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Sample records for preparation process simpler

  1. Managing the construction bidding process : a move to simpler construction plan sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-31

    This project was conducted to determine whether construction plan sets could be significantly simplified to speed the process of moving projects to construction. The work steps included a literature review, a telephone survey of highway agencies in s...

  2. Simpler Adaptive Optics using a Single Device for Processing and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovaro, A.; Bennet, F.; Rye, D.; D'Orgeville, C.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    The management of low Earth orbit is becoming more urgent as satellite and debris densities climb, in order to avoid a Kessler syndrome. A key part of this management is to precisely measure the orbit of both active satellites and debris. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University have been developing an adaptive optics (AO) system to image and range orbiting objects. The AO system provides atmospheric correction for imaging and laser ranging, allowing for the detection of smaller angular targets and drastically increasing the number of detectable objects. AO systems are by nature very complex and high cost systems, often costing millions of dollars and taking years to design. It is not unusual for AO systems to comprise multiple servers, digital signal processors (DSP) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), with dedicated tasks such as wavefront sensor data processing or wavefront reconstruction. While this multi-platform approach has been necessary in AO systems to date due to computation and latency requirements, this may no longer be the case for those with less demanding processing needs. In recent years, large strides have been made in FPGA and microcontroller technology, with todays devices having clock speeds in excess of 200 MHz whilst using a 1kHz) with low latency (general AO applications, such as in 1-3 m telescopes for space surveillance, or even for amateur astronomy.

  3. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  4. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  5. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  6. Process of preparing hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-12-11

    A process of preparing hydraulic cement from oil shale or shale coke is characterized in that the oil shale or shale coke after the distillation is burned long and hot to liberate the usual amount of carbonic acid and then is fine ground to obtain a slow hardening hydraulic cement.

  7. Process for preparing thermoplastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Shinnosuke; Onishi, Shunji.

    1971-01-01

    A process for preparing novel graft polymers of acrolein is provided. The process comprises immersing a polymer of ethylenic monomer into a mixture of acrolein, CCl 4 and an alcohol to let the polymer swell to a small extent, followed by irradiating it by the use of isotopes, accelerators or a reactor (absorbed dose 1.0 to 1.5 Mrad). Aldehyde/ether ratio in the side chain can be controlled by varying the concentration of CCl 4 . The maximum graft ratio attainable is about 20%. No acrolein homopolymer is formed. The product exhibits a very high adhesive strength to glass. In one example, a polystyrene film (20μ in thickness, 150 mg) was sealed into an evacuated glass ampoule together with ethanol (13 cc), acrolein (1 cc) and CCl 4 (1 cc) and irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays (1.1 x 10 4 R/hr, 198 hrs). Graft ratio was 11.2%. Gel fraction (extraction with benzene) 0%. Aldehyde structure in the side chain 22%. Adhesive strength to glass: more than 50 kg/cm 2 . (Kaichi, S.)

  8. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  9. Process for preparing coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoke, Hideyasu; Kobayashi, Juichi; Kobayashi, Kei.

    1972-01-01

    A coating material curable with ionizing radiations or ultraviolet radiation can be prepared by reacting a compound (A) having one OH group and at least one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group with a polyisocyanate. (A) is a diester of a dicarboxylic acid. One of the ester groups may have a terminal α,β-ethylenic or allyl group and the other contains one OH and one α,β-ethylenic or allyl group. (A) is reacted with a polyisocyanate to yield an urethane. The latter may be diluted with a vinyl monomer. When exposed to a radiation, the coating material cures to give a film excellent in adhesion, impact strength and resistances to pollution, water and solvents. Dose of the ionizing radiation (α-, β-, γ-rays, electron beams) is 0.2-20 Mrad. In one example, 116 parts of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate was reacted with 148 parts of phthalic anhydride and 142 parts of glycidyl methacrylate to give (A). (A) was reacted with 87 parts of tolylenediisocyanate. A metallic panel was coated with the coating material and cured with electron beams (5 Mrad). Pencil hardness was H, and gel fraction measured in acetone was above 97%. The coating was excellent in resistances to solvent and chemicals, impact strength and adhesion. (Kaichi, S.)

  10. PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

  11. Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujić, Jasmina; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Škoda, Radek; Miletić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a very significant long-term role for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands, while simultaneously addressing challenges associated with global climate and environmental impact. Many nations of the world, particularly the Asia/Pacific Rim countries, are actively engaged in a major expansion of their nuclear energy complex. The degree to which nuclear energy can address long-term energy needs, either globally or regionally, will be dictated by the pace and adequacy of technical and policy solutions for waste, safety, security, and non-proliferation issues, as well as the capital cost of construction. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could successfully address several of these issues. SMRs offer simpler, standardized, and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having shorter construction times. The SMRs could be small enough to be transportable, could be used in isolated locations without advanced infrastructure and without power grid, or could be clustered in a single site to provide a multi-module, large capacity power plant. This paper summarizes some of the basic features of SMRs for early deployment, several advanced SMR concepts, and points out the benefits and challenges in regulatory, economical, safety and security issues. -- Highlights: ► We held a summer forum on SMR technologies at UC Berkeley in July 2010. ► Advantages and disadvantages, technical and economic, of each design were discussed. ► Further literature searches were also done and this paper summarizes prominent designs. ► We conclude SMRs have no large problems preventing their introduction into the nuclear market.

  12. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

  13. Process of preparing asphalt bodies, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klever, H W

    1924-05-03

    A process for the preparation of asphaltic bodies is characterized in that bituminous minerals such as oil-shale, coal, etc. are submitted to a heating process, with or without pressure, which is so mild that asphaltic bodies result and petroleum and tar oils are formed only in small amounts, and that the asphaltic bodies are used either together with the mineral constituents or after filtration from the latter.

  14. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  15. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  16. Process for the preparation of lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1927-06-04

    A process is described for preparation of lubricants from mixtures of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon derivatives of mean molecular weight and nonaromatic nature, which is characterized by halogenating the raw oil by the action of halogens or halogen-exchanging compounds and submitting the obtained product to a condensation in presence of aluminum chloride, tin chloride, iron chloride, or other condensing metal chloride or boron fluoride or activated metals, such as activated aluminum, whereby it is worked up in two steps at a temperature below 150 and preferably below 100/sup 0/C.

  17. Making Ecodesign Simpler than Ever Before

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Bey, Niki

    2009-01-01

    , activity and actual results achieved. In the meantime a steady effort from the research community has maintained focus on tools, methods and mindsets for environmental assessment and improvement, and governments internationally (not least in EU) have systematically increased environmental expectations...... stories of companies, which are working increasingly to reduce their human impacts on the environment and nature. However, on engaging in dialogue with a range of industrial companies, few report to be ready to embrace the task of environmental improvement (ecodesign) into their product development...... of design. Furthermore the guide should inspire the product development project team to create space for environmental thinking in their development processes. To satisfy both the ambition of reaching the smallest of Danish companies and that of serving international operating organisations, the guide...

  18. Process for preparation of MR contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the preparation of an MR contrast agent, said process comprising: i) obtaining a solution in a solvent of a hydrogenatable, unsaturated substrate compound and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of said substrate compound; ii) introducing said solution...... in droplet form into a chamber containing hydrogen gas (H2) enriched in para-hydrogen (p-1H2) and/or ortho-deuterium (o-2H2) whereby to hydrogenate said substrate to form a hydrogenated imaging agent; iii) optionally subjecting said hydrogenated imaging agent to a magnetic field having a field strength below...... earth's ambient field strength; iv) optionally dissolving said imaging agent in an aqueous medium; v) optionally separating said catalyst from the solution of said imaging agent in said aqueous medium; vi) optionally separating said solvent from the solution of said imaging agent in said aqueous medium...

  19. Simpler criterion on W state for perfect quantumstate splitting and quantum teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A simpler criterion is presented to judge whether a W state can be taken as quantum channel forperfectly splitting or teleporting an arbitrary single-qubit state. If the W state is usable,the detailed manipulations in the two quantum information processes are amply shown. Moreover,some relevant discussions are made.

  20. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  1. Superconductors preparation process and products obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting fine powder is prepared by mixing a rare earth sol with a solution of at least an alkaline earth nitrate and at least a transition metal nitrate, the pH is fixed for the said nitrates to stay in solution. The mixture is dried, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  2. Process for the preparation of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.W.; Baugh, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the preparation of actinide dioxides using actinide nitrate hexahydrates as starting materials is described. The actinide nitrate hexahydrate is reacted with sodium dithionite, and the product is heated in the absence of oxygen to obtain the dioxide. Preferably, the actinide is uranium, plutonium or neptunium. (LL)

  3. The ''Kinetic Stabilizer'': A Simpler Tandem Mirror Confinement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the search for better approaches to magnetic fusion it is important to keep in mind the lessons learned in the 50 years that fusion plasma confinement has been studied. One of the lessons learned is that ''closed'' and ''open'' fusion devices differ fundamentally with respect to an important property of their confinement, as follows: Without known exception closed systems such as the tokamak, the stellarator, or the reversed-field pinch, have been found to have their confinement times limited by non-classical, i.e., turbulence-related, processes, leading to the requirement that such systems must be scaled-up in dimensions to sizes much larger than would be the case in the absence of turbulence. By contrast, from the earliest days of fusion research, it has been demonstrated that open magnetic systems of the mirror variety can achieve confinement times close to that associated with classical, i.e., collisional, processes. While these good results have been obtained in both axially symmetric fields and in non-axisymmetric fields, the clearest cases have been those in which the confining fields are solenoidal and axially symmetric. These observations, i.e., of confinement not enhanced by turbulence, can be traced theoretically to such factors as the absence of parallel currents in the plasma, and to the constraints on particle drifts imposed by the adiabatic invariants governing particle confinement in axisymmetric open systems. In the past the MHD instability of axially symmetric open systems has been seen as a barrier to their use. However, theory predicts MHD-stable confinement is achievable if sufficient plasma is present in the ''good curvature'' regions outside the mirrors. This theory has been confirmed by experiments on the Gas Dynamic Trap mirror-based experiment at Novosibirsk, In this paper a new way of exploiting this stabilizing principle, involving creating a localized ''stabilizer plasma'' outside a mirror, will be discussed. To create this plasma

  4. Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Compounds particularly suitable as oxidation catalysis are described, comprising specified amounts of uranium, antimony and tin as oxides. Processes for making and using the catalysts are described. (U.K.)

  5. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    paste forms the basis for producing electronic components such as hybrid microcircuits ... The estimation of oxygen and hydrogen in silver pow- ders was carried out ... commercial point of view, as a faster process would ulti- mately result in ...

  6. Data Preparation Process for the Buildings Performance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Travis; Dunn, Laurel; Mercado, Andrea; Brown, Richard E.; Mathew, Paul

    2014-06-30

    The Buildings Performance Database (BPD) includes empirically measured data from a variety of data sources with varying degrees of data quality and data availability. The purpose of the data preparation process is to maintain data quality within the database and to ensure that all database entries have sufficient data for meaningful analysis and for the database API. Data preparation is a systematic process of mapping data into the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES), cleansing data using a set of criteria and rules of thumb, and deriving values such as energy totals and dominant asset types. The data preparation process takes the most amount of effort and time therefore most of the cleansing process has been automated. The process also needs to adapt as more data is contributed to the BPD and as building technologies over time. The data preparation process is an essential step between data contributed by providers and data published to the public in the BPD.

  7. Preparing Health Care Processes for IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walley, Paul; Laursen, Martin Lindgård

    2005-01-01

    effectiveness and efficiency of the system. Using data from two countries and involving 200 hospitals, the paper addresses the current state of determinacy of processes and explores the potential route towards standardisation. We hypothesise that management paradigms such as “lean thinking...

