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Sample records for preparation significantly decreases

  1. Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects pseudophakic photopic luminance contrast, photopic S-cone foveal threshold, mesopic contrast acuity, scotopic short-wavelength sensitivity and circadian photoreception. Yellow IOL chromophores provide no tangible clinical benefits in exchange for the photoreception losses they cause. They fail to decrease disability glare or improve contrast sensitivity. Most epidemiological evidence shows that environmental light exposure and cataract surgery are not significant risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not evidence-based medicine. Most AMD occurs in phakic adults over 60 years of age, despite crystalline lens photoprotection far greater than that of blue-blocking IOLs. Therefore, if light does play some role in the pathogenesis of AMD, then 1) senescent crystalline lenses do not prevent it, so neither can blue-blocking IOLs that offer far less photoprotection, and 2) all pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments. Pseudophakes have the freedom to remove their sunglasses for optimal photoreception whenever they choose to do so, provided that they are not encumbered permanently by yellow IOL chromophores. In essence, yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. If yellow IOLs had been the standard of care, then colorless UV-blocking IOLs could be advocated now as "premium" IOLs because they offer dim light and circadian photoreception roughly 15

  2. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  3. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  4. A significant decrease in diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Helga; Stawiarz, Leszek; Fink, Katharina; Hillert, Jan; Manouchehrinia, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Several reports indicate changes to prevalence, incidence, female-to-male ratio in multiple sclerosis. Diagnostic criteria, course definitions and clinical management of the disease have also undergone change during the recent decades. To investigate temporal trends in the diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) in Sweden. Through the Swedish MS registry we investigated the proportion of PPMS diagnosis in birth, diagnosis and age period cohorts using Poisson regression. A total of 16,915 patients were categorised into six birth-cohorts from 1946 to 1975 and seven date-of-diagnosis-cohorts from 1980 to 2014. We observed a decrease in the uncorrected analysis of diagnosis of PPMS from 19.2% to 2.2% and an average decrease of 23% (p decrease per diagnosis-cohort was seen. In the age-specific diagnosis period cohorts the same decreasing trend of PPMS diagnosis was observed in almost all groups. The diagnosis of PPMS has significantly decreased in Sweden specifically after introduction of disease-modifying treatments. Such decrease can have severe impacts on the future research on PPMS. Our data also suggest that the current trend to emphasise presence or absence of inflammatory activity is already reflected in clinical practice. © The Author(s), 2016.

  5. Cervical end preparation design on collarless metal ceramic crown to the decrease of bacterial colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Machmud

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical end preparation design is an important procedure in fixed partial denture. If the cervical end preparation design is inadequate, dental plaque will easily be formed and this may indicate the beginning of periodontal disease. Purpose: This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cervical end preparation design on collarless metal ceramic crown towards the decrease of bacterium colony number. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental study applying pre and post test on a control group involving 48 subjects with shoulder, bevel shoulder, and deep chamfer cervical end preparation. The bacterium colonies were examined on the 1st, 7th, and 21st days after the insertion of collarless metal ceramic crown. Results: The study showed that bacterium colony increased significantly in deep chamfer and bevel shoulder preparation design between the treatment group and the control group (p<0.05. In shoulder preparation there was not significant different between the treatment group and the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Compared to the bevel shoulder and deep chamfer, shoulder design is the best design for collarless metal ceramic crown restoration.Latar belakang: Desain preparasi tepi servikal merupakan suatu tahap yang sangat menentukan dalam pembuatan gigi tiruan cekat. Apabila desain preparasi tepi servikal tidak adekuat dapat menyebabkan pembentukan plak gigi pada daerah tersebut. Keadaan ini merupakan tahap awal terjadinya penyakit periodontal. Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis pengaruh desain preparasi tepi servikal yang dibuat pada mahkota collarless metal ceramic untuk mengurangi jumlah bakterium koloni. Metode: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental semu dengan metode pre and post test dan kelompok kontrol terhadap 48 subyek penelitian. Dilakukan preparasi gigi dan pembuatan akhiran preparasi tepi servikal shoulder, bevel shoulder, dan deep chamfer pada subyek penelitian. Pemeriksaan koloni bakteri dilakukan pada hari ke-1

  6. INTRATHECAL GLYCINE SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASES THE MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION OF ISOFLURANE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Yi Zhang; Edmond Ⅰ. Eger Ⅱ; James Sonner

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intrathecal administration of glycine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rats.Methods Intrathecal catheters were implanted in 40 adult male rats anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline MAC of isoflurane was measured during the infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone. Subsequently, 10, 40, 80,160, and 300 mmol/L of glycine dissolved in artificial CSF were infused for two hours at the same rate as under control conditions, and MAC for isoflurane was re-determined.Results Intrathecal administration of glycine produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in MAC for isoflu-rane (upto -65.2% ±16.2%).Conclusisons Intrathecal administration of glycine decreases anesthetic requirement. This result supports the idea that glycine receptors may be important to the immobilizing effect of anesthetics that enhance glycine receptor function such as isoflurane.

  7. The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Solheim, Jan-Erik; Humlum, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0 "C from solar cycle 23 to 24 for the stations and areas analyzed. We find for the Norwegian local stations investigated that 25-56% of the temperature increase the last 150 years may be attributed to the Sun. For 3 North Atlantic stations we get 63-72% solar contribution. This points to the Atlantic currents as reinforcing a solar signal.

  8. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measurements were performed using the flow cytometry technique. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 19 (33.3%) OBI patients and 28 (28%) controls expressed HLA-A2 antigen on their PBMCs. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the rate of individuals expressing HLA-A2 antigen. Statistical analyses showed that the intensity of HLA-A2 expression significantly decreased in OBI patients (3.58 ± 0.1) in comparison to healthy controls (4.21 ± 0.25; P < 0.001). According to these results it can be concluded that decreased intensity of HLA-A2 on the PBMCs of OBI patients may lead to resistance of HBV in the patients.

  9. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  10. Serum ionic fluoride concentrations are significantly decreased after treatment with alendronate in patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironori; Tanno, Kozo; Muro-oka, Genyoh; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-11-20

    We determined serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentrations before and after treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate to clarify whether SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate over a 6-month period were enrolled (mean age, 64.2 years). SIF concentrations were measured by the flow injection method with an ion-selective electrode. Concentrations of bone turnover markers (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide and urinary deoxypryridinoline) and lumbar spine BMD (LsBMD) were also measured. SIF, bone turnover markers and LsBMD before and after treatment were compared. Concentrations of SIF as well as concentrations of all bone turnover markers were significantly decreased after treatment: means (standard deviations) before and after treatment were 0.62 (0.13) and 0.32 (0.09) μmol/l, respectively (P<0.001) and the percent change was -46.3%. LsBMD was also significantly increased by 6.7% after treatment. The reduction of SIF concentrations is probably caused by inhibition of bone resorption due to the action of alendronate. The findings suggest that SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous Iron Repletion Does Not Significantly Decrease Platelet Counts in CKD Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville R. Dossabhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the effect of IV iron repletion on platelet (PLT counts in CKD patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review, including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran total dose infusion (TDI between 2002 and 2007. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin (Hgb, iron stores and PLT were recorded pre- and post-dose. Results. 153 patients received a total of 251 doses of TDI (mean ± SD = 971 ± 175 mg; age years and Creatinine  mg/dL. All CKD stages were represented (stage 4 commonest. Hgb and Fe stores improved post-TDI (. There was a very mild decrease in PLT (pre-TDI 255 versus post-TDI 244, . The mild reduction in PLT after TDI remained non-significant ( when data was stratified by molecular weight (MW of iron dextran used (low versus high, as well as by dose administered (<1000 versus ≥1000 mg. Linear regression analysis between pre-dose PLT and Tsat and Fe showed R2 of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion. Correction of iron deficiency did not significantly lower PLT in CKD patients, regardless of MW or dose used. Correlation of PLT to severity of iron deficiency was very weak.

  12. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  13. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    inflammatory agents - Wound healing -Contraction ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Develop treatments that modulate...inflammatory therapies  IRB Approval of both screening and validation porcine wound bed preparation model  Establishment of Screening model to examine...1 AD _____________________ (Leave blank) Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed

  14. Significant decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bure(s); Marcela Kopá(c)ová; Ilona Koupil; Bohumil Seifert; Milu(s)ka (S)kodová Fendrichová; Jana (S)pirková; Viktor Vo(r)í(s)ek

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study possible decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in the Czech Republic within a 10-year period.METHODS:A total of 22 centres entered the study.The catchment areas of these centres covered cities and towns with more than 20 000 inhabitants,smaller towns (≤ 20 000 inhabitants) with surrounding villages and rural areas,and were spread over the whole country,corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population.A total of 1 837 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study,randomly selected out of 38 147 people from the general population.H.pylori infection was investigated by means of a 13C-urea breath test.Breath samples in duplicates were analysed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.The cut-off point was 3.5.Social and demographic characteristics were based on data from self-completed questionnaires.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of H.pylori infection was 23.5% (430/1826),and 4.8% (20/420) in children aged 15 or less.There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between males (24.3%; 208/857) and females (22.9%,222/969,P =0.494).H.pylori infection was strongly associated with higher age,among subjects aged 55+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was 39.8% (252/633,P <0.001).The highest prevalence of H.pylori infection was found among persons aged 55-64 years (43.9%,97/221) and 75+ years (37.9%,58/153).Among study subjects aged 15+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly increased in those with lowest education (odds risk 3.19,95% CI 1.87-5.47).Compared to never married (14.1%),the prevalence of H.pylori infection was statistically significantly higher among married (35.4%,246/694,P < 0.001),divorced (36.8%,49/133,P < 0.001) and widowed study subjects (40.2%,45/112,P < 0.001),both in minimally and fully adjusted analysis.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H.pylori infection between married and widowed

  15. Significant decrease in yield under future climate conditions: Stability and production of 138 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    The response in production parameters to projected future levels of temperature, atmospheric carbondioxide ([CO2]), and ozone ([O3]) was investigated in 138 spring barley accessions. The comprehensive setof landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines, were during their entire life cycle exposed...... to a two-factor treat-ment of combined elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night) and [CO2] (700 ppm), as well as single-factortreatments of elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night), [CO2] (700 ppm), and [O3] (100–150 ppb). Thecontrol treatment was equivalent to present average South Scandinavian climate...... (temperature: 19/12◦C(day/night), [CO2]: 385 ppm). Overall grain yield was found to decrease 29% in the two-factor treatmentwith concurrent elevation of [CO2] and temperature, and this response could not be predicted from theresults of treatments with elevated [CO2] and temperature as single factors, where...

  16. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...

  17. Apnea–hypopnea index decreased significantly after nasal surgery for obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhao, Guoqiang; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Wang, Dongbo; Han, Demin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nasal surgeries have been applied to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with nasal obstruction for decades. However, the efficiency of nasal surgery in improving OSA remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether isolated nasal surgery can improve apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Methods: Computerized searches were performed in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus from January 1, 2000 to April 30, 2016. A total of 18 articles and 587 participants were included. There were 1 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized trials, 11 prospective studies, and 4 retrospective studies. Data regarding study design (prospective/retrospective clinical trial, randomized, and controlled), population size, participant characteristics (age, gender, and body mass index), surgical intervention, and outcomes (AHI, Epworth sleep scale [ESS]) was collected. Results: Statistically significant improvement in AHI (subgroup 1: weighted mean difference [WMD] [95%confidence interval (CI)], −4.17 [−7.62, −0.73]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.19 [−7.51, −0.88]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.15 [−6.48, −1.82]) and ESS (subgroup 1: WMD [95%CI], −2.14 [−3.08, −1.19]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.70 [−5.95, −3.44]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.08 [−5.27, −2.88]) was revealed. Conclusion: Both AHI and ESS improved significantly after isolated nasal surgery, but the improvement of AHI is slightly significant. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the long-term benefits of nasal surgery on OSA. PMID:28151900

  18. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  19. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  20. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

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    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  1. Moderate Hypothermia Significantly Decreases Hippocampal Cell Death Involving Autophagy Pathway after Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yichao; Lin, Yingying; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng; Gao, Guo-yi; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2015-07-15

    Here, we evaluated changes in autophagy after post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) followed by moderate hypothermia in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham injury with normothermia group (37 °C); sham injury with hypothermia group (32 °C); TBI with normothermia group (TNG; 37 °C); and TBI with hypothermia group (THG; 32 °C). Injury was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Moderate hypothermia (32 °C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0 °C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. All rats were killed at 24 h after fluid percussion TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampus in all rats was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining; terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining was used to determine cell death in ipsilateral hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, as well as transmission electron microscopy performed to assess changes in autophagy. At 24 h after TBI, the cell death index was 27.90 ± 2.36% in TNG and 14.90 ± 1.52% in THG. Expression level of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased after TBI and were further up-regulated after post-TBI hypothermia. Further, ultrastructural observations showed that there was a marked increase of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in ipsilateral hippocampus after post-TBI hypothermia. Our data demonstrated that moderate hypothermia significantly attenuated cell death and increased autophagy in ipsilateral hippocampus after fluid percussion TBI. In conclusion, autophagy pathway may participate in the neuroprotective effect of post-TBI hypothermia.

  2. Significance of decreased serum interleukin-10 levels in the progression of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Cui-Lan; Qi, Hong-Shun; Jia, Guo-Yong; Yan, Chuan-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its serological detection may have an important role in the process of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with cerebral infarction or not in the general population. Identified comprehensive searching was performed covering PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Information was extracted separately and classed into Asians and Caucasians. Summary standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used with the utilization of Z test. Nine studies ranged from 2003 to 2014 were collected for meta-analysis. Results identified a negative association between serum IL-10 levels and cerebral infarction (SMD = 1.80, 95 % CI 0.79-2.81, P IL-10 level may be the main risk factor for cerebral infarction in India (SMD = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.13-1.75, P IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with cerebral infarction in Asians (SMD = 2.52, 95 % CI 0.47-4.57, P = 0.016), while not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). The lower serum IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of cerebral infarction in this meta-analysis. More prospective studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence justifying the use of IL-10 as new biomarker to identify a predisposition toward cerebral infarction.

  3. V-amylose structural characteristics, methods of preparation, significance, and potential applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obiro, WC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available , and postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. Various aspects of V-amylose structure, methods of preparation, factors that affect its formation, and the significance and potential applications of the V-amylose complexes are reviewed....

  4. Bundling of Reimbursement for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement Resulted in Significantly Decreased Utilization between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Roan J; TerBush, Matthew J; Hill, Elaine L; Guido, Joseph J; Doyle, Adam; Ellis, Jennifer L; Raman, Kathleen; Morrow, Gary R; Stoner, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, reimbursement for inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) became bundled by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This resulted in ICVF placement (CPT code 37191) now yielding 4.71 relative value units (RVUs), a decrease from 15.6 RVUs for placement and associated procedures (CPT codes 37620, 36010, 75825-26, 75940-26). Our hypothesis was that IVCF utilization would decrease in response to this change as other procedures had done once they had become bundled. Including data from 2010 to 2011 (before bundling) and 2012 to 2014 (after bundling), we utilized 5% inpatient, outpatient, and carrier files of Medicare limited data sets and analyzed IVCF utilization before and after bundling across specialty types, controlling for total diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (ICD-9 codes 453.xx and 415.xx, respectively) and placement location. In 2010 and 2011, the rates/10,000 DVT/PE diagnoses were 918 and 1,052, respectively (average 985). In 2012, 2013, and 2014, rates were 987, 877, and 605, respectively (average 823). Comparing each year individually, there is a significant difference (P utilization. Comparing averages in the 2010-2011 and 2012-2014 groups, there is also a significant decrease in utilization after bundling (P utilization decreased significantly. More data from subsequent years will be needed to show if this decrease utilization continues to persist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Decreased Expression of Six Large Common Fragile Site Genes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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    Ge Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common fragile sites (CFSs are large regions with profound genomic instability that often span extremely large genes a number of which have been found to be important tumor suppressors. RNA sequencing previously revealed that there was a group of six large CFS genes which frequently had decreased expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments validated that these six large CFS genes (PARK2, DLG2, NBEA, CTNNA3, DMD, and FHIT had decreased expression in most of the tumor samples. In this study, we investigated whether the decreased expression of these genes has any clinical significance in OPSCCs. We analyzed the six CFS large genes in 45 OPSCC patients and found that 27 (60% of the OPSCC tumors had decreased expression of these six genes. When we correlated the expression of these six genes to each patient’s clinical records, for 11 patients who had tumor recurrence, 10 of them had decreased expression of almost all 6 genes. When we divided the patients into two groups, one group with decreased expression of the six genes and the other group with either slight changes or increased expression of the six genes, we found that there is significant difference in the incidence of tumor recurrence between these two groups by Kaplan-Meier plot analysis (P < .05. Our results demonstrated that those OPSCC tumors with decreased expression of this select group of six large CFS genes were much more likely to be associated with tumor recurrence and these genes are potential prognostic markers for predicting tumor recurrence in OPSCC.

  6. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing, E-mail: wuxingzhou@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2016-05-06

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall interactions. • The thermal conductivity of the inner tube is increased significantly due to protected by outer tube. • The outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer in multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  7. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  8. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ghee (clarified butter also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method. Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mmFNx0160 m, ID of 0.25 mm. The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

  10. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer.

  11. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  12. Deletion of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit significantly decreases dendritic growth in maturing dentate granule neurons.

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    Timal S Kannangara

    Full Text Available It is known that NMDA receptors can modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the contribution of specific regulatory GluN2 subunits has been difficult to determine. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking GluN2A (formerly NR2A do not show altered cell proliferation or neuronal differentiation, but present significant changes in neuronal morphology in dentate granule cells. Specifically, GluN2A deletion significantly decreased total dendritic length and dendritic complexity in DG neurons located in the inner granular zone. Furthermore, the absence of GluN2A also resulted in a localized increase in spine density in the middle molecular layer, a region innervated by the medial perforant path. Interestingly, alterations in dendritic morphology and spine density were never seen in dentate granule cells located in the outer granular zone, a region that has been hypothesized to contain older, more mature, neurons. These results indicate that although the GluN2A subunit is not critical for the cell proliferation and differentiation stages of the neurogenic process, it does appear to play a role in establishing synaptic and dendritic morphology in maturing dentate granule cells localized in the inner granular zone.

  13. Sequence variants of interleukin 6 (IL-6 are significantly associated with a decreased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 6 (IL-6 has been related to beta-amyloid aggregation and the appearance of hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. However, previous studies relating IL-6 genetic polymorphisms to AD included few and unrepresentative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the results were inconsistent. Methods This is a case-control study. A total of 266 patients with AD, aged≧65, were recruited from three hospitals in Taiwan (2007-2010. Controls (n = 444 were recruited from routine health checkups and volunteers of the hospital during the same period of time. Three common IL-6 haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected to assess the association between IL-6 polymorphisms and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD. Results Variant carriers of IL-6 rs1800796 and rs1524107 were significantly associated with a reduced risk of LOAD [(GG + GC vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.64 and (CC + CT vs. TT: AOR = 0.60, respectively]. Haplotype CAT was associated with a decreased risk of LOAD (0 and 1 copy vs. 2 copies: AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44-0.95. These associations remained significant in ApoE e4 non-carriers only. Hypertension significantly modified the association between rs2069837 polymorphisms and the risk of LOAD (pinteraction = 0.03. Conclusions IL-6 polymorphisms are associated with reduced risk of LOAD, especially in ApoE e4 non-carriers. This study identified genetic markers for predicting LOAD in ApoE e4 non-carriers.

  14. Significant decrease of broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation by dynamic regulation of ammonium sulfate and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Yu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen sources on broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation were investigated. By controlling ammonium sulfate concentration, broth viscosity and glucose consumption were decreased by 18.2% and 61.6%, respectively, whereas erythromycin biosynthesis was little affected. Furthermore, erythromycin A production was increased by 8.7% still with characteristics of low broth viscosity and glucose consumption through the rational regulations of phosphate salt, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate. It was found that ammonium sulfate could effectively control proteinase activity, which was correlated with the utilization of soybean meal as well as cell growth. The pollets formation contributed much to the decrease of broth viscosity. The accumulation of extracellular propionate and succinate under the new regulation strategy indicated that higher propanol consumption might increase the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA and thus could increase the flux leading to erythromycin A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas correlates significantly with basal-like phenotype, distant metastases and decreased survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tozbikian

    Full Text Available Mesothelin is a cell surface associated antigen expressed on mesothelial cells and in some malignant neoplasms. Mesothelin-targeted therapies are in phase I/II clinical trials. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC has not been fully assessed. We evaluated the expression of mesothelin and of basal markers in tissue microarrays of 226 TNBC and 88 non-TNBC and assessed the clinicopathologic features of mesothelin-expressing breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of mesothelin expression on the disease-free and overall survival of patients with TNBC. We found that mesothelin expression is significantly more frequent in TNBC than in non-TNBC (36% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.0006, and is significantly correlated with immunoreactivity for basal keratins, but not for EGFR. Mesothelin-positive and mesothelin-negative TNBC were not significantly different by patients' race, tumor size, histologic grade, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC were older than patients with mesothelin-negative TNBC, developed more distant metastases with a shorter interval, and had significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Based on our results, patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC could benefit from mesothelin-targeted therapies.

  16. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  17. Optimization of temperature, sugar concentration, and inoculum size to maximize ethanol production without significant decrease in yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laluce, Cecilia; Tognolli, João Olimpio; de Oliveira, Karen Fernanda; Souza, Crisla Serra; Morais, Meline Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to obtain rapid fermentations with high ethanol yields and a retention of high final viabilities (responses), a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design combined with response surface methodology was employed using inoculum size, sucrose concentration, and temperature as independent variables. From this statistical treatment, two well-fitted regression equations having coefficients significant at the 5% level were obtained to predict the viability and ethanol production responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces showed that increasing temperatures had greater negative effects on viability than on ethanol production. Increasing sucrose concentrations improved both ethanol production and viability. The interactions between the inoculum size and the sucrose concentrations had no significant effect on viability. Thus, the lowering of the process temperature is recommended in order to minimize cell mortality and maintain high levels of ethanol production when the temperature is on the increase in the industrial reactor. Optimized conditions (200 g/l initial sucrose, 40 g/l of dry cell mass, 30 degrees C) were experimentally confirmed and the optimal responses are 80.8 +/- 2.0 g/l of maximal ethanol plus a viability retention of 99.0 +/- 3.0% for a 4-h fermentation period. During consecutive fermentations with cell reuse, the yeast cell viability has to be kept at a high level in order to prevent the collapse of the process.

  18. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients undergoing regadenoson stress gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Javier; Golzar, Yasmeen; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Olusanya, Adebayo; Doukky, Rami

    2017-02-08

    The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with regadenoson stress gated SPECT (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been studied. Consecutive patients who underwent rest/regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI followed by coronary angiography within 6 months were analyzed. Change in LVEF by GSPECT-MPI was calculated as stress LVEF minus rest LVEF; a significant decrease was tested at 5% and 10% thresholds. In a diagnostic cohort of 793 subjects, LVEF change was not predictive of severe/extensive coronary artery disease (area under the curve, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.57; P = 0.946). There was no significant difference in the rates of severe/extensive coronary artery disease in patients with or without a decrease in LVEF, irrespective of MPI findings. In an outcome cohort of the 929 subjects followed for 30 ± 16 months, post-regadenoson stress decrease in LVEF was not associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction or in the risk of coronary revascularization. In patients selected to undergo coronary angiography following regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI, a decrease in LVEF after regadenoson stress is not predictive of severe/extensive CAD or adverse clinical outcomes, irrespective of MPI findings.

  1. Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Julie M; Visscher, Daniel; Sabel, Michael; Breslin, Tara; Healy, Patrick; Daignaut, Stephanie; Myers, Jeffrey L; Wu, Angela J

    2012-11-01

    Intraoperative frozen section (FS) margin evaluation is not common practice for patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT), but offers a significant reduction in reoperation. In this study, a technique to allow for more effective freezing of breast tissue was developed to perform FS evaluation of lumpectomy margins (FSM) for all patients undergoing BCT at an ambulatory surgery center. FS evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens was performed concurrently. One hundred eighty-one study and 188 control patients, with and without FS evaluation, were compared. Reexcision was reduced 34% (from 48.9% to 14.9%) and reoperation was reduced 36% (from 55.3% to 19.3%) with FS evaluation. Most of the decrease in reoperative rate was because of a decrease in the need for margin reexcision. The number of patients requiring 1, 2, or 3 operations to complete therapy was 84, 92, and 12, respectively, in the control group, and 146, 33, and 2, respectively, in the study group. Lobular subtype, multifocal disease, and larger tumor size (≥2 cm) were significantly associated with failure of FSM to prevent reoperation, but reoperation rates were still significantly decreased in this subgroup of patients (from 75.5% to 43.8%) with FSM. This study highlights an innovative yet simple and adaptable FS approach that resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in reoperation for patients undergoing BCT.

  2. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  3. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  4. Significant improvement in photoluminescence of ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dots prepared in high pH solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Feng; Ren, Jicun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we described a simple approach for aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as stabilizers using zinc chloride and NaHSe as precursors. The synthesis conditions were systematically investigated. We observed that the pH value of the Zn precursor solution had significant influence on the optical properties and the structure of the as-prepared ZnSe(S) QDs. The optimal pH value and molar ratio of Zn(2+) to HSe(-) were 12.0 and 25 : 1 respectively. Under the optimal conditions, we prepared highly photoluminescent ZnSe(S) QDs at up to 31% quantum yield (compared with Rhodamine 6G). The characterization of HRTEM and XRD showed that the ZnSe(S) QDs had good monodispersity and nice crystal structure. The fluorescence life time spectra demonstrated that ZnSe(S) QDs had a long lifetime in contrast to fluorescent dyes. Compared with the currently used organometallic approach, our method was 'green', the reaction condition was mild and the as-prepared ZnSe(S) QDs were water-soluble. More importantly, our method was low cost, and was very suitable for large-scale synthesis of highly luminescent ZnSe(S) QDs for the future applications. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Preparation and characterization of irinotecan hydrochloride loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles and its mechanism of decreasing drug intestinal toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Shi-Yan; Li, Fei-Fei; Gan, Yong

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we developed PEO-PPO-PEO micelles loaded with irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitory material PEO20-PPO70-PEO20, and studied its mechanism of decreasing CPT-11 induced delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity. BCRP-overexpressing MDCKII (MDCKII/BCRP) cells were used to evaluate the effect of PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 and PEO-PPO-PEO micelles on transmembrane transport of CPT-11 in vitro. The biliary excretion, delayed diarrhea and intestinal damage of CPT-11 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles of rats were investigated. The results showed that the obtained micelles could decrease the biliary excretion of CPT-11, ameliorate delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity of rats through inhibiting BCRP-mediated CPT-11 efflux. PEO-PPO-PEO micelles were promising carriers to reduce intestinal toxicity of CPTs.

  6. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  7. Decreased expression of Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma progression and significantly correlates with poorly differentiated grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Wantao; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Chenping

    2015-02-01

    Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) protein is an extracellular matrix associated protein which plays vital roles in neurons development and cell migration. However, its biological functions and clinical implications have yet not been revealed in oral carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of KAL1 in oral cancer and determine clinical significance of KAL1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The expression pattern of KAL1 was examined in a testing cohort including OSCCs (n = 42) and paired adjacent tissues (PATs) (n = 14) by real-time PCR. The result was further validated in a validating cohort of OSCCs (n = 32). Correlation between clinicopathological parameters and KAL1 mRNA levels was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. In vitro, the effects of KAL1 ablation through siRNA-mediated knockdown on the proliferation of OSCC cells were determined by CCK-8, BrdU, and colonies formation assays, respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was further evaluated by cytometry. We observed that remarkably decreased expression of KAL1 mRNA in two independent cohorts (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.033, respectively). Furthermore, downregulated KAL1 mRNA was significantly associated with worse pathological grade (P = 0.013 and P = 0.035, respectively). Upon KAL1 silencing, the proliferation and colonies formation potentials of OSCC cells were notably promoted by accelerating G1 to M phase transition. These data indicated that KAL1 plays a potential suppressive role on OSCC initiation and progression, and KAL1 gene may serve as an adjuvant biomarker for the identification of pathological grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Delaying discharge after the stimulus significantly decreases muscle activation thresholds with small impact on the selectivity: an in vivo study using TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejasz, Paweł; Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Andreu, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Jensen, Winnie; Navarro, Xavier; Guiraud, David

    2015-04-01

    The number of devices for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres implanted worldwide for medical applications is constantly increasing. Stimulation charge is one of the most important parameters of stimulation. High stimulation charge may cause tissue and electrode damage and also compromise the battery life of the electrical stimulators. Therefore, the objective of minimizing stimulation charge is an important issue. Delaying the second phase of biphasic stimulation waveform may decrease the charge required for fibre activation, but its impact on stimulation selectivity is not known. This information is particularly relevant when transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) is used, since it has been designed to provide for high selectivity. In this in vivo study, the rat sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated using monopolar and bipolar configurations with TIME. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of a 100-μs delay between the cathodic and the anodic phase of the stimulus allows to reduce charge requirements by around 30 %, while only slightly affecting stimulation selectivity. This study shows that adding a delay to the typical stimulation waveform significantly ([Formula: see text]) reduces the charge required for nerve fibres activation. Therefore, waveforms with the delayed discharge phase are more suitable for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres.

  9. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  10. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  11. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  12. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Value of Test Preparation Courses for the TOEFL iBT: Merit, Worth, and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    Test preparation for high-stakes English language tests has received increasing research attention in the language assessment field; however, little is known about what aspects of test preparation students attend to and value. In this study, we considered the perspectives of 12 Chinese students who were enrolled in various academic programs in a…

  13. Reassessing the cultural and psychopharmacological significance of Banisteriopsis caapi: preparation, classification and use among the Piaroa of Southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Robin

    2008-09-01

    Recent attention to the monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties of Banisteriopsis caapi's harmala alkaloids has precluded a balanced assessment of B. caapi's overall significance to indigenous South American societies. Relatively little attention has been paid to the cultural contexts, local meanings and patterns of use of B. caapi among snuff-using societies, such as the Piaroa, who do not prepare decoctions containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) admixtures. This article reviews the psychopharmacological literature on B. caapi in light of recent ethnographic work conducted among the Piaroa of southern Venezuela. Piaroa shamans use only B. caapi's cambium, identify at least five distinct varieties of B. caapi, and emphasise the plant's importance for heightening empathy. Some Piaroa people also attribute a range of extra-shamanic uses to B. caapi, including as a stimulant and hunting aid. In light of the psychopharmacological complexity of harmala alkaloids, and ethnographic evidence for a wide range of B. caapi uses,future research should reconsider B. caapi's cultural heritage and psychopharmacological potential as a stimulant and antidepressant-like substance.

