实验表明,柿子叶粉末水提取液对膨润土的水化膨胀有一定的抑制作用,优于4%氯化钾溶液。配伍性实验结果表明,25℃下,柿子叶粉末与改性淀粉、KD-03、PAM体系钻井液配伍均表现出较好的降粘作用,120℃时均表现出增粘作用,其中与PAM配伍能缓解PAM对粘土的絮凝作用,能更好地维持钻井液性能稳定,且有降滤失作用。

  2. Preparation and evaluation of environment friendly water-based drilling fluid additive by persimmon peel%柿子皮制备环保型水基钻井液处理剂及其作用效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建甲; 张洁; 陈刚; 蒲林

    2014-01-01

    将柿子皮粉末作为水基钻井液添加剂,其性能评价结果表明,柿子皮粉末具有较好的降滤失作用;随着老化温度的升高,柿子皮粉末处理水基钻井液黏度先增大再降低后又增大,柿子皮粉末在水基钻井液中降滤失作用逐渐减弱,大于150℃后失去降滤失作用;线性膨胀率实验和泥球实验表明,柿子皮粉末水提取液对膨润土的水化膨胀有一定的抑制作用,优于4%(w)KCl溶液;配伍性实验结果表明,随着老化处理温度的升高,柿子皮粉末与改性淀粉体系钻井液配伍表现出增黏和较好的降滤失作用,与聚丙烯酰胺体系钻井液配伍效果不佳,尤其在120℃处理后黏度骤降(从30.0 mPa·s降到4.0 mPa·s),且失去降滤失作用。%The powder of persimmon peel was used as water-based drilling fluid addictive ,and the performance of it was evaluated .The results showed that persimmon peel performed a great effect of reducing fluid loss ,and with the treatment temperature increasing ,apparent viscosity and plastic viscosity was firstly increased ,then reduced ,and finally increased ,the filtration re-duction weakened and invalided above 150 ℃ .The results of linear bentonite swelling experiment and mud ball experiment presented that water extract of persimmon peel can inhibit hydration and swelling of clay along with the concentration ,excelled to that of 4% (wt) KCl solution .The results of compatibility with common drilling fluid additives showed that the viscosity and filtra-tion reduction increase along with the treatment temperature increasing companying with modi-fied starch ,while the compatibility with polyacrylamide is poor ,especially ,the viscosity drops suddenly (from 30 .0 mPa · s to 4 .0 mPa · s) at 120 ℃ and filtration reduction is invalid .

  3. High-temperature wear and oxidation behaviors of TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings with TaC addition prepared on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. H.; Li, J.; Tao, Y. F.; Hu, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings were produced on Ti6Al4V surfaces by laser cladding the mixed powders of Ni-based alloy and different contents of TaC (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%). Microstructures of the coatings were investigated. High-temperature wear tests of the substrate and the coatings were carried out at 600 °C in air for 30 min. High-temperature oxidation tests of the substrate and the coatings were performed at 1000 °C in air for 50 h. Wear and oxidation mechanisms were revealed in detail. The results showed that TiNi/Ti2Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB2/TiB as the reinforcements are the main phases of the coatings. The friction coefficients of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC were 0.431 (the substrate), 0.554 (0 wt.%), 0.486 (5 wt.%), 0.457 (10 wt.%), 0.458 (15 wt.%), 0.507 (20 wt.%), 0.462 (30 wt.%) and 0.488 (40 wt.%). The wear rates of the coatings were decreased by almost 83%-98% than that of the substrate and presented a decreasing tendency with increasing TaC content. The wear mechanism of the substrate was a combination of serious oxidation, micro-cutting and brittle debonding. For the coatings, oxidation and slight scratching were predominant during wear, accompanied by slight brittle debonding in partial zones. With the increase in content of TaC, the oxidation film better shielded the coatings from destruction due to the effective friction-reducing role of Ta2O5. The oxidation rates of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC at 1000 °C were 12.170 (the substrate), 5.886 (0 wt.%), 4.937 (5 wt.%), 4.517 (10 wt.%), 4.394 (15 wt.%), 3.951 (20 wt.%), 4.239 (30 wt.%) and 3.530 (40 wt.%) mg2 cm-4 h-1, respectively. The oxidation film formed outside the coating without adding TaC was composed of TiO2, NiO, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2. When TaC was added, Ta2O5 and TaC were also detected, which effectively improved the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The addition of TaC contributed to the

  4. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Mosharrafian; Hossein Afshar; Maryam Farbod; Zahra Baniameri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds.Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was u...

  5. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  6. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Linxi; Yang Quanzhan; Zhang Guirong; Zhao Fangxin; Shen Gang; Yu Bo

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the signiifcant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting technology (EBM) are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and ifne structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  7. Influência de aditivos sobre a trabalhabilidade de concretos refratários de ultra-baixo teor de cimento Influence of additives on the working time of ultra-low cement refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. de Oliveira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A trabalhabilidade de concretos refratários é determinada principalmente pela cinética de hidratação do ligante hidráulico. Têm-se observado que o processo de gelificação/hidratação desse material em meio aquoso é sensivelmente influenciado pela presença de aditivos dispersantes. Em virtude disso, este trabalho investigou a correlação entre a trabalhabilidade de concretos refratários de ultra-baixo teor de cimento no sistema Al2O3-SiC-SiO2-C e as características apresentadas por suspensões aquosas de cimento na presença de diferentes aditivos. A influência desses aditivos no processo de hidratação do cimento foi estudada através de ensaios de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, difração de raios X, sedimentação, condutividade elétrica e ensaios reológicos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a "pega" inicial do concreto ocorre devido à aglomeração das partículas induzida pela formação de um produto coloidal amorfo ("gel" entre elas. Observou-se que o citrato de sódio favorece a formação de uma quantidade significativa de "gel" entre as partículas, reduzindo a trabalhabilidade do concreto.The working time of refractory castables is mainly determined by the hydration kinetic of the hydraulic binder. It has been observed that the gelation/hydration process of this material in aqueous solutions is significantly influenced by the addition of dispersing additives. Hence, this work investigated the correlation between the working time of ULC refractory castables in the Al2O3-SiC-SiO2-C system and the physic-chemical characteristics of cement aqueous suspensions in the presence of different sort of additives. The influence of these additives in the cement hydration process was studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, sedimentation experiments, electrical conductivity and rheological tests. The initial setting of castables was found to be associated to particle coagulation and the development of

  8. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions.

  9. Effect of Ca and Li additions on densification and electrical conductivity of 10 mol% gadolinia-doped ceria prepared by the coprecipitation technique; Efeito de adicoes de litio e calcio na densificacao e na condutividade eletrica da ceria-10% mol gadolinia preparada pela tecnica de co-precipitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porfirio, T.C.

    2010-07-01

    Ceria containing rare-earth ceramics are potential candidates for application in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. One of the main problems related to these ceramic materials is their relatively low sinterability. In this work, the effects of Ca and Li additions on densification and electrical conductivity of 10 mol% gadolinia-doped ceria was investigated. Ceramic compositions containing 1.5 mol% Ca or Li were prepared by the oxalate coprecipitation technique. Results of sintered density and electrical conductivity were compared to those of ceramic samples obtained by solid state reactions showing the effects of the synthesis method on densification and total electrical conductivity of the sintered materials. (author)

  10. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  11. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  12. Chronic nitrogen addition causes a reduction in soil carbon dioxide efflux during the high stem-growth period in a tropical montane forest but no response from a tropical lowland forest on a decadal time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koehler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is rapidly increasing in tropical regions. We studied the response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux to long-term experimental N addition (125 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in mature lowland and montane forests in Panama. In the lowland forest, on soils with high nutrient-supplying and buffering capacity, fine litterfall and stem-growth were neither N- nor phosphorus-limited. In the montane forest, on soils with low nutrient supplying capacity and an organic layer, fine litterfall and stem-growth were N-limited. Our objectives were to 1 explore the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and 2 determine the responses of soil CO2 efflux from an N-rich and N-limited forest to elevated N input. Annual soil CO2-C efflux was larger in the lowland (15.44 ± 1.02 Mg C ha−1 than in the montane forest (9.37 ± 0.28 Mg C ha−1. In the lowland forest, soil moisture explained the largest fraction of the variance in soil CO2 efflux while soil temperature was the main explanatory variable in the montane forest. Soil CO2 efflux in the lowland forest did not differ between the control and 9–11 yr N-addition plots, suggesting that chronic N input to nutrient-rich tropical lowland forests on well-buffered soils may not change their C balance on a decadal time scale. In the montane forest, first year N addition did not affect soil CO2 efflux but annual CO2 efflux was reduced by 14% and 8% in the 2nd and 3rd year N-addition plots, respectively, compared to the control. This reduction was caused by a decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the high stem-growth period of the year, suggesting a shift in carbon partitioning from below- to aboveground in the N-addition plots in which stem diameter growth was promoted.

  13. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures.