  8. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  9. Process for the preparation of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.W.; Baugh, D.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An actinide dioxide, e.g., uranium dioxide, plutonium dioxide, neptunium dioxide, etc., is prepared by reacting the actinide nitrate hexahydrate with sodium dithionite as a first step; the reaction product from this first step is a novel composition of matter comprising the actinide sulfite tetrahydrate. The reaction product resulting from this first step is then converted to the actinide dioxide by heating it in the absence of an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., nitrogen) to a temperature of about 500 0 to about 950 0 C for about 15 to about 135 minutes. If the reaction product resulting from the first step is, prior to carrying out the second heating step, exposed to an oxygen-containing atmosphere such as air, the resultant product is a novel composition of matter comprising the actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate which can also be readily converted to the actinide dioxide by heating it in the absence of an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., nitrogen) at a temperature of about 400 0 to about 900 0 C for about 30 to about 150 minutes. Further, the actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate can be partially dehydrated at reduced pressures (and in the presence of a suitable dehydrating agent such as phosphorus pentoxide). The partially dehydrated product may be readily converted to the dioxide form by heating it in the absence of an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., nitrogen) at a temperature of about 500 0 to about 900 0 C for about 30 to about 150 minutes. 16 claims

  10. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  11. Career Preparation: A Longitudinal, Process-Oriented Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Kate; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Skorikov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for an adult career through careful planning, choosing a career, and gaining confidence to achieve career goals is a primary task during adolescence and early adulthood. The current study bridged identity process literature and career construction theory (Savickas, 2005) by examining the commitment component of career adaptability, career preparation (i.e., career planning, career decision-making, and career confidence), from an identity process perspective (Luyckx, Goossens, & Soen...

  12. Electrical desalting - preparing of the crude oil for further processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Nadija; Minovski, Mino; Sokolovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Desalting as well as dewatering of the crude oil is important preparing process, which takes place in crude units on the refinery plants. One of the most efficient ways of desalting is use of high voltage electricity. In this work attention is paid on the principals of this process, illustrated with practically gained results from the OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Macedonia. (Original)

  13. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes for ceramic membrane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.W.; Cao, G.Z.; Meijerink, J.; de Vries, Karel Jan; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process (which takes place in advance of the electrochemical vapour deposition (EVD) process) to deposit ZrO2 inside porous media for the preparation and modification of ceramic membranes. The isobaric

  14. 7 CFR 1781.17 - Docket preparation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preparation, with a list of documents to be included in the docket. (3) Objectives of the docket. The docket.... (b) Loan processing by State Office—(1) Review of the docket. The processing office will check the... for authorized purposes. (v) Actions are in compliance with requirements of applicable Federal and...

  15. Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite comprising a solid particulate encapsulated in the vinylidene chloride polymer. The process comprises providing a dispersion of a solid particulate material in a liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT/MADIX agent;

  16. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  17. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the final product. The separation efficiency of dry processes is, however, not nearly as good as that of dense medium and, as a result, it is difficult to effectively beneficiate coals with a high near-dense content. The product yield obtained from some raw...

  18. Mental and Active Preparation: Examining Variations in Women's Processes of Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermea, Autumn M; Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Rosenbloom, Lindsay; Salerno, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Although the process of leaving abusive relationships has received increased research attention, preparing to leave is still largely understudied. Despite an emphasis on safety planning, not all women take active steps to prepare, and the characteristics and experiences of those who do or do not actively prepare are unknown. We address this gap with a secondary data analysis of interviews with 25 abused mothers in the process of leaving. All women initially engaged in mental planning, where they had emotionally disconnected from their partners. Using constructivist grounded theory techniques, we identified two distinct groups: those whose mental planning led to active planning ( n = 11), and those who moved directly from mental planning to leaving ( n = 14) with little time or need to actively plan. The groups differed on several individual, relationship, and child factors, which may have impacted the ability or decisions to prepare. This study supports the feminist view that survivors are not helpless victims but active agents who strategize for safety. Those who engage solely in mental planning still prepare to leave, even if they do not engage in active planning. Practitioners should consider factors affecting preparations and acknowledge mental planning as a necessary effort in leaving.

  19. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  20. INFORMATION SYSTEM OF AUTOMATION OF PREPARATION EDUCATIONAL PROCESS DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Matyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is rapidly conquering the world, permeating all spheres of human activity. Education is not an exception. An important direction of information of education is the development of university management systems. Modern information systems improve and facilitate the management of all types of activities of the institution. The purpose of this paper is development of system, which allows automating process of formation of accounting documents. The article describes the problem of preparation of the educational process documents. Decided to project and create the information system in Microsoft Access environment. The result is four types of reports obtained by using the developed system. The use of this system now allows you to automate the process and reduce the effort required to prepare accounting documents. All reports was implement in Microsoft Excel software product and can be used for further analysis and processing.

  1. Process of preparing artificial stone from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-02-10

    A process for the preparation of artificial stone from oil-shale slag is characterized by the fact that the coarse part of the ground slag before working into artificial stone is saturated with water and serves as filler, while the fine part is milled to dust and forms the binding material.

  2. Career Preparation: A Longitudinal, Process-Oriented Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Kate; Jennifer Kerpelman; Vladimir Skorikov

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for an adult career through careful planning, choosing a career, and gaining confidence to achieve career goals is a primary task during adolescence and early adulthood. The current study bridged identity process literature and career construction theory (Savickas, 2005) by examining the commitment component of career adaptability,…

  3. Processes of preparation, deposition and analysis of thermionic emissive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romao, B.M. Verdelli; Muraro Junior, A.; Tessaroto, L.A.B.; Takahashi, J.

    1992-09-01

    This paper shows the results of the optimization of the process of preparation and deposition of thermionic emissive substances that are used in the oxide-cathodes which are utilized in the gun of the IEAv linear electron accelerator. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  4. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury’s are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error

  5. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiharto; Santoso, S.B.; Santoso, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury's are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203 Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error mentioned above, it was

  6. Systems biology perspectives on minimal and simpler cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  8. Process for the preparation of isotropic petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegler, W.H.; Huyser, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a process for preparing isotropic coke from oil residue charge. It includes blowing air into the residue until it reaches a softening temperature of around 49 to 116 deg C, the deferred coking of the residue having undergone blowing at a temperature of around 247 to 640 deg C, at a pressure between around 1.38x10 5 and 1.72x10 6 Pa, and the recovery of isotropic coke with a thermal expansion coefficient ratio under 1.5 approximately. The isotropic coke is used for preparing hexagonal graphite bars for nuclear reactor moderators [fr

  9. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  10. Insights on the poster preparation and presentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L W; Augspurger, P; King, M O; Proffitt, C

    2001-05-01

    Dissemination of research findings and effective clinical innovations is key to the growth and development of the nursing profession. Several avenues exist for the dissemination of information. One forum for communication that has gained increased recognition over the past decade is the poster presentation. Poster presentations are often a significant part of regional, national, and international nursing conferences. Although posters are frequently used to disseminate information to the nursing community, little is reported about actual poster presenters' experiences with preparation and presentation of their posters. The purpose of this article is to present insights derived from information shared by poster presenters regarding the poster preparation and presentation process. Such insights derived from the personal experiences of poster presenters may assist others to efficiently and effectively prepare and present scholarly posters that disseminate information to the nursing community. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  11. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  12. Membrane preparation and process development for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil

  13. Membrane preparation and process development for radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-01-15

    The membrane manufacturing technology with hydrophilic function that can minimize fouling when it applies to the radioactive liquid waste treatment process was developed. Thermodynamic and rheological analysis for polysulfone casting solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone was performed. On the basis of the results of preparation of the hydrophilic polymer membrane solution, the hollow fiber membrane for radioactive liquid waste treatment was manufactured and its performance analysis was carried out. As a results, it turns out the hydrophilic hollow fiber membrane has more 90 % of flux increment effect and also more 2.5 times fouling reducing effect than one prepared with only polysulfone. In addition, as investigating the separation property of radioactive liquid waste for the electrofilteration membrane process, a proper range for application of radioactive liquid wastes was established through the thorough electrofiltration analysis of various wastes containing metal salt, surfactants and oil.

  14. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  15. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  16. Process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J

    1910-12-11

    A process for preparing a normal lighting and heating gas from Australian bituminous shale by distillation and decomposition in the presence of water vapor is characterized by the fact that the gasification is suitably undertaken with gradual filling of a retort and with simultaneous introduction of water vapor at a temperature not exceeding 1,000/sup 0/ C. The resulting amount of gas is heated in the same or a second heated retort with freshly supplied vapor.

  17. Radiation processing technology for preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Yamanaka, H. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Radiation processing technology for the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials was studied from the aspect of a development of the technology and its application. Electron beam irradiation technology was applied to the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials such as thin polymer films in diagnosis, in which enzyme and antibody were used as a bioactive substance. Electron beam cast-polymerization and electron beam repeat surface-polymerization, that are surface irradiation techniques of homogeneous hydrophilic monomer solution containing enzymes made it possible to form the immobilized antibody films. In this technique, the films with various thicknesses (50-500 [mu]m) were obtained by regulating the electron beam energy. The thin polymer films immobilizing anti-[alpha]-fetoprotein were evaluated from the aspect of immunoagents for diagnosis of liver cancer. (Author).

  18. Process for the preparation of ammonia and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the production of ammonia and heavy water comprises the steps of enriching a flow of water with deuterium in a monothermal isotropic process; supplying a first portion of the deuterium-enriched water to a heavy water preparation plant to produce heavy water and hydrogen; storing a second portion of the deuterium-enriched water substantially without interruption during the colder half of a year; electrolytically dissociating the stored deuterium-enriched water substantially without interruption during the wamer half of a year to form hydrogen; storing a portion of the electrolytically-produced hydrogen during said warmer half of a year while supplying the remainder to a synthesis circuit of a synthesizing plant and subsequently supplying the stored hydrogen to the synthesis circuit during said colder half of a year; removing some of the synthesis gas mixture from the synthesis circuit of the synthesizing plant; burning the removed synthesis gas mixture with air to produce a mixture consisting mainly of water and nitrogen; thereafter condensing and separating the water from the mixture of water and nitrogen; supplying the nitrogen of the mixture of water and nitrogen, the hydrogen from the heavy water preparation plant and the electrolytically-produced hydrogen to the synthesis circuit of the synthesizing plant to produce ammonia; and collecting deuterium-depleted water resulting from said burning step and feeding the collected deuterium-depleted water into the monothermal process

  19. Preparation of Cefquinome Nanoparticles by Using the Supercritical Antisolvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Kefeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical antisolvent process was used successfully to prepare nanoparticles of cefquinome. These particles were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and their average diameter was measured by laser particle size analyzer. In the experiments, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO was selected as solvent to dissolve cefquinome sulfate. It was confirmed by orthogonal experiments that the concentration of solution was the primary factor in this process followed by feeding speed of solution, precipitation pressure, and precipitation temperature. Moreover, the optimal conditions of preparing nanoparticles of cefquinome by supercritical antisolvent process were that solution concentration was 100 mg/mL, solution flow speed was 1.5 mL/min, operating pressure was 13 Mpa, and operating temperature was 33°C. Confirmatory experiment was conducted under this condition. It was found that the appearance of particles was flakes and the average diameter of particles was 0.71 microns. Finally, influence law of individual factor on particle size was investigated by univariate analysis.