  14. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  15. Preparing to Teach Newcomer Students: The Significance of Critical Pedagogy and the Study of Ideology in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Lilia I.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, the number of school-aged linguistic-minority students in the United States has increased dramatically. Society at large and public schools in particular must be prepared to respond to these students' needs. In public education, the bulk of this responsibility falls on teachers, who are called upon to apply educational policies…

  16. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate significantly decreases serum lipoprotein levels compared with entecavir nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy in chronic hepatitis B carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A A; AlMattooq, M; Yazdanfar, S; Burak, K W; Swain, M G; Congly, S E; Borman, M A; Lee, S S; Myers, R P; Coffin, C S

    2017-09-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers. We used propensity score matched models to assess the effect on total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL and triglycerides (TGL). In 348 patients, median age was 57 (IQR: 47-65 years), 63% were male, 77% were Asian, 19% were cirrhotic, 25% were HBeAg positive at baseline, and 72% received TDF vs 28% ETV. ETV-treated patients were older (median age: 60 vs 55, P<.01), had similar smoking and hypertension rates, but diabetes and dyslipidemia were more prevalent (19% vs 9%, P=.01; 14% vs 6%, P=.05, respectively). In propensity score matched models for age, gender, usage of lipid lowering agents, dyslipidemia and diabetes, TDF-treated patients were more likely to show a 20% decrease in TC (95% CI: 3%-25%), LDL-C (95% CI: 1%-25%) and HDL-C (CI: 10%-30%) levels compared with those on ETV. No change in TGL was observed in either group. A greater decline in TC, LDL-C and HDL was observed in CHB carriers receiving TDF compared with ETV. These data may influence anti-viral choice in CHB carriers at risk for CVD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  18. Label-free LC-MSMS analysis of vitreous from autoimmune uveitis reveals a significant decrease in secreted Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Hofmaier, Florian; Dietter, Johannes; Swadzba, Margarete E; Blindert, Marcel; Amann, Barbara; Behler, Jennifer; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2012-07-19

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a severe and frequent blinding disease in horses which presents with auto-reactive invading T-cells, resulting in the destruction of the inner eye. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the retina and vitreous is driven by currently unknown guidance cues, however surgical removal of the vitreous (vitrectomy) has proven therapeutically successful. Therefore, proteomic analyses of vitrectomy samples are likely to result in detection of proteins contributing to disease pathogenesis. Vitreous from healthy and ERU diseased horses were directly compared by quantitative mass spectrometry based on label-free quantification of peak intensities across samples. We found a significant upregulation of complement and coagulation cascades and downregulation of negative paracrine regulators of canonical Wnt signalling including the Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2. Based on immunohistochemistry, both proteins are expressed in equine retina and suggest localisation to retinal Müller glial cells (RMG), which may be the source cells for these proteins. Furthermore, retinal expression levels and patterns of DKK3 change in response to ERU. Since many other regulated proteins identified here are associated with RMG cells, these cells qualify as the prime responders to autoimmune triggers.

  19. Pediatric residents experience a significant decline in their response capabilities to simulated life-threatening events as their training frequency in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin M; Miller, Michael P; Schmidt, Kathleen; Sagy, Mayer

    2011-05-01

    To determine the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education using high-fidelity patient simulators during pediatric residency training. Randomized controlled trial. Suburban tertiary care children's hospital residency training program. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents were randomized into two study groups, 12 residents in each. Both groups completed a formal resuscitation training course utilizing lectures, skill stations, and six scenarios on high-fidelity patient stimulators. Group A was retested on three scenarios 4 months after training and group B was similarly retested 8 months after training. Time intervals from induction of a clinical problem to its definitive management were recorded for each resident. Residents were also asked to complete surveys following each episode of training and testing. The mean time intervals, for group A, to start effective bag mask ventilation and chest compressions in response to apnea and cardiac arrest were 17.75 secs (± 3.39 secs) and 23.42 secs (± 9.33 secs), respectively. These were significantly shorter than 32.7 secs (± 18.6 secs) and 81.2 secs (± 74.9 secs), for group B, respectively (p training, when compared to 4 months after training. These results may indicate that residents require more frequent training than currently recommended.

  20. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2004-01-01

    as increased phosphate and urea concentrations, whereas calcium and potassium concentrations decreased significantly after bowel preparation. No differences in plasma or extracellular volumes were seen. Orthostatic tolerance and balance function did not change after bowel preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel...

  1. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  2. A circle dance in a psychiatric setting : can a circle dance intervention decrease levels of depressed affect among patients with mental health illnesses and, if so, what aspect of this dance is most significant?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Ella King

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the circle dance in decreasing depressed affect amongst a group of 45 patients with severe mental health illnesses and highlights the most significant aspect of that dance. Patients participated in one of four conditions: a group performing a regular traditional upbeat Irish circle dance holding hands and with a jump step [jump+hands]; a group performing the same dance holding hands with no jump step [hands]; a group performing the same dance without holdin...

  3. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  4. Plasma levels of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) are significantly lower preoperatively in colorectal cancer patients than in cancer-free patients and are further decreased during the first month after minimally invasive colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha Kumara, H M C; Kirchoff, Daniel; Herath, Sajith A; Jang, Joon Ho; Yan, Xiaohong; Grieco, Michael; Cekic, Vesna; Whelan, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    Surgery has been associated with proangiogenic plasma protein changes that may promote tumor growth. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is expressed by endothelial cells and other tissues in response to hypoxia. Both intact ANGPTL4 and its partly degraded C-terminal fragment may promote tumor angiogenesis. This study had two purposes: to measure and compare preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and benign colorectal disease (BCD) and to determine plasma levels after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) for CRC. Plasma was obtained from an IRB-approved plasma/data bank. Preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels were measured for CRC and BCD patients, but postoperative levels were determined only for CRC patients for whom a preoperative, a postoperative day (POD) 3, and at least one late postoperative sample (POD 7-55) were available. Late samples were bundled into four time blocks and considered as single time points. ANGPTL4 levels (mean ± SD) were measured via ELISA and compared (significance, p MICR for CRC, levels are significantly lower for over a month compared with the preoperative level; the cause for this persistent decrease is unclear. The implications of both the lower preoperative level and the persistently decreased postoperative levels are unclear. Further studies are needed.

  5. Preparing Teachers to Teach Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities: The Significance of a National PGCE Development and Evaluation Project for Inclusive Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Nash, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising from a national development and evaluation project, which (1) surveyed national primary and secondary postgraduate certificate programmes (PGCE) about how they prepare trainees to teach pupils with special educational needs; and (2) conducted a trial of a practical teaching task for preparing primary and…

  6. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  7. [Prepartal expectations, behavior in labor and the puerperium and postpartal satisfaction with the labor experience. I. Significance of partner and prenatal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, M; Nemeskieri, N; Uhl, A; Langer, M; Reinold, E

    1986-07-01

    Attitudes and expectations of future parents towards the birth experience have changed thoroughly in the past years. In a prospective trial with 95 women we evaluated whether prepartal intentions for a common birth experience were actually carried out and what changes occurred during the past 5 years. 95 women with uncomplicated pregnancies filled in a questionnaire in the 38th week of pregnancy and several days after birth. Behavioural intentions and their realisation correlated well. The changes of attitude became evident comparing our results with those of a survey made 5 years ago in the same hospital. Depending on the social status of the couples, an increase in the participation of fathers of up to 30% was noted. 92% of the couples of social stratum B experienced childbirth together. Participation in any kind of birth preparation was comparably low and seems improvable. Women of lower social status, in particular, should be supported instead of discouraged to attend birth preparation courses.

  8. The isotype ZnO/SiC heterojunction prepared by molecular beam epitaxy--A chemical inert interface with significant band discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Lin, Nanying; Li, Yaping; Wang, Xiaodan; Wang, Huiqiong; Kang, Junyong; Wilks, Regan; Bär, Marcus; Mu, Rui

    2016-03-15

    ZnO/SiC heterojunctions show great potential for various optoelectronic applications (e.g., ultraviolet light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells). However, the lack of a detailed understanding of the ZnO/SiC interface prevents an efficient and rapid optimization of these devices. Here, intrinsic (but inherently n-type) ZnO were deposited via molecular beam epitaxy on n-type 6H-SiC single crystalline substrates. The chemical and electronic structure of the ZnO/SiC interfaces were characterized by ultraviolet/x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. In contrast to the ZnO/SiC interface prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, no willemite-like zinc silicate interface species is present at the MBE-ZnO/SiC interface. Furthermore, the valence band offset at the abrupt ZnO/SiC interface is experimentally determined to be (1.2 ± 0.3) eV, suggesting a conduction band offset of approximately 0.8 eV, thus explaining the reported excellent rectifying characteristics of isotype ZnO/SiC heterojunctions. These insights lead to a better comprehension of the ZnO/SiC interface and show that the choice of deposition route might offer a powerful means to tailor the chemical and electronic structures of the ZnO/SiC interface, which can eventually be utilized to optimize related devices.

  9. Ovine luteinizing hormone. V. Significance of flow-through peaks observed during chromatofocusing as revealed by various methods of sample preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotjan, H E; Schanbacher, B D; Keel, B A

    1991-07-19

    In a previous study [Keel et al., Biol, Reprod., 36 (1987) 1102] the ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) in pituitary extracts was chromatofocused on pH 10.5-7 gradients after equilibration in 25 mM triethylamine-HCl, pH 11.0, by gel permeation. Under these conditions, some immunoreactive oLH flowed through the columns unrestricted and this was interpreted to represent extremely basic isoforms. However, when selected flow-through peaks were re-chromatofocused, each was contaminated with other isoforms of oLH. In order to clarify this dilemma, various methods of sample preparation and application were systematically compared. Consistent with previous observations, variable amounts of the immunoreactive oLH in pituitary extracts equilibrated in triethylamine by gel permeation, dialysis, flow dialysis or ion-retardation chromatography eluted as flow-through peaks when chromatofocused. In contrast, when the ionic components in the pituitary homogenization buffer were removed by these methods as well as ultrafiltration and the proteins were applied to the resin in the elution buffer (1:45 Pharmalyte 8-10.5-HCl, pH 7.0), none of the immunoreactive oLH in pituitary extracts eluted as a flow-through peak. Thus, it appears that oLH eluting as a flow-through peak results from incomplete binding of the hormone to the chromatofocusing resin when applied in triethylamine.

  10. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  12. Near infra-red photoimmunotherapy with anti-CEA-IR700 results in extensive tumor lysis and a significant decrease in tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Maawy

    Full Text Available Photoimmunotherapy (PIT of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1 treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2 treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg was administered to group (1 via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice.

  13. 钙结合蛋白在前列腺癌中的下调表达及其临床意义%The clinical significance of decreased expression of calcium binding protein 39 in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建国; 陈卫红; 徐述雄; 王元林; 孙兆林; 何慧婵; 钟惟德

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨钙结合蛋白(CAB39)在前列腺癌中的作用及其临床意义.方法 应用蛋白组学二维荧光差异凝胶电泳(2D-DIGE)技术筛选出在局限性前列腺癌与癌旁组织差异性表达的CAB39蛋白,质谱分析(MS)鉴定、免疫组织化学技术检测CAB39蛋白在24例前列腺癌与癌旁组织中的表达,结合CAB39免疫组织化学评分和前列腺癌患者的临床病理参数进行分析.结果 CAB39蛋白在癌旁组织中的免疫组织化学染色阳性率高于前列腺癌组织(70.8%比33.3%,P<0.01),CAB39蛋白表达在前列腺癌患者年龄、血清前列腺特异抗原(PSA)水平、Gleason评分和肿瘤TNM分期各不同分组中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CAB39蛋白在前列腺癌患者中下调表达,它可能是前列腺癌抑制因子.%Objective To explore the role and clinical significance of calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39) protein in prostate cancer (PCa).Methods Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen CAB39 protein in PCa and adjacent tissues,and mass spectrometry analysis verification,to analyze the differentially expressed degree of CAB39 protein in 24 cases of PCa and adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) technology,the combination of CAB39 IHC score and clinicopathological parameters of PCa patients were analyzed.Results Using the method of IHC,we found that the expression of CAB39 protein in adjacent tissues was significantly higher than that in PCa tissues (70.8% vs 33.3%,P <0.01).The expression of CAB39 protein in different age stages of PCa patients,serum PSA levels,Gleason score and TNM stage in tumor group had no significant difference(P >0.05).Conclusion CAB39 protein is down-regulated expression in PCa,it may be prostate tumor suppressor.

  14. Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes cross the blood-brain barrier and significantly decrease PrP on neuronal cells and PrP in infected cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pulford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances toward an effective therapy for prion diseases employ RNA interference to suppress PrP(C expression and subsequent prion neuropathology, exploiting the phenomenon that disease severity and progression correlate with host PrP(C expression levels. However, delivery of lentivirus encoding PrP shRNA has demonstrated only modest efficacy in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new siRNA delivery system incorporating a small peptide that binds siRNA and acetylcholine receptors (AchRs, acting as a molecular messenger for delivery to neurons, and cationic liposomes that protect siRNA-peptide complexes from serum degradation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes (LSPCs delivered PrP siRNA specifically to AchR-expressing cells, suppressed PrP(C expression and eliminated PrP(RES formation in vitro. LSPCs injected intravenously into mice resisted serum degradation and delivered PrP siRNA throughout the brain to AchR and PrP(C-expressing neurons. These data promote LSPCs as effective vehicles for delivery of PrP and other siRNAs specifically to neurons to treat prion and other neuropathological diseases.

  15. Complete suppression of metastable phase and significant enhancement of magnetic properties of B-rich PrFeB nanocomposites prepared by devitrifying amorphous ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Zhang, L. C.; Biswas, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Chang, W. C.; Eckert, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of refractory element addition on phase transformation, crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of Pr 8.5Fe 81.5B 10 (addition-free) and Pr 8.5Fe 81.5M 2B 10 (M=V, Cr, Nb, Zr, Ti) ribbons has been investigated. The annealed addition-free ribbon as well as the samples with V or Cr additions are mainly composed of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase, whereas annealed ribbons with Nb, Zr or Ti additions primarily consist of Pr 2Fe 14B and a minor amount of Fe 3B/boride. The complete suppression of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase due to Nb, Zr or Ti additions leads to a significant enhancement of the magnetic properties. For example, the remanence, the coercivity and the energy product are remarkably increased from 2.5 kG, 0.4 kOe and 0.2 MG Oe for the addition-free material to 9.2 kG, 4.7 kOe and 7.6 MG Oe for the specimens with Nb addition. The successful elimination of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase is believed to profit from two factors: (a) Nb, Zr or Ti atoms substitute the Pr site, comparatively increase the Pr content, and thus inhibit the nucleation of Pr-lean Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phases, and (b) the formation of Nb, Zr, or Ti borides consumes some part of B, which hinders the generation of the B-rich Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase.

  16. Complete suppression of metastable phase and significant enhancement of magnetic properties of B-rich PrFeB nanocomposites prepared by devitrifying amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.Y. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wyzhang2005@yahoo.com; Chiu, C.H. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, 168, San-Hsing, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Zhang, L.C. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Biswas, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Chang, W.C. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, 168, San-Hsing, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Eckert, J. [FG Physikalische Metallkunde, FB 11 Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The effect of refractory element addition on phase transformation, crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 8.5}Fe{sub 81.5}B{sub 10} (addition-free) and Pr{sub 8.5}Fe{sub 81.5}M{sub 2}B{sub 10} (M=V, Cr, Nb, Zr, Ti) ribbons has been investigated. The annealed addition-free ribbon as well as the samples with V or Cr additions are mainly composed of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase, whereas annealed ribbons with Nb, Zr or Ti additions primarily consist of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and a minor amount of Fe{sub 3}B/boride. The complete suppression of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase due to Nb, Zr or Ti additions leads to a significant enhancement of the magnetic properties. For example, the remanence, the coercivity and the energy product are remarkably increased from 2.5 kG, 0.4 kOe and 0.2 MG Oe for the addition-free material to 9.2 kG, 4.7 kOe and 7.6 MG Oe for the specimens with Nb addition. The successful elimination of the metastable Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase is believed to profit from two factors: (a) Nb, Zr or Ti atoms substitute the Pr site, comparatively increase the Pr content, and thus inhibit the nucleation of Pr-lean Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phases, and (b) the formation of Nb, Zr, or Ti borides consumes some part of B, which hinders the generation of the B-rich Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 23}B{sub 3} phase.

  17. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  18. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  19. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect b

  20. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  1. The utility of pap cell block preparations with liqui-PREP™ cell pellets to clarify the cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nicholas B; Baldassari, Jashua Haddad; Pérez Taveras, Digno A; José Fernández, María; Concepción Robledo, María

    2017-06-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and atypical glandular cells (AGC) reflect cellular abnormalities insufficient for clear diagnosis. We used cell pellets obtained from liquid-based cytology (LBC) to prepare cell blocks (CB) and clarify the initial diagnosis of ASCUS and AGC. A total of 393 CBs with initial diagnosis of ASCUS or AGC were processed. Of those, 305 of the ASCUS and 20 of the AGC had adequate specimens. We compared results of CBs prepared from ASCUS and AGC to determine which had higher frequencies of higher-grade lesions. A majority of specimens (83%) were adequate for evaluation. Compared with the initial diagnosis, 14% (42/305) of ASCUS were diagnosed with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in CB, while 10% (2/20) of AGC were diagnosed with LSIL or adenocarcinoma. No statistical relationship between the initial diagnosis of ASCUS and AGC and results of higher-grade lesions in CB is evident as determined by p value greater than 0.05 (p = 0.228). CBs prepared from Liqui-PREP cell pellets are, in most cases, assessable and can be useful as an adjunctive test to help clarify the initial diagnosis of ASCUS and AGC. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:520-525. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A phytosterol enriched refined extract of Brassica campestris L. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model as compared to the classical TCM pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-15

    In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablet (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0g/kg, castrated PE 0.1g/kg, castrated PE 0.2g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4g/kg, were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham-operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p<0.01), PVI (p<0.01), and SVI (p<0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2g/kg or QKPT at 2.0g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (p<0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p<0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p<0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT.

  3. Decrease of sintering temperature by CuO doping of the 0.8Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.2PbTiO{sub 3} ceramics prepared by reaction-sintering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Bijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiang, Na; Ding, Chenlu; Du, Qingbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Ding, Jianning [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Key Laboratory of New Energy Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-02-15

    CuO-doped 0.8Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.2PbTiO{sub 3} (0.8PMN-0.2PT) ceramics were prepared by the reaction-sintering method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and density measurement confirmed that the CuO-doped 0.8PMN-0.2PT ceramics prepared by the reaction-sintering method with the addition of up to 5 mol% CuO and sintered over a wide sintering temperature range exhibit pure rhombohedral perovskite structure, rather homogeneous micromorphology and high relative density. As compared to the undoped 0.8PMN-0.2PT ceramics prepared by the same method, CuO proves to be an effective sintering aid, which can greatly decrease the sintering temperature of the 0.8PMN-0.2PT ceramics prepared by the reaction-sintering method, where high relative density can be obtained and the electrical properties are not deteriorated or improved of the synthesized 0.8PMN-0.2PT ceramics. The CuO doping content and sintering temperature exert great influences on the crystal structure, density and electrical properties of the 0.8PMN-0.2PT ceramics prepared by the reaction-sintering method. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  5. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  6. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  7. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  8. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  9. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  10. Microecological Chinese Medicine Preparation-Development Strategy and Strategic Significance%试论微生态中药制剂——开发策略与战略意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄叶

    2012-01-01

    微生态中药制剂是以微生态学为理论基础,在传统中药制剂的制备工艺中,结合益生细菌等有益微生物发酵及酶法水解等现代生物技术制备的口服类中药制剂.微生态中药的发酵工艺是一项共性技术,具有普遍的适用性和广泛的实用性,可成为现阶段实施大中药产业战略的有力助推器.将该创新工艺引入到中药复方制剂生产中,可望实现对传统名优中药进行"批量式"二次开发;引入到药用植物提取物生产中,可望提升产品的附加值;引入到中药兽药和饲料添加剂生产中,可望破解人、畜同用抗生素引起交叉耐药的困境.根据中药的属性和类别,分别以食品级、保健食品级、医院制剂、国家级中药新药、中药兽药及饲料添加剂等各种类别,全方位、多层次地开发、推广微生态中药产品,可望创建一个拥有我国自主知识产权、具有国际话语权的战略性新兴医药产业群.%The microecological Chinese medicine preparation based on the microecology as the theoretical basis is an oral Chinese medicine preparation that is prepared by the combination of the traditional Chinese medicine preparation process with probiotic bacteria etc. beneficial microbial fermentation as well as enzymatic hydrolysis etc. modern biotechnology. The fermentation process of the microecological Chinese medicine is a kind of generic technology with universal applicability and broad practicability, and could be a powerful booster at current stage to implement the strategy for the vast Chinese medicine industry. It is expected to achieve the batch type secondary development of famous traditional Chinese medicine while the innovative fermentation technology is introduced into the production of compound Chinese medicinal preparation, is expected to increase the added value of the products while introduced into the production of medicinal plant extracts, is expected to crack the plight of cross

  11. Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmitz, Tim G; Besier, Tanja; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent's life satisfaction. 1,274 German adolescents (aged 11-16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version of the Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ(M) - Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit), a multidimensional instrument measuring the subjective importance and satisfaction with eight domains of general and eight domains of health-related life satisfaction. Effects of gender and age were analysed using ANOVAs. Girls reported significantly lower general (F = 5.0; p = .025) and health-related life satisfaction (F = 25.3; p life domains, there was a significant decrease in general (F = 14.8; p life satisfaction (F = 8.0; p Satisfaction with friends remained on a high level, whereas satisfaction with family relations decreased. Only satisfaction with partnership/sexuality increased slightly, however this effect cannot compensate the general loss of satisfaction. Decreasing life satisfaction has to be considered as a developmental phenomenon. Associations with the increasing prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation during adolescence are discussed. Life satisfaction should be considered a relevant aspect of adolescent's well-being and functioning.

  12. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  13. Significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection%包皮上皮角质层厚度对包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金天; 李森恺; 梁浩; 高云周; 李强; 谢林海; 丁健; 周传德; 李峰永; 周宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨包皮内板、外板上皮角质层的厚度及对成年人包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义.方法 共取19例包皮标本,分为纵向(7例)、横向(12例),分别测量包皮内板、外板上皮角质层厚度.并以1例变性手术切取的包皮内板、阴茎头及阴茎皮肤的上皮角质层作为比较.结果 包皮内板的角质层比外板薄,靠近冠状沟的远端包皮内板角质层比近端的包皮内板角质层薄.远端及近端的包皮外板上皮角质层无统计学意义.1例阴茎标本的包皮内板角质层比阴茎皮肤角质层薄.结论 为了减少HIV感染率,包皮环切术中应保留较少的包皮内板,包皮外板可以适当多保留.%Objective To investigate the significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection. Methods Nineteen preputial specimen were harvested and divided into 7 cases (longitudinal) and 12 cases (horizontal). The corneum layer thickness of epithelial inner plate and epithelial outer plate was measured respectively. The epithelial corneum layer of foreskin from the case who underwent the transsexual operation was as the control sample. Results The corneum layer of the inner plate was thinner than that of the outer plate. The corneum layer of the inner plate of distal prepuce was thinner than that of the proximal prepuce. Conclusion To reduce HIV infection, less inner plate of prepuce should be reserved, whde more outer plate of prepuce should be retained during the circumcision.

  14. 肝细胞癌病变肝脏血管铸型标本的制作及意义%Preparation of vascular corrosion casting mould specimen of liver with tumor and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文辉; 莫木琼; 聂钊铭; 钟觉民; 罗灿峤

    2015-01-01

    目的 制作有肝细胞癌病变的肝脏血管铸型标本,为科研和教学了解肝细胞癌的生长提供形态学依据.方法 将肝细胞癌患者手术切除的新鲜成人肝组织用10%醋酸生理盐水插管冲洗,彻底去除肝脏血管内的血液,分别用混合红色、蓝色和黄色油画颜料的过氯乙烯-自凝牙托粉材料填充剂依次灌注肝固有动脉、肝门静脉和肝静脉,通过聚合反应塑化成型,经插管→灌注→腐蚀→冲洗→修整→装瓶密封,制成有肝细胞癌病变的肝脏血管铸型标本进行观察. 结果 肝细胞癌病变的肝脏血管铸型标本能清晰显示肝门静脉、肝动脉、肝静脉、肝肿瘤及其周围血管分布. 显示的血管充盈饱满,粗细、疏密合理,色泽鲜艳,立体感强,精致美观. 结论 肝细胞癌病变的肝脏可制成血管铸型标本,制成的标本能直观显示肝细胞癌病变的肝脏内血管、肿瘤区域及其周围血管分布.%Objective To prepare the vascular corrosion casting mould specimen of liver with hepatocellular carcino -ma and to provide reliable morphological evidence for clinical activity , teaching and scientific research of liver tumor . Methods A fresh hepatocellular carcinoma specimen obtained by surgical resection was injected with 10%acetic acid sa-line to thoroughly remove blood within the liver .Then the hepatic artery , hepatic portal vein and hepatic vein were perfused with mixtures of perchlorovinyl resin and polymethyl methacrylate resin with red , blue and yellow coloring agent , respec-tively.Vascular corrosion casting mould specimen of the liver with primary tumor was obtained by intubation , perfusion, corrosion, flushing, trimming and sealing to the container .Results The method could clearly showed the hepatic artery , hepatic portal vein and hepatic venous system and the distribution of blood vessels in and around the tumor area .The ves-sels were full filling, in reasonable size and density

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  16. Impact of robotic antineoplastic preparation on safety, workflow, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Andrew C; Churchill, William W; Keohane, Carol A; Belisle, Caryn D; Wong, Stephanie T; Sylvester, Katelyn W; Chesnick, Megan A; Burdick, Elisabeth; Wien, Matt F; Cotugno, Michael C; Bates, David W; Rothschild, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    Antineoplastic preparation presents unique safety concerns and consumes significant pharmacy staff time and costs. Robotic antineoplastic and adjuvant medication compounding may provide incremental safety and efficiency advantages compared with standard pharmacy practices. We conducted a direct observation trial in an academic medical center pharmacy to compare the effects of usual/manual antineoplastic and adjuvant drug preparation (baseline period) with robotic preparation (intervention period). The primary outcomes were serious medication errors and staff safety events with the potential for harm of patients and staff, respectively. Secondary outcomes included medication accuracy determined by gravimetric techniques, medication preparation time, and the costs of both ancillary materials used during drug preparation and personnel time. Among 1,421 and 972 observed medication preparations, we found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious medication errors (P = .8) and 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. Drugs failed accuracy measurements in 12.5% (23 of 184) and 0.9% (one of 110) of preparations in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P robot (P = .009). Labor costs were similar in both study periods, although the ancillary material costs decreased by 56% in the intervention period (P robotically prepared antineoplastic and adjuvant medications did not reduce serious medication errors, both staff safety and accuracy of medication preparation were improved significantly. Future studies are necessary to address the overall cost effectiveness of these robotic implementations.

  17. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  18. Our Philosophical Heritage: Significant Influences on Professional Practice and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knock, Gary H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines influence on student affairs of four philosophical perspectives: rationalism, neohumanism, pragmatism, and existentialism. Claims educational philosophy, both institutional and personal, contributes to policymaking and program development. Concludes that it is necessary to reflect regularly on the why and the how of the student affairs…

  19. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  20. Obesity Decreases Perioperative Tissue Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabon, Barbara; Nagele, Angelika; Reddy, Dayakar; Eagon, Chris; Fleshman, James W.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The incidence of surgical wound infections is directly related to tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Fat tissue mass expands without a concomitant increase in blood flow per cell, which might result in a relative hypoperfusion with decreased tissue oxygenation. Consequently, we tested the hypotheses that perioperative tissue oxygen tension is reduced in obese surgical patients. Furthermore, we compared the effect of supplemental oxygen administration on tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients. Methods: Forty-six patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were assigned to one of two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): BMI < 30 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obese). Intraoperative oxygen administration was adjusted to arterial oxygen tensions of ≈150 mmHg and ≈300 mmHg in random order. Anesthesia technique and perioperative fluid management were standardized. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with a polarographic electrode positioned within a subcutaneous tonometer in the lateral upper arm during surgery, in the recovery room, and on the first postoperative day. Postoperative tissue oxygen was also measured adjacent to the wound. Data were compared with unpaired two tailed t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Intraoperative subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was significantly less in the obese patients at baseline (36 vs. 57 mmHg, P = 0.002) and with supplemental oxygen administration (47 vs. 76 mmHg, P = 0.014). Immediate postoperative tissue oxygen tension was also significantly less in subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm (43 vs. 54 mmHg, P = 0.011) as well as near the incision (42 vs. 62 mmHg, P = 0.012) in obese patients. In contrast, tissue oxygen tension was comparable in each group on the first postoperative morning. Conclusion: Wound and tissue hypoxia were common in obese

  1. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  2. Correlation and clinical significance of the decreased cervical mobility in ankylosing spondylitis patient with thoracolumbar kyphosis%强直性脊柱炎胸腰椎后凸畸形患者颈椎活动受限的相关因素及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆; 钱邦平; 邱勇; 王斌; 俞杨; 朱泽章; 季明亮; 胡俊; 史本龙

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the risk factors and its clinical significance of limited cervical range of motion in ankylosing spondylitis(AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis.Methods:From May 2012 to Octobcr 2012,38 AS patients (with complete medical records) from the 51 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis in our hospital werc cnrolled.There were 36 males and 2 females,with an average age of 32.6 years(range,17-53 years).The clinical data consisted of age,discase course,erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR),C-reaction protein(CRP).The radiographic parameters were composed by global kyphosis(GK),cervical mSASSS(the modified Stokes ankylosing spondylitis spinal score),cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA.The quality of life questionnaires consisted of bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI),bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index(BASFI) and Oswestry disability index(ODI).According to the value of cervical range of motion(CROM),the subjects were divided into two groups:group A,CROM >40°; group B,CROM <20°.The independent t-test was used to compare the parameters between the two groups.Furthermore,the Pearson correlation test was performed to investigate the risk factors correlated with CROM.Results:In group A,there were 16 patients with an average CROM of 65.8°±14.3°(41°-92°),while 17 patients in group B with an average CROM of 9.2°±6.6°(1°-19°).With respect to the disease course,BASFI,GK,mSASSS,cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA,significant differences were found between two groups(P<0.05).However,the age,ODI,BASDAI,ESR or CRP showed no significant difference between group A and B(P>0.05).There were remarkable correlations between CROM and disease course,mSASSS,cervical curve,C2-C7 SVA and BASFI(r=-0.524,-0.895,0.494,-0.813,and-0.501 respectively,P<0.05).Especially,there was no significant correlation between GK and CROM(r=-0.275,P=0.122).Conclusions:Longer disease course and cervical structural damage are high risk

  3. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃–55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. RESULTS The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. CONCLUSION The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26949485

  4. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  5. [Microflora of spiruline preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J

    1975-01-01

    A study, by direct microscopic examination and cultures, shows that the microflore which accompanies the spirulines preparations, varies as the origin and the technologie treatment quality. The main species are bacillacees; then, come faecal streptococcus which are the best contaminations indicators; enterobacteries, yeasts, moulds spores, are exceptional. Dry products as getting old, entail a great decrease of all the species, the anaerobies being more resistant.