  14. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering. 15 C Daicoviciu Str., 400020, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Physics and Chemistry, 25 G. Baritiu Str., 400027, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  15. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  16. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  17. Proteomic analysis of small acid soluble proteins in the spore core of Bacillus subtilis ΔprpE and 168 strains with predictions of peptides liquid chromatography retention times as an additional tool in protein identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuchowski Michał

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporulation, characteristic for some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, has not been entirely defined yet. Protein phosphatase E (PrpE and small, acid soluble spore proteins (SASPs influence this process. Nevertheless, direct result of PrpE interaction on SASPs content in spore coat of B. subtilis has not been evidenced so far. As proteomic approach enables global analysis of occurring proteins, therefore it was chosen in this experiment to compare SASPs occurrence in two strains of B. subtilis, standard 168 and ΔprpE, lacking PrpE phosphatase. Proteomic analysis is still a challenge, and despite of big approach in mass spectrometry (MS field, the identification reliability remains unsatisfactory. Therefore there is a rising interest in new methods, particularly bioinformatic tools that would harden protein identification. Most of currently applied algorithms are based on MS-data. Information from separation steps is not still in routine usage, even though they also provide valuable facts about analyzed structures. The aim of this research was to apply a model for peptides retention times prediction, based on quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR in SASPs analysis, obtained from two strains of B. subtilis proteome digests after separation and identification of the peptides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The QSRR approach was applied as the additional constraint in proteomic research verifying results of MS/MS ion search and confirming the correctness of the peptides identifications along with the indication of the potential false positives and false negatives. Results In both strains of B. subtilis, peptides characteristic for SASPs were found, however their identification confidence varied. According to the MS identity parameter Xcorr and difference between predicted and experimental retention times (ΔtR four groups could be distinguished: correctly and incorrectly identified, potential false positives and false

  18. Effect of the annealing and the spraying time on the properties of CZTS thin films prepared by the "Spray sandwich" technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubi, S.; Bitri, N.; Bouzouita, H.; Abaab, M.; Ly, I.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated synthesis conditions and some properties of sprayed Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films to determine the best preparation conditions for the realization of CZTS-based photovoltaic solar cells. The thin films are made by means of spraying sandwich. To optimize the preparation conditions of the CZTS films, two series of experiments are performed. In the first series, the sprayed duration was changed from 20 to 60 min. In each series, effect annealing was investigated. The X-ray diffraction shows, on one hand, that the best crystalline was obtained after annealing for 60 min as sprayed duration. On the other hand, these CZTS films exhibit the Kesterite structure with preferential orientation along the [112] direction. Raman spectrum indicated the presence of principal Stannite peak 336 cm-1. SEM showed that the surface of CZTS was uniform. After the annealing treatment, we estimated the optical band-gap energy of the CZTS thin film exhibiting the best crystalline as 1.5 eV which is quite close to the optimum value for a solar cell.

  19. 多类型复发事件间隔时间下可加危险率模型%The Additive Hazards Model for Multiple Type Recurrent Gap Times *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉彩; 张日权; 刘焕彬

    2013-01-01

    In many biomedical and engineering studies, recurrent event data and gap times between successive events are common and often more than one type of recurrent events is of interest. It is well known that the proportional hazards model may not be appropriate for fitting survival times in some settings. In the paper, we consider an additive hazards model for multiple type recurrent gap times data to assess the effect of covariates. For inferences about regression coe?cients and baseline cumulative hazard functions, an estimating equation approach is developed. Furthermore, we establish asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators.%在许多的生物医学和工程研究中,多类型复发事件的间隔时间数据是很常见的。众所周知,比例危险率模型在一些情况下不能很好拟合生存数据。本文,在多类型复发事件的间隔时间数据下,我们利用可加危险率模型来研究协变量对生存时间的影响程度。我们采用估计方程方法获得回归系数和基准累积危险率函数估计。并且,我们建立了所提估计的渐近分布。

  20. Bioactivity-based ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for NF-κB inhibitors identification in Chinese Medicinal Preparation Bufei Granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingxin, Cui; Min, Fu; Mengge, Zhou; Nianwei, Chang; Ye, Pan; Min, Jiang; Zengtao, Sun; Gang, Bai

    2016-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations have become effective treatments for many diseases. However, their active ingredients are still uncertain and difficult to identify. In this study, we propose a strategy that integrates ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) and bioactive (NF-κB inhibitor) luciferase reporter assay systems for the rapid determination of various anti-inflammatory compounds of TCM preparations. In this way, Bufei Granule (BFG), a TCM preparation used for the clinical therapy of asthma, was analyzed by the two ways of component identification and activity detection. Potential anti-inflammatory constituents were screened by NF-κB activity assay systems and simultaneously identified according to the mass spectrometry data. Three structural types of NF-κB inhibitors (caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids and Pentacyclic triterpenes) were characterized. Further cytokine detection confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of the potential NF-κB inhibitors. Compared with conventional chromatographic separation and inhibitory activity detection, integrating UPLC/Q-TOF-MS identification and virtual validation was more convenient and more reliable. This strategy clearly demonstrates that MS data-based fingerprinting is a meaningful tool not only in identifying constituents in complex matrix but also in directly screening for powerful trace ingredients in TCM preparations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 功能添加剂对不饱和聚酯包覆剂黏度和凝胶时间的影响%Effects of Functional Additives on the Viscosity and Gel Time of Unsaturated Polyester Inhibitor Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨士山; 张伟; 王吉贵

    2011-01-01

    应用旋转流变仪和凝胶时间测定仪研究了不同功能添加剂对不饱和聚酯(UP)包覆层料浆的黏度和凝胶时间的影响.结果表明,粉状填料可提高UP包覆层料浆的黏度,层状硅酸盐(MMT)对包覆层料浆黏度影响最大,Sb2O3的影响最小;芳纶纤维(PPTA)和碳纤维(CF)均能显著影响UP包覆层料浆的黏度,当PPTA和2mmCF的质量分数分别为1%和6%时,UP料浆的流变性较差,无法进行浇注包覆;弹性体树脂(FUP)和丁腈橡胶(CTBN)增韧剂可提高UP包覆层料浆的黏度,磷酸二氯乙酯(PI)增塑剂可降低体系的黏度.PPTA和FUP能显著缩短凝胶时间,促进UP树脂聚合,MMT和CF可延长凝胶时间,对UP有一定的阻聚作用,Sb2 O3、ZnO、AI(OH)3、CTBN和PI对树脂凝胶时间的影响不明显.%The effects of various functional additives on the viscosity and gel time of unsaturated polyester(UP) inhibitor slurry were studied by a rheometer and a gel time detector. The results indicated that the viscosities of the slurry were increased by addition of the powder fillers,among which montmorillonite ( MMT) showed the greatest effect on the viscosity, Sb2O3 had the slightest effect (aromatic polyamide(PPTA) and carbon fiber(CF) could significantly increase the viscosities of the UP slurry either. It is difficult for the slurry to level off and cast in mould when the mass fraction of PPTA and CF approached to 1% and 6%. Intensifiers such as flexible unsaturated polyster (FUP)and carboxy terminated nitrile rubber(CTBN) could also increase the viscosities of the UP slurry,while plasticizer as dichloride ethyl phosphate(Pl) could decrease the viscosity. PPTA and FUP could greatly shorten the gel times of the slurry and accelerate the polymerization of the UP resin. MMT and CF had impeditive effect on the polymerization of the UP resin and could prolong the gel times of the slurry,the effects of Sb2O3 ,ZnO, A1(OH)3 ,CTBN and PI on the gel times of the slurry were not

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  3. Training program to prepare the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the protocol additional to the agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Rebecca C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John U [BNL; Jo, Jae H [BNL; Sellen, Joana [U.S. DOE/NNSA; Wonder, Edward [QINETIQ-NORTH AMERICA

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a joint team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) consisting of specialists in training IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol. Since the U.S. Additional Protocol would allow for IAEA access to the DOE laboratories under the aegis of complementary access activities, the DOE laboratories would need to prepare for such visits. The goal of the training was to ensure that the DOE laboratories would successfully host an IAEA complementary access. In doing so, the labs must be able to provide the IAEA with the information that the IAEA would need to resolve its questions about the U.S. Declaration and declared activities at the lab, and also protect certain equities, as provided under the U.S. Additional Protocol Article 1.b and c. which set forth a 'National Security Exclusion.' This 'NSE' states that the AP provisions apply within the United States 'excluding only instances where its application would result in access by the Agency to activities with direct national security significance to the United States or to location or information associated with such activities.' These activities are referred to collectively as DNSS-direct national security significance. Furthermore, the U.S. has a specific right to employ managed access, without prejudice to the right under Article 1.b, in connection with activities of DNSS. The provisions in Articles 1.b and 1.c are unique to the U.S. AP, and are additional to the more general right, under Article 7, to use managed access to protect from disclosure proprietary and/or proliferation-sensitive information, and to meet safety and security requirements, that is incorporated directly from the Model Additional Protocol. The BNL-LANL team performed training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  6. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  7. Adição de plasma seminal ao sêmen descongelado e taxa de prenhez de ovelhas inseminadas em tempo fixo Addition of seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen and pregnancy rate of fixed time inseminated ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Prado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de plasma seminal ovino ao sêmen descongelado sobre a taxa de prenhez de ovelhas em rebanho comercial. Cento e setenta e quatro ovelhas cruza Texel foram distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1 inseminação artificial cervical (IAC com sêmen descongelado (SD diluído em solução tampão fosfato salino (PBS; T2 IAC com SD e adição de plasma seminal ovino; T3 grupo-controle I: IAC com sêmen fresco diluído em PBS; T4 grupo-controle II: inseminação artificial por laparoscopia com SD diluído em PBS. Para indução de cio, utilizaram-se esponjas impregnadas com acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por 12 dias, com aplicação intramuscular de 400 UI de eCG (Novormon® e de 37,5µg de cloprostenol sódico (Sincrocio®, no dia da retirada das esponjas. O aparecimento de cio foi monitorado com rufiões vasectomizados a partir da retirada das esponjas até a inseminação artificial em tempo fixo - 54 a 60 horas. A taxa de prenhez do tratamento com adição de plasma seminal ao sêmen descongelado (7,0% não diferiu (P>0,05 do tratamento sem adição de plasma (4,3%, entretanto foi menor (PThe effect of seminal plasma addition to thawed-frozen ram semen on the pregnancy rate of commercial herd ewes was evaluated. One hundred and seventy-four crossbred Texel sheep were allocated to four treatments: T1 cervical artificial insemination (CAI using frozen-thawed semen (FTS diluted in phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS; T2 CAI using FTS diluted in ovine seminal plasma; T3 control group I: CAI using fresh semen diluted in PBS; T4 control group II: laparoscopic insemination using FTS diluted in PBS. Estrus induction was performed with medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP impregnated sponges for 12 days, followed by intramuscular injection of 400 IU of eCG (Novormon® and 37.5µg of sodium cloprostenol (Sincrocio® on the day of sponge removal. Estrus was monitorated with vasectomized rams, beginning at the time of the