  20. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, C.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhang, Qian-Feng, E-mail: zhangqf@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO{sub 2} as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  1. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Fan, C.G.; Zhang, Qian-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO 2 as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  2. Streamlining of the Decontamination and Demolition Document Preparation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Nick; Meincke, Carol; Peek, Georgianne

    1999-01-01

    During the past five years, the Sandia National Labo- ratories Decontamination, Decommissioning, Demolition, and Reuse (D3R) Program has evolved and become more focused and efficient. Historical approaches to project documentation, requirements, and drivers are discussed detailing key assumptions, oversight authority, and proj- ect approvals. Discussion of efforts to streamline the D3R project planning and preparation process include the in- corporation of the principles of graded approach, Total Quality Management, and the Observational Method (CH2MHILL April 1989).1 Process improvements were realized by clearly defining regulatory requirements for each phase of a project, establishing general guidance for the program and combining project-specific documents to eliminate redundant and unneeded information. Proc- ess improvements to cost, schedule, and quality are dis- cussed in detail for several projects

  3. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  4. Organophilization process of Brazilian bentonite for preparation of polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos I.R. de; Rocha, Marisa C.G.; Ferreira, Joao L.A.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Bentonite clay from the municipality of Cubati, PB, was used for the preparation of an organophilic clay. First, the clay was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organoclay was, then, obtained from the reaction of homo-ionic clay with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The natural clay and the modified clays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of the majority of the metallic oxides when the bentonite was organophilizated. This result is characteristic of the metal cation exchange process by organic salt molecules. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the intercalation among the layers of the clay. The results obtained by FTIR showed the presence of the characteristic groups of the salt in the clay, thus confirming the obtaining of organophilic bentonite. (author)

  5. Perovskite/polymer solar cells prepared using solution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E. S.; Shobih; Nursam, N. M.; Saputri, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple solution-based process to fabricate a perovskite/polymer tandem solar cell using inorganic CH 3 NH 3 PM 3 as an absorber and organic PCBM (6,6 phenyl C61- butyric acid methyl ester) as an electron transport layer. The absorber solution was prepared by mixing the CH 3 NH 3 I (methyl ammonium iodide) with PbI 2 (lead iodide) in DMF (N,N- dimethyl formamide) solvent. The absorber and electron transport layer were deposited by spin coating method. The electrical characteristics generated from the cell under 50 mW/cm 2 at 25 °C comprised of an open circuit voltage of 0. 3 1 V, a short circuit current density of 2.53 mA/cm 2 , and a power conversion efficiency of 0.42%. (paper)

  6. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  7. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: no electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromu Kurosaki; Lambert, S.B.; Rao, G.R.; Mueller, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. It provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily. (author)

  8. Static fuel molten salt reactors - simpler, cheaper and safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The many conceptual designs for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR's) today are all evolutions from the prototype MSR that went critical at Oak Ridge 50 years ago. Critically, they are based on pumping the molten fuel salt from a reaction chamber where the fuel achieves critical mass through a heat exchanger where the resulting heat is transferred to another working fluid. This basic concept was not the first idea that the Oak Ridge scientists considered. Their initial preference was to put the molten salt fuel into tubes, just like solid fuel pellets in their cladding, and circulate a coolant past the tubes. They concluded however that the low thermal conductivity of the salt meant that the tubes could be no wider than 2mm which would be entirely impractical. In this analysis they ignored the contribution of convection to heat transfer in fluids, probably because they were designing an aircraft engine where varying g forces would make convection unreliable. Moltex Energy has re-examined this decision using the modern tools of computational fluid dynamics to simulate convective flow in the molten salt and discovered that in fact tubes of similar diameter to those used for solid fuels are entirely practical. Power densities of 250kW/litre of fuel salt are readily attainable providing a higher overall power density than a PWR reactor. This discovery permits MSR's to be built without any of the complex pumping, passively safe drain systems, on line degassing, filtration and chemical processing needed in pumped MSR's. Their design is very simple and they have many intrinsic safety factors including low pressure operation, chemically unreactive fluids and strongly negative fuel thermal and coolant voiding reactivity coefficients. Most importantly, the highly radioactive fission products are retained in non-volatile form within the fuel tubes in the reactor core. Radioactive fuel salt never leaves the reactor vessel except in an immobile frozen form during

  9. Contractor Work Preparation Process Improvement Using Lean Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asana Kusnadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the health and safety of their workforce and protection of their assets and the environment, a global oil and gas company operating in Indonesia requires comprehensive identification and evaluation of job hazards that were included in work permitting process prior work execution in the field. Based on 20 data points obtained in August 2013, start-working time for contractors who worked for Capital Project Management (CPM Team in Facility B was in average at 09.05 a.m. The aim of this paper is to present how the firm implemented Lean Six Sigma to reduce non-added value activities while fulfilling to its safety requirements and to share lessons learned from practical and theory testing perspective. The methodology used is Lean Six Sigma’s DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control as mandated by the corporate policy of the firm. This research adopts a mix-methods approach, by using both qualitative and quantitative data. This study was a one year longitudinal study of the Lean Six Sigma implementation to improve contractors’ work preparation process. The improvement resulted in reduction of non-value added activities and successfully increased the available working time per day by 59.3 minutes in average. The results of this case study reconfirm Lean Six Sigma as a good management theory since it shows a consistency between the theory and the real practice in a global oil and gas company in Indonesia.

  10. Chi-squared: A simpler evaluation function for multiple-instance learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGovern, Amy; Jensen, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) but finds the best concept using the chi-square statistic. This approach is simpler than diverse density and allows us to search more extensively by using properties of the contingency table to prune in a guaranteed manner...

  11. Process for preparing polyolefin gel articles as well as for preparing herefrom articles having a high tensile strength and modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of highly stretchable high-molecular weight polyolefin gel articles and polyolefin gel articles prepared therefrom having combined high tensile strength and high modulus, wherein an initial shaped article of the polyolefin is exposed to or contacted with a

  12. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  13. Process for a preparing a coating composition. [electrom irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T; Harada, H; Kobayashi, J; Nakamoto, H; Sunano, K

    1968-07-16

    An easily hardenable acrylic coating composition is prepared with low energy electron beams to develop a surface coating process without requiring solvents, and which may be widely applied by industry. The process comprises dissolving a polymer with a molecular weight in the 5,000 to 500,000 range in a monomer consisting of at least 30% by weight of acrylic monomer and 70% by weight of other vinyl monomers. The polymer is obtained by the polymerization of 1 to 40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing carboxyl radicals, 30 to 99% by weight of methacrylic monomer and 0 to 69% by weight of other copolymerizable vinyl monomers. Then, one mole of carboxyl radical of the solution reacts with 0.1 to 1.0 mole of vinyl monomer containing a glycidyl radical. In an embodiment, 17.5% by weight of methacrylate are dissolved in 82.5% of alkyl acrylate and undergo suspension polymerization in water in the presence of a catalyst to produce a beads-like polymer of molecular weight in the 5,000 to 500,000 range. Thereafter, 120 parts of the beads-like polymer are dissolved in 180 parts of acrylic monomer in the presence of a polymerization inhibitor. To this solution are added 22 parts of glycidyl methacrylate to react with carboxyl radicals, thereby obtaining non-solvent coating materials which contain the side chain vinyl radicals in the polymer. The acceleration voltage of the electron beams employed in the polymerization is generally 0.1 to 2.0 MeV. The dose rate to harden the coatings is in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 Mrad/sec.

  14. A new cleaner process to prepare pressing-powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu, Z.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An alternative cleaner process of pressing-powder preparation, based on filter-pressing and a novel granulation method, is presented to substitute the existing spray-drying process. In the new process, about two-thirds of wet-milled slurry is filterpressed, dried and milled into dry fine powder. The other one-third of the slurry and the as-obtained dry fine powder are spray-mixed in a tower, where the slurry droplets adsorb the dry powder to form granules which are then rolled and dried into a useable pressing-powder for tile pressing. The key stages, filter-pressing and granulation (consisting of spray-mixing and rolling treatment, are specially studied. The pressing-powder properties and pressing/firing behavior, and, energy/water consumption and pollution emission data are presented, and a comparison between the new process and the existing spray-drying process is made. This new process has been found to be feasible and provides a pressing-powder with suitable properties, together with lower energy/water consumption and pollution emission (particulate matter and CO2.

    En ese trabajo se presenta un proceso alternativo y más ecológico para la preparación de polvo de prensas por molienda vía húmeda de las materias primas. En este proceso la eliminación del agua de la suspensión obtenida en la etapa de molienda, en vez de realizarse por secado por atomización, se lleva a cabo en dos etapas, en una primera etapa dos tercios de esta suspensión se filtro-prensan, posteriormente se secan y molturan hasta obtener un polvo seco micronizado. Este material seco se introduce por la parte superior de una torre granuladora, en la que se pulveriza el tercio de la suspensión restante por la parte inferior, de forma que las gotas adsorben sobre su superficie las partículas secas formando gránulos, que posteriormente se compactan por rodamiento (“rolling”, y finalmente se secan hasta la humedad requerida para el prensado. En

  15. Excimer laser processing of ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; Koh, L.H.K.; O'Brien, Shane; Crean, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass from a single spin-coating deposition of a sol-gel prepared with anhydrous zinc acetate [Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], monoethanolamine [H 2 NC 2 H 4 OH] and isopropanol. The deposited films were dried at 50 and 300 deg. C. X-ray analysis showed that the films were amorphous. Laser annealing was performed using an excimer laser. The laser pulse repetition rate was 25 Hz with a pulse energy of 5.9 mJ, giving a fluence of 225 mJ cm -2 on the ZnO film. Typically, five laser pulses per unit area of the film were used. After laser processing, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of zinc oxide was observed from X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The thin films had a transparency of greater than 70% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy was 3.454 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry analysis highlighted the change in morphology that occurred as a result of laser processing. This comparative study shows that our sol-gel processing route differs significantly from ZnO sol-gel films prepared by conventional furnace annealing which requires temperatures above 450 deg. C for the formation of crystalline ZnO

  16. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ten, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flowability to that of spraydried powders. The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,… changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar gres porcelánico esmaltado utilizando un sistema de preparación de la composición del soporte más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, lo que implica una reducción importante de los consumos de agua y de energía térmica. El proceso que se estudia en el presente trabajo es el consistente en la molienda vía seca en molino pendular y en la posterior granulación (para obtener un polvo de prensas con fluidez similar a la de los polvos atomizados. La distinta morfología de los nuevos gránulos obtenidos respecto al polvo atomizado actual, modifica la microestuctura en crudo de las piezas y, con ello, el comportamiento y propiedades finales de las baldosas obtenidas. Por ello, ha sido necesario

  17. Superconductors preparation process and products obtained. Procede de preparation de supraconducteurs et produits ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, M O; Magnier, C

    1989-03-24

    A superconducting fine powder is prepared by mixing a rare earth sol with a solution of at least an alkaline earth nitrate and at least a transition metal nitrate, the pH is fixed for the said nitrates to stay in solution. The mixture is dried, calcined and eventually crushed.

  18. Process for the preparation of fine grain metal carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gortsema, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    Fine grain metal carbide powders are conveniently prepared from the corresponding metal oxide by heating in an atmosphere of methane in hydrogen. Sintered articles having a density approaching the theoretical density of the metal carbide itself can be fabricated from the powders by cold pressing, hot pressing or other techniques. 8 claims, no drawings

  19. Process for preparing sintered uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is prepared for use as fuel in nuclear reactors by sintering it to the desired density at a temperature less than 1300 0 C in a chemically controlled gas atmosphere comprised of at least two gases which in equilibrium provide an oxygen partial pressure sufficient to maintain the uranium dioxide composition at an oxygen/uranium ratio of at least 2.005 at the sintering temperature. 7 Claims, No Drawings

  20. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  1. Isotopically labelled vitamin D derivatives and processes for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.R.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 compounds, including radiolabelled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity, methods for their preparation, and intermediates obtained in their synthesis. The method involves reacting an ester of a 26,27-dinor-vitamin D-25-carboxylic acid with an isotopically labelled methyl Grignard reagent or methyl lithium reagent to obtain a 26,27-isotopically labelled compound in which at least some of the H atoms and/or C atoms are heavy isotopes. (author)

  2. Supramyl, a process step for the preparation of energy alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misselhorn, K.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for EtOH manufacture from starch-containing materials (potato, manioc, maize, and wheat) is described and the energy requirements for the process and the conventional process are compared. The materials are mixed with alpha-amylase and CaO and heated with steam in a continuous starch-digestion unit. The temperature effect on viscosity of the mash, the dextrose equivalent as function of time and enzyme concentration, and retrogradation for various raw materials are discussed. The respective energy consumption for starch mashing, distillation, and spent-wash evaporation and drying for the conventional process are 8.0, 10.9, and 10.9 and the respective energy consumptions for the continuous process are 0.7, 5.8, and 8.1 MJ/l EtOH.