  6. Morphine decreases enteric neuron excitability via inhibition of sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia H Smith

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal peristalsis is significantly dependent on the enteric nervous system. Constipation due to reduced peristalsis is a major side-effect of morphine, which limits the chronic usefulness of this excellent pain reliever in man. The ionic basis for the inhibition of enteric neuron excitability by morphine is not well characterized as previous studies have mainly utilized microelectrode recordings from whole mount myenteric plexus preparations in guinea pigs. Here we have developed a Swiss-Webster mouse myenteric neuron culture and examined their electrophysiological properties by patch-clamp techniques and determined the mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability. Isolated neurons in culture were confirmed by immunostaining with pan-neuronal marker, β-III tubulin and two populations were identified by calbindin and calretinin staining. Distinct neuronal populations were further identified based on the presence and absence of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP. Cells with AHP expressed greater density of sodium currents. Morphine (3 µM significantly reduced the amplitude of the action potential, increased the threshold for spike generation but did not alter the resting membrane potential. The decrease in excitability resulted from inhibition of sodium currents. In the presence of morphine, the steady-state voltage dependence of Na channels was shifted to the left with almost 50% of channels unavailable for activation from hyperpolarized potentials. During prolonged exposure to morphine (two hours, action potentials recovered, indicative of the development of tolerance in single enteric neurons. These results demonstrate the feasibility of isolating mouse myenteric neurons and establish sodium channel inhibition as a mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability.

  7. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  8. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    ASKARI, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh,Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measur...

  9. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  10. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

  11. BIHOURLY DIAGRAMS OF FORBUSH DECREASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihourly diagrams were made of Forbush decreases of cosmic ray intensity as observed at Uppsala from 31 Aug 56 to 31 Dec 59, at Kiruna from Nov 56 to 31 Dec 59, and at Murchison Bay from 26 Aug 57 to 30 Apr 59. (Author)

  12. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  13. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  14. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  15. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  16. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  17. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  18. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  19. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  20. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  1. Impact of Robotic Antineoplastic Preparation on Safety, Workflow, and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Andrew C.; Churchill, William W.; Keohane, Carol A.; Belisle, Caryn D.; Wong, Stephanie T.; Sylvester, Katelyn W.; Chesnick, Megan A.; Burdick, Elisabeth; Wien, Matt F.; Cotugno, Michael C.; Bates, David W.; Rothschild, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Antineoplastic preparation presents unique safety concerns and consumes significant pharmacy staff time and costs. Robotic antineoplastic and adjuvant medication compounding may provide incremental safety and efficiency advantages compared with standard pharmacy practices. Methods: We conducted a direct observation trial in an academic medical center pharmacy to compare the effects of usual/manual antineoplastic and adjuvant drug preparation (baseline period) with robotic preparation (intervention period). The primary outcomes were serious medication errors and staff safety events with the potential for harm of patients and staff, respectively. Secondary outcomes included medication accuracy determined by gravimetric techniques, medication preparation time, and the costs of both ancillary materials used during drug preparation and personnel time. Results: Among 1,421 and 972 observed medication preparations, we found nine (0.7%) and seven (0.7%) serious medication errors (P = .8) and 73 (5.1%) and 28 (2.9%) staff safety events (P = .007) in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. Drugs failed accuracy measurements in 12.5% (23 of 184) and 0.9% (one of 110) of preparations in the baseline and intervention periods, respectively (P drug preparation time increased by 47% when using the robot (P = .009). Labor costs were similar in both study periods, although the ancillary material costs decreased by 56% in the intervention period (P antineoplastic and adjuvant medications did not reduce serious medication errors, both staff safety and accuracy of medication preparation were improved significantly. Future studies are necessary to address the overall cost effectiveness of these robotic implementations. PMID:23598843

  2. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  3. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  4. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  5. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  6. Sample Preparation for Bioanalytical and Pharmaceutical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Zhang, Cheng; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-12-06

    Biological and pharmaceutical samples represent formidable challenges in sample preparation that hold important consequences for bioanalysis and genotoxic impurity quantification. This Feature will emphasize significant advances toward the development of rapid, sensitive, and selective sample preparation methods.

  7. Keratinocyte Apoptosis is Decreased in Psoriatic Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskioğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes are the hallmarks of psoriasis vulgaris. Although psoriasis vulgaris is generally accepted as a disease of decreased keratinocyte apoptosis, the results are contradictory. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether decreased keratinocyte apoptosis contributes to the formation of a thickened epidermis as increased keratinocyte proliferation. Material and Method: Forty-three untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients and 20 healthy control subjects were included into the study. Biopsy specimens taken from the enrollee were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 expressions to show the proliferation of keratinocytes and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL method to show the apoptotic keratinocytes. Results: Apoptotic index (percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was significantly lower in psoriatic epidermis (0.33±0.64 than in normal epidermis (0.75±0.85; whereas Ki-67 index (percentage of positively staining cells for Ki-67 was significantly higher in psoriatic epidermis (30.86±10.49 than in normal epidermis (11.65±2.98, (p=0.021 and p=0.00; respectively. Conclusion: Decreased keratinocyte apoptosis also contribute to increased epidermal thickness in psoriasis as well as increased keratinocyte proliferation.

  8. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  9. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  10. Happy mood decreases self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B

    2003-03-01

    Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.

  11. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  14. [Efficiency of the preparation "Ekolan-M" for purification of oil polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogina, T M; Dumanskaia, T U; Khomenko, L A; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of purification of oil contaminated loamy chernozem by the preparation "Ekolan-M" was investigated. During 12 months a complex soil bioremediation using the preparation and alfalfa, as the land-improving plant, at the final stage of purification resulted in the reduction of hydrocarbon content by 97.0%, and without the preparation - by 65.5 %. In the version of experiment with the preparation a 100% decrease of soil phytotoxicity was achieved and a significant stimulation of plant growth and development was observed. The process of soil purification was accompanied by intensive development of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, the amount of which during the process of oil concentration gradually decreased, approaching the level in the control uncontaminated soil.

  15. Forbush Decrease: A New Perspective with Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Anil; Shaikh, Zubair; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Vichare, Geeta

    2017-08-01

    Sudden short-duration decreases in cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush decreases (FDs), are mainly caused by interplanetary disturbances. A generally accepted view is that the first step of an FD is caused by a shock sheath and the second step is due to the magnetic cloud (MC) of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). This simplistic picture does not consider several physical aspects, such as whether the complete shock sheath or MC (or only part of these) contributes to the decrease or the effect of internal structure within the shock-sheath region or MC. We present an analysis of 16 large ({≥} 8 %) FD events and the associated ICMEs, a majority of which show multiple steps in the FD profile. We propose a reclassification of FD events according to the number of steps observed in their respective profiles and according to the physical origin of these steps. This study determines that 13 out of 16 major events ({˜} 81%) can be explained completely or partially on the basis of the classic FD model. However, it cannot explain all the steps observed in these events. Our analysis clearly indicates that not only broad regions (shock sheath and MC), but also localized structures within the shock sheath and MC have a significant role in influencing the FD profile. The detailed analysis in the present work is expected to contribute toward a better understanding of the relationship between FD and ICME parameters.

  16. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P HSL activity were significantly lower (P HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  17. Experience with Dynamic Reinforcement Rates Decreases Resistance to Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of f...

  18. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-09-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status.

  19. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  20. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  1. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  2. Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Allen, Rosemary A; Pammer, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates how auditory attention affects inattentional blindness (IB), a failure of conscious awareness in which an observer does not notice an unexpected event because their attention is engaged elsewhere. Previous research using the attentional blink paradigm has indicated that listening to music can reduce failures of conscious awareness. It was proposed that listening to music would decrease IB by reducing observers' frequency of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Observers completed an IB task that varied both visual and auditory demands. Listening to music was associated with significantly lower IB, but only when observers actively attended to the music. Follow-up experiments suggest this was due to the distracting qualities of the audio task. The results also suggest a complex relationship between IB and TUTs: during demanding tasks, as predicted, noticers of the unexpected stimulus reported fewer TUTs than non-noticers. During less demanding tasks, however, noticers reported more TUTs than non-noticers.

  3. Assortativity Decreases the Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...

  4. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous clinical studies have documented successful neck pain relief in whiplash patients using nerve block and radiofrequency ablation of facet joint afferents, including capsular ligament nerves. No previous study has documented injuries to the neck ligaments as determined by altered dynamic mechanical properties due to whiplash. The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic mechanical properties of whiplash-exposed human cervical spine ligaments. Additionally, the present data were compared to previously reported control data. The ligaments included the anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. Methods A total of 98 bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1 were prepared from six cervical spines following 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g rear impacts and pre- and post-impact flexibility testing. The specimens were elongated to failure at a peak rate of 725 (SD 95 mm/s. Failure force, elongation, and energy absorbed, as well as stiffness were determined. The mechanical properties were statistically compared among ligaments, and to the control data (significance level: P Results For all whiplash-exposed ligaments, the average failure elongation exceeded the average physiological elongation. The highest average failure force of 204.6 N was observed in the ligamentum flavum, significantly greater than in middle-third disc and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. The highest average failure elongation of 4.9 mm was observed in the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. The average energy absorbed ranged from 0.04 J by the middle-third disc to 0.44 J by the capsular ligament. The ligamentum flavum was the stiffest ligament, while the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments were most flexible. The whiplash

  5. [Intraocular pressure decrease after manual small incision cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M

    2017-05-01

    We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, Pdecrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sediment losses from forest management: mechanical vs. chemical site preparation after clearcutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.S.; Granillo, A.B.; Zillmer, V.

    The comparative effects of mechanical and chemical site preparation water yields and sediment losses following forest clearcutting were evaluated over a 4-yr period in the Athens Plateau area of southwestern Arkansas. After 1 yr of pretreatment measurements, three forested water sheds were clearcut and the residual vegetation and debris were sheared and windrowed but not burned. Three watersheds were clearcut in a similar manner, but received chemical site preparation. Residual trees on two watersheds were injected with 2-4, D amine; the third watershed was aerially sprayed with a mixture of Tordon (active ingredient: picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicoline acid)) and Garlon (active ingredient; triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid)). Three additional watersheds were left undisturbed for controls. Mean annual sediment losses on the mechanically, site prepared watersheds during the first posttreatment year were significantly higher than those from either the chemically site prepared watersheds or controls. Chemical site preparation did not significantly increase sediment losses. Although 2nd yr losses for the mechanical site preparation and control treatments doubled over 1st-yr levels, no significant treatment effect was detected for either site preparation treatment. Third-year losses decreased below 1st-yr losses for all treatments but not to pretreatment year levels. The relatively sharp declines in sediment losses during the third posttreatment year were attributed to rapid regrowth of natural vegetation on the sites.

  7. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  8. Decrease in spermidine content during logarithmic phase of cell growth delays spore formation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, I; Takada, H; Terao, K; Kakegawa, T; Igarashi, K; Hirose, S

    1994-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168M contained a large amount of spermidine during the logarithmic phase of growth, but the amount decreased drastically during the stationary phase. The extracts, prepared from B. subtilis cells harvested in the logarithmic phase, contained activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) rather than the activity of ornithine decarboxylase. In the presence of alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ADC, the amount of spermidine in B. subtilis during the logarithmic phase decreased to about 25% of the control cells. Under these conditions, spore formation of B. subtilis 168M delayed greatly without significant inhibition of cell growth. The decrease in spermidine content in the logarithmic phase rather than in the stationary phase was involved in the delay of sporulation. Electron microscopy of cells at 24 hrs. of culture confirmed the delay of spore formation by the decrease of spermidine content. Furthermore, the delay of sporulation was negated by the addition of spermidine. These data suggest that a large amount of spermidine existing during the logarithmic phase plays an important role in the sporulation of B. subtilis.

  9. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  10. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  11. Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Rosemary M; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows globally are disappearing at a rapid rate with physical disturbances being one of the major drivers of this habitat loss. Disturbance of seagrass can lead to fragmentation, a reduction in shoot density, canopy height and coverage, and potentially permanent loss of habitat. Despite being such a widespread issue, knowledge of how such small scale change affects the spatial distribution and abundances of motile fauna remains limited. The present study investigated fish and macro faunal community response patterns to a range of habitat variables (shoot length, cover and density), including individual species habitat preferences within a disturbed and patchy intertidal seagrass meadow. Multivariate analysis showed a measurable effect of variable seagrass cover on the abundance and distribution of the fauna, with species specific preferences to both high and low seagrass cover seagrass. The faunal community composition varied significantly with increasing/decreasing cover. The faunal species composition of low cover seagrass was more similar to sandy control plots than to higher cover seagrass. Shannon Wiener Diversity (H') and species richness was significantly higher in high cover seagrass than in low cover seagrass, indicating increasing habitat value as density increases. The results of this study underline how the impacts of small scale disturbances from factors such as anchor damage, boat moorings and intertidal vehicle use on seagrass meadows that reduce shoot density and cover can impact upon associated fauna. These impacts have negative consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services such as the provision of nursery habitat.

  12. Preparation of Blood-Deficient Model and Research of Angelica Polysaccharide on Enriching Blood in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Hou; Yongzhan Bao; Qian Li; Wanyu Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this study cyclophosphamide was used to prepare the blood-deficient model. The red blood cell count and hemoglobin content were measured. The experimental chickens presented the symptoms of blood-deficient syndrome, dullness, shrinkinginto oneself, broken winded, loose feather, waxy eyelid, and pale tongue. At the same time, red blood cell count and hemoglobin content decreased significantly. Angelica polysaccharide as the effective component of Angelica Sinensis could significantly increa...

  13. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used ...

  14. Fostering Significant Learning in Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksissa, Tolessa; Liang, Lily R.; Behera, Pradeep; Harkness, Suzan J.

    2014-01-01

    The new global economy depends on workforce competencies in science, technology, engineering and mathematics more than ever before. To prepare a strong workforce, attracting and educating underrepresented minority students in science is a challenge within our traditional American educational approach. To meet this challenge, fostering significant…

  15. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Age-dependent decrease in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of ouabain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Kanai, S; Sato, Y; Kitani, K

    1988-03-01

    The biliary excretion of i.v. injected ouabain was examined in male and female Wistar-derived rats in relation to age. The hepatic uptake velocity for ouabain was also determined in isolated hepatocyte preparations obtained from male rats of various ages. Biliary recovery values of ouabain (percent of the dose) were fairly comparable for young male and female rats (3-4 month old). Recovery progressively decreased with age, the first 10-min recoveries at 24 months being about one-third those of respective young values in both sexes. A significant linear relation was demonstrated between the first 10-min recovery (Y, percent of the dose) and rat age (X, month), yielding the relations of Y = 17.75-0.43X for males and Y = 18.99-0.43X for females respectively. Similarly, the initial uptake velocity (Y, nmol/mg/min) for ouabain decreased in a linear fashion with age (X, month), yielding a significant negative correlation (Y = 0.704-0.0021X, r = -0.839, P less than 0.005, N = 21) at an ouabain concentration of 8 microM. Kinetic studies using non-linear regression analysis revealed a significantly lower Vmax value (0.533 +/- 0.041 nmol/mg/min) in old (24-29 months) rats compared to the young (4-4.5 months) value (1.193 +/- 0.105 nmol per mg/min, P less than 0.05), while the affinity constant (Km, microM) did not differ significantly between young and old animals (203.12 +/- 25.42 microM in young rats vs 283.68 +/- 28.90 microM in old rats, mean +/- SE, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). The results of the present study suggest that the age-dependent decrease in the biliary recovery of i.v. injected ouabain in rats can be largely explained by the decrease with age in the hepatic uptake of ouabain. Furthermore, the results provide further support for our previous thesis that the decrease in the lateral mobility of hepatocyte plasma membrane proteins, as revealed by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, may play a significant role in the age

  17. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  18. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  19. Ceruloplasmin decreases respiratory burst reaction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, Elena Y; Semenova, Elena V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Aplin, Kirill D; Timofeeva, Kseniya E; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Filatov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Testing of pregnant women reveals weakening of neutrophil-mediated effector functions, such as reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides data confirming the phenomenon, gained through application of the flow cytometry technique. Key factors influencing neutrophil functional activity in blood plasma of pregnant women have not been detected so far. At the same time, concentration of ceruloplasmin - a copper-containing glycoprotein - is known to increase in blood significantly during pregnancy. We observed the negative correlation between ceruloplasmin concentration in blood plasma of pregnant women and the intensity of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Fractionation of plasma using gel-filtration revealed that ceruloplasmin-containing fraction demonstrated suppression of the respiratory burst reaction. Partial elimination of ceruloplasmin from the blood of pregnant women, performed with the help of specific antibodies and followed by immunoprecipitation, leads to an increased respiratory burst reaction. On the contrary, addition of ceruloplasmin to blood samples of healthy donors noticeably decreases the respiratory burst reaction. The results presented prove that change in ceruloplasmin level in plasma is necessary and sufficient for modulating the ability of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species during pregnancy.

  20. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  1. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  2. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...inflammatory, hypertrophic scaring 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON ...agent, dose and schedule to reduce contraction of the grafted split -thickness skin by allowing the experimental animal to survive for a longer period of

  3. The preparation of nanoscale composite of polyurethane to decrease platelet deoosition on the surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-yan; KONG Hua; YANG Zi-bin

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Among the biomedical applications of synthetic polymers, the development ofblood-handling equipment has been one of the most investigated areas in the past twodecades. Polyurethanes have been used as blood-contacting biomaterials due to theirexcellent mechanical properties and acceptable blood compatibility which is relativelybetter than most of other synthetic polymer materials.

  4. Preparing Student Mobility through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Marta; Jeanneau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, going to a foreign country has become all the more significant for Higher Education (HE) students, as concepts such as internationalisation and intercultural competencies have gained a more prominent role in HE. For students to fully benefit from this experience, it is paramount to prepare them for their stay in a foreign country…

  5. Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F • 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3-10 AUG 05. 14. ABSTRACT Forbush decreases (FDs) in neutron monitor (NM) counting rates are caused by enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary...VS-HA-TR-2007-1044 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 2, 267-270 Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases S.W

  6. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  7. Revisiting the effectiveness of interventions to decrease surgical site infections in colorectal surgery: A Bayesian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma R; Pedroza, Claudia; Millas, Stefanos G; Chang, George J; Lally, Kevin P; Kao, Lillian S

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the evidence for interventions to decrease surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal operations using Bayesian meta-analysis. Interventions other than appropriate administration of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent SSIs have not been adopted widely, in part because of lack of recommendations for these interventions based on traditional meta-analyses. Bayesian methods can provide probabilities of specific thresholds of benefit, which may be more useful in guiding clinical decision making. We hypothesized that Bayesian meta-analytic methods would complement the interpretation of traditional analyses regarding the effectiveness of interventions to decrease SSIs. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database for reviews of interventions to decrease SSIs after colorectal surgery other than prophylactic antibiotics. Traditional and Bayesian meta-analyses were performed using RevMan (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and WinBUGS (MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK). Bayesian posterior probabilities of any benefit, defined as a relative risk of Bayesian analysis, several interventions that did not result in "significant" decreases in SSIs using traditional analytic methods had a >85% probability of benefit. Also, nonuse of 2 interventions (mechanical bowel preparation and adhesive drapes) had a high probability of decreasing SSIs compared with their use. Bayesian probabilities and traditional point estimates of treatment effect yield similar information in terms of potential effectiveness. Bayesian meta-analysis, however, provides complementary information on the probability of a large magnitude of effect. The clinical impact of using Bayesian methods to inform decisions about which interventions to institute first or which interventions to combine requires further study. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial sealants do not decrease surgical site infection for clean-contaminated colorectal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, M; Choi, J; Floyd, A; Senagore, A

    2015-05-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are costly complications that may cause significant morbidity and increase the cost of care, particularly in colorectal surgery. Microbial sealants (MS) are a new class of wound barriers aimed at decreasing SSI; however, there is only evidence of benefit in clean class 1 procedures. Based on its success in class 1 procedures, we hypothesized that a microbial sealant could reduce the rate of SSI by half for clean-contaminated colorectal procedures (class 2). This was a single institution, multihospital, prospective, randomized study approved by the institutional review board. The primary objective was to determine the rate of SSI when microbial sealant (InteguSeal© Kimberly-Clark) is used compared to control (no microbial sealant). Data collected included: open versus laparoscopy, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and morbidity [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class], hospital readmission, reoperation and wound dehiscence. Enrolled subjects received the same preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics, operative skin preparation (Chloraprep), Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines implementation), and postoperative care glycemic control for diabetics. A total of 100 subjects were recruited over 15 months (MS-50; no MS-50). The overall incidence of SSI was 12 %, 14 % (7/50) in the MS versus 10 % (5/50) in the no MS group (p = 0.545). SSI incidence with and without microbial sealant was not significantly different in either the open or the laparoscopic subgroup. Laparoscopy decreased absolute risk of SSI by 16 %. Secondary data (age, BMI, diabetes, ASA) and tertiary data (readmission, reoperation, wound dehiscence) were positively correlated with SSI. Microbial sealant as employed in this study did not appear to offer any benefit in a class 2 (clean contaminated) operative procedure when perioperative care is standardized. The relative benefit of laparoscopy was also confirmed but unaffected by

  9. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after the...... ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds....

  10. Phase-inversion tape-casting preparation and significant performance enhancement of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ dual-phase asymmetric membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hua; Cheng, Shiyang; Gao, Jianfeng;

    2014-01-01

    The dual-phase Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95–La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ asymmetric membrane was prepared via a phase-inversion tape-casting method. The membrane consisted of a thicker porous support layer and a thinner dense layer. When the dense side of the membrane was coated with a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ catalytic...... activation layer, the oxygen permeation flux was markedly increased by a factor of 4.1–5.6, reaching 0.45 mL cm−2 min−1 at 900 °C. The flux increase can be attributed to enhanced surface oxygen exhange kinetics....

  11. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  12. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  13. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  14. Use of automated irrigation pumps improves quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sujan Ravi; Rana Sabbagh; Fadi Antaki

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of automated irrigation pumps(AIPs) in improving the quality of the bowel preparation and the yield of colonoscopy.METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a single medical center. Outpatient colonoscopies performed during a 4-mo time period when AIPs were not in use, were compared to colonoscopies performed during control period. The main outcomes measured were quality of bowel preparation, procedures aborted due to poor preparation, recommendations to repeat at short interval due to suboptimal bowel preparation and adenoma detection rates.RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-seven colonoscopies were included. A higher proportion of cases did not achieve a satisfactory bowel preparation when AIPs were not used(24.4% vs 10.3%, P < 0.01). The number of procedures aborted due to inadequate preparation was not significantly different, however a repeat procedure at a short interval was recommended in a higher proportion of cases when AIPs were not used(21.3% vs 6.9%, P < 0.01). Good or excellent preparation was 2.91(95%CI: 2.04-4.15) times more likely when AIPs were used. Detection of polyps and adenomas was not significantly different.CONCLUSION: AIP use during colonoscopy results in a higher proportion of colonic preparation rated as satisfactory, although polyp detection rate is not significantly affected. Recommendations for repeat colonoscopy at shorter interval significantly decrease with the use of AIPs. This study supports the use of the irrigation pumps in endoscopy units to improve the quality of colonoscopy.

  15. Note: Buoyant-force assisted liquid membrane electrochemical etching for nano-tip preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongbin; Wang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiujuan; Xu, Kun; Qu, Ningsong

    2014-12-01

    A liquid membrane electrochemical etching process for preparing nano-tips is proposed by the introduction of buoyant force to the lower tip, in which the lower portion of the anodic wire is immersed into a floating layer. A mathematical model of this method is derived. Both calculation and experimental results demonstrate that the introduction of buoyant force can significantly decrease the tip radius. The lubricating oil and deionized water floating layers were tested for the processing of nano-tips. Further, high-aspect-ratio nano-electrodes were prepared by applying a relative vertical movement to the anodic wire.

  16. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  17. Bonding durability between acrylic resin adhesives and titanium with surface preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Hiroaki; Minesaki, Yoshito; Matsumura, Kousuke; Tanoue, Naomi; Muraguchi, Koichi; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-31

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pretreatment on the bonding durability between titanium casting and two acrylic adhesives. Cast titanium disk specimens treated with four polymer-metal bonding systems as follow: 1) air-abraded with 50-70 μm alumina, 2) 1)+Alloy Primer, 3) 1)+M.L. Primer and 4) tribochemical silica/silane coating system (Rocatec System). The specimens were bonded with M bond or Super-bond C&B adhesive. The shear bond strengths were determined before and after thermocycling (20,000 cycles). The surface characteristics after polishing, and for the 1) and 4) preparations were determined. The bond strengths for all combinations significantly decreased after thermocycling. The combination of Super-bond C&B adhesive and 2) led to significantly higher bond strength than the other preparations after thermocycling. The maximum height of the profile parameters for the polishing group was lower than other preparations.

  18. O preparo da equipe cirúrgica: aspecto relevante no controle da contaminação ambiental La preparación del equipo quirúrgico: aspecto relevante en el control de la contaminación ambiental The preparation of the surgical team: significant aspect in the control of environmental contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cataneo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle da contaminação ambiental tem sido considerado como medida racional para a prevenção da infecção do sítio cirúrgico. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar as atuais recomendações relacionadas ao preparo da equipe cirúrgica e tecer considerações sobre o papel do enfermeiro no controle da contaminação ambiental. Baseados na literatura atual, abordamos pontos relacionados à paramentação cirúrgica e a escovação das mãos. Os estudos apontam que o preparo da equipe cirúrgica constitui barreira de proteção importante para a prevenção da infecção do sítio cirúrgico; entretanto salientam a necessidade dos profissionais de saúde realizarem os procedimentos de forma adequada.El control de la contaminación ambiental ha sido considerado como una medida racional para la prevención de la infección en el sitio quirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar las recomendaciones actuales con respecto a la preparación del equipo quirúrgico y hacer consideraciones acerca del papel del enfermero en el control de la contaminación ambiental. Basados en la literatura actual, tratamos puntos relacionados con el vestuario quirúrgico y al cepillado de las manos. Estudios indican que la preparación del equipo quirúrgico sirve como una importante barrera de protección en la prevención de la infección en el sitio quirúrgico; sin embargo, destacan que los profesionales de salud necesitan realizar los procedimientos de manera adecuada.The control of environmental contamination has been considered a rational measure for preventing surgical site infection. This study aims to present the current recommendations related to the preparation of the surgical team and to discuss the role of nurses in controlling environmental contamination. On the basis of current literature, we treat issues related to surgical garment and hand brushing. Studies indicate that the preparation of the surgical team constitutes an important

  19. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.;

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  20. Decreasing activated sludge thermal hydrolysis temperature reduces product colour, without decreasing degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jason; Starrenburg, Daniel; Tait, Stephan; Barr, Keith; Batstone, Damien J; Lant, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Activated sludges are becoming more difficult to degrade in anaerobic digesters, due to the implementation of stricter nitrogen limits, longer sludge ages, and removal of primary sedimentation units. Thermal hydrolysis is a popular method to enhance degradability of long-age activated sludge, and involves pressure and heat treatment of the process fluid (150-160 degrees C saturated steam). However, as documented in this study, in a full-scale system, the use of thermal hydrolysis produces coloured, recalcitrant compounds that can have downstream impacts (e.g., failure of UV disinfection, and increased effluent nitrogen). The coloured compound formed during thermal hydrolysis was found to be melanoidins. These are coloured recalcitrant compounds produced by polymerisation of low molecular weight intermediates, such as carbohydrates and amino compounds at elevated temperature (Maillard reaction). By decreasing the THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C, THP effluent colour decreased from 12,677 mg-PtCo L(-1) to 3837 mg-PtCo L(-1). The change in THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C was shown to have no significant impact on anaerobic biodegradability of the sludge. The rate and extent of COD biodegradation remained largely unaffected by the temperature change with an average first order hydrolysis rate of 0.19 d(-1) and conversion extent of 0.43 g-COD(CH4)g-COD(-1).

  1. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  2. Preparation of patients submitted to thyroidectomy with oral glucose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiszewski, Michał; Drozda, Rafał; Smigielski, Janusz; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Kołomecki, Krzysztof

    2012-05-01

    The AIM OF THE STUDY was to determine postoperative insulin-resistance in patients subject to total thyroidectomy, the prevalence of subjective feelings of hunger immediately before surgery, and the incidence of nausea/vomiting after surgery in patients prepared for elective operations by means of oral glucose solutions. The study group comprised 115 patients, including 71 patients prepared for surgery by means of oral glucose solutions (12.5% glucose) administered 12 and 3 hours before the procedure, at a dose of 800 and 400 ml. The control group comprised 44 patients prepared for surgery by means of the traditional manner- the last meal was served before 2pm the day before the surgical procedure, while fluids before 10pm. Considering both groups, we evaluated glucose and insulin levels three times, as well as determined the insulin-resistance ratio (HOMA-IR) 24 before, and 12 hours and 7 days after surgery. The incidence of nausea and vomiting after surgery, and the subjective feeling of hunger before surgery were also evaluated. Statistically significant differences considering insulin level and HOMA-IR values were observed during the II and III measurements. The glucose and insulin values, and the HOMA-IR insulin-resistance ratio, showed no statistically significant differences during measurement I. No statistically significant glucose level differences were observed during measurements II and III. A significantly greater subjective feeling of hunger before surgery and nausea/vomiting afterwards were observed in the control group. The preparation of patients with oral glucose solutions decreases the incidence of postoperative (thyroidectomy) insulin-resistance, and occurrence of nausea/vomiting during the postoperative period.

  3. Influence of Biodynamic Preparations on the Quality Indices and Antioxidant Compounds Content in the Tubers of Coloured Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra JARIENĖ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 are plant strengthening agents of biodynamic agriculture method, prepared of manure and powdered quartz. The objective of the present study was to determine effects of biodynamic (BD preparations 500 and 501 on the quality indices and antioxidant compounds content in the tubers of coloured flesh potatoes. The experiment included two factors: potato cultivar and treatment with BD preparations as field sprays. The experiment was carried out in four replications, in a randomly design. Results showed that application of BD preparations did not influence significantly the contents of dry matter, crude fibre and crude ash in all tested cultivars. Separately used BD preparation 500 increased content of total anthocyanins in tubers of ‘Vitelotte’ and ‘Red Emmalie’ and leucoanthocyanins content in ‘Blue Congo’, but decreased the content of total phenolics in all cultivars. Treatment with BD preparation 501 had significant effect on the contents of total phenolics and total anthocyanins in all cultivars. However, treatment with BD preparation 500 in combination with BD preparation 501 substantially increased the contents of total phenolics and total anthocyanins in all cultivars. Tubers of ‘Vitelotte’ with dark-purple flesh contained significantly more antioxidant compounds than the light-purple and red.