  8. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  9. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  10. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  11. Sugarcane silage production treated with additives at different times post burning Produção de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratada com aditivos em diferentes tempos após a queima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula de Toledo Piza Roth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of the time post-burning, and additives on fermentative characteristics, losses and chemical composition on the sugar cane silage. The sugar cane variety IAC 86-2480 was ensiled on the 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days after burning. The additives evaluated were: control (Cont., Lactobacillus buchneri (LB, Calcium oxide micro pulverized (CO, and Lactobacillus buchneri (LB plus Calcium oxide micro pulverized (LB + CO. The yeast population was determined before ensiled. After 56 days of the fermentation period the silos were opening to take samplings. The experimental design was a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme (additive and burning time with seven treatments and four replications. The sugar cane was recontaminated with yeast, the populations increased from 5.04 to 6.48 log cfu/g of forage. Dry matter content decreased after fermentation period in average 7.6 units, compared to the sugar cane forage before ensilage. Control and LB silage showed lowest dry matter recovery (DMR, 613 g/kg and 631 g/kg, respectively, compared to the Cal and LB + Cal, 807 g/kg and 832 g/kg. This fact probably was associated to the calcium oxide control on the yeast populations. In relation to the time post-burning, the greatest changes were observed in the gas production and DMR. Gas production were higher in the first days post-burning and decreased in response to the prolongation time post-burning. The time post-burning alters the nutritive value of the fresh sugarcane and its silage and also the size of the losses from the ensilage process.Objetivou-se estudar a ação do tempo após a queima do canavial e o uso de aditivos sobre as características fermentativas, as perdas e a composição química de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. A cultivar utilizada foi a IAC 86-2480 colhida em cinco tempos (1, 4, 7, 10 e 14 dias pós-queima. Os aditivos utilizados foram controle, sem aditivos, Lactobacillus buchneri, cal virgem

  12. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  13. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  14. 脂肪添加量和冻藏时间对冷冻水饺肉馅品质的影响%Effect of Fat Addition and Frozen Storage Time on Quality of Meat Stuffing in Frozen Dumplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉; 孔保华; 赵钜阳; 李菁; 常钊; 杨赫鸿

    2012-01-01

    研究添加猪肉背膘的冷冻水饺肉馅在0、30、60、90、180d冻藏过程中脂肪氧化的程度以及对水饺肉馅品质的影响。以过氧化物值(POV)和硫代巴比妥酸值(TBARS)判断脂肪的氧化程度,通过测定蒸煮损失、生肉馅的红色值(a*)、肉馅的质构(TPA)判断肉馅的品质变化。结果表明:随着脂肪添加量的增加和冻藏时间延长,水饺肉馅的POV值和TBARS值增加;对于相同脂肪添加量的水饺肉馅随着贮藏时间的延长,脂肪氧化程度也在加深;水饺肉馅的a*值下降,蒸煮损失增加,弹性、硬度、黏聚性、咀嚼性整体呈下降趋势。%In this study, lipid oxidation and quality change of frozen dumplings stuffed with different amounts of pork fat (0 -- 40%) and different frozen storage periods (0 - 6 months) were examined. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The quality change was measured by cooking loss, texture and a*-value (red degree) of meat stuffing. The results showed that the POV value and TBARS revealed an obvious increase with increasing fat addition and storage time. The increase of fat addition also caused a decrease in a*-value, springiness, hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness, and an increase in cooking loss.

  15. Structural properties of intrinsic and doped nc-Si:H films prepared by RFMS: Study as function of deposition time and substrate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfedal, A.; Bouizem, Y.; Benlakehal, D.; Sib, J.D.; Kebab, A.; Chahed, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Materiaux pour l' Electronique Universite d' Oran (Algeria); Baghdad, R. [Laboratoire de Genie Physique, Universite Ibn Khaldoun, Tiaret (Algeria); Zellama, K. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the structural properties of the intrinsic and the (n or p) doped nc-Si:H samples deposited by RFMS technique during different deposition times (3 and 30 minutes) at low growth temperatures (room temperature and 100 C) under the same experimental conditions of the plasma leading to optimized films. Our results clearly show that the crystallization occurs in the doped films during the first times of the growth, while it is not yet initiated for the intrinsic films in the same plasma conditions. The crystallization is more important in the p doped samples, and is not achieved during the first times of the growth. The thick films are more crystallized even the low growth temperatures and contain low quantity of hydrogen than the thin ones. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Additive Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duvenaud, David; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a Gaussian process model of functions which are additive. An additive function is one which decomposes into a sum of low-dimensional functions, each depending on only a subset of the input variables. Additive GPs generalize both Generalized Additive Models, and the standard GP models which use squared-exponential kernels. Hyperparameter learning in this model can be seen as Bayesian Hierarchical Kernel Learning (HKL). We introduce an expressive but tractable parameterization of the kernel function, which allows efficient evaluation of all input interaction terms, whose number is exponential in the input dimension. The additional structure discoverable by this model results in increased interpretability, as well as state-of-the-art predictive power in regression tasks.

  19. Study on characteristics of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction with different adsorption times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Myeong-Soo; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were adsorbed on a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoporous film by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different adsorption times to study the influences of different SILAR adsorption times on CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The optical properties of CdS sensitized TiO2 films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The particle size of the CdS QDs was approximated using the effective mass approximation theory from the absorbance spectra. The photovoltaic characteristics of the CdS QDSCs were analyzed by I- V characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under air mass 1.5 illumination. As a result, the particle size of the CdS QDs became larger and light harvesting was enhanced with increasing SILAR adsorption time. The maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the CdS QDSCs (1.86%) was obtained at the SILAR adsorption time of 30 min with the highest short circuit current density and lowest charge transfer resistance.

  20. Effects of ZnO addition on mechanical properties of Bi{sub 1.84}Pb{sub 0.34}Sr{sub 1.91}Ca{sub 2.03}Cu{sub 3.06}O{sub 10} prepared by a wet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey)], E-mail: ikaraca38@hotmail.com; Uzun, O.; Koelemen, U.; Yilmaz, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sahin, O. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2009-05-12

    In this study, ZnO molar wt% 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 added Bi{sub 1.84}Pb{sub 0.34}Sr{sub 1.91}Ca{sub 2.03}Cu{sub 3.06}O{sub 10} superconductors were prepared by wet technique. The experimental works consist of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analyses and c-axes parameters, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure examination, and microhardness measurements for mechanical properties. These measurements showed that Zn-added material, in comparison with the pure sample, had increased c-axes parameters and decreased grain size. In addition, the experimental results of microhardness measurements were analyzed using Oliver-Pharr model. It was observed that the change of indentation hardness (H{sub IT}) and reduced elastic modulus (E{sub r}) values showed an increasing trend with ZnO addition and exhibited peak load dependence (i.e., indentation size effect (ISE))

  1. Effects of Reaction Time on Preparation Technology of Compound Borax Solution%反应时间对复方硼砂溶液制备工艺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮英; 蒋磊; 林伊梅; 李宏智

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reaction time of Compound borax solution during preparation process. METHODS: According to preparation technology of Compound borax solution, the content change of 3 components, ie. Dicarbonate, phenol and borax in solution A and solution B were investigated after 0, 30, 35, 45, 60, 120, 150, 180, 240, 270, 720 and 1 440 min. The reaction time was determined and preparation technology was validated. RESULTS: The contents of 3 components in samples had no significant difference before and after the reaction time of 240 to 1 440 min at 25 ℃. In validation test, the contents of components in 3 batches of samples were in line with the standard. CONCLUSION: For the preparation of Compound borax solution, the reaction time of solution A and B is 240 min probably.%目的:确定复方硼砂溶液制备过程中的反应时间.方法:按照复方硼砂溶液的制备工艺,分别考察A液与B液室温下混合反应不同时间(0、30、35、45、60、120、150、180、240、270、720、1 440 min)后制备的样品中的3组分即碳酸氢钠、苯酚和硼砂含量的变化,确定完成反应的时间并进行工艺验证.结果:室温25℃下反应240~1 440 min内的样品中3组分的含量前后比较均无显著性差异,工艺验证中3批样品中各组分含量均符合规定.结论:复方硼砂溶液制备中A液与B液反应时间以240 min为宜.