  3. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritic particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  4. Preparation of UN microspheres by internal gelation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasu, Yoshiro; Yamagishi, Shigeru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    UN microspheres were prepared from (UO{sub 3}+C) microspheres internally gelled in a hot silicone oil column. The gel microspheres were calcined at 480degC in nitrogen, after washing and drying. The calcined ones were carbothermically nitrided at 1400-1800degC in a nitrogen-based atmosphere in two ways: one in N{sub 2} followed by N{sub 2}-8%H{sub 2}, and the other in N{sub 2}-8%H{sub 2} only. In both cases, highly pure UN microspheres around 500 ppm of both oxygen and carbon impurities were obtained, although their densities were still low. (author)

  5. Montmorillonite based artificial nacre prepared via a drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennadji-Gridi, Fayza; Smith, Agnes; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Taking advantage of the specific behaviour of Na/Ca montmorillonite in aqueous dispersion, textured films were prepared by progressive evaporation of dispersions with low concentrations of delaminated platelets. The increase of the concentration of ions during evaporation changes the nature of the clay mineral platelet face interactions from repulsive to attractive. After complete drying, a dense brick-like structure is obtained when a sodium salt is used as deflocculant. The bending strength of the textured film is strongly affected by cracks formation during drying, specially when the sample thickness increases. After optimisation, crack-free textured samples with a 140 μm thickness, 20 cm x 25 cm area and 120 MPa bending strength were obtained

  6. Preparation of magnesium metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, J.; Satish, K. G., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal used as the source for constructional alloys. Today Magnesium based metal matrix composites are widely used in aerospace, structural, oceanic and automobile applications for its light weight, low density(two thirds that of aluminium), good high temperature mechanical properties and good to excellent corrosion resistance. The reason of designing metal matrix composite is to put in the attractive attributes of metals and ceramics to the base metal. In this study magnesium metal matrix hybrid composite are developed by reinforcing pure magnesium with silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide by method of powder metallurgy. This method is less expensive and very efficient. The Hardness test was performed on the specimens prepared by powder metallurgy method. The results revealed that the micro hardness of composites was increased with the addition of silicon carbide and alumina particles in magnesium metal matrix composites.

  7. Preparation of inverted medium and processing in the inverted medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafarullah, Ijaz; Tian Minghzen; Chang Tiejun; Randall Babbitt, W.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of weak optical signals in spatial-spectral holographic (SSH) materials coherently inverted with optical frequency chirped pulses were investigated. Simulations and experimental studies in Tm 3+ :YAG were conducted to characterize the parameters of the frequency chirped laser pulse used to invert the SSH material in order to obtain high photon echo efficiency for SSH lidar processing. Collinear and angled beam geometries and single shot and accumulated processes were investigated. Echo efficiencies as high as 450% were measured, significantly higher than the typical stimulated photon echo efficiency of 10%

  8. Preparation of inverted medium and processing in the inverted medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafarullah, Ijaz [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: ijaz@montana.edu; Tian Minghzen [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Chang Tiejun [The Spectrum Laboratory, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Randall Babbitt, W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The processing of weak optical signals in spatial-spectral holographic (SSH) materials coherently inverted with optical frequency chirped pulses were investigated. Simulations and experimental studies in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG were conducted to characterize the parameters of the frequency chirped laser pulse used to invert the SSH material in order to obtain high photon echo efficiency for SSH lidar processing. Collinear and angled beam geometries and single shot and accumulated processes were investigated. Echo efficiencies as high as 450% were measured, significantly higher than the typical stimulated photon echo efficiency of 10%.

  9. [Impurity removal technology of Tongan injection in liquid preparation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-fang; Wang, Xiu-hai; Bai, Wei-rong; Kang, Xiao-dong; Liu, Jun-chao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively remove the invalid impurities in Tongan injection, optimize the optimal parameters of the impurity removal technology of liquid mixing process, in this paper, taking Tongan injection as the research object, with the contents of celandine alkali, and sinomenine, solids reduction efficiency, and related substances inspection as the evaluation indexes, the removal of impurities and related substances by the combined process of refrigeration, coction and activated carbon adsorption were investigated, the feasibility of the impurity removal method was definited and the process parameters were optimized. The optimized process parameters were as follows: refrigerated for 36 h, boiled for 15 min, activated carbon dosage of 0.3%, temperature 100 degrees C, adsorption time 10 min. It can effectively remove the tannin, and other impurities, thus ensure the quality and safety of products.

  10. Optical properties of alumina membranes prepared by anodic oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaojian; Huang Kelong

    2007-01-01

    The luminescence property of anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) with ordered nanopore arrays prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminum in oxalic acid solutions have been investigated. Photoluminescence emission (PL) measurement shows that a blue PL band occurs in the wavelength ranges of 300-600 nm. The PL intensity and peak position of AAMs depend markedly on the excitation wavelength. A new peak located at 518 nm can be observed under a monitoring wavelength at 429 nm in the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. Convincing evidences have been presented that the PLE would be associated with the residual aluminum ions in the membrane. The PLE and PL of AAMs, as a function of anodizing times, have been discussed. It is found that the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs would have important influences on the optical properties of AAMs in the initial stage of anodization. The PL and PLE spectra obtained show that there are three optical centers, of which the first is originated from the F + centers in AAMs, the second is correlated with the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs, and the third is associated with the excess aluminum ions in the membrane

  11. Optical properties of alumina membranes prepared by anodic oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaojian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail: lizhaojian_lzj@hotmail.com; Huang Kelong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail: klhuang@mail.csu.edu.cn

    2007-12-15

    The luminescence property of anodic alumina membranes (AAMs) with ordered nanopore arrays prepared by electrochemically anodizing aluminum in oxalic acid solutions have been investigated. Photoluminescence emission (PL) measurement shows that a blue PL band occurs in the wavelength ranges of 300-600 nm. The PL intensity and peak position of AAMs depend markedly on the excitation wavelength. A new peak located at 518 nm can be observed under a monitoring wavelength at 429 nm in the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. Convincing evidences have been presented that the PLE would be associated with the residual aluminum ions in the membrane. The PLE and PL of AAMs, as a function of anodizing times, have been discussed. It is found that the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs would have important influences on the optical properties of AAMs in the initial stage of anodization. The PL and PLE spectra obtained show that there are three optical centers, of which the first is originated from the F{sup +} centers in AAMs, the second is correlated with the oxalic impurities incorporated in the AAMs, and the third is associated with the excess aluminum ions in the membrane.

  12. An investigation on preparation of CIGS targets by sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ning, E-mail: zhn98@126.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhuang Daming; Zhang Gong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Pressureless sintering process was used to fabricate CIGS targets with Cu{sub 2}Se, In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} as raw powders mixed according to the stoichiometry of CuIn{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}Se{sub 2} (CIGS). The results showed that only CuIn{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}Se{sub 2} phase can be detected in the sintered targets. The pores in sintered specimen become smaller and distribute more homogeneously under the conditions of finer powders and higher cold pressure. Both mass loss caused by the formation of volatile phase relating to Ga and volume expansion occur during the sintering process, which result in the decrease of density. The tendency of anti-densification becomes stronger under the conditions of coarser powders and higher cold pressure. The sintering process and causes for anti-densification were discussed. Finally, a hot pressing process was carried out, which was proved to be fairly effective to increase the density of CIGS target. The fabricated target can be used for magnetron-sputtering deposition of CIGS absorbers.

  13. Preparation of silicon carbide nanowires via a rapid heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xintong; Chen Xiaohong; Song Huaihe

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires were fabricated in a large quantity by a rapid heating carbothermal reduction of a novel resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF)/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in this study. SiC nanowires were grown at 1500 deg. C for 2 h in an argon atmosphere without any catalyst via vapor-solid (V-S) process. The β-SiC nanowires were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) facility, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analysis results show that the aspect ratio of the SiC nanowires via the rapid heating process is much larger than that of the sample produced via gradual heating process. The SiC nanowires are single crystalline β-SiC phase with diameters of about 20-80 nm and lengths of about several tens of micrometers, growing along the [1 1 1] direction with a fringe spacing of 0.25 nm. The role of the interpenetrating network of RF/SiO 2 hybrid aerogel in the carbothermal reduction was discussed and the possible growth mechanism of the nanowires is analyzed.

  14. Process for preparing wastes for non-pollutant disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstiel, T.L.; Debus, A.A.G.

    1984-01-01

    In disposing of wastes, particularly toxic wastes, containing organic liquids, i.e. solvents or oil, which may be radio-active a non-ionic surface active agent which is a polyoxy alkylphenol is added to the oily material and then calcium sulphate hemihydrate and water are added. This forms part of a process in which a melamine resin is also added to the mix which is then allowed to harden and the hardened mass disposed of. The use of polyoxyethylene glycol soaps as emulsifying agents is also referred to. Preferred soaps are tallates and preferred alkyl groups in the alkylphenol are octyl and ronyl. (author)

  15. Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Jan, Chia-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ping

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a Schottky diode having a preselected barrier height .phi..sub.Bn. The substrate is preferably n-GaAs, the metallic contact is derived from a starting alloy of the Formula [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ](Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x) wherein: .SIGMA.M is a moiety which consists of at least one M, and when more than one M is present, each M is different, M is a Group VIII metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, indium and platinum, .delta. is a stoichiometric coefficient whose total value in any given .SIGMA.M moiety is 1, and x is a positive number between 0 and 1 (that is, x ranges from greater than 0 to less than 1). Also, the starting alloy is capable of forming with the substrate a two phase equilibrium reciprocal system of the binary alloy mixture [.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Ga-[.SIGMA.M.sub..delta. ]Al-AlAs-GaAs. When members of an alloy subclass within this Formula are each preliminarily correlated with the barrier height .phi..sub.Bn of a contact producable therewith, then Schottky diodes of predetermined barrier heights are producable by sputtering and annealing. Further provided are the product Schottky diodes that are produced according to this process.

  16. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC I. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills and instructing them in basic calculator…

  17. Alcohol sensing of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    variation of sensitivity and ethanol concentration has shown a linear relationship up to 1150 ppm and after ... The results obtained favour the sol–gel process as a low cost method for the preparation ... It was cleaned ultrasonically in methanol.

  18. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  19. Transformation mechanism of nutrient elements in the process of biochar preparation for returning biochar to soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangshuang Tian; Zhongxin Tan; Alfreda Kasiulienė; Ping Ai

    2017-01-01

    Returning biochar to soil is a heavily researched topic because biochar functions well for soil improvement. There is a significant loss of nutrients, which occurs during biochar preparation before biochar is returned to soil, thereby seriously undermining biochar's efficacy. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms of biochar pH, mass, nutrients and metals during pyrolysis under different atmospheres and temperatures were studied such that the best method for biochar preparation could be developed. Several conclusions can be reached: (1) a CO2 atmosphere is better than a N2 atmosphere for biochar preparation, although preparation in a CO2 atmosphere is not a common practice for biochar producers; (2) 350 ℃ is the best temperature for biochar preparation because the amount of nutrient loss is notably low based on the premise of straw transferred into biochar; and (3) transforming mechanisms of pH, N, P and K are also involved in the biochar preparation process.

  20. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  1. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

  2. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-07-04

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine when in chiral form.

  3. Cold pressure welding of aluminium-steel blanks: Manufacturing process and electrochemical surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Orive, Alejandro Gonzalez; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    In this study the manufacture of aluminium-steel blanks by cold pressure welding and their preparation for a welding process through electrochemical surface treatment are investigated and discussed. The cold pressure welding process was done with an incremental rolling tool that allows for the partial pressure welding of two blanks along a prepared path. The influence of the surface preparation by electrochemical deposition of bond promoting organosilane-based agents and roughening on a nano-scale is investigated and compared to conventional surface treatments. Coating the surfaces with a thin organosilane-based film incorporating specific functional groups should promote additional bonding between the mating oxide layers; its influence on the total weld strength is studied. Pressure welding requires suitable process strategies, and the current advances in the proposed incremental rolling process for the combination of mild steel and aluminium are presented.

  4. Variations in polyethylene glycol brands and their influence on the preparation process of hydrogel microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Bertz, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    differences in the salt composition and molecular weight distribution of the polymers which can explain the results from the production process. The results illustrate that the range of product specifications may not always be tight enough to avoid variability in pharmaceutical processes like the preparation...