  4. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  5. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  6. The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966, takes place in two steps, a predecrease is followed by the main decrease. SSCs are observed on both occasions. The decrease is modest, short-lived, and is preceded and followed by an exceptionally steady level of the cosmic ray intensity. Preliminary results from a phenomenological study are presented. The observed changes in the cosmic ray intensity are correlated with interplanetary magnetic field direction at the onset of the predecrease and during part of the recovery phase. A simple explanation is given for the fact that the predecrease is not observed at the stations in the European-zone. It appears that a preferential recovery takes place from some directions in space, during the recovery phase of the Forbush decrease. Off-ecliptic scattering of lower energy cosmic rays is probably responsible for this. The same phenomena is probably also responsible for the difference between the amplitudes of the predecrease observed at different stations.

  7. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  9. Fluoxetine causes decrease in intestinal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study has indicated that fluoxetine on isolated ileal intestinal smooth muscle decrease the motility and this decrease in motility is possibly due to the inability of fluoxetine in vitro to enhance the serotonergic transmission and also because of the interaction of these agents with some of the other receptors, present in the intestinal smooth muscles. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 265-268

  10. Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Putturu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc. has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin, acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 172-179

  11. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  12. Decreasing catheter-related infection and hospital costs by continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, J M; Hudson-Civetta, J; Ball, S

    1996-10-01

    a) To reduce the rate of catheter-related infection, using improved skin preparation and catheters impregnated with silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine; b) to decrease the number of unnecessary guidewire exchanges of existing catheters by substituting suspected catheter-related sepsis for fever alone as an indication to change an indwelling catheter; and c) to decrease the hospital costs associated with guidewire exchanges and new catheter insertions. Sequential, prospective, descriptive studies using a continuous quality management approach. A 20-bed trauma intensive care unit at a university teaching hospital. Patients (n = 147) admitted from July 1 to December 31, 1992 (phase 1); 34 patients admitted in June and September 1993 (phase 2); and 156 patients admitted between January 1 and June 30, 1994 (phase 3). Phase 1: Proportions of catheter-related infections and catheter-related bacteremia were compared with our prior reported results. Indications for guidewire exchange were analyzed, and the rate of catheter-related infection for each indication was derived. Phase 2: The rate of catheter-related infection was determined for a trial group of triple-lumen catheters impregnated with silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine. Phase 3: Four components were altered. Impregnated triple-lumen catheters were used instead of unprotected catheters. Chlorhexidine skin cleanser was substituted for povidone-iodine solution during initial aseptic preparation during catheter insertion and subsequent guidewire exchange. Suspected catheter-related sepsis was substituted for fever as an indication for guidewire exchange. The "safe" period (the time before considering changing a catheter because catheter-related sepsis was suspected) was extended from 2 to 4 days. The overall rate of catheter-related infection in phase 1 was 15% (15% for triple-lumen catheters and 16% for introducers). Catheters changed for site inflammation had a 46% rate of catheter-related infection

  13. Phytoliths indicate significant arboreal cover at Sahelanthropus type locality TM266 in northern Chad and a decrease in later sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Alice; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Paillès, Christine; Bourlès, Didier L; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples. The phytolith assemblages indicate an opening of the vegetation and a general trend toward an expansion of grass-dominated environments during the time spanning the two hominin occurrences in Chad. The phytoliths suggest the presence of a mosaic environment, including closed forest patches, palm groves, and mixed/grassland formations, between 7.5 and 7 Ma, the replacement by palm grove-like vegetation at approximately 6.5-5 Ma, and the presence of exclusive grass-dominated formations after 4.5 Ma. The type-locality of S. tchadensis (TM266) was likely similar to modern palm grove formations with an arboreal cover percentage ≥40%. The type locality of A. bahrelghazali (KT12) was a grass-dominated ecosystem (likely savanna) with an unrated percentage of arboreal cover. Furthermore, the grass phytolith data support the existence of a (recurrent) Sahelian-like dry climate in northern Chad since at least 8 Ma. Therefore the local closed vegetation formations in the Djurab region at 7.5-7 Ma were sustained by aquatic systems (such as lakes or related rivers, marshes) rather than by extensive annual precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangxu Zou; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Penghe Wang; Dehua Zhao; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5??C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which ha...

  15. Low Resolution Limits and Inaccurate Algorithms Decrease Significantly the Value of Late Loss in Current Drug-Eluting Stent Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B. Dahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative coronary and vascular angiography (QCA resp., QVA remains the current gold standard for evaluation of restenosis. Late loss as one of the most commonly accepted parameters to highlight efficacy of the various devices has shown high correlation to clinical parameters but, surprisingly, has no impact on the evaluation of the remaining amount of restenostic tissue. The current clinical practice leads to unrealistic late loss calculations. Smaller late loss differences are usually not greater than the inherited resolution limits of QCA, which is especially the case in small differences between the various stents in the drug-eluting stent era. Late loss include additional systematic and random errors, due to the fact that measurements were taken at two different time points including the inherited resolution and calibration limits of QCA on two occasions. Due to the limited value of late loss in discriminating the small differences between the one and other DES, late lumen area loss and clearly defined calculation algorithms (e.g., MLD-relocation should be used in future DES studies also to fulfill the more stringent regulatory requirements.

  16. Preparation and properties of thick not intentionally doped GaInP(As)/GaAs layers

    CERN Document Server

    Nohavica, D; Zdansky, K

    1999-01-01

    We report on liquid-phase epitaxial growth of thick layers of GaInP(As), lattice matched to GaAs. Layers with thicknesses up to 10 mu m were prepared in a multi-melt bin, step-cooling, one-phase configuration. Unintentionally doped layers, grown from moderate purity starting materials, show a significant decrease in the residual impurity level when erbium is added to the melt. Fundamental electrical and optical properties of the layers were investigated. (author)

  17. 肝片吸虫 Fh8明显增强 STEC 的 Stx1可溶性表达及 Stx1单克隆抗体制备%Fasciola hepatica 8 Significantly Enhances Soluble Expression of Stx1 from STEC and Stx1 Monoclonal Antibody Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪寒; 张碧成; 张强; 汪伟; 何孔旺

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1 ),AB5 pentamers protein,is one of major virulent factors of Shiga Toxin-produ-cing Escherichia coli (STEC).The N-terminal fragment of Stx1 A subunit encodes a signal peptide,and its C-termi-nal amino acid sequences presents high hydrophobicity and low immunogenicity by bioinformatics software analysis, and these features lead to expression failure and inclusion of target protein.In this study,our aim is to clone stx1 gene and express soluble protein for development of monoclonal antibodies against Stx1 A.The 21 0 bp of Fh8 gene from Fasciola hepatica was cloned into pCold Ⅰ with Nde Ⅰ and Xho Ⅰ,and the middle fragment between 73 -759 ntof stx1A subunit was amplified,fused with Fh8 gene to construct recombinant strain of BL21 (DE3)/pColdⅠ-Fh8-stx1.His-Fh8-stx1A was immunized Balb /c mice to prepare positive hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies by Sp2 /0 cell fusion screening.We successfully constructed a recombinant plasmid pCold Ⅰ-Fh8-stx1a,expressed His-Fh8-Stx1 A in prokaryotic cells in soluble form.Three stably secreting anti-Stx1 A monoclonal antibodies (McAb)of hybridoma cell lines were developed,one of them was used to prepare high titer ascites.Western Blot assay showed ascites after purified are able to react with recombinant His-Fh8-Stx1 A and Shiga toxin 1 crude ex-tract.We successfully prepared soluble Stx1 A protein with good antigenicity,and three monoclonal antibodies with high titers,these will lay substantial foundation for future study,i.e.developing sandwich ELISA and colloidal gold test strip to detect STEC.%志贺毒素1(Shiga toxin 1,Stx1),系五聚体蛋白,是产志贺毒素性大肠杆菌(Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli,STEC)主要的毒素因子,但 Stx1体外极不易可溶性表达,旨在克隆和表达志贺毒素1(Shiga toxin 1,Stx1)A 亚基,体外获得可溶性表达的 Stx1,以研制单克隆抗体。生物信息学软件分析 Stx1 A 亚基氨基酸序列,Stx1 A1

  18. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  19. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  20. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, R

    2003-10-01

    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  1. Magnetically induced decrease in droplet contact angle on nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Ristenpart, William D; Stroeve, Pieter

    2011-10-04

    We report a magnetic technique for altering the apparent contact angle of aqueous droplets deposited on a nanostructured surface. Polymeric tubes with embedded superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles were prepared via layer-by-layer deposition in the 800 nm diameter pores of polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes. Etching away the original membrane yields a superparamagnetic film composed of mostly vertical tubes attached to a rigid substrate. We demonstrate that the apparent contact angle of pure water droplets deposited on the nanostructured film is highly sensitive to the ante situm strength of an applied magnetic field, decreasing linearly from 117 ± 1.3° at no applied field to 105 ± 0.4° at an applied field of approximately 500 G. Importantly, this decrease in contact angle did not require an inordinately strong magnetic field: a 15° decrease in contact angle was observed even with a standard alnico bar magnet. We interpret the observed contact angle behavior in terms of magnetically induced conformation changes in the film nanostructure, and we discuss the implications for reversibly switching substrates from hydrophilic to hydrophobic via externally tunable magnetic fields.

  2. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  3. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  4. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  5. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  6. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Sarris, E. T.; Dodopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented.

  7. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  8. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  9. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P levels were also decreased after quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  11. Radiation sterilization of pancreatin preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Syojiro (Osaka Coll. of Pharmacy, Matsubara (Japan)); Sako, Michiyo; Kanbashi, Toshitaka; Jo, Hisanobu; Koide, Hiroaki

    1984-11-01

    The enzymatic activities (in detail, amylase-, lipase- and protease-activity) of ..gamma..-irradiated pancreatin powder preparation decrease to 50 - 95% at doses range of 50 kR - 8 MR. The dose-inactivation relation-ships vary depending on every different manufactory lot. In the case of higher moisture content preparation as irradiation sample, amylase activities are more stable, the other side, protease activities are less stable. On the variation of these activities by ..gamma..-irradiation, there are no difference between room temperature and lower temperature (-70/sup 0/C) as irradiation condition. The D/sub 10/ values of contained bacteria and fungus (contamination number: about 1 x 10/sup 3/ cells/g and 9 x 10/sup 2/ spores/g) of a pancreatin preparation are 74C/kg (280 kR) and 60 C/kg(230 kR). Then, these values are corresponded to 645 C/kg (2.5 MR) and 540 C/kg (2.1 MR) as perfect sterilization.

  12. Fast preparation and thermal transport property of TiCoSb-based half-Heusler compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Jie; Tang Xin-Feng; Zhang Qing-Jie

    2007-01-01

    TiCoSb-based half-Heusler compounds with the substitution of Zr for Ti have been prepared quickly by combining high-energy ball milling method with spark plasma sintering technique, and their thermal transport properties have been investigated. With the increase of the concentration of Zr, the thermal conductivity of Ti1-xZrxCoSb compounds decreases significantly. Compared with the thermal conductivity of TiCoSb compound, that of Ti0.5Zr0.5CoSb decreases by 200% at 1000 K.

  13. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  14. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  15. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  16. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  17. Characterization and catalytic behavior of Na-W-Mn-Zr-S-P/SiO2 prepared by different methods in oxidative coupling of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zheng; Dangguo Cheng; Fengqiu Chen; Xiaoli Zhan

    2010-01-01

    Na-W-Mn-Zr-S-P/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative coupling of methane(OCM)were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation,sol-gel and mixture slurry methods.The catalyst prepared by mixture slurry method showed the best catalytic performance among all samples.In addition,the effects of different addition sequences of Na,W,Mn,Zr,S and P on the catalytic performance were studied.The absence of Na before the addition of Mn and Zr in the catalysts preparation depressed the formation of the active phases of Mn203 and ZrO2 and decreased the activities of the catalysts significantly.

  18. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  19. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  20. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-10-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  1. The Hypoglycemic Properties of BAE Maca Max Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim K. Choong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering an urgency of a question of diabetes treatment and decrease the side effects of hypoglycemic therapies, there is a necessity to elaborate a new approaches to this problem. This study was directed on estimation of possibilities of a preparation of naturally modified BAE maca max product for improvement of semeiology of diabetes and reduce the glucose level in the blood. Approach: Experiment was carried out on not purebred rats, received from Rappolovo (Russia nursery, with use of alloksan preparation for creation of models of type 1 and type 2 forms of diabetes. During the basic experiment animals have been divided into three groups: First group was made with control animals; second group, represented type 2 form of diabetes and third group represented animals with type 1 form of diabetes. Animals received BAE Maca Max preparation, which consists of two major active ingredients which are Maca and Tribulus Terresteris plants, in the form of drink, dissolved in 200 mL potable water from standard drinking bowls (after development of hyperglycemia. Glucose level defined before consumption of preparation, for 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day of consumption. Results: Result of experiences established that: Glucose level in blood of healthy animals for 10 day of experiment was in 1,26 times below than initial level (remaining in the range of norm; in group of animals with type 2 form of diabetes glucose level has reduced in 1,2 times; in the second group of animals with type 1 form of diabetes glucose level reduced in a range from 9,8±0,8-8,3±0,8 mmol L?1. Conclusion: Results of experiments showed that BAE maca max preparation possesses ability to statistical significant reduce the level of glucose in both type 1 and 2 forms of diabetes.

  2. Influence of particle size and shell thickness of core-shell packing materials on optimum experimental conditions in preparative chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Krisztián; Felinger, Attila

    2015-08-14

    The applicability of core-shell phases in preparative separations was studied by a modeling approach. The preparative separations were optimized for two compounds having bi-Langmuir isotherms. The differential mass balance equation of chromatography was solved by the Rouchon algorithm. The results show that as the size of the core increases, larger particles can be used in separations, resulting in higher applicable flow rates, shorter cycle times. Due to the decreasing volume of porous layer, the loadability of the column dropped significantly. As a result, the productivity and economy of the separation decreases. It is shown that if it is possible to optimize the size of stationary phase particles for the given separation task, the use of core-shell phases are not beneficial. The use of core-shell phases proved to be advantageous when the goal is to build preparative column for general purposes (e.g. for purification of different products) in small scale separations.

  3. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  4. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  5. A theoretical interpretation of Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, R.; Thomas, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the intensity variations of relativistic cosmic rays, at 1 AU, which are associated with the passage of a flare shock wave. The magnitude and time profile obtained is similar to that observed in flare-induced Forbush decreases, and the principal cause of the energy reduction is an increase in adiabatic cooling of the arriving particles due to prolonged containment behind the compressed field of the flare shock wave. The large decreases calculated for the smaller diffusion coefficients are inconsistent with observation, implying larger mean free paths than those traditionally assumed at these rigidities. The method presented may be used to study intensity variations associated with other large-scale structures of the interplanetary field, such as corotating interaction regions.

  6. Influence of Process Control Agent on Characterization and Structure of Micron Chitosan Powders Prepared by Ball Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuan-jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With ethyl alcohol or distilled water as process control agent (PCA, micron chitosan powder was prepared by ball milling method. The yield rate, particle size distribution, micro morphology, viscosity average molecular mass, chemical and crystal structures, and thermal properties of these different micron chitosan powders were measured. The results indicate that the yield rate of micron chitosan powders prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA increases significantly, and improves to 94.7% from 25% while the amount of ethyl alcohol is 0.75mL/g. The particle size distribution of micron chitosan powder prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA is concentrated, while the D50 and D90 in size are 824nm and 1629nm respectively. Chitosan do not react with ethyl alcohol used as PCA, but the viscosity average molecular mass of prepared micron chitosan powder decreases by 23%, the crystal structures are destroyed slightly, and its thermal stability is slightly weakened.

  7. Repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology samples: A methodological advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alvaro P; Maia, Henrique Felde; di Loretto, Celso; Krunn, Patrícia; Túlio, Siumara; Collaço, Luis Martins

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the rule that repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, diagnosis, microbiological, and hormonal evaluations. We reviewed 156 cases of pap-stained preparations of exfoliated cervical cells in two slides processed by DNA-Cytoliq System. After sample repeat/dilution, limiting factors affecting sample adequacy were removed in nine cases and three unsatisfactory cases were reclassified as satisfactory. Diagnosis was altered in 24 cases. Of these, the original diagnosis in 15 was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; after the second slide examination, diagnosis in 5 of the 15 cases changed to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 3 to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 7 to absence of lesion. Microbiological evaluation was altered, with Candida sp. detected in two repeated slides. Repeat slide preparation or dilution of residual samples enhances cytological diagnosis and decreases effects of limiting factors in manually processed DIGENE DCS LBC.

  8. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antioxidative potential of synbiotic fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C; Mokashe, N; Mishra, V

    2016-04-01

    The present study, evaluates the antioxidative potential of two synbiotic dairy products viz. synbiotic lassi with honey and whey based synbiotic drink with inulin and orange juice, along with their physicochemical and microbiological activity during storage period. Antioxidative potential of raw ingredients and probiotic cultures used to prepare synbiotic products was also evaluated. Synbiotic lassi with honey was prepared using Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 (MD2) and Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 (V3) as probiotics and honey as prebiotic. For preparation of whey based synbiotic drink, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and inulin were used as probiotic and prebiotic, respectively and orange juice was also incorporated. Titratable acidity and pH of both synbiotic products followed a similar pattern of increase or decrease during storage. Furthermore, no major changes were observed in viability of probiotic cultures under storage conditions adapted. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of synbiotic lassi with honey was found to significantly decrease from 107.76 to 79.41 % at the end of storage whereas, the activity of whey based synbiotic drink was 100.32 % which declined sharply to 79.21 % on 7th day but further increased to 102.59 % on 14th day. The DPPH (α, α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of freshly prepared synbiotic lassi with honey was 28.43 % which decreased to 23.03 % on 7th day while for whey based synbiotic drink decreased from 26.85 % (0 day) to 17.12 % (7th day) and continued to decline. Moreover, probiotic strains used for synbiotic preparation also demonstrated good antioxidative activity.

  10. Decreasing luminescence lifetime of evaporating phosphorescent droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Dam, N. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Water, W.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence has been used extensively to study spray dynamics. It is important to understand the influence of droplet evaporation in the interpretation of such measurements, as it increases luminescence quenching. By suspending a single evaporating n-heptane droplet in an acoustic levitator, the properties of lanthanide-complex europium-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-trioctylphosphine oxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) phosphorescence are determined through high-speed imaging. A decrease was found in the measured phosphorescence decay coefficient (780 → 200 μs) with decreasing droplet volumes (10-9 → 10-11 m3) corresponding to increasing concentrations (10-4 → 10-2 M). This decrease continues up to the point of shell-formation at supersaturated concentrations. The diminished luminescence is shown not to be attributable to triplet-triplet annihilation, quenching between excited triplet-state molecules. Instead, the pure exponential decays found in the measurements show that a non-phosphorescent quencher, such as free TTA/TOPO, can be attributable to this decay. The concentration dependence of the phosphorescence lifetime can therefore be used as a diagnostic of evaporation in sprays.

  11. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  12. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  13. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  14. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  15. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  16. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  17. Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe combined effects of tumbling marination methods (Vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8 and 10 h on quality characteristics of prepared boneless pork chops were investigated. The results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly increased the pH, product yield, cohesiveness, resilience, sensory tenderness and overall flavor (p<0.05 compared with IT method, and CT method also significantly decreased the pressing loss, cooking loss, shear force value (SFV, hardness and chewiness (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increasing from 4 h to 10 h, the product yield and sensory attributes of prepared pork chops increased at first and then decreased, whereas the pressing loss, cooking loss, SFV, hardness and chewiness decreased at first and then increased. Additionally, an interaction between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed. These results suggested that CT method of 8 h obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops, which should be adopted.

  18. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  19. The Convergence Angle of Full-coverage Crown Preparations Made by Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghai Naini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A clinically feasible convergence angle in full-coverage crown preparations, meeting the requirements for proper retention and resistance forms, has always been a matter of interest for laboratory and clinical researches. This study aims to evaluate the angle in teeth prepared by both under- and post-graduate students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of dentistry, Department of Prosthodontics.Materials and Methods: Samples consisted of 196 prepared teeth for full-coverage crown restoration by third year postgraduate and fifth year undergraduate students in the Department of Prosthodontics. Two images were obtained from each die by a scanner and both bucco-lingual and mesio-distal convergence angles were measured, by two different assessors, via Auto CAD 14 software. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the teeth prepared by un-der- and post-graduate students in mesio-distal convergence angles of all maxillary teeth, except for canines. Significant differences were found between bucco-lingual convergence angles of the maxillary canines and molars.Conclusion: The recently recommended convergence angles are more clinically feasible compared to the classic 4 to 10 degrees that was previously suggested for all teeth. It also seems that clinical experience does not necessarily lead to a decrease in convergence an-gles during preparation.

  20. Colonoscopy ‘My Way’: Preparation, Anticoagulants, Antibiotics and Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome D Waye

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy was introduced in the 1960s. The facility with which this technique is performed has been enhanced by vast improvements in instrumentation. In spite of this, physician attitudes concerning colonoscopy have changed little over the past several decades. The diet for precolonoscopic preparation has not been altered for 30 years. Colonoscopists have a great reluctance to use a new preparation instead of the 4 L electrolyte solution, perhaps because this was such a significant advance in colonoscopic cleansing, its predecessor being castor oil and enemas. Physicians continue to be wary of the patient who is taking acetylsalicylic acid in the absence of any studies that show that this is detrimental for polypectomy. The management of the patient on warfarin anticoagulation remains a subject for debate. As for antibiotic prophylaxis, most endoscopy units do not have a standardized approach, although there are good guidelines that, if followed, should decrease the risk of infective endocarditis. Sedation for the endoscopic examination is usually administered by the colonoscopist, although anesthesiologists may, in some countries (and in some defined areas of the United States be the primary administrators of sedation and analgesia. The present article is a personal approach to the following issues: the preparation of the colon for an examination, current thoughts about anticoagulation and acetylsalicylic acid, antibiotic prophylaxis for colonoscopy and the technique for sedation out of the hospital.

  1. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  2. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  3. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response....../I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively...

  4. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Shaifali; Karachiwala, Hatim; Noviasky, John; Wang, Dongliang; Elliott, William C.; Lehmann, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P < 0.001) as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P = 0.73). In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P = 0.99). Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L) reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P = 0.54). Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium. PMID:23476770

  5. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifali Sandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P<0.001 as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P=0.73. In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P=0.99. Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P=0.32. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P=0.54. Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium.

  6. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  7. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , 350 ms tetani given at 2 s (high-intensity fatigue, HIF) or 10 s (low-intensity fatigue, LIF) intervals, while force and [Ca(2+)]i were measured. Stimulation continued until force decreased to 30% of its initial value. Fibres were then prepared for analyses of subcellular glycogen distribution...

  8. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could medi

  9. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could

  10. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  11. Decreasing the stigma burden of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2013-10-01

    To describe stigmatizing experiences in a group of Mexican-American women with chronic pain and provide clinical implications for decreasing stigma. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semistructured interviews, participant observations, and fieldwork. Participants provided detailed descriptions of communicating about chronic pain symptoms, treatment, and management. The sample consisted of 15 English-speaking Mexican-American women 21-65 years old (average age = 45.6 years) who had nonmalignant chronic pain symptoms for 1 year or more. The cultural and social norm in the United States is the expectation for objective evidence (such as an injury) to be present if a pain condition exists. In this study, this norm created suspicion and subsequent stigmatization on the part of family, co-workers, and even those with the pain syndromes, that the painful condition was imagined instead of real. To decrease stigmatization of chronic pain, providers must understand their own misconceptions about chronic pain, possess the skills and resources to access and use the highest level of practice evidence available, and become an advocate for improved pain care at local, state, and national levels. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  13. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  14. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  15. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO3(-)-N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH4(+)-N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  16. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika A. Myasoedova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6 were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020; low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS; high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038; triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by

  17. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Svensmark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (<2 sigma. The magnitude of the signals agree with derived values, based on simple equations for atmospheric parameters. Furthermore principal components analysis gives a total significance of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds.

  18. Dynamic arterial elastance predicts mean arterial pressure decrease associated with decreasing norepinephrine dosage in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Pierre-Grégoire; Bernard, Eugénie; Levrard, Mélanie; Dupont, Hervé; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2015-01-19

    Gradual reduction of the dosage of norepinephrine (NE) in patients with septic shock is usually left to the physician's discretion. No hemodynamic indicator predictive of the possibility of decreasing the NE dosage is currently available at the bedside. The respiratory pulse pressure variation/respiratory stroke volume variation (dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn)) ratio has been proposed as an indicator of vascular tone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Eadyn can be used to predict the decrease in arterial pressure when decreasing the NE dosage in resuscitated sepsis patients. A prospective study was carried out in a university hospital intensive care unit. All consecutive patients with septic shock monitored by PICCO2 for whom the intensive care physician planned to decrease the NE dosage were enrolled. Measurements of hemodynamic and PICCO2 variables were obtained before/after decreasing the NE dosage. Responders were defined by a >15% decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP). In total, 35 patients were included. MAP decreased by >15% after decreasing the NE dosage in 37% of patients (n = 13). Clinical characteristics appeared to be similar between responders and nonresponders. Eadyn was lower in responders than in nonresponders (0.75 (0.69 to 0.85) versus 1 (0. 83 to 1.22), P decrease in arterial pressure, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.72 to 0.96; P decrease in arterial pressure in response to NE dose reduction. Eadyn may constitute an easy-to-use functional approach to arterial-tone assessment, which may be helpful to identify patients likely to benefit from NE dose reduction.

  19. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    ) in the endothelia of Apoe(-/-) mice (Irs1/Apoe(-/-)) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE(-/-) mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin's enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  20. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  1. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  2. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  3. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  4. Salivary hormones response to preparation and pre-competitive training of world-class level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël eGuilhem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A, chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while immunoglobulin A (+61% and creatine kinase activity (+43% increased, and chromogranin A decreased (-27% during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15% and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05. None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training.

  5. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  6. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-06-17

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants.

  7. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  8. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  10. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, H.V. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1993-03-01

    A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3% in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Is dieting behaviour decreasing in young adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Claire R; Yarnell, John W G; Stevenson, Mike; McCay, Naomi; Gaffney, Brian P; Shields, Michael D; Woodside, Jayne V

    2013-05-01

    To report trends in underweight, overweight and obesity in 12-15-year-old adolescents and examine changes in dieting behaviour, which have been less well documented. Comparison of two independent representative cross-sectional surveys. Northern Ireland. Weight and height were objectively measured in 1324 boys and 1160 girls in 1996 and 1274 boys and 1374 girls in 2007. Participants reported whether they were following any particular diet including a self-proposed or prescribed weight-reduction diet. Overweight and obesity increased in girls from 15 % to 23 % and 2 % to 6 %, respectively. Increases were more modest in boys with overweight increasing from 13 % to 18 % and obesity from 3 % to 6 %. The proportion of underweight adolescents decreased from 9 % to 6 % in girls and 8 % to 5 % in boys. Evidence of social disparity was observed in girls from a manual socio-economic background, with overweight/obesity prevalence rates increasing from 21 % to 36 % compared with 15 % to 26 % in girls from a non-manual background. Despite these trends fewer adolescents, in particular girls, reported following weight-reduction diets (14 % of overweight/obese girls in 2007 v. 21 % in 1996; 8 % of boys in 2007 v. 13 % in 1996). Of these girls, the proportion from a manual background following weight-reduction diets decreased from 25 % to 11 %. Overweight and obesity are continuing to increase in adolescents despite government and media awareness strategies. There also appears to be reduced dieting behaviour, despite increasing body weight, particularly in girls from manual socio-economic backgrounds.

  12. Preparation of High Shrinkage Polypropylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文军; 王华平; 李建梅; 张玉梅

    2001-01-01

    The common PP chips have been used to prepare high shrinkage PP fibers with shrinkage in boiling water higher than 50%. Meanwhile, the process conditions on fiber structure and properties have been discussed in detail. With the increase of drawing temperature, the shrinkage in boiling water of the fiber increases at first,and then decreases in the temperature range from 70℃ to 100℃. The better drawing temperature is from 75℃ to 85℃ according to the melt index of the PP material. The shrinkage in boiling water of PP fiber increases with the increase of pump delivery. The orientation factor and crystallinity increase with the increase of drawing temperature. With an increase in drawing temperature,unit-cell numbers and monomer unit numbers in every crystal nucleus tend to increase, but unit volume crystal nucleus tend to reduce.

  13. Rationale for designing cavity preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laswell, H R; Welk, D A

    1985-04-01

    Increased resistance to caries, increased dental awareness, superior diagnostic capabilities, better illumination, optical aids that significantly enhance vision, improved and standardized materials for restoration, and a deeper understanding of the caries process enable a far more conservative approach to tooth preparation. The dentist can concentrate on preserving as much sound tooth structure as possible with less attention being devoted to resistance and retention form that previously demanded in bulk restorations and massive channels and locks that are no longer appropriate. Although caries inhibitory effects have been shown with materials such as silicate cement, glass ionomers, and resins that leach fluoride, in general, dentists should not rely on restorative materials to inhibit the development of future decay. Characteristics of the carious lesion are unique for each tooth according to many factors centering around the plaque pattern for that tooth and not according to zones of natural susceptibility or immunity strictly dictated by morphology. Therefore, no single cavity preparation duplicated from a textbook is likely to be satisfactory for an individual tooth. Furthermore, novices learning the subject of cavity preparation often leave decalcified enamel when they attempt to replicate under clinical conditions that which they have learned in technique courses. This is the major invitation to future caries reappearing adjacent to restorations. Also, failure to duplicate the exact morphology of the tooth surface that has been replaced is likely to alter the pattern of plaque accumulation and create other caries prone areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The influence of the systematic birth preparation program on childbirth satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Aysu; Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Ozyurek, Eser Sefik; Aydin, Arife; Korkmaz, Nazli; Gorgen, Husnu; Akbayir, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a systematic multidisciplinary birth preparation program on satisfaction with childbirth experience. A secondary aim was to detect factors that affect the childbirth satisfaction. In this prospective study, 77 pregnant women who completed the 4-month birth preparation program (Group 1) and 75 women in the control group (Group 2) were asked to fill out two questionnaires with face-to-face interviews within 48 h after labor. One of the questionnaires was the translated form of Salmon's Item List German (SIL-Ger), and SIL-Ger scores ≥70 was accepted as a satisfactory experience. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of sociocultural and intrapartum characteristics, and obstetric outcome parameters. The women who received antenatal education experienced significantly less pain (p = 0.01), had a better communication with midwife or obstetrician during delivery (p = 0.001), and participated more actively in decision-making before, during, and after childbirth (p birth preparation program and the level of pain perceived during labor were found to have a significant effect on the birth satisfaction. Systematic birth preparation program improves satisfaction with childbirth experience by enabling women to communicate better with healthcare providers and to participate in decision-making during labor, as well as by decreasing the perception of labor pain.