  2. Effect of oxidation time on the microstructure and properties of ceramic coatings prepared by microarc oxidation on 7A04 superhard aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Chen, Hui; Miao, Jingguo; Du, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Under the sodium aluminates’ system, microarc oxidation treatment was conducted on the superhard aluminum alloy 7A04 for different times. The microstructure of microarc oxidation ceramic layer was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of different oxidation times on the adhesion strength of ceramic layer and substrate, the morphology of surface and cross-section, the phase composition and the electrochemical properties were studied. The results indicated that the connection of the coating and substrate appears to be metallurgical bonding and dense ceramic layer, and the surface is in a “volcanic vent” morphology, which is composed of γ-Al2O3 and little α-Al2O3. The corrosion resistance of ceramic layer is improved significantly in contrast with that of the substrate.

  3. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  4. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  5. The selective addition of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    Water is omnipresent and essential. Yet at the same time it is a rather unreactive molecule. The direct addition of water to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds is therefore a challenge not answered convincingly. In this perspective we critically evaluate the selectivity and the applicabi

  6. Effect of Zr addition on precipitates in K4169 superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Zr addition on the precipitations of K4169 superalloy, a manual electric arc furnace was used to prepare the superalloy with different Zr addition from 0.03wt.% to 0.07wt%. After standard heat treatment and long-time aging, the microstructures of the alloys were observed using XRD, SEM and TEM. The results show that Zr not only inhibits the precipitation of Laves phase at the grain boundary, but also significantly promotes the precipitation of earlobe-like γ′and γ″ phases. After long time aging at 680 ℃ for 500 h, the γ″phase grows up obviously and forms a γ′/γ′′clad microstructure when the Zr addition is 0.03 wt.%. A large number of fine orbed γ′particles precipitate in the grains and some γ″phase transforms to disk-like δ phase when the Zr addition increases to 0.05wt.%. The nano-polycrystalline γ′phase precipitates in the grains and there is a little δ phase when the Zr addition is 0.07wt.%. As the Zr addition increases, the amount of Laves phase at the grain boundary decreases at first, and then increases and forms flaky morphology.

  7. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  8. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  9. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  10. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  11. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  12. Effect of Prolonged Preparation time on the Quality of Fresh Frozen Plasma and cold Precipitation%延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆和冷沉淀质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study and analysis to extend the time of preparation of impact on the quality of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Methods To collect fresh frozen plasma,a total of 40 doses,prep-aration time is 6 h,8 h,10 h and 12 h,its average can be divided into control group and observation group, control group of fresh frozen plasma preparation time for 10 h and 12 h,the preparation of fresh frozen plasma in the observation group for 6 h and 8 h,tome of quick-freezing machine should be used in two groups was car-ried out on the preparation of fresh frozen plasma quick-frozen,precipitation and the cold fresh frozen plasma preparation,detection of two groups of fresh frozen plasma clotting factorⅧcontent,and fibrinogen in cryoⅧcontent and blood coagulation factors. Results Observation group of fresh frozen plasma coagulation factorⅧcontent,as well as cold precipitation of clotting factor Ⅷ content were higher than control group( P 0. 05). Conclusion To extend the time of preparation of fresh frozen plasma clotting factor Ⅷ content has great influence,while the impact on the content of fibrinogen.%目的:研究和分析延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆和冷沉淀质量的影响。方法收集新鲜冰冻血浆共40人份,制备的时间分别是6 h、8 h、10 h和12 h,将其平均分为对照组和观察组,对照组中的新鲜冰冻血浆的制备时间为10 h和12 h,观察组中的新鲜冰冻血浆的制备时间为6 h和8 h,两组均使用多美达速冻机对制备的新鲜冰冻血浆进行速冻,并用新鲜冰冻血浆进行冷沉淀的制备,检测两组新鲜冰冻血浆的凝血因子Ⅷ的含量,以及冷沉淀中纤维蛋白原和凝血因子Ⅷ的含量。结果观察组新鲜冰冻血浆的凝血因子Ⅷ含量,以及冷沉淀中的凝血因子Ⅷ的含量均高于对照组( P0.05)。结论延长制备时间对新鲜冰冻血浆中凝血因子Ⅷ含量有着很大影响,而对纤维蛋白原的含量的影响则不大。

  13. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  14. Exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano: influência da temperatura, tempo e preparo da amostra na estabilidade analítica Cerebrospinal fluid exam: influence of sample preparation, temperature and time on analytical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Dimas

    2008-04-01

    . However, there are a few studies about the stability of its analytes during the pre-analytical stage. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing data about the influence of temperature and storage time, freezing/thawing cycles and pre-treatments (centrifugation, denaturation, serum addition on the stability of CSF analytes. METHOD: A systematic review of articles in the literature was conducted by use of Key words: in English such as "storage", "cerebrospinal fluid", "CSF", "stability", "temperature" and "period", based on data from PubMed, Highwire Press, Lilacs and Amazonas Library, free digital archives of biomedical research articles. RESULTt: The search found nine articles, what results from the lack of studies about this subject. Different CSF constituents were analyzed: number of cells and their morphology, total protein, glucose, lactate, amino acids, creatine, creatinine, biomarkers and enzymes. The methodologies employed were: optical microscopy, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Imunoblot/SDS-PAGE and spectrometry. CONCLUSION: The literature review confirms that the stability of CSF samples is influenced by temperature, storage time and conditions of pre-analytical preparation. The findings of this systematic review may contribute to improving the knowledge about CSF examination, as well as to better understanding the sample stability.

  15. Preparation of pH-time dependent colon-targeted tablet of Combretastatin A4 phosphate%pH敏感时滞型Combretastatin A4磷酸酯二钠结肠定位片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娇; 李佳; 夏枚; 高敬轩; 贺英菊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To prepare the pH-time dependent Colon-targeted tablet of Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P-CT).METHODS The time layer was prepared with a certain percent of EC and PEG6000 by direct compression.The pH sensitive layer was prepared with Eudragit Ⅱ and Eudragit Ⅲ by sparying coating technique.RESULTS The drug in the core tablets with time layer did not release until 4 hours in the small intestine medium when the proportion of EC and PEG-6000 was 8 ∶ 1 and hardness ofthe tablets was 14.340 kg·cm-1.The release was not influenced by gastric emptying when the pH-sensitive layer was weighted at 5%.CONCLUSION The pH-time dependent Colon-targeted tablets can achieve expected effect of positioning release in the colon through regulating the proportion of EC and PEG-6000,the hardness of the tablets with time layer and the coating thickness of pH-sensitive layer.%目的 制备pH敏感时滞型CA4P结肠靶向片(CA4P-CT).方法 以一定比例的EC和PEG6000为时滞型材料,采用压制包衣法制备时滞层,以肠溶丙烯酸树脂Ⅱ、Ⅲ为pH敏感层材料,采用喷雾包衣法制备pH敏感层.结果 当ECPEG6000(8∶1)、压制包衣后片子硬度为14.340 kg·cm-1时,时滞层可控制药物在人工肠液中4h后释药;pH敏感层增重5%,可保证靶向片的时滞不受胃排空的影响.结论 通过调整时滞层材料比例、压制包衣片硬度及肠溶层包衣厚度,包衣片可基本达到结肠定位释药的预期效果.

  16. Allele-specific real-time PCR testing for minor HIV-1 drug resistance mutations: assay preparation and application to reveal dynamic of mutations in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dong-xing; LI Jing-yun; LI Han-ping; LI Lin; ZHUANG Dao-min; JIAO Li-yan; WANG Zheng; BAO Zuo-yi; LIU Si-yang; LIU Yong-jian

    2010-01-01

    Background It is very important for the clinical management to test for minor HIV-1 resistance mutations accurately and sensitively. The conventional genotypic assays of HIV drug resistance detection based on sequencing can only discriminate the mutations which present in more than 20%-30%. The aim of this study was to evaluate allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) to detect the resistance-related mutations located at positions 103, 184 and 215.Methods We developed the allele-specific PCR assay, using the most common drug resistance mutations in Chinese AIDS patients, K103N, M184V/I, T215F/Y as a model system. The standards were constructed by cloning the wild-type and mutant DNA fragments into the T-vector. We designed specific primers to discriminate mutant templates in the real-time PCR using SYBR green as a fluorescence reporter. And then we evaluated the ASPCR assay and tested 140clinical samples using this method.Results The sensitivities of ASPCR assay were 0.04% for K103N, 0.30% for M1841, 0.40% for M184V, 0.03% for T215F and 0.02% for T215Y. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 0.42. One hundred and forty plasma samples were tested by ASPCR and dynamic resistance curves of ten patients were obtained.Conclusions Drug resistance emerged half a year after the start of antiretroviral therapy. The mutation of T215Yemerged 1 to 1.5 years after starting treatment and then increased rapidly. The ASPCR assay we developed was a sensitive, accurate and rapid method to detect the minor HIV-1 variants and it can provide earlier and more drug-resistance information for HIV research and AIDS antiretroviral therapy.