  5. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.

    1986-01-01

    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  6. Preparation of rare earth-cobalt magnet alloy by reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Preparation of rare earth-cobalt alloys by reduction-diffusion (R-D) process is described. The process essentially involves mixing of the rare earth oxide and cobalt/cobalt oxide powders in proper proportion and high temperature reduction of the charge in hydrogen atmosphere, followed by aqueous leaching of the reduced mass to yield the alloy powder. Comparison is made of the magnetic properties of the R-D powder with those of the powder prepared by the direct melting (DM) route and it is observed from the reported values for SmCo 5 that the energy product of the R-D powder (approximately 22 MGOe) is only marginally lower than that of the directly melted alloy (approximately 25 MGOe). The paper also includes the results of studies carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, on the preparation of misch metal-cobalt alloy by the R-D process. (auth.)

  7. [Quality process control system of Chinese medicine preparation based on "holistic view"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Jiao, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Zheng, Qin; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    "High quality, safety and effectiveness" are the primary principles for the pharmaceutical research and development process in China. The quality of products relies not only on the inspection method, but also on the design and development, process control and standardized management. The quality depends on the process control level. In this paper, the history and current development of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are reviewed systematically. Based on the development model of international drug quality control and the misunderstanding of quality control of TCM preparations, the reasons for impacting the homogeneity of TCM preparations are analyzed and summarized. According to TCM characteristics, efforts were made to control the diversity of TCM, make "unstable" TCM into "stable" Chinese patent medicines, put forward the concepts of "holistic view" and "QbD (quality by design)", so as to create the "holistic, modular, data, standardized" model as the core of TCM preparation quality process control model. Scientific studies shall conform to the actual production of TCM preparations, and be conducive to supporting advanced equipment and technology upgrade, thoroughly applying the scientific research achievements in Chinese patent medicines, and promoting the cluster application and transformation application of TCM pharmaceutical technology, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of the TCM industry and realize the green development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. UO{sub 2} Kernel Preparation by M-EG Process and Its Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K. C.; Eom, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yeo, S. H.; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Kernels of KAERI TRISO fuels are prepared in the following steps: (1) preparation of a raw material solution(UN solution) by UO{sub 3} (or U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) powder dissolution in the concentrated HNO{sub 3}; (2) broth preparation and physical property control by mixing UN, THFA, PVA, and H{sub 2}O; (3) preparation of spherical liquid gel droplets and dried-ADU gels in sequence through a reaction between uranyl ions and ammonia ions in a gelation column; (4) ageing, washing, and drying processes of ADU gel using AWD equipment; (5) UO{sub 3} calcination by thermal decomposition of driedADU gel in the air; (6) fabrication of UO{sub 2} kernel by reducing the UO{sub 3} and sintering in the H{sub 2}. In this study, improved KAERI processes for UO{sub 2} kernel preparation were presented. ADU gel washing procedure in AWD processes and the heating mode in sintering process were modified and the internal structures of UO{sub 2} kernels are presented as a result.

  9. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

  10. Preparation and modification of carbon nanotubes electrodes by cold plasmas processes toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, E. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Tailleur, A.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P.Y. [IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Debarnot, D.; Poncin-Epaillard, F. [PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Boujtita, M., E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.f [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2010-11-30

    An electrochemical transducer based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was prepared as a platform for biosensor development. Prior to enzyme immobilization, the CNT were treated using a microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) in order to functionalize the CNT surface with oxygenated and aminated groups. The morphological aspect of the electrode surface was examined by SEM and its chemical structure was also elucidated by XPS analysis. It was found out that microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) not only functionalizes the CNT but also permits to avoid the collapse phenomena retaining thus the alignment structure of the electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting new material based on CNT were carried out by cyclic voltammetry and were found suitable to develop high sensitive enzyme (HRP) biosensors operating on direct electron transfer process.

  11. Methodology for the evaluation process in the director´s preparation from education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Clemente Calderón Echevarría

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented work proposes a methodology oriented to the evaluation of the process of director´s preparation which may contribute to the improvement of the program. It explains the need of the evaluation, activity as such, indicators to evaluate, methods and techniques to be used and the steps in which have to be done. Until now doesn´t exist a methodology which can evaluate the process of directors’ preparation in the educational sector. The development of this methodology has as a background the result obtained by means of different investigations made in the Provincial Post Office and that later were applied in the Provincial Department of Education. Nowadays is perfected in the Pedagogical University "Capitán Silverio Blanco Núñez", thus, the employment opportunities in similar processes of other entities. In the proposed methodology is conceived that the process evaluation of the director’s preparation flows out in a cyclical manner, continuous, flexible, and interactive, away from the traditional linear formula, rigid and schematic. From the above idea it can be identify four stages, and the relevant procedures, the evaluation of the process of directors’ preparation in education.

  12. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto; Sacco; Biazzotto; Ciuffi; Serra

    2000-01-01

    New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica-template are compared.

  13. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  14. Injection molding of Y-TZP powders prepared by colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Mineshita, O.; Kaga, T.; Tokinaga, T.; Obitsu, M.

    1991-01-01

    TZP powders containing 3mol% Y 2 O 3 were prepared from ZrOCl 2 solution via an aqueous colloidal suspension of ZrO 2 . Processing variables were optimized to obtain powders suitable for injection molding. Wettability of powders with binders, fluidity of melting compound, removal of binder from green body, and properties of sintered body were investigated

  15. MULTIAGENT TECHNOLOGIES’ METHOD IN MANAGING BUSINESS-PROCESSES OF THE TECHNICAL PREPARING FOR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Pavlenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The method of managing the process of the extended productions technological preparation is given. The method is used for integrating the automated systems of industrial assignment of  CAD/CAM/SAPP and ERP systems.

  16. Application of gel microsphere processes to preparation of Sphere-Pac nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Notz, K.J.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Sphere-Pac fabrication of nuclear fuels using two or more sizes of oxide or carbide spheres is ideally suited to nonproliferation-fuel cycles and remote refabrication. The sizes and compositions of spheres necessary for such fuel cycles have not been commonly prepared; therefore, modifications of sol-gel processes to meet these requirements are being developed and demonstrated

  17. Sulphur cement pre-composition and process for preparing such sulphur cement pre-composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a sulphur cement pre-composition comprising reacting sulphur modifier with polysulphide-containing organosilane to obtain in the presence of sulphur the sulphur cement pre-composition, wherein the organosilane has the general molecular formula:

  18. Desired Student Preparation in the Job Application Process as Perceived by the Business Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas R., Jr., Comp.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine from the business community what competencies in the job application process are needed by students preparing to enter the job market for their first full-time position. Data were collected from 100 human resource administrators (out of a sample of 400). The general feeling of the administrators was…

  19. University Strategic Planning: A Process for Change in a Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Federico R.; Zamora, Roberto; Hernandez, Rosalinda; Menchaca, Velma

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a strategic planning process used for developing an educational leadership program that prepares principals for leading 21st century schools. The plan is based on recommendations received from the External reviewers representing Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Texas Education Agency, survey responses received…

  20. Preparation of processed nuclear data libraries for thermal, fast and fusion research and power reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    1994-03-01

    A Consultants Meeting on ''Preparation of Processed Nuclear Data Libraries for Thermal, Fast and Fusion Research and Power Reactor Applications'' was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held during December 13-16, 1993 December 8-10, 1993 at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The detailed agenda, the complete list of participants and the recommendations are presented in this report. (author)

  1. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated

  2. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  3. Arc plasma assisted rotating electrode process for preparation of metal pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, T.; Tripathi, B.M.; Mahata, T.; Sinha, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical beryllium pebbles of size ranging from 0.2-2 mm are required as neutron multiplying material in solid Test Blanket Module (TBM) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Rotating electrode process (REP) has been identified as a suitable technique for preparation of beryllium pebbles. In REP, arc plasma generated between non-consumable electrode (cathode) and rotating metal electrode (anode) plays a major role for continuous consumption of metal electrode and preparation of spherical metal pebbles. This paper focuses on description of the process, selection of sub-systems for development of REP experimental set up and optimization of arc parameters, such as, cathode geometry, arc current, arc voltage, arc gap and carrier gas flow rate for preparation of required size spherical metal pebbles. Other parameters which affect the pebbles sizes are rotational speed, metal electrode diameter and physical properties of the metal. As beryllium is toxic in nature its surrogate metals such as stainless steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) were selected to evaluate the performance of the REP equipment. Several experiments were carried out using SS and Ti electrode and process parameters have been optimized for preparation of pebbles of different sizes. (author)

  4. Preparation for a postgraduate specialty examination by medical students in Turkey: processes and sources of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Sevgi; Üner, Sarp

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Interns in Turkey must endeavor to study for a specialty exam during their internship. The preparation process for the specialty exam and the effect of this process on the students' anxiety has not been studied comprehensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interns' preparation time for the specialty exam, their perception of how the preparation process affects their training, and which factors are related to their test anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6th-year students (interns). A questionnaire asked participants to report health status, academic achievement, exam-related anxiety, and trait anxiety. Two open-ended questions asked about views regarding the specialty exam. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the significant predictors of anxiety level due to the exam. The average duration of exam preparations of participating interns (n = 214) was 16.8 months and 14.3 hours/week. Participating interns' health status, economic level, perception of academic achievement, time allocated to study for the exam, time remaining until the exam, and trait anxiety level demonstrated a relationship with anxiety level due to the exam (R =.35, R(2) =.13, p anxiety level. The internship curriculum, requirements, and timing of the specialty exam should be reconsidered.

  5. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  6. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-30

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  7. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  8. INTRODUCTION OF DISTANCE LEARNING IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS AT PREPARATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga R. Harbych-Moshora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today higher educational institutions should prepare a specialist, who is able to work successfully in globalized market conditions. Accent is made stronger on universal preparation of graduate student and his adaptation to jobs market, as well as on personal orientation of educational process and its informatization. The article considers a concept of distance learning technologies and their support systems. Designed system of distance learning for IT-specialists preparation based on a platform Moodle is a result of the study. The system ensures hierarchic organization of learning courses thanks to using an interactive multimedia clips in Adobe Flash format. As well as there is a possibility to organize various forms of learning and knowledge control.

  9. Highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample prepared by a decomposition-crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhengping; Zhou Lian; Ji Chunlin

    1992-01-01

    A decomposition-crystallization method, preparing highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample is reported. The effects of processing parameter, decomposition temperature, cooling rate and post-treatment condition on texture and superconductivity are investigated. The method has successfully prepared highly textured Bi-system bulk samples. High temperature annealing does not destroy the growing texture, but the cooling rate has some effect on texture and superconductivity. Annealing in N 2 /O 2 atmosphere can improve superconductivity of the textured sample. The study on the superconductivity of the Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk material has been reported in numerous papers. The research on J c concentrates on the tape containing the 2223 phase, with very few studies on the J c of bulk sample. The reason for the lack of studies is that the change of superconducting phases at high temperatures has not been known. The authors have reported that the 2212 phase incongruently melted at about 875 degrees C and proceeded to orient the c-axis perpendicular to the surface in the process of crystallization of the 2212 phase. Based on that result, a decomposition-crystallization method was proposed to prepare highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample. In this paper, the process is described in detail and the effects of processing parameters on texture and superconductivity are reported

  10. [Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Zhao-Zhou

    2013-03-01

    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process. Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process, the design space will be determined, and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space. Therefore, the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD, and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space. This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space, analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, as well as future study orientations.