  15. Gynura procumbens Merr. decreases blood pressure in rats by vasodilatation via inhibition of calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See-Ziau Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynura procumbens has been shown to decrease blood pressure via inhibition of the angiotensinconverting enzyme. However, other mechanisms that may contribute to the hypotensive effect have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of a butanolic fraction of Gynura procumbens in rats. METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were given intravenous bolus injections of butanolic fraction at doses of 2.5-20 mg/kg in vivo. The effect of butanolic fraction on vascular reactivity was recorded in isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. RESULTS: Intravenous administrations of butanolic fraction elicited significant (p<0.001 and dose-dependent decreases in the mean arterial pressure. However, a significant (p<0.05 decrease in the heart rate was observed only at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg. In isolated preparations of rat aortic rings, phenylephrine (1×10-6 M- or potassium chloride (8×10-2 M-precontracted endothelium-intact and -denuded tissue; butanolic fraction (1×10-6-1×10-1 g/ml induced similar concentration-dependent relaxation of the vessels. In the presence of 2.5×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 g/ml butanolic fraction, the contractions induced by phenylephrine (1×10-9-3×10-5 M and potassium chloride (1×10-2-8×10-2 M were significantly antagonized. The calcium-induced vasocontractions (1×10-4-1×10-2 M were antagonized by butanolic fraction concentration-dependently in calcium-free and high potassium (6×10-2 M medium, as well as in calcium- and potassium-free medium containing 1×10-6 M phenylephrine. However, the contractions induced by noradrenaline (1×10-6 M and caffeine (4.5×10-2 M were not affected by butanolic fraction. CONCLUSION: Butanolic fraction contains putative hypotensive compounds that appear to inhibit calcium influx via receptor-operated and/or voltage-dependent calcium channels to cause vasodilation and a consequent fall in blood pressure.

  16. Inclusive Education Complexly Defined for Teacher Preparation: The Significance and Uses of "Error"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraian, Srikala

    2016-01-01

    Research in the implementation of inclusive education in international contexts shows that progress in the Global South appears to lag behind nations in the North. In this paper, I investigate this phenomenon not by associating it with regional cultural and socioeconomic resource limitations, but by reconsidering the assumptions within inclusive…

  17. Systematic approach to preparing ceramic-glass composites with high translucency for dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Humberto N; Chimanski, Afonso; Cesar, Paulo F

    2015-10-01

    Ceramic composites are promising materials for dental restorations. However, it is difficult to prepare highly translucent composites due to the light scattering that occurs in multiphase ceramics. The objective of this work was to verify the effectiveness of a systematic approach in designing specific glass compositions with target properties in order to prepare glass infiltrated ceramic composites with high translucency. First it was necessary to calculate from literature data the viscosity of glass at the infiltration temperature using the SciGlass software. Then, a glass composition was designed for targeted viscosity and refractive index. The glass of the system SiO2-B2O3-Al2O3-La2O3-TiO2 prepared by melting the oxide raw materials was spontaneously infiltrated into porous alumina preforms at 1200°C. The optical properties were evaluated using a refractometer and a spectrophotometer. The absorption and scattering coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. The light transmittance of prepared composite was significantly higher than a commercial ceramic-glass composite, due to the matching of glass and preform refractive indexes which decreased the scattering, and also to the decrease in absorption coefficient. The proposed systematic approach was efficient for development of glass infiltrated ceramic composites with high translucency, which benefits include the better aesthetic performance of the final prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  19. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of different types of fenofibrate nanocrystals prepared by different bottom-up approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Xueqing; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xinglin; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Low dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug often leads to low and variable oral bioavailability. Formulating drugs as nanocrystals can help to overcome these problems by increasing the solubility and dissolution velocity. But different preparation approaches may result in different nanocrystals with different characteristics. In this study, three types of fenofibrate nanocrystals (FNT-NCs) were prepared by bottom-up methods, antisolvent and thermal precipitation under different conditions. These FNT-NCs were characterized by scanning electron micrography, dissolution testing, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry. A significant increase of dissolution rate was observed in the drug nanocrystals compared to the crude FNT powder (from 20% to 80% in 5 min). The crystallinity of the FNT-NCs prepared by antisolvent precipitation increased slightly, while that by thermal precipitation decreased. The oral bioavailability of two types of FNT-NCs prepared by antisolvent precipitation in rats increased notably compared to that of the crude powder (5.5-folds and 5.0-folds, respectively). However, the oral absorption of FNT-NCs prepared by thermal precipitation did not increase, although its dissolution rate was higher than that of the crude powder. In conclusion, different bottom-up methods produce different FNT-NCs with different crystallinity, which results in different oral bioavailability. Namely, a careful study and rational choice on preparation approaches are significant for the nanocrystal techniques.

  20. Shear-induced Volume Decrease in MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm2 resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ~ 20 – 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (~ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 μM Hg2+ significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 μM DIDS, or 100 μM Gd3+ suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K+ and Cl− channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca2+ independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca2+ level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model. PMID:22759987

  1. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered

  2. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  3. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  4. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Zák, A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  5. Effects of Discipline-based Career Course on Nursing Students' Career Search Self-efficacy, Career Preparation Behavior, and Perceptions of Career Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonjoo

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a discipline-based career course on perceptions of career barriers, career search self-efficacy, and career preparation behavior of nursing students. Differences in career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior by the students' levels of career barriers were also examined. The study used a modified one-group, pretest-posttest design. The convenience sample consisted of 154 undergraduate nursing students in a university. The discipline-based career course consisted of eight sessions, and was implemented for 2 hours per session over 8 weeks. The data were collected from May to June in 2012 and 2013 using the following instruments: the Korean Career Indecision Inventory, the Career Search Efficacy Scale, and the Career Preparation Behavior Scale. Descriptive statistics, paired t test, and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data. Upon the completion of the discipline-based career course, students' perceptions of career barriers decreased and career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased. Career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior increased in students with both low and high levels of career barriers. The difference between the low and high groups was significant for career search self-efficacy but not for career preparation behavior. The discipline-based career course was effective in decreasing perceptions of career barriers and increasing career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior among nursing students. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  7. Does bariatric surgery decrease gastric cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Pablo; Padilla, David; Villarejo, Pedro; Menéndez, Jose M; Lora, David

    2012-01-01

    In the attempt to establish the different incidence between cancer in anatomically whole stomachs and cancer in patients who have undergone a surgical procedure for morbid obesity, a review on the epidemiology of bariatric surgery and stomach cancer and a correlation with the global incidence of stomach cancer (comparing it with the median age of patients who developed neoplasms after bariatric surgery) have been conducted. This was a descriptive study of the gastric neoplasms located at the gastric pouch, bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction, following bariatric surgery described in the medical literature. Twenty-one cases of gastric neoplasm located at the gastric pouch, in the bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction were described after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery seems to produce a decrease in the incidence of cancer when comparing obese patients who were operated and obese patients who have not, so additional studies are needed to compare the cancer incidence between the general population and patients undergoing bariatric surgery. New studies will determine if it is necessary to focus on the early detection of pathological processes at the excluded digestive tract.

  8. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  9. (Don't) Mind the effort: Effects of contextual interference on ERP indicators of motor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömer, Romy; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2016-10-01

    Motor learning is associated with a decrease in frontal control-related brain activity and increase of central and parietal motor-related activity. Contextual interference (CI), manipulated typically by blocked versus randomized training schedules, affects motor learning, resulting in inferior performance during training but in superior performance during retention and transfer. The CI effect is often explained by increased processing demands under high CI training. Consistently, in the motor preparation phase, the activity of control- and attention-related brain areas is increased under high CI. Here, we investigated the effect of CI on learning-related changes in ERPs during motor preparation. Participants learned throwing at virtual targets and were tested for retention in the target condition 1 week later. The frontal P3 component decreased with learning during the first session and across sessions. In addition, there was a trend for a stronger reduction of P3 during retention after high CI training. Both initial and late contingent negative variation (iCNV and lCNV) amplitudes decreased with learning and showed a significantly stronger reduction under high CI. We conclude that CI modulates the interplay of cognitive and motor processes in the preparatory phase of motor learning and that a stronger involvement of cognitive processes during high CI training accounts for differential effects of CI on ERP indicators of motor preparation during retention.

  10. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  11. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann

    2017-03-22

    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  12. Cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes in the experimental conditionally aseptic wound under the action of complex preparation based on chitosan and metal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyuchenko Е.А.. Zhandarova L.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: assessment of dynamics of reparative processes with the help of cytological examination of the preparations obtained from a conditionally aseptic wound under the action of a complex preparation based on biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles. Material and Methods. A conditionally aseptic wound was simulated in 40 white outbred rats. In comparison and experimental groups cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes was carried out. A number of neutrophilic leukocytes and fibroblastic row perl 00 cells in the preparations is recorded on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound with the use of the immersion objective. Results. It is established, that in the comparison group the cytologic pattern of impression smear was characterized by decrease in neutrophilic leukocytes and increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound. In the experimental group (the use of a complex preparation more intensive reduction of neutrophilic leukocytes and a significant increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 10th day and a complete healing by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound has been determined. Conclusion. When treated by a complex preparation based of biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles earlier occurrence of fibroblastic row cells in preparations and a significant decrease in quantity of neutrophilic leukocytes have been observed.

  13. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  14. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  15. Do proton pump inhibitors decrease calcium absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen E; Jones, Andrea N; Lindstrom, Mary J; Davis, Lisa A; Ziegler, Toni E; Penniston, Kristina L; Alvig, Amy L; Shafer, Martin M

    2010-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase osteoporotic fracture risk presumably via hypochlorhydria and consequent reduced fractional calcium absorption (FCA). Existing studies provide conflicting information regarding the direct effects of PPIs on FCA. We evaluated the effect of PPI therapy on FCA. We recruited women at least 5 years past menopause who were not taking acid suppressants. Participants underwent three 24-hour inpatient FCA studies using the dual stable isotope method. Two FCA studies were performed 1 month apart to establish baseline calcium absorption. The third study occurred after taking omeprazole (40 mg/day) for 30 days. Each participant consumed the same foods during all FCA studies; study meals replicated subjects' dietary habits based on 7-day diet diaries. Twenty-one postmenopausal women ages 58 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed all study visits. Seventeen women were white, and 2 each were black and Hispanic. FCA (mean ± SD) was 20% ± 10% at visit 1, 18% ± 10% at visit 2, and 23% ± 10% following 30 ± 3 days of daily omeprazole (p = .07, ANOVA). Multiple linear regression revealed that age, gastric pH, serum omeprazole levels, adherence to omeprazole, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were unrelated to changes in FCA between study visits 2 and 3. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) level at visit 2 was the only variable (p = .049) associated with the change in FCA between visits 2 and 3. PPI-associated hypochlorhydria does not decrease FCA following 30 days of continuous use. Future studies should focus on identifying mechanisms by which PPIs increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  16. Forbush decreases observed by Daejeon neutron monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongsoo; Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Yongkyun

    2016-02-01

    The neutron monitor (NM) is a ground-based detector designed to estimate the cosmic ray intensity by measuring secondary particles. In October 2011, an NM64-type NM with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 11.2 GV was installed at Daejeon in Korea. It has produced reliable cosmic ray data after detector stabilization. In order to examine the reliability of cosmic ray data collected by the Daejeon NM, we select Forbush decreases (FDs) that occurred during the three years of 2012-2014. We also analyze the FDs at the Oulu NM in Finland in order to identify and compare them. We identify 37 FDs at both Daejeon and Oulu NMs. Student t-test analysis reveals that FDs at Daejeon have smaller intensity variation of main phase and shorter duration of main phase than those at the Oulu NM. Of the 37 FDs, 17 are simultaneous and 20 are non-simultaneous. The intensity variation of simultaneous FDs is larger than that of non-simultaneous FDs at both NMs with high confidence levels in the Student t-test. Most of the non-simultaneous FDs that have an onset time in the dayside hold typical properties of non-simultaneous FDs. Our study results demonstrate that the Daejeon NM can provide cosmic ray data of reliability comparable to that of the Oulu NM. As one of only a few NMs worldwide with a high vertical cutoff rigidity exceeding 10.0 GV, the Daejeon NM will continue to provide important information on higher-energy cosmic ray spectra.

  17. Preparation of MCM-41 in Industrial Scale and Its Application in Heavy Oil Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of MCM-41 molecular sieves have been prepared on an industrial scale, and the effect of preparation factors such as aging temperature, pH values on the structure and pore distribution of the MCM-41 product have been studied by using X-ray diffraction(XRD), thermogravimetric(TG) and electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that the pH values have a significant effect on the crystallinity of the synthesized product. Under proper conditions, the MCM-41 prepared on an industrial scale has the same performance as the samples prepared on an Lab-scale. The prepared MCM-41 was used as a modifier of zeolite Y for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of residual oil. It is shown that the addition of the MCM-41 in the zeolite Y catalyst increases the pore size, and surface area of the catalysts, which helps to increase the yield of gasoline and diesel and decrease the production of gaseous product and carbon deposition in the catalyst. The better performance of the MCM-41 modified zeolite Y catalyst is believed to be due to its adjustment on the acidity and increase of the pore size.

  18. Preparation and characterization of porous magnesium materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-qin; LIU Zi-li; ZHANG Xiao-hong; FENG Jun-dong; YU Ta-xi

    2006-01-01

    The proper spacer material and the preparation technology for biological compatible porous magnesium materials were explored by the powder metallurgy method, and microstructures, porosity and mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium were investigated. The results show that compared with spacer materials of NH4CO3, NH3Cl and carbamide, NH4CO3 is the best one for preparation of sintered porous magnesium, and the worst one is NH3Cl. The isolated blind pores are formed mainly by the particle interval of the magnesium powders. Adding spacer material favors the formation of open pores, while has little contribution to the formation of blind pores. The overall porosity and porosity of open pore of the sintered porous magnesium increase with the increase of added spacer material, while decrease with the increase of the molding stress. The mechanical properties of sintered porous magnesium increase with decreasing addition of spacer material and increasing molding stress.

  19. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05, whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.

  20. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  1. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  2. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  3. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction.

  4. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  5. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. PREPARATION OF MESOPOROUS CARBON BY CARBON DIOXIDE ACTIVATION WITH CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Z.Shen; A.H.Lu; J.T.Zheng

    2002-01-01

    A mesoporous activated carbon (AC) can be successfully prepared by catalytic activa-tion with carbon dioxide. For iron oxide as catalyst, there were two regions of mesoporesize distribution, i.e. 2-5nm and 30-70nm. When copper oxide or magnesium oxidecoexisted with iron oxide as composite catalyst, the content of pores with sizes of 2-5nm was decreased, while the pores with 30 70nm were increased significantly. Forcomparison, AC reactivated by carbon dioxide directly was also investigated. It wasshown that the size of mesopores of the resulting AC concentrated in 2-5nm with lessvolume. The adsorption of Congo red was tested to evaluate the property of the result-ing AC. Furthermore, the factors affecting pore size distribution and the possibility ofmesopore formation were discussed.

  7. Bowel preparation in CT colonography: electrolyte and renal function disturbances in the frail and elderly patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Mc Sweeney, Sean; Mc Williams, Sebastian; O' Regan, Kevin; Kelly, Denis; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Eustace, Joseph; O' Connor, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Elderly patients are at increased risk of biochemical disturbances secondary to cathartic medications. This study investigates the renal function, electrolyte and clinical disturbances associated with CT colonography (CTC) with sodium picosulphate-magnesium citrate (SPS-MC) in a subgroup of frail, elderly patients. Patients aged over 70 years considered at risk of complication during SPS-MC administration by a physician specialised in care of the elderly were included in this retrospective study. Biochemical parameters pre- and post-CTC and the presence of co-morbidities were recorded. Imaging findings and quality of bowel preparation at CTC were graded by consensus by two radiologists. Of the 72 patients 56% had co-morbidities that caution the use of SPS-MC. No significant changes in serum urea, sodium, potassium or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) occurred post-CTC (p > 0.10). Serum magnesium increased by 0.11 mmol/L in 14 patients (p = 0.03) without clinical sequelae. Good overall preparation was achieved in 88% of patients, allowing confident identification of signs of colonic neoplasia in 20 patients (27%). A mild increase in serum magnesium but no other significant biochemical disturbance was observed. In our group CTC with SPS-MC was safe and effective; however, we advise an alternate preparation be considered in patients with decreased renal function due to decreased magnesium clearance. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of the galanin-induced decrease in membrane excitability in mudpuppy parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R L; Konopka, L M

    1991-01-01

    Previously, we showed that the neuropeptide galanin hyperpolarizes and decreases membrane excitability of mudpuppy parasympathetic neurons [Konopka L. M., McKeon T. W. and Parsons R. L. (1989) J. Physiol. 410, 107-122]. We also demonstrated that membrane excitability remains depressed when the agonist-induced potential change is negated electrotonically. We hypothesized that galanin inhibits the membrane conductances associated with spike generation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the decreased excitability is due to a galanin-induced increase in membrane potassium conductance which reduces the effectiveness of subsequent depolarizing stimuli. Therefore, in the present study we tested, with the galanin-induced hyperpolarization negated, whether the galanin-induced increased membrane potassium conductance was responsible for the decreased excitability. The results showed that the galanin-induced decreased excitability was not dependent on the peak amplitude of the galanin-induced hyperpolarization. Furthermore, the decreased excitability occurred in cells in which there was no measurable galanin-induced hyperpolarization. Moreover, in most cells the galanin-induced decrease in input resistance, measured at the peak of the hyperpolarization (3-25 mV), was less than 15% and when the hyperpolarization was negated electronically, the decrease was even less (approximately 2%). These results indicated that when the hyperpolarization was negated, the galanin-induced increase in potassium conductance was not responsible for the decreased excitability. In preparations pretreated with 5 mM tetraethylammonium, galanin decreased excitability which indicated that a galanin-induced decrease in the calcium-dependent potassium current was not necessary for the decreased excitability. Galanin also decreased excitability in preparations exposed to either 1-3 microM tetrodotoxin or 100-200 microM cadmium. Following galanin application, the threshold for initiation of

  9. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  10. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  11. Decreasing the cutoff for elevated blood lead (EBL) can decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura J; Bordash, Frank R; Ubben, Kathy J; Landmark, James D; Stickle, Douglas F

    2013-03-01

    Change in the definition of elevated blood lead (EBL) from greater than or equal to 10 μg/dL (cutoff A) to greater than or equal to 5 μg/dL (cutoff B) was recently endorsed in the United States. A potential effect of this change is to decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL detection. We demonstrate this effect by simulated sampling of an example patient distribution for lead. Using lead-dependent assay imprecision, simulated sampling of the patient distribution tracked individual misclassifications relative to the EBL cutoff. Decreasing the EBL cutoff from A to B reduced screening sensitivity for EBL detection in this population to less than 90%, a decrease of 4%. The result was due to the fact that, for B, a greater fraction of the EBL population was near the EBL cutoff and therefore subject to misclassification due to assay imprecision. The effect of the decreased EBL cutoff to reduce EBL screening sensitivity is likely to apply to EBL screening programs generally.

  12. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  13. Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Espel, Hallie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Lowe, Michael R; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present.

  14. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  15. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

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    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  16. Decreased range of motion following arthroscopic remplissage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Allen A; Kroll, Derek G

    2008-05-01

    The Hill-Sachs lesion is an impression fracture of the posterolateral margin of the humeral head that commonly results from impaction with the anterior glenoid rim during subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder. This bony defect has been implicated as an etiology of recurrent instability of the shoulder. The "remplissage" technique described by Wolf is an arthroscopic method of filling the Hill-Sachs defect via infraspinatus tenodesis and posterior capsulodesis. The purpose of this technique is to prevent recurrent instability by making the Hill-Sachs lesion extra-articular thereby eliminating engagement of the defect with the anterior glenoid rim. In addition, the infraspinatus tenodesis acts as a checkrein by preventing anterior translation of the humeral head. We report a complication of this recently described technique. A 28-year-old man who failed conservative management underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair with a concomitant remplissage procedure. Two years postoperatively, the patient continued to struggle with the loss of external rotation. Conservative management with physical therapy and range of motion exercises failed. The patient was treated with an arthroscopic release of the tenodesed infraspinatus, which improved external rotation by 202 in circle intraoperatively. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient has maintained a significant increase external rotation. We hypothesize that the loss in external rotation occurred as a result of the tenodesis of the infraspinatus and posterior capsule into the Hill-Sachs defect. The tenodesed cuff and capsular tissue acted as a mechanical block to external rotation of the shoulder.

  17. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days plus conventional therapy (XBJ group. Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02 compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001 compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05, but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05. Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  18. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Xu, Dong; Tu, Ranran; Hu, Zhiping

    2013-08-15

    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was collected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especially 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the synthesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  20. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lu; Dong Xu; Ranran Tu; Zhiping Hu

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was col ected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especial y 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the syn-thesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  1. The effect of decreased interletter spacing on orthographic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in how perceptual factors such as the spacing between letters within words modulate performance in visual word recognition and reading aloud. Extra-large letter spacing can strongly improve the reading performance of dyslexic children, and a small increase with respect to the standard spacing seems beneficial even for skilled word recognition in adult readers. In the present study we examined the effect of decreased letter spacing on perceptual identification and lexical decision tasks. Identification in the decreased spacing condition was slower than identification of normally spaced strings, thereby confirming that the reciprocal interference among letters located in close proximity (crowding) poses critical constraints on visual word processing. Importantly, the effect of spacing was not modulated by string length, suggesting that the locus of the spacing effect is at the level of letter detectors. Moreover, the processing of crowded letters was facilitated by top-down support from orthographic lexical representation as indicated by the fact that decreased spacing affected pseudowords significantly more than words. Conversely, in the lexical decision task only word responses were affected by the spacing manipulation. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that increased crowding is particularly harmful for phonological decoding, thereby adversely affecting reading development in dyslexic children.

  2. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide), a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone), middle third of the arena (transition zone) and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object), the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1%) which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish. PMID:28229024

  3. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide, a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone, middle third of the arena (transition zone and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object, the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1% which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

  4. The Decreasing Age at Menarche in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, M Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Callejo, Diana Del

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the current age at menarche in 2 urban areas from Mexico and to analyze secular trends in the age at menarche in Mexico City. Cross-sectional survey and secondary data analyses. (1) Samples of female students from Mexico City and from the city of Xalapa; and (2) national health surveys. (1) Pre- and postmenarcheal students, aged 8-17 years; and (2) data for women born between 1904 and 1999 who grew up in Mexico City were obtained from 3 relevant national health surveys. (1) Students were asked if they had had their first period and when it occurred; (2) information on year of birth and age at menarche for the remaining women was obtained from the national surveys; data were divided in groups according to the decade in which the women were born. (1) The estimated mean age at menarche was 11.40 and 11.34 years in Mexico City and Xalapa respectively. (2) There were significant differences in age at menarche among women who were born in the different decades analyzed. Women who were born in the 1990s or later reported an earlier age at menarche than those who were born from the 1940s to 1980s (P < .0001). These results could be helpful to health and education professionals who should take into account that because there is currently a widening gap between the physical and psychosocial maturity of girls, they might need special support. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hoerzer

    Full Text Available Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy. Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation was significantly lower (p = 0.041 than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5. This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  6. Effect of Prepared Rhubarb on Insulin Resistance in Patients With Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZi-fen; SHIShao-lan; 等

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of prepared rhubarb on insulin resistance in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH)and its mechanism.Methods:All the 92 patients accepted 75 g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT)and insulin release test before and after treatment.These patients were divided into two groups(treated group and control group).Prepared rhubarb and nifedipine were given to the treated group,while nifedipine was given to the control group alone.Circulating endothelial cell(CEC),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6)were measured and glucose area under curve(GAUC),insulin area under curve(IAUC),insulin sensitivity index(ISI)were calculated.And 30 normal pregnant women were selected as the healthy group.Results:CEC,TNF-α,IL-6,GAUC and IAUC of PIH patients were significantly higher than those of the normal healthy group; while ISI of PIH patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy group.ISI was significantly negatively correlated to CEC, TNF-α and IL-6.After treatment,CEC,TNF-α,IL-6,GAUC decreased and ISI increased sig-nificantly in the treated group;while in the control group,all above-mentioned parameters showed no change.Conclusion:Prepared rhubarb can improve insulin resistance of PIH by reducing vascular endothe-lial cells damage.

  7. Effect of Prepared Rhubarb on Insulin Resistance in Patients With Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子芬; 石绍兰; 宋海翔

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of prepared rhubarb on insulin resistance in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and its mechanism. Methods: All the 92 patients accepted 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test before and after treatment. These patients were divided into two groups (treated group and control group). Prepared rhubarb and nifedipine were given to the treated group, while nifedipine was given to the control group alone. Circulating endothelial cell (CEC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and glucose area under curve (GAUC), insulin area under curve (IAUC), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. And 30 normal pregnant women were selected as the healthy group. Results: CEC, TNF-α, IL-6, GAUC and IAUC of PIH patients were significantly higher than those of the normal healthy group; while ISI of PIH patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy group. ISI was significantly negatively correlated to CEC, TNF-α and IL-6. After treatment, CEC, TNF-α, IL-6, GAUC decreased and ISI increased significantly in the treated group; while in the control group, all above-mentioned parameters showed no change. Conclusion: Prepared rhubarb can improve insulin resistance of PIH by reducing vascular endothelial cell's damage.

  8. Decreased expression of DICER1 in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-hong; SUN Xiu-ju; FU Wei-neng; GUAN Yi; GAO Feng; WANG Ying; SUN Kai-lai

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of epigenetics in gene expression regulation and development significantly enhances our understanding of carcinogenesis.All the tumor related genes may be the target of epigenetical or genetic regulation.We selected some epigenetically regulated genes for cDNA array analysis and observed variability in the expression of the DICER1 gene in distinct stages of gastric cancer.The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the expression of DICER1,an epigenetically regulated gene,and gastric cancer.Methods To detect the expression of 506 tumor-associated genes,including DICER1,in the matched cancerous mucosa,pre-malignant lesion (adjacent mucosa),non-cancerous gastric mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesion in 3 cases of gastric cancers using cDNA array.DICER1 mRNA expression and DICER1 protein expression were further analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot in 32 cases of progressive gastric cancer.DICER1 protein expression was also detected in 33 early and 30 progressive gastric cancers by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method.Results In 3 cases of gastric cancer cDNA array showed dramatically decreased expression of DICER1 in pre-malignant Iesion,cancerous mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesions compared with matched noncancerous gastric mucosa,pre-malignant lesion and cancerous mucosa.Real-time PCR results showed that the expression level of DICER1 mRNA in gastric cancer was significantly down-regulated compared to normal gastric tissue (P<0.05).The IHC assay also showed that the expression of DICER1 was significantly decreased in progressive gastric cancer.Among the 63 cases of gastric cancers,13/33 early(39.4%)and 19/30(63.3%)progressive cancers showed negative expression of DICER1(50.8%).The difference in expression of DICER1 between early and progressive gastric cancers was significant(P<0.01).The result of Western blotting showed that DICER1 protein was down-regulated significantly in advanced gastric cancer

  9. F3MB(PANDER decreases mice hepatic triglyceride and is associated with decreased DGAT1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Mo

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER, also named as FAM3B is secreted by pancreatic α and β cells. Increasing evidence suggests that it may serve a hormonal function related to glycemic and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of PANDER overexpression on hepatic and adipose triglyceride metabolism in high-fat diet-fed male C57BL/6 mice.PANDER overexpression was achieved by tail-vein injection of recombinant Ad-PANDER and Ad-GFP injected mice served as a control. The TG metabolism in both groups were compared.Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PANDER did not affect body weight, food consumption, or liver enzymes. The triglyceride (TG content of both liver and adipose tissue was significantly decreased in Ad-PANDER mice (liver: 6.16±1.89 mg/g vs. control 14.95±2.27 mg/g, P<0.05; adipose: 39.31±1.99 mg/100mg vs. 47.22±2.21 mg/100mg, P<0.05. The free fatty acid (FFA content of adipose tissue in Ad-PANDER mice was also decreased (1.38±0.18 mg/g vs. 2.77±0.31 mg/g, P<0.01. The investigation of key enzymes of triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA oxidation in liver and adipose tissue showed that p-HSL/HSL was significantly increased and that DGAT1 gene and protein expression were significantly reduced in the liver of PANDER-overexpressing mice. PKA phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the livers of Ad-PANDER mice. No differences in ATGL, CPT1, ACOX1, or DGAT2 expression were observed.Overexpression of PANDER is associated with observable decreases in TG, increases in PKA phosphorylation, and decreased DGAT1 expression, suggesting a possible interrelationship. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be elucidated.

  10. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  14. Preparations, models, and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an outline for a typology of the different forms that scientific objects can take in the life sciences. The first section discusses preparations (or specimens)--a form of scientific object that accompanied the development of modern biology in different guises from the seventeenth century to the present: as anatomical-morphological specimens, as microscopic cuts, and as biochemical preparations. In the second section, the characteristics of models in biology are discussed. They became prominent from the end of the nineteenth century onwards. Some remarks on the role of simulations--characterising the life sciences of the turn from the twentieth to the twenty-first century--conclude the paper.

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  17. Preparation of mullite fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, S.; Yan, Y. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    Transparent mullite fibers have been prepared using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting materials. The ACs are derived from the catalyzed dissolution of elemental aluminum in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The solubility of aluminum in the acids is influenced by the concentrations of the acids, water, and additives and the preparation temperature. A 1:4:3:24 molar ratio of aluminum, formic acid, acetic acid, and water dissolves the aluminum completely to give a colorless, clear solution suitable for fiber synthesis. The mixture of the ACs and TEOS, in the presence of ethyl alcohol as a mutual solvent at 50--60 C, is concentrated to give a spinnable dope, from which mullite precursor fibers can be drawn. Heat treatment of the precursor at 1,250 C yields crystallized and transparent mullite fibers.