  17. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  18. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  19. Additives for the Axe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 1,China will begin to ban the production and use of two food additives commonly used to "bleach" flour,benzoyl peroxide and calcium peroxide.The decision was made after 10 years of wrangling between the policy makers,manufacturers,scientists and consumers.The Ministry of Health said in a statement it was applying the ban in response to consumers’ concerns about chemical substances in food,and technical improvements that had made the two additives unnecessary in flour processing.Minister of Health Chen Zhu has also said

  20. INFLUENCE OF ADDITION OF OAT AND LENTIL ON THE CONTENT OF THE DETECTED COMPONENTS IN BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results obtained by bread products analysis made with the addition of oats and lentils, which increased its nutrition value are presented. Breads were prepared with addition of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % which were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd content. Prepared products were evaluated also from viewpoint of their technological and nutritional value. Use of oat in bread increased with the addition of a quantity of 50 % content of nutritionally significant elements such as Fe (3.2 times, Mn (3.13 times, Zn (2.23 times, Cu (2.01 times and Cr (1.2 times. The addition of lentils increased particularly Cu content (3.55 times, Zn (2.96 times and Mn (1.29 times. None of the samples showed exceeded maximum limit (1.0 mg.kg-1 for lead. Based on the analysis results it was confirmed, that the most problematic element in our soils and subsequently in the foodstuffs is cadmium. Exceeded values (-1 were detected in 8 samples from 11, in finished products the values were within the limits ranging from 0.090 mg.kg-1 Cd to 0.180 mg.kg-1 Cd.doi:10.5219/42

  1. Lab-on-a-chip enabled HLA diagnostic: combined sample preparation and real time PCR for HLA-B57 diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Frank, Rainer; Willems, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The diverse human HLA (human leukocyte antigen) system is responsible for antigen presentation and recognition. It is essential for the immune system to maintain a stable defense line, but also is also involved in autoimmunity as well as metabolic disease. HLA-haplotype (HLA-B27), for instance, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as Bechterew's disease. The administration of the HIV drug Abacavir in combination with another HLA-haplotype (HLAB57) is associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. Accordingly, the HLA status has to be monitored for diagnosis or prior to start of therapy. Along this line, a miniaturized microfluidic platform has been developed allowing performing the complete analytical process from "sample-in" to "answer-out" in a point-of-care environment. The main steps of the analytical cascade inside the integrated system are blood cell lysis and DNA isolation, DNA purification, real-time PCR and quantitative monitoring of the rise of a fluorescent signal appearing during the PCR based sequence amplification. All bio-analytical steps were intended to be performed inside one chip and will be actuated, controlled and monitored by a matching device. This report will show that all required processes are established and tested and all device components work well and interact with the functional modules on the chips in a harmonized fashion.

  2. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  3. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  4. Deterministic joint remote state preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Nguyen Ba, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bich, Cao Thi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, University of Education No. 1, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Don, Nung Van [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-09-26

    We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared. -- Highlights: → Deterministic joint remote state preparation via EPR pairs is proposed. → Both general single- and two-qubit states are studied. → Differently from all existing protocols, in ours the receiver participates actively. → This is for the first time such a strategy is adopted.

  5. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  6. 加成型液体硅橡胶用含环氧基的有机硅增粘剂的制备、表征及性能%Preparation, Characterization & Property of Epoxy Modified Organosilicon Tackifier for Addition-type Liquid Silicone Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌钦才; 谢国庆; 郭文欣

    2012-01-01

    A tackifier with epoxy functional groups for the addition-type liquid silicone rubber was prepared, using tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and allyl glycidyl ether as the raw materials. The microstructure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT - IR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( H - NMR). The effect of the tackifier amount on the viscosity of the addition-type LSR, the hardness, dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, insulation resistivity, electrical breakdown strength, and bonding property of vulcanized silicone rubber and reverse leakage current of encapsulation diode at high temperature was investigated. The results showed that the tackifier could significantly improve the bonding strength of the vulcanized silicone rubber, affect the insulation resistivity and electrical breakdown strength of the vulcanized silicone rubber, decrease the reverse leakage current of the encapsulation diode at high temperature, and have no effect on the viscosity of the addition-type liquid silicone rubber and the hardness, dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor of the vulcanized silicone rubber.%以烯丙基缩水甘油醚和四甲基环四硅氧烷为原料,制备加成型液体硅橡胶用含环氧基的有机硅增粘剂.用红外光谱和核磁共振氢谱对其结构进行了表征,考察了加入量对硅橡胶胶料黏度及硫化胶硬度、介电常数、介质损耗因数、绝缘电阻率、电气强度、粘接性能及封装二极管高温反向漏电流的影响.结果表明:增粘剂能提高硅橡胶的粘接强度;影响其绝缘电阻率和电气强度;降低封装二极管的高温反向漏电流;基本不影响硅橡胶胶料黏度及硫化橡胶的硬度、介电常数、介质损耗因数.

  7. PHARMACODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF POLISILAR PREPARATION IN PIG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko M. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated growth of farm animals in order to obtain maximum productivity is possible due to introduction stimulating additives and preparations based on them into the rations. One of such tools is Polisilar - complex preparation, which includes components that have a positive impact on various aspects of the animal metabolism in the conditions of physiological disorders. At the same time components of the preparation due to its high bioavailability exhibit a potentiating effect in the body that allows getting a more pronounced effect on its use. Studies were conducted on pigs 3-3.5 months age and showed that the Polisilar preparation has a positive effect on the clinical and physiological status of the animals and exhibits a pronounced growth stimulating effect, increasing the weight gain of pigs by 14.3%. In addition use of the preparation in rations of growing pigs has a normalizing effect on red blood and blood forming organs, increasing the number of red blood cells by 18.7%, hemoglobin - by 24.5%. Polisilar stimulates protein, carbohydrate and mineral exchanges, stabilizes the functional activity of the liver, reducing the toxic load on hepatocytes. Therefore, the preparation Polisilar has a pronounced biological and pharmacological activity and can be used in animal husbandry as an effective stimulant

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  9. Preparation of mullite fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, S.; Yan, Y. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    Transparent mullite fibers have been prepared using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting materials. The ACs are derived from the catalyzed dissolution of elemental aluminum in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The solubility of aluminum in the acids is influenced by the concentrations of the acids, water, and additives and the preparation temperature. A 1:4:3:24 molar ratio of aluminum, formic acid, acetic acid, and water dissolves the aluminum completely to give a colorless, clear solution suitable for fiber synthesis. The mixture of the ACs and TEOS, in the presence of ethyl alcohol as a mutual solvent at 50--60 C, is concentrated to give a spinnable dope, from which mullite precursor fibers can be drawn. Heat treatment of the precursor at 1,250 C yields crystallized and transparent mullite fibers.

  10. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  11. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-02-16

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.

  12. 冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响%Influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of preparation time of cryoprecipitate on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Methods 93 samples of fresh frozen plasma collected from September of 2013 to December of 2012 were selected and divided into 3 groups, 31 samples in each group. The fresh frozen plasma in 3 groups were prepared cryoprecipitate at the 6th, 8th, 10th hours respectively. The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups were detected and compared. Results The contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen in 3 groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion The preparation time of cryoprecipitate within 10 hours after collecting the fresh frozen plasma had no influence on the contents of coagulation factors and fibrinogen.%目的:分析冷沉淀制备时间对凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量的影响。方法选取2013年9月至2013年12月采集的93份新鲜冰冻血浆,均分为3组(各31份),分别于6h、8h、10h再将各组新鲜血浆制备成冷沉淀。对3组冷沉淀中纤维蛋白原及凝血Ⅷ因子含量进行测定并进行对比分析。结果制备时间分别为6h、8h、10h的3组冷沉淀中凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论全血采集后10h内不同时间点制备冷沉淀对其凝血因子和纤维蛋白原含量无较大影响。

  13. Improvement in properties of coal water slurry by combined use of new additive and ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Feng, Ruo; Zheng, Youfei; Fu, Xiaoru

    2007-07-01

    Coal water slurry (CWS) was prepared with a newly developed additive from naphthalene oil. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on coal particle size distribution (PSD), adsorption behavior of additive in coal particles and the characteristics of CWS were investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic irradiation led to a higher proportion of fine coal in CWS and increased the saturated adsorption amount of additive in coal particles. In addition, the rheological behavior and static stability of CWS irradiated by ultrasonic wave were remarkably improved. The changes on viscosity of CWS containing 1% and 2% additive are qualitatively different with the increasing sonication time studied. The reason for the different effect of sonication time on CWS viscosity is presented in this study.

  14. Can strong-field ionization prepare attosecond dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) has been shown to prepare wave packets with few-femtosecond periods. Here, we explore whether this technique can be extended to the attosecond time scale. We introduce an intuitive model for predicting the bandwidth of ionic states that can be coherently prepared by SFI. This bandwidth is given by the Fourier-transformed sub-cycle SFI rate and decreases considerably with increasing central wavelength of the ionizing pulse. Many-body calculations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) quantitatively support this result and reveal an additional decrease of the bandwidth as a consequence of channel interactions and non-adiabatic dynamics. Our results further predict that multi-cycle femtosecond pulses can coherently prepare attosecond wave packets with higher selectivity and versatility compared to single-cycle pulses.