  11. Evaluation of Fetal Intestinal Cell Growth and Antimicrobial Biofunctionalities of Donor Human Milk After Preparative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaprach, Pasinee; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Supapannachart, Sarayut; Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Chutipongtanate, Somchai

    2018-04-01

    Donor human milk is considered the next best nutrition following mother's own milk to prevent neonatal infection and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants who are admitted at neonatal intensive care unit. However, donor milk biofunctionalities after preparative processes have rarely been documented. To evaluate biofunctionalities preserved in donor milk after preparative processes by cell-based assays. Ten pools of donor milk were produced from 40 independent specimens. After preparative processes, including bacterial elimination methods (holder pasteurization and cold-sterilization microfiltration) and storage conditions (-20°C freezing storage and lyophilization) with varied duration of storage (0, 3, and 6, months), donor milk biofunctionalities were examined by fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays. At baseline, raw donor milk exhibited 193.1% ± 12.3% of fetal intestinal cell growth and 42.4% ± 11.8% of antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli. After bacteria eliminating processes, growth promoting activity was better preserved in pasteurized donor milk than microfiltrated donor milk (169.5% ± 14.3% versus 146.0% ± 11.8%, respectively; p pasteurized donor milk was further examined for the effects of storage conditions at 3 and 6 months. Freezing storage, but not lyophilization, could preserve higher growth-promoting activity during 6 months of storage (163.0% ± 9.4% versus 72.8% ± 6.2%, respectively; p < 0.005). Nonetheless, antimicrobial activity was lost at 6 months, regardless of the storage methods. This study revealed that fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays could be applied to measure donor milk biofunctionalities and support the utilization of donor milk within 3 months after preparative processes.

  12. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  13. Process for preparation of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay support and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriadec, B.; Roubertie, P.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of a support useful in radioimmunoassay chromatographic columns. The process involves the preparation of a chromatographic gel capable of selectively retaining one or more components contained in an antigen-antibody-containing solution. The gel is bound to the appropriate antiserum, then freeze-dried, pulverized and compressed into a tablet. The tablet support swells upon contact with an antigen-antibody-containing solution to conform to the shape of the columns. An example of the application of this support in the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone is described. This type of support is also particularly useful in second antibody solid phase radioimmunoassays since there is no limit to the size of the antigen to which this technology may be applied. (U.K.)

  14. Synthesis of ferrite nanoparticle by milling process for preparation of single domain magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Hasbiyallah; Agus S W; Nurul TR; Budhy Kurniawan

    2009-01-01

    Study of ferrite nanoparticle synthesis for preparation of single domain magnet by milling of scrap magnet material have been done. Sample preparation were done using disk mill continued with high energy milling (HEM). Some powder were taken after 5, 10 dan 20 hours milling using HEM-E3D. The powder were then characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRF characterization result, confirmed by XRD analysis result, showed that the sample are of Strontium ferrite phase. Microstructure analysis result showed the occurrence of grain refining process of ferrite particle with increasing of milling time. Particle having size of nanometers successfully obtained, although in unhomogeneous distribution. Magnetic properties characterization result showed the increasing of hysteresis curve area of sample for longer milling time and sintering process. (author)

  15. Process for depositing an oxide epitaxially onto a silicon substrate and structures prepared with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilizes an ultra high vacuum and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods to grow an epitaxial oxide film upon a surface of the substrate. As the film is grown, the lattice of the compound formed at the silicon interface becomes stabilized, and a base layer comprised of an oxide having a sodium chloride-type lattice structure grows epitaxially upon the compound so as to cover the substrate surface. A perovskite may then be grown epitaxially upon the base layer to render a product which incorporates silicon, with its electronic capabilities, with a perovskite having technologically-significant properties of its own.

  16. Dry uranium tetrafluoride process preparation using the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Joao Batista da

    2008-01-01

    It is a well known fact that the use of uranium tetrafluoride allows flexibility in the production of uranium suicide and uranium oxide fuel. To its obtention there are two conventional routes, the one which reduces uranium from the UF 6 hydrolysis solution with stannous chloride, and the hydro fluorination of a solid uranium dioxide. In this work we are introducing a third and a dry way route, mainly utilized to the recovery of uranium from the liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process, at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recuperation of ammonium fluoride by NH 4 HF 2 precipitation. Working with the solid residues, the crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO 2 , which comes from the U mini plates recovery, also to its conversion in a solid state reaction, to obtain UF 4 . That returns to the process of metallic uranium production unity to the U 3 Si 2 obtention. This fuel is considered in IPEN CNEN/SP as the high density fuel phase for IEA-R1m reactor, which will replace the former low density U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel. (author)

  17. Dispatcher's monitoring systems of coal preparation processes. Systemy dyspozytorskiej kontroli procesow wzbogacania wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpisz, S [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland); Cierpisz, T; Glowacki, D; Puczylowski, T [Min-Tech Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Poland)

    1994-08-01

    The computer-based control and dispatcher's monitoring systems for coal preparation plants are described. The article refers to the local automation systems of coal blending production, control systems of heavy media separation process and dispatcher's visualization systems of technological lines operation. The effects of implementation of the above mentioned systems as well as some experiences gained at the designing and operational stages are given. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Gamma radiation grafting process for preparing separator membranes for electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostino, V.F. D'; Lee, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    An irradiation grafting process for preparing separator membranes for use in electrochemical cells, comprises contacting a polymeric base film with an aqueous solution of a hydrophilic monomer and a polymerization retardant; and irradiating said contacted film to form a graft membrane having low electrical resistivity and having monomer molecules uniformly grafted thereon. In the examples (meth) acrylic acid is grafted on to polyethylene, polypropylene and polytetrafluoroethylene in the presence of ferrous sulphate or cupric sulphate as polymerization retardants. (author)

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  20. Demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process for Tank 42 radioactive sludge -- Glass preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass

  1. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  2. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  3. Semi-solid A356 alloy slurry for rheocasting prepared by a new process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the semi-solid slurry with uniform and fine structure morphology that satisfies the requirement of rheocasting process, a new process for preparing semi-solid Al alloy slurry was developed, in which local chilling was combined with low superheat pouring and slight electromagnetic stirring (LSPSEMS. The morphology and the size of primary α-Al in the A356 alloy slurry prepared with the new process, i.e., LSPSEMS with local chilling, were investigated using MIAPS image analyzing software, and the grain refinement mechanism was discussed. The results indicate that the semi-solid primary phase consists of particle-like or globular-like α-Al, and the morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in the slurry can be markedly improved by the new process. The fine primary α-Al distributes uniformly in the slurry, which satisfies the requirement of rheocasting. Compared with the alloy prepared by LSPSEMS, the average equal-area-circle grain diameter of primary α-Al in semi-solid A356 alloy ingot prepared by the new process is decreased from 85.6 μm to 68.8 μm at the central area, 112.6 μm to 77.6 μm at the transition area and is 84.7 μm in the edge area, respectively. The corresponding shape factor of primary α-Al is increased from 0.78 to 0.83, 0.54 to 0.77 and 0.28 to 0.59, respectively. In addition, the pouring temperature could be suitably raised from 620-630 ℃ of the traditional process to 650 ℃ using this technique, which is convenient for practical operation. The mechanism of grain refinement, in the new process, is that the local chilling quickens up the temperature decrease in the center of the melt. The nuclei could not grow up in a short time so the finer grains are formed in the melt.

  4. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Caputo, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  5. Preparation of polymer-organo clay nano composites through the spray drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, Paulo R.A.; Pessan, Luiz A.; Carvalho, Antonio J.F. de; Vidotti, Suel E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work was the study and preparation of polymer nano composites with montmorillonite organo clays (MMT) through the spray drying process. A new technique was proposed and tested to obtaining polymer nano composites, based on the use of the spray drying process to produce a nano composite with high clay content. The process consisted of the following stages: clay intercalation in water solution, with after addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and a hydro soluble polyester ionomer (GEROLPS20) as exfoliation agents; spray drying the mixture obtained; incorporation powder in EVOH, PET e PP matrix. The effects of exfoliation agent on morphological and thermal properties of the nano composites were studied by XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TGA. The results demonstrate that the process of spray drying is an innovative way to obtain a nano composite with high clay content. (author)

  6. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land SAR Altimetry Processing for Copernicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik

    2014-01-01

    for commercial activities. The main objectives of the LOTUS project is to prepare the take-up of data from Sentinels 3. In the initial phase, LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution sea surface heights, wave heights and wind speeds from SAR mode data. Over land, the LOTUS will develop...... potential of the new data source, new methods and processing chains need to be developed. Also, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved along-track resolution over both the oceans and over land. Then new operational processing, validation and delivery mechanisms need...... processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow water equivalents. This presentation show some preliminary results based on analyses using CRYOSAT data. Furthermore, new DEMO data sets are presented. These data sets facilitate the development of marine...

  7. PROCESS VARIABLES OPTIMIZATION FOR PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL ADSORBENT FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, powdered activated carbon (PAC was produced from agricultural waste biomass of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. core or stalk, and the process variables were optimized by applying central composite design (CCD. The influences of carbonization temperature, duration of activation, and impregnation ratio on removal percentage of copper Cu(II ions from aqueous solution and carbon yield were investigated. A quadratic model for adsorption percentage and a 2FI model for carbon yield were developed. The models were used to determine optimum process variables for production of activated carbon from the woody core of kenaf. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the most significant factor on each response of adsorption capacity and yield were identified. An activation temperature of (568±1°C, activation time of 2.02 hours, and impregnation ratio of 1.75 were found as optimum production conditions. The experimental results showed excellent agreement with the predicted results obtained from a designed experiment that included the variables and responses of sorption capacity and yield. Textural properties of the prepared activated carbons were determined. The performance of the prepared activated carbon was further evaluated by fitting the equilibrium data with regression equations of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models at different temperatures. The research concluded that the prepared sorbent has good potential to remove Cu (II ions from waste water.

  8. Differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs switch cost (SC and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 minus repeat 5, and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching.

  9. Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on Chitosan Microparticles Prepared by an Emulsion Crosslinking Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lidia B; Avalos, Abraham; Chiaia, Nicholas; Nadarajah, Arunan

    2017-05-01

    There are many studies about the synthesis of chitosan microparticles; however, most of them have very low production rate, have wide size distribution, are difficult to reproduce, and use harsh crosslinking agents. Uniform microparticles are necessary to obtain repeatable drug release behavior. The main focus of this investigation was to study the effect of the process and formulation parameters during the preparation of chitosan microparticles in order to produce particles with narrow size distribution. The technique evaluated during this study was emulsion crosslinking technique. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable material but lacks good mechanical properties; for that reason, chitosan was ionically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) at three different ratios (32, 64, and 100%). The model drug used was acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). During the preparation of the microparticles, chitosan was first mixed with ASA and then dispersed in oil containing an emulsifier. The evaporation of the solvents hardened the hydrophilic droplets forming microparticles with spherical shape. The process and formulation parameters were varied, and the microparticles were characterized by their morphology, particle size, drug loading efficiency, and drug release behavior. The higher drug loading efficiency was achieved by using 32% mass ratio of TPP to chitosan. The average microparticle size was 18.7 μm. The optimum formulation conditions to prepare uniform spherical microparticles were determined and represented by a region in a triangular phase diagram. The drug release analyses were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and were mainly completed at 24 h.

  10. Rheological, Colour and Processing Properties of Polypropylene Masterbatches for Nanocomposite Fibre Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Krivoš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Asia’s current dominance of the global production of standard types of chemical fibres requires the sophistication of European fibre and textile products. Modifying the mass or surface of materials using nanotechnologies is one of the most promising ways to ensure the special, mono- and multi-functionally modified fibre properties of clothing and technical textiles. The permanent antimicrobial treatment of fibre mass represents one the most desired functional modifi cations of chemical fibres. It involves the use of an antimicrobial additive masterbatch with the appropriate rheological, colour and processing properties required for the preparation of antimicrobial modified fibres. This article presents the results of our study of the effect of two types of nanoadditives (nanosilica and nanocalcium carbonate as potential carriers of an AMB active ingredient, and the effect of stearic acid, polyethylene glycol and propylene oxide as various dispersing systems on the rheological, colour and processing properties of polypropylene nanoadditive masterbatches. The obtained experimental results are evaluated in terms of the suitability of the properties of prepared nanoadditive masterbatches for the preparation of nanocomposite polypropylene fibres.

  11. A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process for preparation of partially stabilized zirconia nanopowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process was developed to prepare 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 nanopowder from zirconium oxychloride and without need for washing of the obtained particles. It was shown that highly dispersive nanometer-scale zirconia powder with the particle size of 15–25 nm and BET surface area of 41.2 m2/g can be prepared. The sintering behaviour was also investigated. Density of the translucent body sintered at 1400 °C is 98.7 ± 0.3% of its theoretical density and the surface and cross section areas are dense without holes or other defects. The bending strength of the sintered sample is 928 ± 64 MPa.