  18. Preparation for Physics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  19. The Association between Soy Nut Consumption and Decreased Menopausal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K.; Lee, Karen S.; Lew, Natalie S.; Nasca, Melita; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a low incidence of hot flashes in populations that consume dietary soy. The present study examined the effect of soy nuts on hot flashes and menopausal symptoms. Methods Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized in a crossover design to a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet alone and a TLC diet of similar energy, fat, and protein content in which one-half cup soy nuts divided into three or four portions spaced throughout the day (containing 25 g soy protein and 101 mg aglycone isoflavones) replaced 25 g of nonsoy protein. During each 8-week diet period, subjects recorded the number of hot flashes and amount of exercise daily. At the end of each 8-week diet period, subjects filled out the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire. Results Compared to the TLC diet alone, the TLC diet plus soy nuts was associated with a 45% decrease in hot flashes (7.5 ± 3.6 vs. 4.1 ± 2.6 hot flashes day, respectively, p 4.5 hot flashes/day at baseline and 41% in those with ≤4.5 hot flashes/day (2.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.3 ± 1.1, respectively, p < 0.001). Soy nut intake was also associated with significant improvement in scores on the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire: 19% decrease in vasomotor score (p = 0.004), 12.9% reduction in psychosocial score (p = 0.01), 9.7% decrease in physical score (p = 0.045), and a trend toward improvement in the sexual score, with a 17.7% reduction in symptoms (p = 0.129). The amount of exercise had no effect on hot flash reduction. Conclusions Substituting soy nuts for nonsoy protein in a TLC diet and consumed three or four times throughout the day is associated with a decrease in hot flashes and improvement in menopausal symptoms. PMID:17439381

  20. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  1. Typhonium flagelliforme decreases protein expression in murine breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodidjah Chodidjah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer treatment is still ineffective, having also various side effects. Breast cancer growth is affected by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 expression. In vitro studies on continuous culture of continuous culture of human lymphoblasts (CEMs showed that Typhonium flagelliforme (TF increases apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether TF syrup (TFS could decrease HER2/ neu and BCL2 expression as well as breast cancer volume (BCV in mice. METHODS An experimental post-test only control group design was conducted on 18 C3H mice with breast cancers, randomly allocated to 3 groups of 6. Group 1 received 0.2 ml of distilled water. Group 2 and 3 animals were each given 0.2 ml of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml TFS, respectively. The treatment was given orally once daily for 25 days. Assessment of HER2/neu and BCL2 expression was by immunohistochemistry, whereas BCV was measured by caliper. Anova and LSD were used for data analysis. RESULTS There was a significant difference in HER2/neu and BCL2 expression as well as in BCV among the treatment groups. LSD analysis showed that HER2/neu and BCL2 expression in group 3 (51.60%; 24.60% was significantly lower than in group 1 (245.40%; 114.40% as well as group 2 (235.50%; 54.20% (p=0.000. BCV in group 3 (4392.33 mm3 was significantly greater than BCV in group 1 (253.87 mm3 (p=0.002, but was not significantly different from BCV in group 2 (3667.16 mm3 (p=0.306. CONCLUSION Suplementation with TFS decreases HER2/neu and BCL2 expression. TF appears to be a promising plant demonstarting anti cancer activity.

  2. Hypoxic Induced Decrease in Oxygen Consumption in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Is Associated with Minor Increases in Mantle Octopine but No Changes in Markers of Protein Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaz, Juan C; Tunnah, Louise; MacCormack, Tyson J; Lamarre, Simon G; Sykes, Antonio V; Driedzic, William R

    2017-01-01

    The common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a dominant species in the north-east Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean Sea, is potentially subject to hypoxic conditions due to eutrophication of coastal waters and intensive aquaculture. Here we initiate studies on the biochemical response to an anticipated level of hypoxia. Cuttlefish challenged for 1 h at an oxygen level of 50% dissolved oxygen saturation showed a decrease in oxygen consumption of 37% associated with an 85% increase in ventilation rate. Octopine levels were increased to a small but significant level in mantle, whereas there was no change in gill or heart. There were no changes in mantle free glucose or glycogen levels. Similarly, the hypoxic period did not result in changes in HSP70 or polyubiquinated protein levels in mantle, gill, or heart. As such, it appears that although there was a decrease in metabolic rate there was only a minor increase in anaerobic metabolism as evidenced by octopine accumulation and no biochemical changes that are hallmarks of alterations in protein trafficking. Experiments with isolated preparations of mantle, gill, and heart revealed that pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis could decrease oxygen consumption by 32 to 42% or Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity by 24 to 54% dependent upon tissue type. We propose that the decrease in whole animal oxygen consumption was potentially the result of controlled decreases in the energy demanding processes of both protein synthesis and Na+/K+ ATPase activity.

  3. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  4. Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending and solution blending + melt compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madaleno, Liliana Andreia Oliveira; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Pinto, José Cruz

    2010-01-01

    and solution blending + melt compounding The effects on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were studied by varying the amount of Na-MMT and OMMT in both methods SEM and XRD analysis revealed that possible intercalated and exfoliated structures were obtained in all...... of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that PVC/Na-MMT nanocomposites have better thermal stability than PVC/OMMT nanocomposites and PVC. In general, PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding revealed improved thermal properties compared to PVC....../MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending Vicar tests revealed a significant decrease in Vicar softening temperature of PVC/MMT nanocomposites prepared by solution blending + melt compounding compared to unfilled PVC The mechanical properties of the PVC/MMT nanocomposites were, in general, greatly improved...

  5. Decreased magnesium level and membrane potential of glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2016-08-01

    The result probably suggests, that decrease in magnesium aggravates glaucoma while decrease in membrane potential could cause poor energy transmission and hence affect ocular blood flow. Hence, decreased magnesium and membrane potential levels contributes greatly to glaucoma.

  6. 7 CFR 1940.320 - Preparing EISs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... brief presentation of why they will not have a significant effect on the human environment or providing... impact statement; and (vii) Indicate the relationship between the timing of the preparation of... of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts. The disciplines of...

  7. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  8. Preparation, characterization and efficiency of nanoencapsulated imidacloprid under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarizadeh, Nargess; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Adeli, Mohsen; Talebi, Khalil

    2014-09-01

    In this work, nano-imidacloprid was prepared by direct encapsulation with ABA triblock linear dendritic copolymers composed of poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A block and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block. Nanocapsules of imidacloprid were characterized using spectroscopy, microscopy and thermal analysis. The encapsulation process was performed by self-assembly of PCA-PEG-PCA in the presence of imidacloprid in different solvents. Comparison of the TEM images of nano-imidacloprid prepared in ethanol and water showed that, during the first day, self-assemblies appeared as small particles with an average size of 10-20nm. Depending upon the type of solvent, the time and concentration, morphology and size of the nano-imidacloprid varied from fiber-like to globular to tubular from 10nm to several mm in size. Higher loading capacity and slower release rate of imidacloprid from nano-imidacloprid at optimum pH of Glyphodes pyloalis׳s gut (pH=10) compared to neutral pH confirmed the selective and controllable action of nano-imidacloprid. Results of bioassays on the model insect showed that by using the nanoform of imidacloprid, essential dosage of pesticide and environmental risk decreased significantly and indicated good performance for this formulation.

  9. Decreased serum prohepcidin concentration in patients with polycythemia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justyna KWAPISZ; Ewa ZEKANOWSKA; Joanna JASINIEWSKA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is a common complication in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis. The aim of our study was to assess prohepcidin, a hepcidin precursor, and other iron status pa-rameters in the serum of PV patients. Methods: The study was performed in 60 patients (F/M 26/34) aged 38~84 (66±10) years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers, age and sex matched. The following parameters were determined in blood serum samples: prohepcidin concentration, iron content, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TfS), and concentrations of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTIR). Results: All PV patients showed significantly lower levels of prohepcidin, higher levels of sTIR and TIBC compared to the control group. 40% of the patients from the study group showed concentrations of ferritin below the normal range and significantly lower levels of serum iron and TfS, and significantly higher levels of sTfR, UIBC and TIBC in comparison with the rest of the study group. In this group of patients, prohepcidin concentrations were significantly lower than those in other patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that PV patients suffer from iron metabolism disorders. The decreased serum level ofprohepcidin in PV patients may be a result of iron deficiency.

  10. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  11. Effects of decreased inhibition on synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology in the juvenile prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthippi Konstantoudaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-inhibition balance is critical for maintaining proper functioning of the cerebral cortex, as evident from electrophysiological and modeling studies, and it is also important for animal behavior (Yizhar et al., 2011. In the cerebral cortex, excitation is provided by glutamate release from pyramidal neurons, while inhibition is provided by GABA release from several types of interneurons. Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy, anxiety, schizophrenia and autism exhibit an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms of cortical circuits within key brain regions as prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, primarily through dysfunctions in the inhibitory system (Lewis, Volk, & Hashimoto, 2003; Marín, 2012 Given the significant role of GABAergic inhibition in shaping proper function of the cerebral cortex, we used a mouse model of developmentally decreased GABAergic inhibition in order to examine its effects in network properties, namely basal synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons. For our study, we used mice (postnatal day 20-30 in which the Rac1 protein was deleted from Nkx2.1-expressing neurons (Vidaki et al., 2012, (Rac1fl/flNkx2.1 +/cre referred as Rac1 KO mice, and heterozygous (Rac1+/flNkx2.1 +/cre or control (Rac1+/flNkx2.1 +/+ mice. The specific ablation of Rac1 protein from NKx2.1-expressing MGE-derived progenitors leads to a perturbation of their cell cycle exit resulting in decreased number of interneurons in the cortex(Vidaki et al, 2012. We prepared brain slices from the prefrontal cortex and recorded field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs from layer II neurons while stimulating axons in layer II. We find that the evoked fEPSPs are decreased in Rac1 KO mice compared to Rac1 heterozygous or control mice. This could suggest that the decreased GABAergic inhibition causes network alterations that result in reduced glutamatergic function. Furthermore

  12. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Preparation and characterization of bacterial cellulose nano crystals; Preparacao e caracterizacao de nanocristais de celulose bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniele B. dos; Lima, Lais R. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Unesp, Instituto de Quimica, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work we described the preparation of bacterial cellulose nano crystals (BCNC) by hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose with concentrated sulfuric acid. The influence of hydrolysis time in the nano crystals formation was evaluated and the materials characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The SEM images showed the whiskers formation and its reveal that the morphology and size of BCNC not changes significantly with hydrolysis time. The X-rays diffractogram analysis showed an increase on BCNC crystallinity as compared with pure bacterial cellulose. The TG curves revealed a decreasing on thermal stability of BCNC samples with increase of the hydrolysis time. (author)

  14. Preparation, characterization, and catalytic performance of Ta-HMS mesoporous molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefeng; Zhang, Like; Gao, Huanxin; Chen, Qingling

    2016-08-01

    Various Ta-HMS (hexagonal mesoporous silica) samples with different Ta content were hydrothermally prepared and characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption, ICP-AES, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the samples was also evaluated in the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. The regularity of mesoporous structure decreases while more extraframe Ta ions are formed with increasing the Ta content. Ta-HMS with Ta/Si ratio of 0.015 shows the highest conversion and selectivity in the studied epoxidation reaction. The catalyst can be used for three times without significant activity loss.

  15. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride for treatment of anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamoshree Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive nasal gels of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Mucoadhesive nasal gels were prepared using polymers like carbopol 934 and sodium alginate and characterized in terms of viscosity, texture profile analysis, ex vivo drug permeation profiles and histopathological studies. The results show that values of viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness increase while those of cohesiveness decrease with corresponding increase in concentration of the polymers. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing 5% sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations over a period of 12 h. Histopathological studies assured that gels containing different polymers did not produce any significant change in the nasal mucosae of goat even after 12 h permeation study. Mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride is a novel dosage form which delivers the drug directly into systemic circulation and provides controlled release of the drug.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibers from Two Commercial Hardwood and Softwood Pulps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Sanadi, Anand R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mechanical fibrillation process for the preparation of cellulose nanofibers from two commercial hard- and softwood cellulose pulps. The process consisted of initial refining and subsequent high-pressure homogenization. The progress in fibrillation was studied...... using different microscopy techniques, mechanical testing, and fiber density measurements of cellulose films prepared after different processing stages. The mechanical properties of cellulose films showed an increase in strength and stiffness with decreasing fiber size, and this stabilized after...... a certain number of passes in the homogenizer. Atomic force microscopy studies showed that the obtained cellulose nanofibers had diameters in the 10−25-nm range. The significant difference between the two samples was that the ultimate failure strain for cellulose films made of softwood fibers increased...

  18. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  19. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  20. Bacteriophage-based Probiotic Preparation for Managing Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-16

    for a probiotic preparation – based on naturally occurring bacteriophages – as a way to condition the GI tract’s microflora gently and favorably...The preparation (designated “ShigActive”) is a bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Shigella spp. (significant diarrhea-causing pathogens...10-Apr-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Bacteriophage -based Probiotic Preparation for Managing Shigella

  1. Animated educational video to prepare children for MRI without sedation: evaluation of the appeal and value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeszak, Szofia [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Man, Rachel; Love, Andrew [Nottingham Trent University, School of Art and Design, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Langmack, Gill; Wharrad, Heather [University of Nottingham, Health E-learning and Media group, School of Health Sciences, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Dineen, Robert A. [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    MRI scans can be distressing for children and often require sedation. Educating children about what to expect reduces anxiety and increases likelihood of successful non-sedated MRI scans. Multimedia tools are a popular means of education. Animated video could provide a free, accessible method of preparing children for MRI scans. To evaluate a new animation video for preparing children for MRI, specifically for decreasing in-scanner motion and examination failure. We recruited 24 healthy children ages 5-11 years. Participants underwent pre- and post-viewing questionnaires and structured interviews. We then compared median Likert scale score changes between pre- and post-animation questions and analyzed the interview framework. Participants were filmed viewing the animation to calculate time spent looking at the screen to assess how well the video retained children's attention. There were significant improvements in median scores regarding what to expect, checking for metal and keeping still. There were no significant changes in other knowledge-based topics. There were significant improvements in median scores for anxiety-based topics. On average, children watched the screen for 98.9% of the 174-s animation. The animation improved knowledge, reduced anxiety, retained attention and was enjoyed by participants. It can be accessed freely via the Internet to help prepare children ages 5-11 for having an MRI scan. (orig.)

  2. A Controlled Study of Alprostadil Liposomal Preparation in the Treatment of Blue Toe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hai-Lin; Li, Rui; Tian, Zhi-Long; Feng, Su; Jia, Gao-Lei

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of alprostadil liposomal preparation in the treatment of blue toe syndrome. As many as 32 patients with blue toe syndrome were randomized into the test group and a control group. Patients out of the test group were treated with alprostadil liposomal preparation, while those out of the control group received placebo administration. Inter-group comparisons were conducted for the post-therapeutic changes of microcirculation and improvements of clinical symptoms. In the test group, there were eight subjects with marked response (50.0 %), six subjects with partial response (37.5 %), and two subjects with no response (12.5 %), with the overall response rate of 87.5 %. In the control group, there were three cases (18.8 %), one case (6.4 %), and 12 cases (75 %), respectively, with the overall response rate of 25.0 %. The inter-group difference of response was statistically significant (Χ (2) = 12.987, P = 0.002 0.05). The post-therapeutic points of nail-fold microcirculation in the test group decreased significantly (P 0.05). The post-therapeutic waveform changes of photoelectric plethysmography were significant for the test group in comparison to the control. The safety and efficacy of alprostadil liposomal preparation have been demonstrated in the treatment of blue toe syndrome.

  3. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  4. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  5. EFFECT OF DECREASING DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH OPTIMAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kamran, M. Aslam Mirza, Ahsan-ul-Haq1 and S. Mahmood1

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A six-week trial was conducted to study the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP level on the performance of broilers in hot climatic conditions. Four experimental rations having CP 23 (control group, 22, 21 and 20%, with optimal amino acid balance were prepared. All the four rations were isocaloric having ME 3200 kcal/kg with Energy: Protein (E:P 139.0, 146.5, 152.4 and 160 in diets A, B, C and D respectively. One hundred and twenty day-old chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units, each having 10 chicks. Rations were randomly allotted to experimental units such that each unit received three replicates. The experimental diets were fed to birds from day 1st to 42nd. Performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR. At the end of experiment, two birds per each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to record the data on carcass yield, breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat. Results of the trial suggested that weight gain was significantly (P<0.01 increased in birds on diets with CP 20 and 21%. Feed consumption and FCR remained un-changed for all the treatment groups. Eviscerated carcass yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher for the group fed on diet with 20% CP. Breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat also remained un-changed. Economic evaluation of the trial revealed that decreasing CP levels from 23 to 20% resulted in reduced feed cost per kg of live weight gain, which clearly indicated that this approach was useful especially in severe summer conditions. The overall picture of the study suggests that dietary protein level of broilers could be reduced from 23 to 20%, with beneficial effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics and increased economic returns in hot environmental conditions, provided that levels of essential amino acids are closely looked after.

  6. Preoperative vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine and the risk of postcesarean endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Rosally V; Zurawski, Jill; Ismail, Mahmoud

    2005-05-01

    Postcesarean endometritis and wound infection remain significant morbidities, despite use of strategies to prevent these complications. We investigated the effect of preoperative vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine as a preventive intervention against postcesarean endometritis and wound infection. A randomized controlled study was performed in 308 women undergoing nonemergent cesarean delivery. Subjects received either standard abdominal scrub alone or abdominal scrub with an additional vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine solution. All subjects received prophylactic antibiotic at the time of umbilical cord clamping. Each subject's postoperative course was reviewed for development of febrile morbidity (temperature > 38.0 degrees C), endometritis (temperature > 38.4 degrees C accompanied by fundal tenderness occurring beyond the first postoperative day, in the absence of evidence of other infection), and wound infection. Postcesarean endometritis occurred in 7.0% of subjects who received a preoperative vaginal preparation and 14.5% of controls (P history of antenatal genitourinary infection (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.265-6.596). Preoperative vaginal scrub with povidone-iodine decreases the incidence of postcesarean endometritis. This intervention does not seem to decrease the overall risk of postoperative fever or wound infection.

  7. Microstructural Evolution of Semisolid 6063 Aluminum Alloy Prepared by Recrystallization and Partial Melting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfei; Zhao, Shengdun; Zhang, Chenyang

    2017-08-01

    Radial forging (RF) was proposed as a novel deformation method to prepare semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy in the recrystallization and partial melting (RAP) process. The effects of area reduction rate, isothermal holding temperature and time on the microstructural evolution of RF-deformed 6063 aluminum alloy were investigated. Results showed that RF can be successfully introduced in RAP process to prepare large semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy bar. With the increase of the area reduction rate, the average grain size firstly decreased and then no significant change occurred. Meanwhile, the spheroidization degree of solid grains firstly increased rapidly, and then increased slowly. The effects of isothermal holding temperature and time are similar, with the increase of the isothermal holding temperature or time, the average grain size initially decreased but then increased; and the spheroidization degree of solid grains gradually increased. High-quality semisolid 6063 aluminum alloy can be prepared with 70% area reduction rate and subsequent semisolid isothermal treatment (SSIT) at 630 °C for 10 min. The coarsening rate constant was 5185.2 µm3/s at 630 °C. Additionally, a strong deformation texture was created in the RF-deformed alloy with 70% area reduction rate, which was transformed to a weakened texture following the SSIT process.

  8. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  9. Preparation of polyvinylpyrrodione microspheres by dispersion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linfeng ZHAI; Tiejun SHI; Hualin WANG

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) microspheres in ethyl acetate by dispersion polymerization with N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) as initial monomer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (P (NVP-co-VAc)) as dispersant, and 2, 2'-azobisisobutyr-onitrile(AIBN) as initiator is reported. The influences of monomer concentration, dispersant concentration and initiator concentration on the size of PVP microspheres as well as the monomer conversion were studied. The structure and properties of PVP microspheres were analyzed. The results show that the prepared PVP micro-spheres have a mean diameter of 3-4 μm. With an increase in NVP concentration, the size and the molecular weight of the PVP microspheres as well as the monomer conversion all increase. With increasing P(NVP-co-VAc) concentra-tions, the PVP molecular weight and monomer conversion both increase while the size of the microspheres becomes smaller. As the concentration of AIBN increases, the microsphere size and monomer conversion increase whereas the PVP molecular weight decreases. The PVP prepared by dispersion polymerization has a crystal structure, and its molecular weight is lower compared to that prepared by solution polymerization.

  10. Automated sample preparation for CE-SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M Eleanor; Vizel, Alona; Hutterer, Katariina M

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, CE with SDS (CE-SDS) places many restrictions on sample composition. Requirements include low salt content, known initial sample concentration, and a narrow window of final sample concentration. As these restrictions require buffer exchange for many sample types, sample preparation is often tedious and yields poor sample recoveries. To improve capacity and streamline sample preparation, an automated robotic platform was developed using the PhyNexus Micro-Extractor Automated Instrument (MEA) for both the reduced and nonreduced CE-SDS assays. This automated sample preparation normalizes sample concentration, removes salts and other contaminants, and adds the required CE-SDS reagents, essentially eliminating manual steps during sample preparation. Fc-fusion proteins and monoclonal antibodies were used in this work to demonstrate benefits of this approach when compared to the manual method. With optimized conditions, this application has demonstrated decreased analyst "hands on" time and reduced total assay time. Sample recovery greater than 90% can be achieved, regardless of initial composition and concentration of analyte.

  11. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  12. Mutans streptococci strains prevalence before and after cavity preparation during Atraumatic Restorative Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, C S; Bönecker, M; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2003-06-01

    Critics argue that all carious dentine is not removed from the hand-prepared cavity during the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) procedure, and that the caries process is soon resumed. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ART in removing carious tissue, by investigating the numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, with emphasis on the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus strains before, and after ART treatment of dental caries. Two microbiology samples were collected. The first sample was removed from the centre of the carious lesion at the enamel-dentine junction, and the second was collected from the centre of the hard cavity wall above the pulp, after the soft infected dentine had been manually removed. A total of 71 mutans streptococci isolates from 31 children and 40 carious teeth were subcultured, biochemically characterised and genotyped by the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Results showed a significant decrease in TVC (Ppreparation. AP-PCR identified S. mutans strains that were undetectable during biotyping, and divided clinical isolates into two main clusters. In all, 63% (45/71) of isolates from the carious lesions comprised S. mutans strains. After cavity preparation, this was reduced to 35% (25/71), of which 30% (21/71) were S. mutans and the remaining 6% (4/71) S. sobrinus strains. The number of mutans streptococci strains was below detectable levels in 19 of the prepared cavities. The significant decrease in bacteria after manual cavity preparation demonstrates the reliability of a standardized ART technique, yet the presence of S. mutans strains shows that the effectiveness of the ART procedure can vary during treatment and between dental practitioners.

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  14. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  17. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  18. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  19. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion.

  20. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  1. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Franco-Avila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ham is a product highly consumed by society; however it contains some elements that make it a non-recommended food. Thus, it has been attempted to eliminate or reduce those components.Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W and Simple Cooking (SC in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. Furthermore, sensory acceptance of thesamples through an acceptance test of five points was evaluated. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni were used to assess the mean difference between groups. The value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Both processes reduced the amount of sodium in both types of ham in statistically significant way (p≤0.001. The major percentage of reduction was presented with SC: 73.4% for turkey ham and 63.5% for pork ham. Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05. Peroxide index decreased with both techniques in both hams without statistical significance. Total coliforms count was kept constant in all samples. Higher sensory acceptance of W concerning SC in all sensory characteristics was observed.Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. Furthermore, W is accepted in all sensory categories. We recommend using W technique before consumption of the product.

  2. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2, and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  3. Decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Hiroyuki; Kono, Nozomu; Matsuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    Various kinds of fatty acids are distributed in membrane phospholipids in mammalian cells and tissues. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation in membrane phospholipids affects many membrane-associated functions and can be influenced by diet and by altered activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes such as fatty acid desaturases. However, little is known about how mammalian cells respond to changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition. In this study we showed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockdown increased the amount of saturated fatty acids and decreased that of monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids without affecting the amount or the composition of free fatty acid and induced unfolded protein response (UPR), evidenced by increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) mRNAs and splicing of Xbox-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA. SCD1 knockdown-induced UPR was rescued by various unsaturated fatty acids and was enhanced by saturated fatty acid. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), which incorporates preferentially polyunsaturated fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine, was up-regulated in SCD1 knockdown cells. Knockdown of LPCAT3 synergistically enhanced UPR with SCD1 knockdown. Finally we showed that palmitic acid-induced UPR was significantly enhanced by LPCAT3 knockdown as well as SCD1 knockdown. These results suggest that a decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces UPR.

  4. Intracellular water motion decreases in apoptotic macrophages after caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, S; García-Martín, M L; Cerdán, S; Castrillo, A; Alvarez, A M; Boscá, L

    2001-10-01

    Triggering of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma promoted apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of type 2 nitric oxide synthase or caspase. Using (1)H NMR analysis, we have investigated the changes of the intracellular transverse relaxation time (T(2)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as parameters reflecting the rotational and translational motions of water in apoptotic macrophages. T(2) values decreased significantly from 287 to 182 ms in cells treated for 18 h with NO-donors. These changes of T(2) were prevented by caspase inhibitors and were not due to mitochondrial depolarization or microtubule depolymerization. The decrease of the intracellular values of T(2) and ADC in apoptotic macrophages was observed after caspase activation, but preceded phosphatidylserine exposure and nucleosomal DNA cleavage. The changes of water motion were accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobic properties of the intracellular milieu, as detected by fluorescent probes. These results indicate the occurrence of an alteration in the physicochemical properties of intracellular water during the course of apoptosis.

  5. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  6. Great tit response to decreasing industrial heavy metal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Gomes, T; Eira, C; Vaqueiro, J; Vingada, J V

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental pollution on decreasing great tit (Parus major) breeding parameters in an industrial area in the west coast of Portugal. Several great tit breeding parameters were monitored in the industrial area, as well as in a rural area not affected by industrial emissions. Low levels of air pollution in both industrial and rural areas were confirmed by assessing trace element concentrations in pine needles. Concentrations of Cd and Hg in pine needles from the industrial area (Cd = 0.05 ppm; Hg = 0.005 ppm) were significantly lower than those found in needles collected from the reference area (Cd = 0.07 ppm; Hg = 0.007 ppm). Additionally, the breeding success of great tits increased in the industrial area in comparison to the reference area (0.93 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.22, respectively). The changes on great tit breeding parameters were probably related with changes in the breeding density of other competitive species, together with a decreasing frass-fall biomass. Further long-term ecological studies in industrial areas are necessary to understand the changing breeding performance and strategies used by great tits in response to pollution shifts in the environment.

  7. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  8. Photodynamic therapy using upconversion nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, Tomohiro; Onodera, Yuji; Nunokawa, Takashi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirano, Tomohisa; Ogura, Shun-ichiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Odawara, Osamu [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Wada, Hiroyuki, E-mail: wada.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid. • Highly transparent near-IR irradiation generated singlet oxygen. • Viability of cancer cells was significantly decreased by near-IR irradiation. - Abstract: Upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, and the potential use of the nanoparticles for cancer treatment was investigated. A Nd:YAG/SHG laser (532 nm, 13 ns, 10 Hz) was used for ablation, and the cancer treatment studied was photodynamic therapy (PDT). Morphology and crystallinity of prepared nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Red and green emissions resulting from near-infrared excitation were observed by a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by a photochemical method using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). In vitro experiments using cultivated cancer cells were conducted to investigate PDT effects. Uptake of the photosensitizer by cancer cells and cytotoxicities of cancer cells were also examined. We conclude that the combination of PDT and highly crystalline nanoparticles, which were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, is an effective cancer treatment.

  9. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O;

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven...... patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P sweat electrolyte concentrations (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  10. Contrast Adaptation Decreases Complexity in Retinal Ganglion Cell Spike Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Li; HUANG Shi-Yong; ZHANG Ying-Ying; LIANG Pei-Ji

    2007-01-01

    @@ The difference in temporal structures of retinal ganglion cell spike trains between spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation is investigated. The Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis reveals that the complexity of the neural spike train decreases after contrast adaptation. This implies that the behaviour of the neuron becomes ordered, which may carry relevant information about the external stimulus. Thus, during the neuron activity after contrast adaptation, external information could be encoded in forms of some certain patterns in the temporal structure of spike train that is significantly different, compared to that of the spike train during spontaneous activity, although the firing rates in spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation are sometime similar.

  11. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels.

  12. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  13. Novel Cloud Architecture to Decrease Problems Related to Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entesar Althagafy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available IT companies are facing many difficulties and challenges when dealing with big data. These difficulties have surfaced due to the ever-expanding amount of data generated via personal computer, mobile devices, and social network sites. The significant increase in big data has created challenges for IT companies that need to extract necessary information and knowledge. Cloud computing, with its virtualized resources usage and dynamic scalability, is broadly used in organizations to address challenges related to big data and has an important influence on business in organizations. Furthermore, big data is changing the way organizations do business. This paper proposes novel cloud architecture to decrease problems related to big data. The proposed architecture is a combination of many big data infrastructures in the creation of a service. This architecture minimizes problems related to big data by improving performance and quality of service.

  14. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Sperm Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between cigarette smoking and sperm densityin men of reproductive age. Methods We enrolled 224 male employees of a modern petrochemicalplant in Nanjing,China. These men had no prior history of infertility or other reproductive diseases.Epidemiologic data, including information on smoking and other occupational and lifestyle exposures wereobtained by a questionnaire interview. Semen specimens were collected from each participant and analyzedaccording to the WHO guidelines. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of smokingon sperm density. Results Approximately 67% of the subjects had ever smoked cigarettes. Differ-ent measurements of smoking behavior were each associated with decrensed sperm density. There was asignificant dose-response trend between the tertiles of total smoking amount in pack-years and sperm den-sity. As compared to men who never smoked, current smokers had a significant reduction in sperm densi-ty (-13.3×106/ml; 95% CI,-24. 1,-2.5) ,while ex-snokers had only a small decrement inspern density (-2.6× 106/al; 95 % CI,-18. 7 ,13. 5). Starting smoking at less than 20 yearsof age was associated with significant reduction in sperm density (-14.8×106/md; 95% CI ,- 27. 4, - 2.2). Starting smoking at 20 years or older was associated with a slightly snaller de-crease (-10.1×106/ml; 95% CI,-21.7,1.4). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associ-ated with decreased sperm density ,showing an evident dose-response trend in this population.

  15. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  16. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina M Petiwala

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary

  17. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts.