  15. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  16. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  17. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  18. 磺酸化介孔二氧化硅的合成及催化苯甲醛和乙二醇的加成反应%Preparation of sulfo-functionlized mesoporous silica and its catalytic performance in addition of benzaldehyde and ethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建; 夏成波; 彭静; 郑净植

    2011-01-01

    以CTAB为模板剂,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备了介孔二氧化硅,将聚(苯乙烯-二乙烯苯)包覆在介孔二氧化硅表面,并进行磺酸化制备了一种新型的固体酸催化剂;通过FT-IR、TGA、TEM等表征方法对合成的磺酸化介孔二氧化硅进行了表征.结果表明:表面聚合物基团和磺酸根基团成功地引入到了二氧化硅表面,磺酸化的介孔二氧化硅具有较好的孔道有序结构.磺酸化介孔二氧化硅对苯甲醛和乙二醇的加成反应表现出了较高的酸催化性能.%The mesoporous silica was synthesized by sol-gel method using CTAB as template, and then a novel ordered mesoporous solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonation of polymers coating on surface of mesoporous silica.The samples were characterized by FT-IR, TGA and TEM.The results indicated that the meso-structure of the sample was retained, and the polymer groups and -SO3H groups had been successfully incorporated on the surface of silica.The sample show high catalytic performance toward the addition reaction of benzaldehyde and ethylene glycol.

  19. Sonochemically preparation and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 nanocatalyst: Effects of ultrasound irradiation time and power on catalytic properties and activity in dry reforming of CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Salar; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahmani, Farhad

    2017-09-01

    The catalytic performance of nanostructured Ni-Co/Al2O3-ZrO2 catalysts, prepared by ultrasound-assisted impregnation method was examined in the dry reforming of methane. The effect of irradiation power and irradiation time have been studied by changing time (0, 20, 80min) and power of the sonication (30, 60, 90W) during the synthesis which resulted in different physiochemical properties of the nanocatalyst. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, PSD, EDX, TEM, TPR-H2, BET, FTIR and TG analyses. Based on the characterization results, ultrasound treatment endowed the sample with more uniform and smaller nanoparticles; higher surface area, stronger metal-support interaction and more homogenous dispersion. Moreover, the analyses exhibited smaller particles with higher surface area and less population of particle aggregates at longer and highly irradiated nanocatalysts. The nanocatalyst irradiated at 90W for 80min (the longest irradiation time and the most intense power) showed a uniform morphology and a very narrow particles size distribution. More than 65% of particles of this nanocatalyst were in the range of 10-30nm. Activity tests demonstrated that employing ultrasound irradiation during impregnation improves feed conversion and products yield, reaching values close to equilibrium. Among sonicated nanocatalysts, with increasing power and time of irradiation, the nanocatalyst represents higher activity. The superior performance amongst the various bimetallic catalysts tested was observed over the catalyst with 90W and 80min ultrasonic irradiation which is stable in 24h time on stream test. The excellent anti-coking performance of this bimetallic catalyst, confirmed by TG and FESEM analyses of spent catalyst, is closely related to the promoting effect of sonication on the metal-support interaction, Ni dispersion and particle size; and probably, the synergy between metallic species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Weiwei [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Sun, Tao, E-mail: sunt@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Roadway Bridge & Structure Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Li, Xinping [Key Laboratory of Roadway Bridge & Structure Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Sun, Mian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Lu, Yani [Urban Construction Institute, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Borosilicate glass waste used as cement additive can improves its radiation shielding. • When content is 14.8%, the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm{sup −1} after 28 d. • From 0 to 22.2%, linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm{sup −1} after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  1. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  2. Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

    2015-03-01

    Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts.

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of MTA employing various additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnia, Behnam; Jiang, Jin; He, Jianing; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran E; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-05-01

    Various additives have been suggested to be used with MTA to improve its handling characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various additives on cytotoxicity of MTA. Freshly mixed or set MTA pellet (1-mm diameter and 1-mm high cylinder) was prepared by mixing MTA with various additives. Additives tested included water, saline, 2% lidocaine, 5% CaCl(2), 3% NaOCl gel, and K-Y liquid. L929 cells were seeded into 96-well plates at 3 x 10(4) cells per well and incubated with MTA pellets for 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. Cells without treatment served as a control group. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and calculated as the percentage of the control group. The results were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA. For the set MTA, there were no significant cell viability differences (P > .05) among the various additives at each tested time. For the freshly mixed MTA, 3% NaOCl gel has lower cell viability (P < .05) than all the other groups. The cell viability of 3% NaOCl gel group was 29% to 50%. Gray and white MTA have similar results. This study shows that the various additives have no effect on the cytotoxicity of MTA when it becomes set. Also, all the tested additives, except 3% NaOCl gel, had no effect on the cytotoxicity of MTA when it was freshly mixed. The cytotoxicity of 3% NaOCl gel probably has no clinical significance considering there is still 29% to 50% of cell viability after cells were treated with MTA pellet in a 0.32-cm(2) culture well. MTA is biocompatible when mixed with the various additives.

  5. Effect of addition of (different types of) free radical initiators on petroleum pitch formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Shalini [Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, G' Noida (India). Corporate R and D Center; Srivastava, Manoj [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India); Singh, Himmat [Petroleum and Natural Gas, Dehradun (India)

    2013-02-15

    Petroleum Pitch is a complex mixture of poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and is an excellent precursor for a number of advanced carbon materials. Conventionally, pitches are prepared by thermal treatment of aromatic rich feed stocks. The types of reactions taking place during thermal soaking can be described adequately by the free radical mechanism. The properties of pitches can be tailor-made for specific applications by varying thermal soaking temperature and residence time. Different types of free radical initiators can be used to promote the polymerization and condensation reactions viz; organic peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), polythene etc. Keeping the above details in view, four pitches were prepared using different additives/initiators to study their effect on process parameters leading to polymerization and condensation reactions. The influence of the addition of initiator on pitch composition and properties was monitored by elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, FTIR and by NMR techniques. The pitches thus prepared, compare well in properties with Ashland Petroleum Company's A-240 pitch (a reference pitch), usedworldwide in graphite electrodes plants. The petroleum pitch formation study described below presents investigations carried out using pyrolysis tar as the feed stock. It is observed that the addition of initiators results in significant reduction in heat treatment time, which can lead to increase in yield of pitches during commercial production within a given time.

  6. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  7. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  8. Preparation and characterization of porous bioceramic scaffold based on additive manufacturing and gel-casting technology%基于增材制造和凝胶注模成型技术的多孔生物陶瓷支架制备与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate a novel method for the preparation of porous bioceramic scaffold ofβ-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) based on additive manufacturing and gel-casting technology. Methods Internal porous structures of scaffold were designed by computer aided design (CAD) software, resin molds were produced by stereolithography, then the bioceramic slurry were cast into the molds, and were sintered to remove the resin mold after hardening. As a result, the porous bioceramic scaffolds of β-TCP were obtained. Characteristics of microcosmic pore structures, mechanical properties and cell compatibility of the scaffolds were examined subsequently. Results Porous structures of β-TCP scaffold were consistent with the original design, with the interval porosity of 45.1% ± 1.2%. and the pore size of 300 to 500 μm; The average compressive strength was 5.3 ± 0.8 MPa;The results of in vitro test showed that osteoblasts were well attached and spread on scaffold, which indicated that the porous scaffold had good biocompatibility. Conclusion A novel method based on additive manufacturing and gel-casting technology has been proposed to produce porous bioceramic scaffold, which can provide scaffolds with complex shape and controlled internal porous structures.%  目的探讨基于增材制造和凝胶注模成型技术的多孔β-磷酸三钙(TCP)生物陶瓷支架的制备方法及其表征。方法利用计算机辅助设计(CAD)软件设计支架内部孔隙结构,通过光固化快速成型技术制造相应的树脂模具,在模具中填充生物材料,待其固化后通过热分解去除树脂模具,然后对所形成的多孔β-TCP支架的微观孔隙结构特征、力学性能以及体外细胞相容性进行检测。结果多孔β-TCP支架孔隙结构与设计结构一致,孔隙率为45.1%±1.2%,孔的尺寸为300~500μm;力学性能测试表明,支架的平均抗压强度为5.3±0.8 MPa;成骨细胞能够在支架上黏附生长

  9. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  10. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  11. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism and low pressure overprint in the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran: Additional temperature estimates for eclogites, geological significance of U-Pb zircon ages and Rb-Sr constraints on the timing of exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Timon; Bröcker, Michael; Fotoohi Rad, Gholamreza; Berndt, Jasper; Lisker, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran, includes blocks and lenses of eclogite-, blueschist- and/or epidote amphibolite-facies rocks that provide an excellent opportunity to examine the exhumation history of oceanic HP/LT rocks and their retrograde derivatives. Zr-in-rutile thermometry of eclogites corroborates previous interpretations suggesting metamorphic temperatures of ca. 550-600 °C during the HP stage in the Sistan area. Flat HREE distribution patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperatures of ca. 500-600 °C document that zircon in eclogite is of metamorphic origin. REE patterns of zircon from felsic meta-igneous rocks do not allow to distinguish between a magmatic or metamorphic origin, but relatively low temperatures indicated by Ti-in-zircon thermometry (ca. 500-600 °C) and the close similarity of zircon (U-Pb) and white mica (Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar) ages favor a metamorphic zircon origin. Previously published isotopic ages of the felsic rocks cannot unambiguously be linked to the eclogite- and/or blueschist-facies P-T conditions due to the absence of unequivocal mineralogical and petrological evidence. Instead, these rocks may record contemporaneous metamorphic processes that took place at a different depth within the subduction complex, or may indicate active ridge subduction and/or melt formation in the subduction zone at relatively low pressures. Biotite-based internal Rb-Sr isochrons of newly dated epidote amphibolite and biotite-albite gneisses indicate ages of ca. 74-80 Ma, either dating fluid-infiltration-induced formation of biotite during relatively fast uplift, or the time of final passage through the effective biotite closure temperature. Rb-Sr ages of phengite from both an epidote amphibolite and a biotite-albite gneiss yield ages that correspond to the HP/LT stage. This outcome, combined with textural evidence for derivation from eclogitic precursors documents that white mica ages of some strongly overprinted Sistan rocks are compromised by inheritance and do

  12. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  13. Preparation of Zirconia-Ceria Powders with High Specific Surface Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Enguo; Mei Fang

    2004-01-01

    Zirconia-ceria mixed oxide powders were prepared by high temperature aging method.The effects of the temperature and the time of aging, cerium content and calcination on powder performance were studied.The result shows that high temperature aging is an efficient way of preparation of ZrO2-CeO2 mixed oxide powders with high specific surface area and good thermal stability, and that addition of a small amount of cerium to hydrous zirconia can promote the preparation of high specific surface area powders.