  12. Studies on hydrogen separation membrane for IS process. Membrane preparation with porous α-alumina tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated the preparation technique of hydrogen separation membrane to enhance the decomposition ratio of hydrogen iodide in the thermochemical IS process. Hydrogen separation membranes based on porous α-alumina tubes having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source. In the hydrogen separation membrane, its pore was closed by the deposited silica and then the permeation of gas was affected by the hindrance diffusion. At 600degC, the selectivity ratios (H 2 /N 2 ) were 5.2 and 160 for the membranes based on porous α-alumina tube having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. (author)

  13. Characterization of composites prepared by sol-gel process through positrons lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Edesia M.B. de; Magalhaes, Welligton F. de; Mohallem, Nelcy D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Si O 2 matrix were prepared by sol-gel method using TEOS, ethanol and H 2 O in a 1/3/10 mol ratio, with HCl and HF as catalysts. This silica gels were doped with copper and titanium adding Cu Cl and titanium tetra-iso-prop oxide in the starting solution, during agitation. The samples were prepared in monolithic shape, were dried at 110 deg C for 24 hours and thermally treated for 2 hours at 500, 900 and 1100 deg C. The structural evolution was studied y x-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry and pycnometry. In this work, it was also used the Position Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy which have been used, nowadays, as a microscopic probe in order to investigate the free volume in zeolites, polymers and metallic alloy. All the samples have shown a stable pore structure until 900 deg C and a strong densification process at 1100 deg C. (author)

  14. Impacting student anxiety for the USMLE Step 1 through process-oriented preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Strowd

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized examinations are the key components of medical education. The USMLE Step 1 is the first of these important milestones. Success on this examination requires both content competency and efficient strategies for study and review. Students employ a wide variety of techniques in studying for this examination, with heavy reliance on personal study habits and advice from other students. Nevertheless, few medical curricula formally address these strategies. Methods: In response to student-generated critique at our institution, a five-part seminar series on process-oriented preparation was developed and implemented to address such concerns. The series focused on early guidance and preparation strategies for Step 1 and the many other important challenges in medical school. Emphasis was placed on facilitating conversation and mentorship opportunities between students. Results & Conclusions: A profoundly positive experience was reported by our medical students that included a decreased anxiety level for the Step 1 examination.

  15. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  16. Single step preparation of NdFeB alloy by magnesiothermic reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Vinay Kant; Surendranathana, A.O.; John Berchmans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesiothermic reduction is a new approach to produce the NdFeB alloy on a commercial scale. Similar studies were conducted for the preparation of LaNi 5 and SmCo 5 using magnesium as the reductant. In the present investigation NdFeB Hard magnetic bulk materials were synthesized by metallothermic 'Reduction – Diffusion (R-D) Process' using Magnesium as a reductant. For this process oxide precursors of Nd, Fe and B were blended with flux (LiCl/CaCl 2 ) and Mg chips were sandwiched in alternate layers. Thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase analysis, structure, and elemental composition were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The infrared (IR) spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The morphological features and particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The magnetic behaviour of the alloy was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibratory sample magnetometer (VSM). From these studies it has been concluded that the NdFeB magnetic particles can be prepared using magnesium as the reductant. The process is faster and consumes very less amount of energy for the completion as compared to conventional calciothermic reduction process. Traces of MgO were detected in the alloy which increases the perpendicular anisotropy, thus increasing the coercivity of the material

  17. Enhanced bioavailability of sirolimus via preparation of solid dispersion nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Min-Soo Kim1, Jeong-Soo Kim1, Hee Jun Park1, Won Kyung Cho1,3, Kwang-Ho Cha1,3, Sung-Joo Hwang2,31College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 2College of Pharmacy, 3Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of KoreaBackground: The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble sirolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion of nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent (SAS process.Methods: First, excipients for enhancing the stability and solubility of sirolimus were screened. Second, using the SAS process, solid dispersions of sirolimus-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30 nanoparticles were prepared with or without surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate, Sucroester 15, Gelucire 50/13, and Myrj 52. A mean particle size of approximately 250 nm was obtained for PVP K30-sirolimus nanoparticles. Solid state characterization, kinetic solubility, powder dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in rats.Results: X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that sirolimus existed in an anhydrous amorphous form within a solid dispersion of nanoparticles and that no degradation occurred after SAS processing. The improved supersaturation and dissolution of sirolimus as a solid dispersion of nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced bioavailability of oral sirolimus in rats. With oral administration of a solid dispersion of PVP K30-SLS-sirolimus nanoparticles, the peak concentration and AUC0→12h of sirolimus were increased by approximately 18.3-fold and 15.2-fold, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that preparation of PVP K30-sirolimus-surfactant nanoparticles using the SAS process may be a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of sirolimus

  18. Ultralow-density SiO2 aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Li Qing; Shen Jun; Zhou Bin; Chen Lingyan; Jiang; Weiyang

    1996-01-01

    Low density SiO 2 gels are prepared by a two-step sol-gel process from TEOS. The influence of various solution ratios on the gelation process is investigated. The comparative characterization of gels using different solvent, such as ethanol, acetone and methyl cyanide, is also given. The ultralow-density SiO 2 aerogels with density less than 10 kg/m 3 are prepared by CO 2 supercritical drying technique. The structure difference between SiO 2 aerogels prepared by conventional single-step process and the two-step process is also presented

  19. Acid in perchloroethylene scrubber solutions used in HTGR fuel preparation processes. Analytical chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.

    1979-02-01

    Acids and corrosion products in used perchloroethylene scrubber solutions collected from HTGR fuel preparation processes have been analyzed by several analytical methods to determine the source and possible remedy of the corrosion caused by these solutions. Hydrochloric acid was found to be concentrated on the carbon particles suspended in perchloroethylene. Filtration of carbon from the scrubber solutions removed the acid corrosion source in the process equipment. Corrosion products chemisorbed on the carbon particles were identified. Filtered perchloroethylene from used scrubber solutions contained practically no acid. It is recommended that carbon particles be separated from the scrubber solutions immediately after the scrubbing process to remove the source of acid and that an inhibitor be used to prevent the hydrolysis of perchloroethylene and the formation of acids

  20. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, B; Bastos Fanta, A; Burrows, A; Hellman, A; Wagner, J B; Iandolo, B

    2017-01-16

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance.

  1. LOTUS— Preparing Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Processing for Ocean and Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    methods and processing chains need to be developed. Subsequently, new potential Copernicus products should be developed that utilize the improved alongtrack resolution over both the oceans and over land. The main objective of the LOTUS project is to prepare the scientific and operational use of data from......The Sentinel-3 satellite mission with its SRAL instrumentation contains new features compared to the conventional radar altimeter mission that form the basis for new innovative scientific analyses of both ocean and inland water levels. To utilize the full potential of the new data source, new...... that they will be used for commercial activities. LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution sea surface heights, wave heights and wind speeds from SAR mode data. Over land, the LOTUS will develop processing scheme for extracting high-resolution river and lake heights, soil moisture, and snow...

  2. Process for preparing organoclays for aqueous and polar-organic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing organoclays as thixotropic agents to control the rheology of water-based paints and other aqueous and polar-organic systems. The process relates to treating low-grade clay ores to achieve highly purified organoclays and/or to incorporate surface modifying agents onto the clay by adsorption and/or to produce highly dispersed organoclays without excessive grinding or high shear dispersion. The process involves the treatment of impure, or run-of-mine, clay using an aqueous biphasic extraction system to produce a highly dispersed clay, free of mineral impurities and with modified surface properties brought about by adsorption of the water-soluble polymers used in generating the aqueous biphasic extraction system. This invention purifies the clay to greater than 95%.

  3. [Discussion on research and development of new traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on idea of QbD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Hong, Yan-Long; Xian, Jie-Chen; Du, Ruo-Fei; Zhao, Li-Jie; Shen, Lan

    2014-09-01

    Traditional processes are mostly adopted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation production and the quality of products is mostly controlled by terminal. Potential problems of the production in the process are unpredictable and is relied on experience in most cases. Therefore, it is hard to find the key points affecting the preparation process and quality control. A pattern of research and development of traditional Chinese medicine preparation process based on the idea of Quality by Design (QbD) was proposed after introducing the latest research achievement. Basic theories of micromeritics and rheology were used to characterize the physical property of TCM raw material. TCM preparation process was designed in a more scientific and rational way by studying the correlation among enhancing physical property of raw material, preparation process and product quality of preparation. So factors affecting the quality of TCM production would be found out and problems that might occur in the pilot process could be predicted. It would be a foundation for the R&D and production of TCM preparation as well as support for the "process control" of TCMIs gradually realized in the future.

  4. Microstructure and properties of TiC-high manganese steel cermet prepared by different sintering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi; Lin, Tao, E-mail: lintao@ustb.edu.cn; He, Xinbo; Shao, Huiping; Zheng, Jianshu; Qu, Xuanhui

    2015-11-25

    In the paper, the TiC −50 wt.% high manganese steel cermet was made with different sintering processes including vacuum sintering, hot pressing, microwave sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, porosity and fracture morphology of the samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and wear resistance were investigated for the effect of the sintering processes. The results showed that the core–shell structure was not clearly observed for the TiC particles in microstructures and the high manganese steel matrix is BCC structure. Hot pressing, microwave sintering and SPS are useful processes for densification of the cermet. Nearly full density and higher hardness can be reached by these three processes at a lower sintering temperature and in a shorter sintering time. However, higher TRS can be reached by means of alloying completely in a longer sintering time, for example vacuum sintering. Pre-sintering in a long sintering time at a lower sintering temperature is also useful for improving the TRS. Finally, vacuum sintering is an effective process for producing this composite with the lowest cost in the mass production. - Highlights: • TiC-high manganese steel cermets were prepared by four sintering processes. • The core–shell structure was not clearly observed for the TiC particles in microstructures. • Th high manganese steel matrix is BCC structure instead of FCC structure. • Pre-sintering before microwave sintering is also useful for improving the TRS. • Vacuum sintering can be effective way for prepare this cermet in mass production.

  5. Cavity Processing and Preparation of 650 MHz Elliptical Cell Cavities for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Allan [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Merio, Margherita [Fermilab; Reid, Thomas [Argonne (main); Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The PIP-II project at Fermilab requires fifteen 650 MHz SRF cryomodules as part of the 800 MeV LINAC that will provide a high intensity proton beam to the Fermilab neutrino program. A total of fifty-seven high-performance SRF cavities will populate the cryomodules and will operate in both pulsed and continuous wave modes. These cavities will be processed and prepared for performance testing utilizing adapted cavity processing infrastructure already in place at Fermilab and Argonne. The processing recipes implemented for these structures will incorporate state-of-the art processing and cleaning techniques developed for 1.3 GHz SRF cavities for the ILC, XFEL, and LCLS-II projects. This paper describes the details of the processing recipes and associated chemistry, heat treatment, and cleanroom processes at the Fermilab and Argonne cavity processing facilities. This paper also presents single and multi-cell cavity test results with quality factors above 5·10¹⁰ and accelerating gradients above 30 MV/m.