  18. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharrafian, Shahram; Afshar, Hossein; Farbod, Maryam; Baniameri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds. Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves. Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198). Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838). The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680). Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. PMID:28127329

  19. Effect of Etching Time and Preparation on Push-Out Bond Strength of Composite to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mosharrafian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of composite to prepared and unprepared intracanal dentin using a 5th generation bonding agent in primary anterior teeth after etching for seven and 15 seconds.Materials and Methods: Sixty primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups. In groups one and two, intracanal dentin remained intact while in groups three and four it was prepared using a #5 round bur and low-speed handpiece. Single Bond 2 was used in groups one and three after 15 seconds and in groups two and four after seven seconds of etching with phosphoric acid. After restoring with composite resin and incubation, the specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Kaplan Meier curves.Results: The mean bond strength was not significantly different between seven and 15 seconds etching times (P=0.198. Dentin preparation had no significant effect on the mean bond strength (P=0.838. The interaction effect of etching time and dentin preparation was not significant either (P=0.680.Conclusions: Decreasing the etching time from 15 to seven seconds and preparation of intracanal dentin had no significant effect on push-out bond strength of composite to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth. Keywords: Dental Etching; Composite Resins; Dentin; Tooth, Deciduous

  20. Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhou, Chun; He, Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Guang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown. Manipulating the lead content in the diet of Drosophila melanogaster, we found that lead consumption had no different effects on developmental time between Wolbachia-infected (Dmel wMel) and -uninfected (Dmel T) flies. While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies. Lead infusion in diet resulted in significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in Dmel T flies (P<0.05), but not in Dmel wMel flies. Correspondingly, lead cultures induced a 10.8 fold increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in Dmel T larvae (P<0.05). While in Dmel wMel larvae, it resulted in only a 1.3 fold increase. By quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01). Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage. This represents a novel Wolbachia-host interaction and provides information that researchers working on Drosophila toxicology should take in consideration the presence of Wolbachia in the stocks they are analyzing.

  1. Prospective evaluation of 1-day polyethylene glycol-3350 bowel preparation regimen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mazen I; Nylund, Cade M; Bruch, Carol J; Nazareno, Luzviminda G; Rogers, Philip L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a pediatric colonoscopy bowel preparation regimen composed of polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350) and a sports drink completed in a few hours. A prospective, open-label trial of a colonoscopy bowel preparation in children ages 8 to 18 years that included 238 g of PEG-3350 mixed with 1.9 L of Gatorade completed in a few hours. Efficacy was determined using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Basic metabolic profiles and questionnaires were obtained that assessed for safety, adverse effects, tolerability, and patient acceptability. Forty-six patients completed the study. Patients were predominately boys (56.5%) with a mean age of 14.50 years (SD ± 2.9 years). Forty-three (93.5%) were able to complete the regimen. All of the colonoscopies were completed to the cecum and 84% had terminal ileum visualization. Seventy-seven percent were found to be effective preparations. Nausea/vomiting were the most common reported adverse effect (60%) followed by abdominal pain/cramping (44%) and fatigue/weakness (40%). Overall, the regimen was acceptable with 1 exception being the large volume to drink. There were no clinically significant changes in basic metabolic profiles, although there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean potassium (0.16 mEq/L; P = 0.016), blood urea nitrogen (2.68 mg/dL; P Gatorade administered in a few hours is an effective, safe, and moderately tolerable bowel preparation regimen for colonoscopy in children.

  2. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20 are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX, 56.4% (HMX, and 58.1% (CL-20, respectively. When nano-RDX and nano-HMX are used in plastic bonded explosives (PBX as alternative materials of micron-sized particles, their shock sensitivities are significantly decreased by 24.5% (RDX and 22.9% (HMX, and their detonation velocities are increased by about 1.7%. Therefore, it is expected to promote the application of nano-nitramine explosives in PBXs and composite modified double-based propellants (CMDBs so that some of their properties would be improved.

  3. Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch–clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Well-dispersed starch-clay nanocomposites were prepared by adding a dilute clay dispersion to a solution of starch followed by coprecipitation in ethanol. The clay didn\\'t significantly influence the type of crystalline structure of starch molecules although the amount of crystallinity appears to be somewhat lower in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites show improved modulus and strength without a decrease in elongation at break. The increase in modulus and strength is 65% and 30%, respectively for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% clay compared to the unfilled starch materials. Further increases in clay result in deterioration in properties most likely due to poorer clay dispersion and lower polymer crystallinity. As the amount of water increases, the modulus of both pure starch and starch nanocomposites decreases, although the change is less pronounced in the nanocomposites suggesting that the addition of clay to form nanocomposites can improve the stability of starch-based products during transportation and storage. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers simazine as material potentiometric sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bow Yohandri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting technology is a promising technique for creating recognition elements for selected compounds and has been successfully applied for synthesis of environmental pollutants such as simazine. Simazine is a pesticide ingredient that is commonly used in agriculture, which has devastating effects on the environment if used excessively. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP provides cavities to form a particular space generated by removing the template when the polymer has formed. In this study, MIP using simazine as template had been made by the cooling-heating method and used as a material potentiometric sensor for detecting simazine. A template (simazine was incorporated into a pre-polymerization solution that contains a methacrylic acid as functional monomer, an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Characterization was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR. The FTIR spectra of the MIP showed that the peaks of amine group decrease significantly, indicating that the simazine concentration decreases drastically. Characterization by SEM images showing the broadest pore size distribution with the highest number of pores in the MIP prepared under the heating time of 150 min. The MIPs therefore could be applied as a simazine sensor.

  5. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    : USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... with international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have...

  6. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  7. Method to prepare Semtex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  8. Stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator, p35, by paclitaxel decreases beta-amyloid toxicity in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibin; Faibushevich, Alexander; Turunen, Brandon J; Yoon, Sung Ok; Georg, Gunda; Michaelis, Mary L; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2003-01-01

    One hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, aggregated paired helical filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. Amyloid-beta (Abeta) induces tau hyperphosphorylation, decreases microtubule (MT) stability and induces neuronal death. MT stabilizing agents have been proposed as potential therapeutics that may minimize Abeta toxicity and here we report that paclitaxel (taxol) prevents cell death induced by Abeta peptides, inhibits Abeta-induced activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and decreases tau hyperphosphorylation. Taxol did not inhibit cdk5 directly but significantly blocked Abeta-induced calpain activation and decreased formation of the cdk5 activator, p25, from p35. Taxol specifically inhibited the Abeta-induced activation of the cytosolic cdk5-p25 complex, but not the membrane-associated cdk5-p35 complex. MT-stabilization was necessary for neuroprotection and inhibition of cdk5 but was not sufficient to prevent cell death induced by overexpression of p25. As taxol is not permeable to the blood-brain barrier, we assessed the potential of taxanes to attenuate Abeta toxicity in adult animals using a succinylated taxol analog (TX67) permeable to the blood-brain barrier. TX67, but not taxol, attenuated the magnitude of both basal and Abeta-induced cdk5 activation in acutely dissociated cortical cultures prepared from drug treated adult mice. These results suggest that MT-stabilizing agents may provide a therapeutic approach to decrease Abeta toxicity and neurofibrillary pathology in AD and other tauopathies.

  9. Hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol is decreased and fecal cholesterol excretion is increased in mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with milk phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jacquelyn M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk phospholipids (PLs reduce liver lipid levels when given as a dietary supplement to mice fed a high-fat diet. We have speculated that this might be due to reduced intestinal cholesterol uptake. Methods Mice were given a high-fat diet for 3 or 5 weeks that had no added PL or that were supplemented with 1.2% by wt PL from cow's milk. Two milk PL preparations were investigated: a a PL-rich dairy milk extract (PLRDME, and b a commercially-available milk PL concentrate (PC-700. Intestinal cholesterol uptake was assessed by measuring fecal and hepatic radioactivity after intragastric administration of [14C]cholesterol and [3H]sitostanol. Fecal and hepatic lipids were measured enzymatically and by ESI-MS/MS. Results Both PL preparations led to significant decreases in total liver cholesterol and triglyceride (-20% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol was significantly less (-30% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol and unlabeled cholesterol was significantly higher in PL-supplemented mice (+15% to +30%, P 14C]cholesterol (P 14C]cholesterol (P P P Conclusion These results indicate that milk PL extracts reduce hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol and increase fecal cholesterol excretion when given to mice fed a high-fat diet.

  10. The effect of music on decreasing arousal due to stress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Cori L

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of research articles using music to decrease arousal due to stress was conducted on 22 quantitative studies. Results demonstrated that music alone and music assisted relaxation techniques significantly decreased arousal (d = +.67). Further analysis of each study revealed that the amount of stress reduction was significantly different when considering age, type of stress, music assisted relaxation technique, musical preference, previous music experience, and type of intervention. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Antibacterial continuous nanofibrous hybrid yarn through in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) with the antibacterial activity were prepared that contains 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 wt.% of silver nanoparticles according to the PVA polymer content. This was performed by electrospinning using distilled water and 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethanol as a solvent for PVA and PLLA respectively, and sodium borohydride was used as a reducing agent. The scanning electron microscope observation confirmed the formation of AgNPs into the PVA nanofiber structure, and they were uniform, bead free, cylindrical and smooth. The diameter of hybrid yarns and their nanofiber component was decreased as the silver nitrate concentration in electrospinning solutions was increased. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the silver nanoparticles can form interactions with polymer chains and decrease the melting enthalpy. The mechanical analysis showed a lower stress and strain at break of the AgNP-loaded nanofibrous hybrid yarns than the unloaded hybrid yarn. However, there wasn't a statistically significant difference between the strain at break of electrospun nanofibrous hybrid yarns. Moreover, the bactericidal efficiency of all loaded samples was over 99.99%. - Highlights: • Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of PVA/PLLA with antibacterial activity were prepared. • The diameter of nanofibers was decreased as the AgNP concentration was increased. • AgNPs make interactions with amorphous phase of polymer and increase the Tg. • All loaded samples presented a good bactericidal and bacteriostatic efficiency.

  12. SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM COPPER AND ZINC LEVEL IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

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    Prathibha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of trace elements especially copper and zinc in carcinogenesis in relation to disease activity have shown useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumor in the digestive organ. Keeping this in consideration, the study was conducted on 140 subjects either sex out of which 35 normal adults and 105 gastrointestinal (GI cancer patients. The follow up study was further undertaken and values of serum Cu and Zn of the same patients before and after surgery were recorded. The study showed that there was significant elevation (p<0.01 of serum copper levels before surgery and serum copper levels were deceased significantly (p<0.05 after surgery. Serum Zn level was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in GI cancer patients while the Zn level was increased significantly (p<0.01 after surgery. There was significant increase (p<0.01 in Cu/ Zn ratio of GI cancer patients before surgery in contrast to the control. The serum copper level in patients of GI cancer decreased significantly after surgery resulting normalization of metabolic process. A significant increase in serum Zn levels have been observed after treatment of the patients. The Cu/ Zn ratio decreased significantly after the surgery. These observations clearly indicate that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/ Zn ratio are useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumors in digestive organs

  13. Change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression change of serum and colon lavage fluid related indicators after probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children.Methods:80 cases of children with diarrhea treated in our hospital were selected. According to clinical symptoms, routine blood and stool test, they were all diagnosed with persistent diarrhea and randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 40 cases in each group. Control group received basic treatment and zinc preparations (zinc gluconate tablets) therapy; experimental group, based on treatment of control group, received probiotics (Siliankang) combined with zinc preparations treatment. Fasting serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were collected before and after treatment to detect IL-6, IL-8, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels, and differences between two groups were compared.Results:After treatment, IL-6 and IL-8 expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups decreased significantly than those before treatment, and those of experimental group decreased more significantly; after treatment, NO, MDA and SOD expression levels in serum and colon lavage fluid of both groups were significantly improved than those before treatment, and those of experimental group were closer to the normal levels than those of control group.Conclusions:Probiotics combined with zinc preparations treatment of persistent diarrhea in children has obvious curative effect; it effectively reduces expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors in serum and colon lavage fluid, and is worth popularization in future clinical treatment.

  14. The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1961-01-01

    The Third International Reference Preparation of Egg Lecithin was produced (in a quantity of 5000 ml) at the WHO Serological Reference Centre, Copenhagen, and assayed in 1958 against the Second International Reference Preparation by four laboratories in three countries. Complement-fixation and slide-flocculation tests were used. The new preparation was found acceptable, and its establishment was authorized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. The average log10 titres and results of analyses of variances are shown. The variances were of the usual order of magnitude, and the differences in titre between antigens containing the Second and the Third International Reference Preparations varied from -0.011 to 0.116; only one of the differences exceeded the 5% limit of significance. The use of the Third International Reference Preparation in tests for the acceptability of lecithin preparations is described. PMID:13753864

  15. Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua

    2002-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAn) was synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization. The conductive polymer doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and a matrix polymer,polyamide- 66, polyamide - 1010 or polyamide- 11, were dissolved in m-cresol and the blend solution was cast in a glass and dried for preparing polyaniline composite films.Conductivity was from 10 -6 to 10 0Ω-1·cm-1 with different weight fraction of PAn-CSA. The crystallizttion of the films was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The treatment of the composite films in different pH value solution would result in decrease of conductivity, especially in an alkaline solution.

  16. Preparation of counterion stabilized concentrated silver sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Sylas; Halaciuga, Ionel; Goia, Dan V

    2011-07-01

    A strategy for obtaining stable concentrated silver dispersions without dedicated stabilizing agents is presented. This approach consists of rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of silver salicylate and ascorbic acid. By using salicylate as Ag(+) counterion, it is possible to prepare stable sols with metal concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than with silver nitrate. The stabilizing effect of the counterion is the result of a decreased ionic strength due to salicylate protonation and its adsorption on the surface of silver. Both effects increase the range of the electrostatic repulsive forces by expanding the electrical double layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  18. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  19. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  20. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  1. Anemia decreases quality of life of the elderly in Jakarta

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    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a very common disorder both in clinical practice and in the community. The recent rise in the population of the elderly has become the focus of attention in developing countries, because of the increasing longevity of the elderly, whilst the prevalence of anemia increases with age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and its association with the quality of life in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008, located in the Mampang Prapatan district, South Jakarta. A total of 298 elderly persons participated in this study, comprising 109 (36.6% males and 189 (63.4% females. Anemia was measured by the parameters of hemoglobin and quality of life was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, a short version of the WHOQOL-100 instrument. The results of the study showed the prevalence of anemia to be 26.2%, with a higher prevalence rate in females compared with males. The quality of life in the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains differed significantly with decreasing hemoglobin levels, whereas the physical and mental quality of life declined significantly with age. Anemia is thus indicative of a reduction in the quality of life of the elderly.

  2. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  3. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  4. Decreased health care quality associated with emergency department overcrowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Antonio, M T; Jiménez, S; De Dios, A; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of overcrowding on health care quality provided by emergency departments (ED). The study was carried out in an urban, university tertiary care hospital. All patients seen at the internal medicine unit (IMU) of the ED who returned during the following 72 hours, and those who died in the ED rooms were included in the study. During a consecutive period of 2 years (104 weeks), we prospectively quantified the number of weekly visits, revisits and deaths. We calculated revisit and mortality rates (in respect of percentage of all visited patients) for each week. Correlation between the number of weekly visits, and revisit and mortality rates was assessed using a simple linear regression model. We consigned 81,301 visits, 1137 revisits and 648 deaths; mean (+/- SD) number of weekly visits, revisits and deaths were 782 (68), 10.93 (3.97) and 6.23 (3.04) respectively; weekly revisit rate was 1.40% (0.48%) and weekly mortality rate was 0.79% (0.36%). We observed a significant, positive correlation between mortality rates and weekly number of visits (p = 0.01). Although a similar trend was also found for revisit rates, such an increase did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). It is concluded that since revisit and mortality rates constitute good health care quality markers, present data demonstrate that ED overcrowding implies a decrease in the health care quality provided by it.

  5. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  6. Perimovement decrease of alpha/beta oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Kaufmann, Jörn; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The human nucleus accumbens is thought to play an important role in guiding future action selection via an evaluation of current action outcomes. Here we provide electrophysiological evidence for a more direct, i.e., online, role during action preparation. We recorded local field potentials from the nucleus accumbens in patients with epilepsy undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation. We found a consistent decrease in the power of alpha/beta oscillations (10–30 Hz) before and around the time of movements. This perimovement alpha/beta desynchronization was observed in seven of eight patients and was present both before instructed movements in a serial reaction time task as well as before self-paced, deliberate choices in a decision making task. A similar beta decrease over sensorimotor cortex and in the subthalamic nucleus has been directly related to movement preparation and execution. Our results support the idea of a direct role of the human nucleus accumbens in action preparation and execution. PMID:27486103

  7. Preparing to caress: a neural signature of social bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ramos Campagnoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that social bonds in humans have consequences for virtually all aspects of behavior. Social touch-based contact, particularly hand caressing, plays an important role in social bonding. Pre-programmed neural circuits likely support actions (or predispositions to act towards caressing contacts. We searched for pre-set motor substrates towards caressing by exposing volunteers to bonding cues and having them gently stroke a very soft cloth, a caress-like movement. The bonding cues were pictures with interacting dyads and the control pictures presented non-interacting dyads. We focused on the readiness potential, an electroencephalographic marker of motor preparation that precedes movement execution. The amplitude of the readiness potential preceding the grasping of pleasant emotional-laden stimuli was previously shown to be reduced compared with neutral ones. Fingers flexor electromyography measured action output. The rationale here is that stroking the soft cloth when previously exposed to bonding cues, a compatible context, would result in smaller amplitudes of readiness potentials, as compared to the context with no such cues. Exposure to the bonding pictures increased subjective feelings of sociability and decreased feelings of isolation. Participants who more frequently engage in mutual caress/groom a significant other in daily life initiated the motor preparation earlier, reinforcing the caress-like nature of the task. As hypothesized, readiness potentials preceding the caressing of the soft cloth were significantly reduced under exposure to bonding as compared to control pictures. Furthermore, an increased fingers flexor electromyographic activity was identified under exposure to the former as compared to the latter pictures. The facilitatory effects are likely due to the recruitment of pre-set cortical motor repertoires related to caress-like movements, emphasizing the distinctiveness of neural signatures for caress

  8. The Magnitude and Time Course of Muscle Cross-section Decrease in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Dianne; Hemmen, Bea; van de Meent, Henk; BovendʼEerdt, Thamar J H

    2017-09-01

    Bedriddenness and immobilization of patients at an intensive care unit may result in muscle atrophy and devaluation in quality of life. The exact effect of immobilization on intensive care unit patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of muscle cross-section decrease in acute critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. An observational pilot study was performed in intensive care unit patients. Data of bilateral ultrasound muscle cross-section measurements of the knee extensors and the elbow flexors were collected. Thirty-four intensive care unit patients were included in this study; data are presented from 14 patients who were measured at least three times. Repeated measures analysis of variance shows a significant decrease in muscle cross-section over time (F1,13 = 80.40, P ≤ 0.001).The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms was significantly higher (F1,13 = 5.38, P = 0.037) than the decrease of the legs. Four weeks after intensive care unit admission, the muscle cross-section decrease had not reached an asymptote yet. The muscle cross-section decrease in bedridden intensive care unit patients is significant for a time of 2 to 4 weeks. The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms is greater than the decrease of the legs.

  9. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... significant impact on the quality of the human environment. The environmental assessment and finding of no... the quality of the human environment. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and... prepared. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact...

  10. Decreased plasma iron in Alzheimer's disease is due to transferrin desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Doecke, James D; Faux, Noel G; Rembach, Alan; Volitakis, Irene; Fowler, Christopher J; Grimm, Rudolf; Doble, Philip A; Cherny, Robert A; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Roberts, Blaine R

    2015-03-18

    Plasma iron levels are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with an idiopathic anemia. We examined iron-binding plasma proteins from AD patients and healthy controls from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Peak area corresponding to transferrin (Tf) saturation was directly compared to routine pathological testing. We found a significant decrease in transferrin-associated iron in AD that was missed by routine pathological tests of transferrin saturation, and that was able to discriminate between AD and controls. The AD cases showed no significant difference in transferrin concentration, only a decrease in total transferrin-bound iron. These findings support that a previously identified decrease in plasma iron levels in AD patients within the AIBL study is attributable to decreased loading of iron into transferrin, and that this subtle but discriminatory change is not observed through routine pathological testing.

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparation in freeze injury model of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Andrianova, Irina V; Lakunin, Konstantin Y; Karagodin, Vasilii P; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most popular substances used to reduce various risks associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known on the direct effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. In the present study we have examined the effect of per oral administration of the time-released garlic herbal preparation on serum atherogenicity and formation of intimal thickening after freeze injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Group 1 rabbits maintained on the standard cholesterol-rich diet served as the control. Group 2 rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet and treated with garlic preparation containing 300 mg garlic powder. Local thickening of the aortic media (i.e., the neointima formation) in the freeze injury zone was observed in all the rabbits. Regular garlic preparation therapy prevented the neointima formation and the accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and collagen in the neointima, the effects being statistically significant. Garlic preparation also decreased serum lipid content by 1.5-fold and lowered atherogenic activity of blood serum (ability to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells) induced by cholesterol-rich diet. The results obtained indicate that garlic preparation prevents the development of cholesterol-induced experimental atherosclerosis and possesses the direct anti-atherogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Injections through skin colonized with Staphylococcus aureus biofilm introduce contamination despite standard antimicrobial preparation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Leng, Valery; Patel, Viraj; Phillips, K. Scott

    2017-01-01

    While surgical site preparation has been extensively studied, there is little information about resistance of skin microbiota in the biofilm form to antimicrobial decontamination, and there are no quantitative models to study how biofilm might be transferred into sterile tissue/implant materials during injections for joint spine and tendon, aspiration biopsies and dermal fillers (DF). In this work, we develop two in vitro models to simulate the process of skin preparation and DF injection using pig skin and SimSkin (silicone) materials, respectively. Using the pig skin model, we tested three of the most common skin preparation wipes (alcohol, chlorhexidine and povidone iodine) and found that during wiping they reduced the biofilm bacterial burden of S. aureus (CFU cm−2) by three logs with no statistically significant differences between wipes. Using the SimSkin model, we found that transfer of viable bacteria increased with needle diameter for 30G, 25G and 18G needles. Transfer incidence decreased as injection depth was increased from 1 mm to 3 mm. Serial puncture and linear threading injection styles had similar transfer incidence, whereas fanning significantly increased transfer incidence. The results show that contamination of DF during injection is a risk that can be reduced by modifying skin prep and injection practices. PMID:28332593

  13. Biological Evaluation of Polyherbal Ayurvedic Cardiotonic Preparation “Mahamrutyunjaya rasa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi D. Rai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mahamrutyunjaya rasa (MHR, an Ayurvedic formulation, used as cardiotonic, contains potentially toxic compounds like aconitine, which are detoxified during preparation using traditional methods. Comparative toxicological evaluation of laboratory prepared formulation (F1 and two marketed formulations (F2 and F3 were performed based on their effects on viability of H9c2 cells and after single oral dose administration in mice. Cardioprotective effect of formulations at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses were studied in isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarcted rats. F1 and F2 did not affect the cell viability, while F3 decreased the cell viability in concentration and time-dependent manner. Rats administered with ISO showed significant increase in the serum levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphotase, creatinine kinase isoenzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and uric acid, while F1 and F2 treatment showed significant reduction in the same. F3 showed further increase in the serum levels of enzymes and uric acid in ISO-challenged rats. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of formulations showed higher concentration of aconitine in F3. Study shows that F1 and F2 possess cardioprotective property with higher safety, while formulation F3 cannot be used as cardioprotective due to its cytotoxic effects. Thus, proper quality assessment methods are required during preparation of traditional formulations.

  14. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

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    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  15. Expanded HIV Screening Projected to Decrease Spread of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Virus Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus Email Facebook Twitter April ... 2014, April 3). Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus. Retrieved from https://www. ...

  16. Premedication, preparation, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G D

    2002-01-01

    peppermint oil, as well as the value of variable-stiffness colonoscopes, in reducing the need for intravenous sedation is discussed. Case reports of hyponatraemic encephalopathy and hypocalcaemic tetany as complications of oral bowel preparation are presented, as is the challenge associated with adequate bowel preparation in diabetic patients.

  17. Acetylcholine in the accumbens is decreased by diazepam and increased by benzodiazepine withdrawal: a possible mechanism for dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2005-01-31

    Diazepam is a benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia and seizures, but with the potential for abuse. Like the other benzodiazepine anxiolytics, diazepam does not increase dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. This raises the question as to which other neurotransmitter systems are involved in diazepam dependence. The goal was to monitor dopamine and acetylcholine simultaneously following acute and chronic diazepam treatment and after flumazenil-induced withdrawal. Rats were prepared with microdialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens and given diazepam (2, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg) acutely and again after chronic treatment. Accumbens dopamine and acetylcholine decreased, with signs of tolerance to the dopamine effect. When these animals were put into the withdrawal state with flumazenil, there was a significant rise in acetylcholine (145%, P<0.001) with a smaller significant rise in dopamine (124%, P<0.01). It is suggested that the increase in acetylcholine release, relative to dopamine, is a neural component of the withdrawal state that is aversive.

  18. CT colonography with minimal bowel preparation: evaluation of tagging quality, patient acceptance and diagnostic accuracy in two iodine-based preparation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedenbaum, Marjolein H. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vries, A.H. de; Bipat, S.; Stoker, J. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gouw, C.I.B.F. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Rijn, A.F. van; Dekker, E. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to compare a 1-day with a 2-day iodine bowel preparation for CT colonography in a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening population. One hundred consecutive patients underwent CT colonography and colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. The first 50 patients (group 1) ingested 7*50 ml iodinated contrast starting 2 days before CT colonography. The latter 50 patients (group 2) ingested 4*50 ml iodinated contrast starting 1 day before CT colonography. Per colonic segment measurements of residual stool attenuation and homogeneity were performed, and a subjective evaluation of tagging quality (grade 1-5) was done. Independently, two reviewers performed polyp and carcinoma detection. The tagging density was 638 and 618 HU (p = 0.458) and homogeneity 91 and 86 HU for groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.145). The tagging quality was graded 5 (excellent) in 90% of all segments in group 1 and 91% in group 2 (p = 0.749). Mean per-polyp sensitivity for lesions {>=}10 mm was 86% in group 1 and 97% in group 2 (p = 0.355). Patient burden from diarrhoea significantly decreased for patients in group 2. One-day preparation with meglumine ioxithalamate results in an improved patient acceptability compared with 2-day preparation and has a comparable, excellent image quality and good diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  19. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... requires considering all potential impacts associated with the construction of the correctional...

  20. 48 CFR 1419.705-3 - Preparing the solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 1419.705-3 Preparing... the evaluation and selection of proposals. This would be particularly appropriate for acquisitions known to offer significant subcontracting opportunities for small, small disadvantaged, and...

  1. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  2. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment. PMID:27658244

  3. Olfactory deficits decrease the time resolution for trigeminal lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, A; Meusel, T; Güpfert, M; Westermann, B; Hummel, T; Welge-Lüssen, A

    2017-09-15

    To date the temporal resolution of the detection of almost simultaneously applied intranasal trigeminal stimuli is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine this temporal resolution in an/hyposmic subjects, who are known to have reduced trigeminal sensitivity and compare it with healthy controls. Participants were 20 posttraumatic an/hyposmic patients, and 23 healthy controls (matched with regard to sex and age). Olfactory function was tested psychophysically using the Sniffin´ Sticks test battery. Bilateral trigeminal stimulation was carried out using a birhinal high-precision olfactometer. The trigeminal stimulus used was CO₂ 60% v/v, the interstimulus interval ranged from 28 to 32s, stimulus duration was 200ms. Time-lags tested between right and left side of stimulation were at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200ms. Subjects raised their left or right hand to indicate the side on which the stimulus had been perceived first. In both groups the accuracy in the trigeminal lateralization task increased with the time-lag but normosmic subjects significantly outperformed an/hyposmics in the 200ms time-lag condition. Normosmics significantly exceeded 50% chance level at the time-lag of 80ms, whereas an/hyposmics were only able to score above chance starting from 120ms time-lag. Lateralization scores significantly decreased with age. At a time lag of 200ms intranasal trigeminal stimuli can be lateralized. The reduced trigeminal sensitivity in patients with anosmia or hyposmia leads to an increased time lag required for correct perception of intranasal, almost simultaneously, applied stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Foam Rolling of Quadriceps Decreases Biceps Femoris Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Hodgson, Daniel; Behm, David George

    2016-09-06

    Foam rolling has been shown to increase range of motion without subsequent performance impairments of the rolled muscle, however, there are no studies examining rolling effects on antagonist muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether foam rolling the hamstrings and/or quadriceps would affect hamstrings and quadriceps activation in men and women. Recreationally active men (n=10, 25 ± 4.6 years, 180.1 ± 4.4 cm, 86.5 ± 15.7 kg) and women (n=8, 21.75 ± 3.2 years, 166.4 ± 8.8 cm, 58.9 ± 7.9 kg) had surface electromyographic activity analyzed in the dominant vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles upon a single leg landing from a hurdle jump under four conditions. Conditions included rolling of the hamstrings, quadriceps, both muscle groups and a control session. BF activation significantly decreased following quadriceps foam rolling (F(1,16) = 7.45, p = 0.015, -8.9%). There were no significant changes in quadriceps activation following hamstrings foam rolling. This might be attributed to the significantly greater levels of perceived pain with quadriceps rolling applications (F(1,18) = 39.067, p foam rolling for VL (F(6,30) = 1.31, p = 0.283) VM (F(6,30) = 1.203, p = 0.332) or BF (F(6,36) = 1.703, p = 0.199). Antagonist muscle activation may be altered following agonist foam rolling, however, it can be suggested that any changes in activation are likely a result of reciprocal inhibition due to increased agonist pain perception.

  5. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardioprotection by combination of three compounds from ShengMai preparations in mice with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Fan, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yu; Pang, Lizhi; Ma, Xiaonan; Song, Meijia; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    GRS is a drug combination of three active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ruscogenin and schisandrin. It derived from the well-known TCM formula ShengMai preparations, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinic. The present study explores the cardioprotective effects of GRS on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury compared with ShengMai preparations and investigates the underlying mechanisms. GRS treatment significantly attenuated MI/R injury and exhibited similar efficacy as Shengmai preparations, as evidenced by decreased myocardium infarct size, ameliorated histological features, the decrease of LDH production and improved cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Mechanistically, GRS alleviated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway as reflected by inhibition of caspase-3 activity, normalization of Bcl-2/Bax levels and improved mitochondrial function. Moreover, GRS prevented cardiomyocytes mitochondrial fission and upregulated AMPKα phosphorylation. Interestingly, AMPK activation prevented hypoxia and reoxygenation induced mitochondrial fission in cardiomyocytes and GRS actions were significantly attenuated by knockdown of AMPKα. Collectively, these data show that GRS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and modulating AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical applications and potential therapeutic strategy for MI/R injury. PMID:27869201

  7. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  8. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagosa, Anna; Allerson, Matt; Gramer, Marie; Joo, Han Soo; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2011-12-20

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission.

  9. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  10. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Shaviv, N. J.; Svensmark, H.