  14. 浸渗时间对无压浸渗制备Al/SiCp陶瓷基合材料的影响%Infiltration Time Effect of Pressureless Infiltration Preparation of Al/SiCp Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃; 高霖; 崔崇; 钱凤

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure, density and rigidity of Al/SiCp ceramic matrix composites prepared by pressureless infiltration, were investigated in this paper. The result indicates that the infiltration in due course of time made Si and Mg diffusion and interface reaction conducted fully,which increased interface wetting property and decreased interface loose and pore,and advanced the a-luminium alloys infiltration. Holding one hour at proper temperature got full infitration, but poor density and low rigidity, while holding three hours got pulverization so two hours shall be a proper parameter.%本文采用无压浸渗法,研究浸渗时间对Al/SiCp陶瓷基复合材料组织、致密度、硬度的影响.浸渗保温时间1h,能浸透,但致密度差,硬度低.保温时间3h,发生粉化现象.结果表明浸渗保温时间2h是无压浸渗较好的工艺参数.

  15. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  16. Using of borosilicate glass waste as a cement additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiwei; Sun, Tao; Li, Xinping; Sun, Mian; Lu, Yani

    2016-08-01

    Borosilicate glass waste is investigated as a cement additive in this paper to improve the properties of cement and concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength and radiation shielding. The results demonstrate that borosilicate glass is an effective additive, which not only improves the radiation shielding properties of cement paste, but also shows the irradiation effect on the mechanical and optical properties: borosilicate glass can increase the compressive strength and at the same time it makes a minor impact on the setting time and main mineralogical compositions of hydrated cement mixtures; and when the natural river sand in the mortar is replaced by borosilicate glass sand (in amounts from 0% to 22.2%), the compressive strength and the linear attenuation coefficient firstly increase and then decrease. When the glass waste content is 14.8%, the compressive strength is 43.2 MPa after 28 d and the linear attenuation coefficient is 0.2457 cm-1 after 28 d, which is beneficial for the preparation of radiation shielding concrete with high performances.

  17. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient improvement of silage additives by using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Z S; Gilbert, R J; Merry, R J; Kell, D B; Theodorou, M K; Griffith, G W

    2000-04-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e. , no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a "fitness" value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a "cost" element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage fermentation. We

  19. Sexuality and Aging: A Timely Addition to the Gerontology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a course on sexuality in aging for a gerontology master's program. Topics include physical health, AIDS, gay/lesbian issues, widows/widowers, marriage, ethnic issues, menopause, and impotence. Provides a 33-item bibliography. (SK)

  20. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  1. Tribological Properties of the Lubricant Containing Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles as an Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ilie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the oil-solubility of nanoparticles, a new technology was used to prepare a kind of lubricant containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles. The microstructures of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized via transmission electron microscope (TEM and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Tribological properties of TiO2 nanoparticles used as an additive in base oil were evaluated using four-ball tribometer and ball-on-disk tribometer. In addition, the worn surface of the steel ball was investigated via polarized microscopy (PM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The TiO2 nanoparticles can be completely well-dispersed in the base oil under a new process (NP, which has no significantly negative effect on the anti-oxidation property. The results of the tribological tests show that TiO2 nanoparticles under the NP show a better anti-wear property and friction-reducing property in base oil compared to TiO2 nanoparticles under the tradition process (TP. The main aim of this paper lies in solving with the oil-solubility problem through the combination effect of surface modification and special blend process of lubricating oil. This method was first used to prepare lubricant containing TiO2 nanoparticles and then used as additives in engine oil, gear oil, and other industrial lubricants. At the same time, tribological properties of TiO2 nanoparticles in base oil as a lubricating additive were also studied.

  2. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  3. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from...

  4. Industrial preparation and performance testing of property-modified prebaked carbon anodes for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 李劼; 邹忠; 胡国荣; 赖延清; 刘业翔

    2003-01-01

    On the base of filtering composite additives in laboratory, the industrial property-modified prebaked car-bon anodes containing composite additives were prepared in factory. The performance tests show that this kind ofanodes not only have the same excellent physical performance as common (contrasting) ones used in aluminum elec-trolysis production at the present time, but also have better chemical and electrochemical performance than that ofthe common ones. Furthermore, the industrial preparation of the property-modified prebaked anode lays the founda-tion of electrolysis test. It can be forecasted that property-modified anodes will have good behavior in aluminum elec-trolysis production.

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  6. Experimentation on bio-kerosene stove using organic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshini, M.; Shetty, Divakar

    2017-07-01

    One of the basic worthy item used in most of the villages even now a day's also is the kerosene stove. But in the current scenario, the petroleum products are been replenished. So an alternate fuel should be found in order delve. This work is to check the contingency of blending pongamia oil and kerosene in which is used as an additive. Pongamia is one of the forest based fast growing evergreen tree which is capable of yielding 9 - 90 kg seeds from which 25% of oil can be extracted. Distilled cow urine is to be used so that the fuel can be stored for longer time and is odorless. Blends of 10% to 70% neat pongamia oil - kerosene(KEP) and pongamia oil - kerosene with additive(KEPWA) are prepared. The properties such as flash point, fire point and viscosity are determined. The blends are been compared by doing emission test. The blends with additive showed better properties and reducing in emission characteristics compared to neat blends. It is also observed that emission of CO is decreasing with increasing blends.

  7. Effect of Zr addition on precipitates in K4169 superalloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Yamin Liu Hongjun Liu Jie Wang Zhipeng Hao Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Zr addition on the precipitations of K4169 superalloy, a manual electric arc furnace was used to prepare the superalloy with different Zr addition from 0.03wt.% to 0.07wt...

  8. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  9. Application of addition-cured silicone denture relining materials to adjust mouthguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Shintaro; Churei, Hiroshi; Chowdhury, Ruman Uddin; Shirako, Takahiro; Shahrin, Sharika; Shrestha, Abhishekhi; Wada, Takahiro; Uo, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the shock absorption capability of addition-cured silicone denture relining materials and the bonding strength of addition-cured silicone denture relining materials and a commercial mouthguard material to determine its applicability to mouthguard adjustment. Two addition-cured silicone denture relining materials and eleven commercial mouthguard materials were selected as test materials. The impact test was applied by a free-falling steel ball. On the other hand, bonding strength was determined by a delamination test. After prepared surface treatments using acrylic resin on MG sheet surface, 2 types of addition-cured silicone denture relining materials were glued to MG surface. The peak intensity, the time to peak intensity from the onset of the transmitted force and bonding strength were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc test (pmaterials could be clinically applicable as a mouthguard adjustment material.

  10. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  11. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  12. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  13. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  15. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  16. Trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents for modification of proteins† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details for known compounds; materials and methods for bioconjugation reactions; copies of spectra of new compounds and compounds prepared according to new procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra20359g Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Martin J.; Williamson, Daniel J.; Burslem, George M.; Plante, Jeffrey P.; Manfield, Iain W.; Tiede, Christian; Ault, James R.; Stockley, Peter G.; Plein, Sven; Maqbool, Azhar; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Foster, Richard; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel protein-targeted MRI contrast agents crucially depends on the ability to derivatise suitable targeting moieties with a high payload of relaxation enhancer (e.g., gadolinium(iii) complexes such as Gd-DOTA), without losing affinity for the target proteins. Here, we report robust synthetic procedures for the preparation of trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents with various chemical handles for site-specific modification of biomolecules. The reagents were shown to successfully label proteins through isothiocyanate ligation or through site-specific thiol–maleimide ligation and strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition. PMID:27019702

  17. Recent RN graduate perceptions of educational preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lori; Bowles, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Nursing education programs strive to deliver curricula that prepare and transition graduates not just to survive but to truly thrive in any workplace environment. It is therefore important to reach out to those who have recently entered the nursing workforce to understand their views on educational preparation for practice. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to examine the perceptions of recent nurse graduates with regard to how well their educational programs prepared them for practice in their first jobs as registered nurses. Three hundred fifty-two nurses registered in the state of Nevada who graduated from a basic nursing program within the past five years completed the Survey of Nurses' Perceptions of Educational Preparation. Respondents perceived they were inadequately prepared in pharmacology, clinical practice, leadership/management, and the use of patient electronic medical records. In addition, respondents felt their programs prepared them more for success on the NCLEX-RN than for practice. Recommendations for addressing these issues are offered.

  18. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  19. Preparation of the patient and the airway for awake intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Awake intubation is usually performed electively in the presence of a difficult airway. A detailed airway examination is time-consuming and often not feasible in an emergency. A simple 1-2-3 rule for airway examination allows one to identify potential airway difficulty within a minute. A more detailed airway examination can give a better idea about the exact nature of difficulty and the course of action to be taken to overcome it. When faced with an anticipated difficult airway, the anaesthesiologist needs to consider securing the airway in an awake state without the use of anaesthetic agents or muscle relaxants. As this can be highly discomforting to the patient, time and effort must be spent to prepare such patients both psychologically and pharmacologically for awake intubation. Psychological preparation is best initiated by an anaesthesiologist who explains the procedure in simple language. Sedative medications can be titrated to achieve patient comfort without compromising airway patency. Additional pharmacological preparation includes anaesthetising the airway through topical application of local anaesthetics and appropriate nerve blocks. When faced with a difficult airway, one should call for the difficult airway cart as well as for help from colleagues who have interest and expertise in airway management. Preoxygenation and monitoring during awake intubation is important. Anxious patients with a difficult airway may need to be intubated under general anaesthesia without muscle relaxants. Proper psychological and pharmacological preparation of the patient by an empathetic anaesthesiologist can go a long way in making awake intubation acceptable for all concerned.

  20. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  1. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  2. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  3. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite within chitosan matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogina, A., E-mail: arogina@fkit.hr; Ivanković, M.; Ivanković, H.

    2013-12-01

    Nano-composites that show some features of natural bone both in composition and in microstructure have been prepared by in situ precipitation method. Apatite phase has been prepared from cost-effective precursors (calcite and urea phosphate) within chitosan (CS) matrix dissolved in aqueous acetic acid solution. The compositional and morphological properties of composites were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Depending on the reaction conditions (temperature, reaction time, glucose addition and pH control) in addition to hydroxyapatite (HA) as a major phase, octacalcium hydrogen phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (DCPD) were formed as shown by XRD and FTIR. Crystallite lengths of precipitated HA estimated by Scherrer's equation were between 20 and 30 nm. A fibrous morphology (∼ 400 nm) of HA observed by TEM indicates that HA nucleates on chitosan chains. - Highlights: • Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by in situ precipitation within chitosan hydrogels and colloidal chitosan solution. • pH control was regulated by ammonia and urea degradation. • In situ urea degradation provides homogenous HA formation. • TEM imaging indicates fibrous morphology of HA with crystalline size of 400 nm. • Glucose addition and temperature variation affect inorganic phase formation.

  4. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  5. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  6. Time Discounting and Time Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dimitri; D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractTime discounting is the phenomenon that a desired result in the future is perceived as less valuable than the same result now. Economic theories can take this psychological fact into account in several ways. In the economic literature the most widely used type of additive time discountin

  7. Time discounting and time consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitri, N.; Eijck, D.J.N. van

    2012-01-01

    Time discounting is the phenomenon that a desired result in the future is perceived as less valuable than the same result now. Economic theories can take this psychological fact into account in several ways. In the economic literature the most widely used type of additive time discounting is

  8. Preparation of nanocrystalline MgO by surfactant assisted precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Mehran, E-mail: rezaei@kashanu.ac.ir [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajenoori, Majid; Nematollahi, Behzad [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed different morphologies compared with the sample prepared without surfactant. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed a plate-like shape. {yields} Refluxing temperature and time and the surfactant to metal molar ratio affect the textural properties of MgO. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area was prepared by a simple precipitation method using pluronic P123 triblock copolymer (Poly (ethylene glycol)-block, Poly (propylene glycol)-block, Poly (ethylene glycol)) as surfactant and under refluxing conditions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that the refluxing time and temperature and the molar ratio of surfactant to metal affect the structural properties of MgO, because of the changes in the rate and extent of P123 adsorption on the prepared samples. The results showed that the addition of surfactant is effective to prepare magnesium oxide with high surface area and affects the morphology of the prepared samples. With increasing the P123/MgO molar ratio to 0.05 the pore size distribution was shifted to larger size. The sample prepared with addition of surfactant showed a plate-like shape which was completely different with the morphology of the sample prepared without surfactant. The formation of nanoplate-like MgO was related to higher surface density of Mg ions on the (0 0 1) plane than that on the other planes of the Mg(OH){sub 2} crystal. The (0 0 1) plane would be blocked preferentially by the adsorbed P123 molecules during the growing process of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoentities and the growth on the (0 0 1) plane would be markedly restricted, and the consequence is the generation of nanoplate-like MgO. In addition, increase in refluxing temperature and time

  9. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation preparation. 56.6303 Section 56.6303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation preparation. (a) Primers shall be made up only at the time of use and as close to the blast site...

  10. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  11. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... implementation guide of the additive hazards model is provided in the appendix....

  12. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  13. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  15. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  16. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  17. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  18. Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-hong FANG; Chun-xiao CHEN; Bing-ling ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition ofsimethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by a few investigators. Methods: Sixty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups to receive a bowel preparation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (Group 1) and both PEG solution and simethicone (Group 2). The PEG solution and sime-thicone were taken the night before and 20 min prior to capsule endoscopy, respectively. Frames taken in the small intestine were examined and scored for luminal bubbles by two professional capsule endoscopists. Gastric emptying time and small bowel transit time were also recorded. Results: Simethicone significantly reduced luminal bubbles both in the proximal and distal small intes-tines. The mean time proportions with slight bubbles in the proximal and distal intestines in Group 2 were 97.1% and 99.0%, respectively, compared with 67.2% (P<0.001) and 68.8% (P<0.001) in Group 1. Simethicone had no effect on mean gastric emptying time, 32.08 min in Group 2 compared with 30.88 min in Group 1 (P=0.868), but it did increase mean small intestinal transit time from 227.28 to 281.84 min (P=0.003). Conclusion: Bowel preparation with both PEG and simethicone significantly reduced bubbles in the intestinal lumen and improved the visualization of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy without any side effects observed.

  19. Ultrasonic Abrasion: An Alternative for Cavity Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Simone Barrôso VIEIRA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Restorative dentistry aims to repair damages caused by caries disease. Along the years, researchers have developed effective and less invasive methods with the goal of preserving the teeth from caries destruction. Therefore, the improvement of scientific knowledge, auxiliary diagnostic systems, dental materials, and new instruments has changed the approaches and treatments in this field. In addition to conservative removal of carious tissue, patient’s comfort has also become a concern in modern dentistry.Purpose: Considering that ultrasonic abrasion has attracted great interest of dental professionals, this article discusses an alternative technique for cavity preparation by literature review, addressing its indications, contra-indications, advantages and limitations compared to the conventional high-speed method.Conclusion: There are not many studies on this subject. The available studies have demonstrated several qualities of the ultrasonic abrasion system, but some aspects remain unclear. Therefore, it is important to highlight that laboratorial and clinical studies in primary/permanent teeth should be conducted to elucidate questionable issues, such as time of cavity preparation, topography, presence of smear layer and microleakage, in order to offer safety to the extensive use of this new technology for both the professional and the patient. In this context, the dentist should always be attentive to innovations referring to minimally invasive techniques.

  20. Effect of Rubbing Time and Sodium Chloride Concentrations on the Quality of Prepared Chicken%滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑瑞生; 张佳; 王秀江; 李飞燕; 冯晓慧; 罗欣

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of vacuum tumbling on chicken eating quality, values of pH, color, cooking rate , expressible moisture, textural properties and protein extraction by salt of chicken breast were evaluated. The results indicated that under the condition of 0 - 4℃ , increasing the salt concentration ( 0.0% -9.8% ) could significantly increase hydration of protein, content of protein extraction by salt improve the cohesion and springiness of prepared chicken products and reduce hardness, while no significant effect on cohesiveness and gumminess. When extending the tumbling time 0h -14h at 0 -4℃, the content of protein by salt ,the cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess of chicken were increased significantly, while there was no significant effect on the hydration of protein and the hardness of chicken. Tumbling raised the pH value of chicken recuperation products, improved chicken recuperation products color and eating quality.%以鸡胸肉为实验材料,以pH值、肉色、蒸煮出品率、压榨损失、盐溶性蛋白质溶出量和质构特征为评定指标,探讨了滚揉时间和食盐水浓度对鸡肉调理制品食用品质的影响。结果表明:在0~4℃环境中,增加食盐水浓度(0.0%~9.8%),可极显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了蒸煮损失率和压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的弹性、咀嚼性和降低肉的硬度,对凝聚性和胶着性影响不显著;延长滚揉时间(0.0h~14.0h)可显著增加盐溶性蛋白的溶出量,极显著降低了压榨损失率,显著提高鸡肉调理制品的凝聚性、弹性、咀嚼性和胶着性,而对蒸煮损失率和硬度影响不显著。滚揉处理提高了鸡肉调理制品的pH值、改善了肉色和食用品质。