    2016-09-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap-based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physical and microphysical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground-based and three satellite-based data sets. Responses (>95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed data sets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM/I: liquid water content, International Satellite Cloud Climate Project (ISCCP): total, high, and middle, IR-detected clouds over the oceans, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, and liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively with the strength of the FDs, and the signs and magnitudes of the responses agree with model-based expectations. The effect is mainly seen in liquid clouds. An impact through changes in UV-driven photo chemistry is shown to be negligible and an impact via UV absorption in the stratosphere is found to have no effect on clouds. The total solar irradiance has a relative decrease in connection with FDs of the order of 10-3, which is too small to have a thermodynamic impact on timescales of a few days. The results demonstrate that there is a real influence of FDs on clouds probably through ions.

  11. Decreased prostacyclin production in the infant of the diabetic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.J.; Sunderji, S.G.; Allen, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is recognized to be a predisposing factor to thrombosis in the neonate. In the adult with diabetes, abnormalities in the metabolism of AA by the platelet and vessel wall occur, which result in an increase in proaggregatory platelet thromboxane A2. A decrease in antiaggregatory vascular PGI2 has been demonstrated in the diabetic rat, although conclusive proof of a similar abnormality is lacking in humans. We evaluated vascular AA metabolism in 10 IDM (groups II and III comparison to 20 control neonates of gestational ages 32 to 40 weeks (group I). Mean uptakes of labeled AA into vascular tissue of both controls and IDM were similar. The conversion of (14C) AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was not dependent on gestational age (r . 0.223) in the control neonates, with a mean value of 5.2% +- 1.3 (1 S.D.). A marked decrease (p less than 0.001) in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha formation to 1.7% +- 0.3 was found in the group II IDM of mothers with poor diabetic control (HbA1c . 9.3% +- 0.5). In the group III neonates whose mothers had normal HBA1c levels (6.1% +- 0.9), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production was normal at 4.9% +- 0.8. Although no correlation between maternal fasting blood glucose and neonatal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was demonstrable, a significant inverse correlation (r . 0.872; p less than 0.02) was observed between maternal HbA1c levels and the conversion of AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the vascular tissues of the IDM. It appear possible that abnormalities in platelet-vascular AA metabolism may play an etiologic role in the vascular complications present in some IDM.

  12. Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matt; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    observational datasets. For example, surface observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) network are larger than from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network but have shown a steeper decreasing trend over the past 2 decades. These differences imply a difference in emissions which is significant relative to uncertainties in the magnitudes of the CCl4 sinks.

  13. A Study on the Density of Agglomerates Prepared from Cork Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of black regranulate (BR) of cork and of black agglomerate (BA) and composite agglomerate (CA) prepared fromsuch a waste by different methods was investigated. The preparation of the agglomerates was undertaken by controlling thespecimen thickness for BA and the particle size for BR and the binder dosage for CA. The mass changes produced in theoven-drying treatment at 376.15 K of the agglomerates and in their subsequent stabilization under ambient conditions werealso analyzed. The density was determined by standard methods. For BR, the bulk density first decreased and then increasedwith decreasing particle size. It was much lower than the apparent density of the agglomeration products of cork. Although toa lesser extent, the density was also lower for BA than for CA. It was higher for the smaller thickness specimens of BA. In thecase of CA, the density followed the same variation trends as for BR. Furthermore it increased significantly with the increasein resin dosage. This resulted in a noticeable increase in the weight loss during the oven-drying and in a significant decreasein the degree of moisture adsorption during the stabilization period of the agglomerate.

  14. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  15. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  16. The Inhibitory Effect of Camellia sinensis Extract on Decreasing Inductive Teratogenicity of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field in Liver and Spleen of Balb/C Rat Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have an emphasis on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS formation by electromagnetic field. Camellia sinensis is enriched with antioxidants and the antioxidants can neutralize the effects of ROS. In this study, the effect of Camellia sinensis extract on decreasing the inductive teratogenicity of the electromagnetic field (frequency 50Hz and intensity 50G in liver and spleen of Balb/C embryonic rat is examined. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four heads of pregnant female rat (Balb/C were divided into four groups: control group, experimental test group (off-device, empirical group1 (electromagnetic field 50 Gauss, empirical group2 (treated using Camellia sinensis extract + electromagnetic field 50 Gauss, in this empirical-experimental study. Then, liver and spleen tissue cross sections of 19-day embryos were prepared for histological assessments after weight and Crown-Rump length were measured. Resulting quantitative data was analyzed using ANOVA statistical tests and Tukey test with the significance level (p<0.05.Results: In examination of tissue sections, mean lymphocyte number of spleen in empirical group 1 showed a significant difference (p=0.001 comparing to the experimental control group, whereas mean lymphocyte number of spleen in empirical group 1 showed a significant difference (p=0.001 comparing to empirical group 2. Mean number of liver hepatocytes empirical samples 2 showed a significant decrease (p=0.004 comparing to the experimental control group, and mean number of liver hepatocytes empirical samples 2 showed a significant decrease (p=0.042 comparing to empirical samples 1. Conclusion: Consumption of Camellia sinensis could compensate for the inductive impairments in many cells electromagnetic fields, but it is not recommended in pregnancy period cause of changing the number of some cells.

  17. Deterministic joint remote state preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Nguyen Ba, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bich, Cao Thi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, University of Education No. 1, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Don, Nung Van [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-09-26

    We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared. -- Highlights: → Deterministic joint remote state preparation via EPR pairs is proposed. → Both general single- and two-qubit states are studied. → Differently from all existing protocols, in ours the receiver participates actively. → This is for the first time such a strategy is adopted.

  18. 47 CFR 1.1305 - Actions which normally will have a significant impact upon the environment, for which...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. 1.1305 Section 1... significant impact upon the environment, for which Environmental Impact Statements must be prepared. Any Commission action deemed to have a significant effect upon the quality of the human environment requires...

  19. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  20. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  1. Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passafiume Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of benefits from meditation have been claimed by those who practice various traditions, but few have been well tested in scientifically controlled studies. Among these claims are improved performance and decreased sleep need. Therefore, in these studies we assess whether meditation leads to an immediate performance improvement on a well validated psychomotor vigilance task (PVT, and second, whether longer bouts of meditation may alter sleep need. Methods The primary study assessed PVT reaction times before and after 40 minute periods of mediation, nap, or a control activity using a within subject cross-over design. This study utilized novice meditators who were current university students (n = 10. Novice meditators completed 40 minutes of meditation, nap, or control activities on six different days (two separate days for each condition, plus one night of total sleep deprivation on a different night, followed by 40 minutes of meditation. A second study examined sleep times in long term experienced meditators (n = 7 vs. non-meditators (n = 23. Experienced meditators and controls were age and sex matched and living in the Delhi region of India at the time of the study. Both groups continued their normal activities while monitoring their sleep and meditation times. Results Novice meditators were tested on the PVT before each activity, 10 minutes after each activity and one hour later. All ten novice meditators improved their PVT reaction times immediately following periods of meditation, and all but one got worse immediately following naps. Sleep deprivation produced a slower baseline reaction time (RT on the PVT that still improved significantly following a period of meditation. In experiments with long-term experienced meditators, sleep duration was measured using both sleep journals and actigraphy. Sleep duration in these subjects was lower than control non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent

  2. Nanostructured antireflective bilayers: Optical design and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrich, Ádám [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, Norbert [Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK), Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nyári, Mária; Albert, Emőke; Zámbó, Dániel [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Hórvölgyi, Zoltán, E-mail: zhorvolgyi@mail.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-01

    We show different methods for tailoring and fabrication of various cost-effective antireflective nanocoatings on transparent and non-transparent substrates. The main purpose was to prepare coatings with decreased reflectance in the full visible wavelength range using simple wet layer deposition techniques. Structure of coatings was designed by optical simulations applying simplified calculations. The refractive index of substrates was also considered for the calculations. The advantageous optical properties were achieved by bilayered structures combining compact and porous sol–gel derived oxide layers and nanoparticulate films. The bilayered structures enhance the flexibility of design by not only the selection of the layer thicknesses but also by different ways of adjusting the effective refractive index of the layers. Furthermore, chemical stability of the coatings was also investigated. The optical and structural properties of prepared films and bilayered coatings were studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The transmittance of coated glass substrates was above 97.5%, while the reflectance of coated silicon substrates was below 4% between 450 nm and 900 nm. - Highlights: • Designed antireflective bilayered coatings on glass and silicon. • Simple, colloid chemical approaches to preparation. • Favorable optical properties by combining compact and porous oxide layers. • Different ways for adjusting the effective refractive index. • Strong chemical resistance against acidic effects.

  3. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  4. A risk assessment of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis linked to chicken meals prepared in households in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Garin, Benoit; Ravaonindrina, Noro; Diop, Kane; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ramanantsoa, Domoina; Rocourt, Jocelyne

    2012-10-01

    We used a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to describe the risk of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection linked to chicken meals prepared in households in Dakar, Senegal. The model uses data collected specifically for this study, such as the prevalence and level of bacteria on the neck skin of chickens bought in Dakar markets, time-temperature profiles recorded from purchase to consumption, an observational survey of meal preparation in private kitchens, and detection and enumeration of pathogens on kitchenware and cooks' hands. Thorough heating kills all bacteria present on chicken during cooking, but cross-contamination of cooked chicken or ready-to-eat food prepared for the meal via kitchenware and cooks' hands leads to a high expected frequency of pathogen ingestion. Additionally, significant growth of Salmonella is predicted during food storage at ambient temperature before and after meal preparation. These high exposures lead to a high estimated risk of campylobacteriosis and/or salmonellosis in Dakar households. The public health consequences could be amplified by the high level of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and Campylobacter observed in this setting. A significant decrease in the number of ingested bacteria and in the risk could be achieved through a reduction of the prevalence of chicken contamination at slaughter, and by the use of simple hygienic measures in the kitchen. There is an urgent need to reinforce the hygiene education of food handlers in Senegal.

  5. Preparation of osthole-polymer solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Fei; Kang, An; Shan, Jinjun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Bi, Xiaolin; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of solid dispersion to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of osthole (Ost), a coumarin derivative with various pharmacological activities but with poor aqueous solubility. In present studies, the Ost solid dispersions were prepared with various polymers including Plasdone S-630, HPMC-E5, Eudragit EPO, and Soluplus by hot-melt extrusion method. In vitro characterizations were performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and in vitro dissolution studies. In addition, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of Ost solid dispersions were also conducted in rats after a single oral dose. In comparison to the untreated Ost coarse powder and the physical mixture with polymers, the solid dispersions prepared with Plasdone S-630 or HPMC-E5 (drug/polymer: 1:6) showed a significant enhancement of dissolution rate (∼3-fold higher D30). In addition, such preparations exhibited a significantly decreased Tmax, ∼5-fold higher Cmax and ∼1.4-fold higher AUC when comparing with Ost coarse powder. In conclusion, solid dispersion prepared with appropriate polymer could serve as a promising formulation approach to enhance the dissolution rate and hence oral bioavailability of Ost.

  6. PREPARATION OF POLYMER DISPERSED LIQUID CRYSTALS USING PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-he Fan; Xiao-feng Xie; Yasuo Hatate

    2001-01-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and styrene copolymers are prepared by photopolymerization. The electrooptical behavior and microstructure of the polymer dispersed liquid crystal films are investigated by using He-Ne laser and scanning electron micro scopy, respectively. With increasing E7 content in the copolymer, droplet size increased, threshold voltage decreased.

  7. Can strong-field ionization prepare attosecond dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Strong-field ionization (SFI) has been shown to prepare wave packets with few-femtosecond periods. Here, we explore whether this technique can be extended to the attosecond time scale. We introduce an intuitive model for predicting the bandwidth of ionic states that can be coherently prepared by SFI. This bandwidth is given by the Fourier-transformed sub-cycle SFI rate and decreases considerably with increasing central wavelength of the ionizing pulse. Many-body calculations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) quantitatively support this result and reveal an additional decrease of the bandwidth as a consequence of channel interactions and non-adiabatic dynamics. Our results further predict that multi-cycle femtosecond pulses can coherently prepare attosecond wave packets with higher selectivity and versatility compared to single-cycle pulses.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Cornstarch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cornstarch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cornstarch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cornstarch adhesives increased and then decreased with the increasing of temperature and the maximum value was obtained at 10oC; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared wither cornstarch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cornstarch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  9. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  10. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles as a platform to decrease ulcerogenic potential of piroxicam: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have long gained significant interest for their use in various drug formulations in order to increase bioavailability, prolong drug release, and decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of ethyl cellulose-based NPs (EC-NPs) to modulate the release and reduce ulcerogenicity of piroxicam (PX) after oral administration. PX-loaded EC-NPs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using different stabilizers at three concentration levels. Morphological examination of selected formulas confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with slightly porous surface. Formulation containing poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2), having a particle size of 240.26±29.24 nm, polydispersity index of 0.562±0.030, entrapment efficiency of 85.29%±1.57%, and modulated release of PX (88% after 12 hours), was selected as the optimum formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the presence of PX in an amorphous form in the NPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the possible formation of hydrogen bond and the absence of chemical interaction. In vivo study, evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, evaluation of gastric irritation potential, and histological examination were conducted after administration of the selected formulation. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration, tmax, of poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs was significantly higher than that of Feldene® 20 mg capsules (P≤0.001). Encapsulation of the acidic, gastric offender PX into NPs managed to significantly suppress gastric ulceration potential in rats (P≤0.05) as compared to that of PX suspension. A reduction of 66% in mean ulcer index was observed. In conclusion, poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2) had a significant potential of offsetting deleterious side effects common in PX use. PMID:27307735

  11. Coal preparation. Energy program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y.

    1975-06-01

    This is one of several special reports prepared in conjunction with a broad state-of-the-art study on underground coal mining. This report is essentially a review of the current technology of coal preparation and future research needs in this field. (GRA)

  12. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  13. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  14. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald J.; Grossman, Pamela L.; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, whereas others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  15. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  16. Decreased complement mediated binding of antibody//sup 3/-dsDNA immune complexes to the red blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Buschbacher, R.; Brunner, C.M.; Hess, C.E.; O' Brien, W.M.; Wanebo, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The complement mediated binding of prepared antibody//sup 3/H-dsDNA immune complexes to the red blood cells obtained from a number of patient populations has been investigated. Patients with solid tumors have binding activity similar to that seen in a normal group of individuals. However, a significant fraction of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and hematologic malignancies have lowered binding activity compared with normal subjects. Quantitative studies indicate the lowered activity probably arises due to a decrease in complement receptors on the respective red blood cells. The potential importance and implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  17. Effects of Dietary Addition of a Low-Pectin Apple Fibre Preparation on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotschki Bartosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  18. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  19. Personality Development during Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Roisin P.; O’Flaherty, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this 3-year longitudinal study was to examine pre-service teachers’ personality trajectories as measured by the IPIP Big-Five factor markers during teacher preparation. The relationship between students’ personality traits, social desirability, and prior academic attainment was also examined. Method: This 3-year longitudinal study invited participants from the first year of a 4-year undergraduate (UG) pre-service teacher education program, the class of 2017. The sample consisted of 305 students. Results: The results suggest that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience were best represented by a non-significant longitudinal change in means. Results also suggest that social desirability predicts agreeableness and emotional stability with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusion: The study concludes that no value is added to pre-service teachers’ personality traits during 3 years of tertiary education. Furthermore, the data presented does not support the view that academic attainment is a good predictor of personality traits. Implications for educational research, theory, and practice are considered. PMID:27877143

  20. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  1. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzelberger, A. M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), which in concert with climate change, poses a significant threat to human health and nutrition. In addition to being an important greenhouse gas, O3 reduces plant productivity, an effect that has been particularly pronounced in soybean, which provides over half of the world's oilseed production. Plant productivity is linked to feedbacks in the climate system, indirectly through the carbon cycle, as well as directly through the partitioning of radiation into heat and moisture fluxes. Soybean, along with maize, comprises the largest ecosystem in the contiguous U.S. Therefore, changes in productivity and water use under increasing O3 could impact human nutrition as well as the regional climate. Soybean response to increasing O3 concentrations was tested under open-air agricultural conditions at the SoyFACE research site. During the 2009 growing season, eight 20 m diameter FACE plots were exposed to different O3 concentrations, ranging from 40 to 200 ppb. Canopy growth (leaf area index) and physiological measurements of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were taken regularly throughout the growing season. Canopy fluxes of heat and moisture were measured using the residual energy balance micrometeorological technique. Our results indicate that as O3 increased from 40 to 200 ppb, rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased significantly. Further, the seed yield decreased by over 60%, while water use decreased by 30% and the water-use-efficiency (yield/water-use) declined by 50%. The growing season average canopy temperatures increased by 1°C and midday temperatures increased by 2°C compared to the control. Warmer and drier canopies may result in a positive feedback on O3

  2. Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Sawatzky, P; Liu, G; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Hoang, L; Drews, S; Horsman, G; Wylie, J; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Ratnam, S; Wong, T; Archibald, C; Mulvey, M R

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Canada during 2010-2014. The proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins declined significantly between 2011 and 2014, whereas azithromycin resistance increased significantly during that period. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial drug susceptibilities is imperative to inform treatment guidelines.

  3. Dysregulated but not decreased salience network activity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWhite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective estimation of the salience of environmental stimuli underlies adaptive behaviour, while related aberrance is believed to undermine rational thought processes in schizophrenia. A network including bilateral frontoinsular cortex (FIC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been observed to respond to salient stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To test the hypothesis that activity in this salience network (SN is less discriminately modulated by contextually-relevant stimuli in schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, fMRI data were collected in 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls during performance of a modified monetary incentive delay task. After quantitatively identifying spatial components representative of the FIC and dACC features of the SN, two principal analyses were conducted. In the first, modulation of SN activity by salience was assessed by measuring response to trial outcome. First-level general linear models were applied to individual-specific time-courses of SN activity identified using spatial independent component analysis. This analysis revealed a significant salience-by-performance-by-group interaction on the best-fit FIC component’s activity at reward outcome, whereby healthy individuals but not individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significantly greater distinction between the response to hits and misses in high salience trials than in low salience trials. The second analysis aimed to ascertain whether SN component amplitude differed between the study groups over the duration of the experiment. Independent-samples T-tests on back-projected, percent-signal-change scaled SN component images importantly showed that the groups did not differ in the overall amplitude of SN expression over the entire dataset. These findings of dysregulated but not decreased SN activity in schizophrenia provide physiological support for mechanistic conceptual frameworks of delusional

  4. Intraperitoneal administration of thioredoxin decreases brain damage from ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tian, Shilai; Wang, Jiayi; Han, Feng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Rencong; Ning, Weidong; Chen, Wei; Qu, Yan

    2015-07-30

    Recent studies demonstrate that Thioredixin (Trx) possesses a neuronal protective effect and closely relates to oxidative stress and apoptosis of cerebral ischemia injury. The present study was conducted to validate the neuroprotective effect of recombinant human Trx-1 (rhTrx-1) and its potential mechanisms against ischemia injury at middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. rhTrx-1 was administrated intraperitoneally at a dose of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg 30 min before MCAO in mice, and its neuronal protective effect was evaluated by neurological deficit score, brain dry-wet weight, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The protein carbonyl content and HO-1 were detected to investigate its potential anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory property, and the anti-apoptotic ability of rhTrx-1 was assessed by casepase-3 and TUNEL staining. The results demonstrated that rhTrx-1 significantly improved neurological functions and reduced cerebral infarction and apoptotic cell death at 24h after MCAO. Moreover, rhTrx-1 resulted in a significant decrease in carbonyl contents and HO-1 against oxidative stress, which turned to be fast reduction during the first 24h and tended to be stable from 24h to 72h after MCAO. The study shows that rhTrx-1 exerts an neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia injury. The anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of rhTrx-1 are more likely to succeed as a therapeutic approach to diminish oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptotic cell death in acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 decreases tumorigenesis and metastasis in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Elyssa M; Guo, Yi; Tu, Khoa; Xie, Jun; Zi, Xiaolin; Hoang, Bang H

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that the progression of osteosarcoma was closely associated with the aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor whose role in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, WIF-1 expression in NHOst and osteosarcoma cell lines was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and Western blotting analysis. In addition, tissue array from patient samples was examined for WIF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared with normal human osteoblasts, WIF-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly downregulated in several osteosarcoma cell lines. The downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA expression is associated with its promoter hypermethylation in these tested cell lines. Importantly, WIF-1 expression was also downregulated in 76% of examined osteosarcoma cases. These results suggest that the downregulation of WIF-1 expression plays a role in osteosarcoma progression. To further study the potential tumor suppressor function of WIF-1 in osteosarcoma, we established stable 143B cell lines overexpressing WIF-1. WIF-1 overexpression significantly decreased tumor growth rate in nude mice as examined by the s.c. injection of 143B cells stably transfected with WIF-1 and vector control. WIF-1 overexpression also markedly reduced the number of lung metastasis in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 exerts potent antiosteosarcoma effect in vivo in mouse models. Therefore, the reexpression of WIF-1 in WIF-1-deficient osteosarcoma represents a potential novel treatment and preventive strategy.

  6. Surgeon commitment to trauma care decreases missed injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Chia-Ju; Chan, Hon-Man; Lee, Wei-Che; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Cheng, Yuan-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Missed injuries sustain an important issue concerning patient safety and quality of care. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of surgeon commitment to trauma care on missed injuries. We hypothesised that surgeons committed to the trauma service has less missed injuries than surgeons not committed to the trauma service would have. By retrospective analysis of 976 adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at an urban, university-based trauma centre. Missed injuries were compared between two groups; in group 1 the patients were evaluated and treated by the surgeons who were committed to the trauma service and in group 2 the patients were evaluated and treated by surgeons practicing mainly in other specialties. Patients had significantly lower rates of missed major or life-threatening injuries when treated by group 1 surgeons. Logistic regression model revealed significant factors associated with missed major or life-threatening injuries including ISS and groups in which patients were treated by different group surgeons. Physicians will perform better when they are trained and interested in a specific area than those not trained, or even not having any particular interest in that specific area. Surgeons committed to the trauma service had less missed injuries in severely injured patients, and it is vital to improve patient safety and quality of care for trauma patients. Staff training and education for assessing severely injured patients and creating an open culture with detection and reduction of the potential for error are important and effective strategies in decreasing missed injuries and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fiber purified extracts of carob fruit decrease carbohydrate absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-González, A; Garcimartín, A; López-Oliva, M E; Bertocco, G; Naes, F; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Benedí, J

    2017-06-21

    The postprandial state plays a central role in the development and setting of chronic diseases. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenols with a known ability to modify carbohydrate digestion and absorption. The high concentration of CT in the pulp of carob fruit suggests a potential antidiabetic effect. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of carob fruit extract (CFE) on the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. α-Glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion were tested in vitro using 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg mL(-1) CFE concentrations. Two in vivo absorption studies, acute and subchronic, were carried out in four groups of 6 two-month-old male Wistar rats (control and CFE 25, 50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.), administering 1 mL of olive oil and 0.5 g per kg b.w. of glucose solution by oral gavage. CFE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, through a competitive mechanism, from 1 mg mL(-1), and also reduced glucose diffusion in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute study, CFE (50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.) significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of blood glucose. Subchronic CFE administration induced further AUC decreases; and CFE at 150 mg per kg b.w. reduced sodium-glucose-linked transporter-1 (SGLT1) levels in the duodenum. This study demonstrates the hypoglycemic properties of CFE, highlighting its potential role as a suitable nutritional strategy in diabetic patients.

  8. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  9. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  10. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. METHODS: Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. RESULTS: Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex. Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

  11. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Souza Lima de Souza; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo; Oba, Eunice; Kronka, Sergio do Nascimento; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria

    2006-06-01

    Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

  12. Does oral clonidine premedication decrease bleeding during open rhinoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Pourdanesh, Freydoun; Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saleh

    2014-05-01

    This uni-blind randomized clinical trial study investigated the effect of clonidine premedication on preoperative blood loss during open rhinoplasty. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The members of the first group received oral clonidine as a single dose (0.2 mg) 2 hours before the induction of general anesthesia, whereas the members of the second group received a placebo. All subjects underwent open rhinoplasty without septoplasty. One anesthetic protocol was followed for all subjects. Variable factors include the subjects' weight, age, sex, and blood pressure during the surgery as well as blood loss during rhinoplasty. Group 1 consisted of 22 women and 11 men, whereas group 2 was composed of 16 women and 17 men. The mean for blood loss amounted to 68.03 ± 22.49 mL for group 1 and 132.12 ± 78.53 mL for group 2. An assessment demonstrated a significant difference in blood loss between the 2 groups (P clonidine premedication thus may decrease preoperative bleeding during open rhinoplasty.

  13. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  14. Gynostemma pentaphyllum decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Li, Ming-Liang; Yang, Rong-Chi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Shen, Jiann-Jong

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of asthma in developing countries emphasizes the importance of identifying more effective treatments that have low cost. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Cucurbitaceae), a common herbal tea in China, has been used to treat lung inflammation. Since the Th2 cytokines are the major mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma, Th1-biased immune responses caused by G. pentaphyllum might have the potential to relieve asthmatic symptoms. We hypothesized that oral administration of G. pentaphyllum extracts might suppress Th2 cytokine-induced airway inflammation responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitive mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection and challenged 3 times with OVA inhalation (IH) (the IH3 model). G. pentaphyllum was orally administered for 7 consecutive days before the end of the OVA challenge. In the IH5 model, 2 more OVA challenges were administered to mimic the encounter with an allergen after drug treatment. G. pentaphyllum extracts significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inhibited eosinophil infiltration in mice in both models. Serum OVA-specific antibodies were also reduced with the treatment. Decreased Th2-type cytokines and increased IFN-gamma were detected in the cultures of OVA-activated splenocytes from treated mice. Our results suggest that G. pentaphyllum extracts might be beneficial for asthma airway inflammation through the suppression of Th2 activity.

  15. Does Limiting Oral Contrast Decrease Emergency Department Length of Stay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Barton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact on emergency department (EDlength of stay (LOS of a new protocol for intravenous (IV-contrast only abdominal/pelvic computedtomography (ABCT compared to historical controls.Methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled study performed at a single academic medicalcenter. Patients ≥ 18 undergoing ABCT imaging for non-traumatic abdominal pain were included inthe study. We compared ED LOS between historical controls undergoing ABCT imaging with PO/IVcontrast and study patients undergoing an IV-contrast-only protocol. Imaging indications were thesame for both groups and included patients with clinical suspicion for appendicitis, diverticulitis, smallbowel obstruction, or perforation. We identified all patients from the hospital’s electronic storehouse(imaging code, ordering department, imaging times, and we abstracted ED LOS and dispositionfrom electronic medical records.Results: Two hundred and eleven patients who underwent PO/IV ABCT prep were compared to 184patients undergoing IV-contrast only ABCT prep. ED LOS was shorter for patients imaged with theIV-contrast only protocol (4:35 hrs vs. 6:39 hrs, p < 0.0001.Conclusion: Implementation of an IV-contrast only ABCT prep for select ED patients presentingfor evaluation of acute abdominal pain significantly decreased ED LOS.

  16. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some of the more prominent recent wildland fires and were associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations. The biological impacts of peat biomass emissions and the specific mechanisms driving these responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of peat biomass smoke exposure in rats. We hypothesized that PM exposure would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 µg (Lo PM) or 300 µg (Hi PM) of peat biomass smoke PM extracts suspended in 200 µL of saline, or saline vehicle alone by oropharyngeal aspiration (OA). Immediately following OA rats were placed in a whole-body plethysmograph and ventilatory data were recorded for 12 minutes. One day following OA, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane for ultrasound assessment of cardiovascular function. Hi PM caused decreases in expiratory timing as early as 4-6 minutes after exposure relative to Lo PM (p = 0.02) and Vehicle (p= 0.06), which resolved shortly thereafter. One day after OA, ultrasounds revealed that Hi PM exposure increased end diastolic volume (EDV) by 16% (p = 0.03) over Vehicle and 13% (p = 0.06) over Lo PM. In addition,

  17. Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack on the value of Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in the treatment of Androgenic hair. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of application Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in comparison to 0.9% saline on androgenic hair. Patients and Methods: Ninety one female patients with Androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair completed the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group I (active group (n=47 and group II (control group (n=44. Patients used topical Cyperus rotundus essential oil for six months and were evaluated at 6th month. Results: The topical Cyperus rotundus oil was significantly more effective (p<0.05 than placebo with out side effects. This result was proved by three assessment methods; difference in hair count, independent observer assessment and patients' self assessment. Conclusion: The topical Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair. But without affecting serum testosterone. This study is the first report on using Cyperus rotundus essential oil for decreasing hair growth. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 111-118

  18. Preparation and Property of the Water Absorbent Hybrid Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Water absorption material has been attracted much more attention for its wide use in soil and water conservation, agriculture, etc. But this material will actually apply in agriculture, soil and water conservation only when it is cheap enough. Pulp fiber and starch to prepare high absorbing-water resin is a good method for decreasing the cost [1,2]. However, it still has a long way to turn it into reality. Now the montmorillonite is widely used in preparing nanocomposites [3]. But used it in preparing absorbing-water resin has little report. In this article the water absorption hybrid resin has been prepared by one step intercalation polymerization method. In the process of intercalation the partly neutralization acrylic acid and urea have been used as intercalating reagent. Beside that, the urea also has been used as cross-linking agent.

  19. Preparation and Property of the Water Absorbent Hybrid Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YunPu

    2001-01-01

    Water absorption material has been attracted much more attention for its wide use in soil and water conservation, agriculture, etc. But this material will actually apply in agriculture, soil and water conservation only when it is cheap enough. Pulp fiber and starch to prepare high absorbing-water resin is a good method for decreasing the cost [1,2]. However, it still has a long way to turn it into reality.  Now the montmorillonite is widely used in preparing nanocomposites [3]. But used it in preparing absorbing-water resin has little report. In this article the water absorption hybrid resin has been prepared by one step intercalation polymerization method. In the process of intercalation the partly neutralization acrylic acid and urea have been used as intercalating reagent. Beside that, the urea also has been used as cross-linking agent.   ……

  20. Impact of ultraviolet radiation treatments on the quality of freshly prepared tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev

    2016-12-15

    Impact of ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation treatments (0, 15, 30 and 60min) on freshly extracted tomato juice quality (physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and microbial load) was evaluated. On exposure to UV-C, level of water activity, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity exhibited non-significant increase up to 30min of exposure time. Regarding colour analysis, L∗ value significantly increased with subsequent decrease in a∗ and b∗ values post UV-C treatments. Clarity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content significantly increased, whereas ascorbic acid level significantly reduced at 60min of UV-C exposure time. So also, lycopene content exhibited a non-significant decrease after UV-C treatment. Microbial studies showed reduction in total plate count and total mould counts post UV-C treatment. Overall, UV-C treatment being a physical, non-thermal method of food preservation holds the ability to improve or preserve vital quality parameters in freshly prepared tomato juices, and henceforth possesses high scope for commercial exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.