  6. The preparation of UO2 ceramic microspheres with an advanced process (TGU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhichang; Tang Yaping; Zhang Fuhong

    1994-04-01

    The UO 2 ceramic microspheres are the most important materials in the spherical fuel elements for high temperature reactor (HTR). An advanced process for preparation of UO 2 ceramic microspheres has been developed at Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University. This process known as total gelation process of uranium (TGU), is based on the traditional sol-gel process, external gelation process and internal gelation process of uranium (EGU and IGU), and has been selected as the production process. The result of batch test is described. Accordance with the requirements of quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), the stabilization of operating parameters and product quality is tested., The results on batch test have shown that as well as all of the operated parameters are fixed, then the product quality can be stable as well as the product specification can be met. When the colloidal flow rate and the vibration frequency of nozzle are fixed, the kernel's size is also fixed. When the sintering temperature and time are fixed, the product density is also fixed. When the hydrogen atmosphere is used, the O/U ratio is very near to stoichiometry. The performance and structure of UO 2 ceramic microspheres are also given

  7. Preparation and Characterization of NiMo/Al2O3Catalyst for Hydrocracking Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiyadi Aditya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocracking is a chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting high boiling hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil that operate at high temperature and pressure. Catalyst was used in hydrocracking to reduce temperature and pressure. Hydrocracking catalyst are composed of active components and support. Alumina is widely used in hydrocracking process as catalyst support due to its high surface area, high thermal stability, and low prices. The objective of this research was preparated NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst that used as hydrocracking catalyst. Catalyst was synthesized by wetness impregnation method and simple heating method with various kind of Al2O3. The physicochemical properties of catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD to determine type of crystal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to determine morphology of the catalyst. The NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate exhibited the highest crystallinity of 90.23% and it is clear that MoO3 and NiO crystallites are highly dispersed on the NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst which indicates as the best catalyst. The catalytic activity in hydrocracking process was successfully examined to convert fatty acid into hydrocarbon.

  8. Carbon nanotubes/magnetite hybrids prepared by a facile synthesis process and their magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Ni, Qing-Qing; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu Yaqin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a facile synthesis process is proposed to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotubes/magnetite (MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 ) hybrids. The process involves two steps: (1) water-soluble CNTs are synthesized by one-pot modification using potassium persulfate (KPS) as oxidant. (2) Fe 3 O 4 is assembled along the treated CNTs by employing a facile hydrothermal process with the presence of hydrazine hydrate as the mineralizer. The treated CNTs can be easily dispersed in aqueous solvent. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that several functional groups such as potassium carboxylate (-COOK), carbonyl (-C=O) and hydroxyl (-C-OH) groups are formed on the nanotube surfaces. The MWCNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids are characterized with respect to crystal structure, morphology, element composition and magnetic property by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD and TEM results show that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 20-60 nm were firmly assembled on the nanotube surface. The magnetic property investigation indicated that the CNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior and possess a saturation magnetization of 32.2 emu/g. Further investigation indicates that the size of assembled Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles can be turned by varying experiment factors. Moreover, a probable growth mechanism for the preparation of CNTs/Fe 3 O 4 hybrids was discussed.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of NiMo/Al2O3Catalyst for Hydrocracking Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyadi, Aditya; Guspiani, Gema Adil; Riady, Jeffry; Andreanto, Rikky; Chaiunnisa, Safina Dea; Widayat

    2018-02-01

    Hydrocracking is a chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting high boiling hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil that operate at high temperature and pressure. Catalyst was used in hydrocracking to reduce temperature and pressure. Hydrocracking catalyst are composed of active components and support. Alumina is widely used in hydrocracking process as catalyst support due to its high surface area, high thermal stability, and low prices. The objective of this research was preparated NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst that used as hydrocracking catalyst. Catalyst was synthesized by wetness impregnation method and simple heating method with various kind of Al2O3. The physicochemical properties of catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine type of crystal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine morphology of the catalyst. The NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate exhibited the highest crystallinity of 90.23% and it is clear that MoO3 and NiO crystallites are highly dispersed on the NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst which indicates as the best catalyst. The catalytic activity in hydrocracking process was successfully examined to convert fatty acid into hydrocarbon.

  10. Rupture preparation process controlled by surface roughness on meter-scale laboratory fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Takizawa, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of fault surface roughness on rupture preparation characteristics using meter-scale metagabbro specimens. We repeatedly conducted the experiments with the same pair of rock specimens to make the fault surface rough. We obtained three experimental results under the same experimental conditions (6.7 MPa of normal stress and 0.01 mm/s of loading rate) but at different roughness conditions (smooth, moderately roughened, and heavily roughened). During each experiment, we observed many stick-slip events preceded by precursory slow slip. We investigated when and where slow slip initiated by using the strain gauge data processed by the Kalman filter algorithm. The observed rupture preparation processes on the smooth fault (i.e. the first experiment among the three) showed high repeatability of the spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. Local stress measurements revealed that slow slip initiated around the region where the ratio of shear to normal stress (τ/σ) was the highest as expected from finite element method (FEM) modeling. However, the exact location of slow slip initiation was where τ/σ became locally minimum, probably due to the frictional heterogeneity. In the experiment on the moderately roughened fault, some irregular events were observed, though the basic characteristics of other regular events were similar to those on the smooth fault. Local stress data revealed that the spatiotemporal characteristics of slow slip initiation and the resulting τ/σ drop for irregular events were different from those for regular ones even under similar stress conditions. On the heavily roughened fault, the location of slow slip initiation was not consistent with τ/σ anymore because of the highly heterogeneous static friction on the fault, which also decreased the repeatability of spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. These results suggest that fault surface roughness strongly controls the rupture preparation process

  11. Development of processing procedure preparing for digital computer controlled equipment on modular design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosel'tsev, O.P.; Khrundin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    In order to reduce labour consumption of technological preparation of production for digital computer controlled machines during the treatment of steam turbines articles created is a system of modular design of technological processes and controlling programs. A set of typical modulas-transitions, being a number of surfaces of an articles treated with one cutting tool in optimum sequence, and a library of cutting tools are the base of the system. Introduction of such a system sharply enhaneces the efficiency of the equipment utilization [ru

  12. Properties of Ag nanoparticles prepared by modified Tollens' process with the use of different saccharide types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalcová, Alena; Machado, Larissa; Marek, Ivo; Martinec, Marek; Sluková, Marcela; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are well known for their catalytic and antimicrobial properties. In their production, the modified Tollens' process using saccharides as reduction agents is very popular. In this paper, the possibility of silver nanoparticles reduction by fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, maltose, lactose and saccharose is shown. The size of successfully prepared nanoparticles was 16-70 nm depending on the saccharide type. The influence of NaOH and NH3 presence in reaction mixture on size of nanoparticles was described. Surprisingly good results were obtained using saccharose that is, however, known as non-reducing disaccharide.

  13. The Impact of the Delivery of Prepared Power Point Presentations on the Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Marmienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of the preparation and delivery of Power Point presentations and how it can be used by teachers as a resource for classroom teaching. The advantages of this classroom activity covering some of the problems and providing a few suggestions for dealing with those difficulties are also outlined. The major objective of the present paper is to investigate the students ability to choose the material and the content of Power Point presentations on professional topics via the Internet as well as the ability to prepare and deliver the presentation in front of the audience. The factors which determine the choice of the presentation subject are also analysed in this paper. After the delivery students were requested to self- and peer-assess the difficulties they faced in preparation and performance of the presentations by writing the reports. Learners’ attitudes to the choice of the topic of Power Point presentations were surveyed by administering a self-assessment questionnaire.

  14. Preparation and properties of the magnetic absorbent polymer via the chemical transformation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengyu, E-mail: liusytyut@sina.com [Department of Mineral Processing, College of Mining Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of In-situ Property-improving Mining of Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Suhong, E-mail: zhangsh04@sina.com [Department of Mineral Processing, College of Mining Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Jianying; Wen, Jing; Qiao, Yan [Department of Mineral Processing, College of Mining Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Magnetic polyacrylic acid sodium polymer (MPAAS) was prepared by chemical transformation method. Key parameters were investigated in the synthesis process of the magnetic polymer and an optimum preparation condition was gained. The structure of the magnetic polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrosocopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Magnetic property of the magnetic polymer was measured by the magnet and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Both the swelling ratio and kinetics and the water retention ratio and kinetics were investigated. Based on the results, it can be gained that both swelling rate and equilibrium swelling rate were lowered after magnetization while the water retention ability of the magnetic polymer is stronger than that of the polymer. - Highlights: • The preparation mechanism of the magnetic polymer was proposed. • The magnetic property of the magnetic polymer was related to reaction conditions. • Swelling ratio and kinetics of polymer and magnetic polymer were studied. • Water retention ratio and kinetics of polymer and magnetic polymer were studied.

  15. Preparation and properties of the magnetic absorbent polymer via the chemical transformation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengyu; Zhang, Suhong; Guo, Jianying; Wen, Jing; Qiao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic polyacrylic acid sodium polymer (MPAAS) was prepared by chemical transformation method. Key parameters were investigated in the synthesis process of the magnetic polymer and an optimum preparation condition was gained. The structure of the magnetic polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrosocopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Magnetic property of the magnetic polymer was measured by the magnet and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Both the swelling ratio and kinetics and the water retention ratio and kinetics were investigated. Based on the results, it can be gained that both swelling rate and equilibrium swelling rate were lowered after magnetization while the water retention ability of the magnetic polymer is stronger than that of the polymer. - Highlights: • The preparation mechanism of the magnetic polymer was proposed. • The magnetic property of the magnetic polymer was related to reaction conditions. • Swelling ratio and kinetics of polymer and magnetic polymer were studied. • Water retention ratio and kinetics of polymer and magnetic polymer were studied.

  16. Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mauthner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients’ thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients’ medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons’ heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians’ knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients’ experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers.

  17. Emission properties of Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by mechanochemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Nurul Syahidah; Yahya, Ahmad Kamal [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor 40450 (Malaysia); Talari, Mahesh Kumar, E-mail: talari@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor 40450 (Malaysia)

    2012-07-15

    Mechanochemical processing was reported to introduce lot of crystal defects which can significantly influence emission properties. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on effect of mechanochemical processing on emission properties of transition metal ion doped ZnO. In this study, Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles with different Mn content (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1) were prepared by mechanochemical processing to study the effect of Mn doping and processing on emission properties. Confirmation of nanoparticles size and nanocrystalline nature of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure is carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), respectively. The samples were also characterized using Fluorescence Spectroscope before and after heat-treatment. The emission studies revealed that blue emission intensity is stronger compared to UV and green emission in contrast to the earlier reports, where other synthesis routes were employed for the ZnO nanoparticles' preparation. The blue emission originates from the zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects, which indicate that the mechanochemical route resulted in more interstitial defects compared to oxygen substitution (O{sub Zn}) and oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) defects which otherwise would give green emission. Mn doping resulted in shifting of near-band-edge (NBE) emission and the reduction in the intensities of NBE, blue and green emissions. The initial red shift at lower Mn content could be due to s-d and p-d exchange interactions as well as band tailing effect where as the blue shift at higher Mn content can be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The reduction in emission intensity could be due to non-radiative recombination processes promoted by Mn ions with increasing Mn content. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles were prepared by mechanochemical

  18. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  19. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2018-04-16

    Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes) might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  20. A one bath chemo-enzymatic process for preparation of absorbent cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Raja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the raw material for preparation of absorbent cotton. Raw cotton has to be subjected to scouring and bleaching processes for making it absorbent by removing the naturally present wax, protein and minerals in the fibre. The scouring is done at 115 °C using alkali followed by bleaching at boiling condition using alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The effluent coming out of such processes contains high COD and BOD values. Due to the stringent environmental regulation and great awareness among the public about environment, worldwide attempts have been made to develop green and sustainable chemical processing of materials. Based on the above, in the present study efforts have been made to develop an eco-friendly one bath preparatory process for the production of absorbent cotton using chemo-enzymatic formulation. The result indicated that absorbent cotton produced using the developed process fulfilled the required performance properties as per pharmacopoeia in comparable with the conventional process made one.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Tripterygium wilfordii Multi-Glycoside Nanoparticle Using Supercritical Anti-Solvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare nanosized Tripterygium wilfordii multi-glycoside (GTW powders by the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process (SAS, and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. Ethanol was used as solvent and carbon dioxide was used as an antisolvent. The effects of process parameters such as precipitation pressure (15–35 MPa, precipitation temperature (45–65 °C, drug solution flow rates (3–7 mL/min and drug concentrations (10–30 mg/mL were investigated. The nanospheres obtained with mean diameters ranged from 77.5 to 131.8 nm. The processed and unprocessed GTW were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the GTW nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. The processed and unprocessed GTW were tested against Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW nanoparticles could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction using supercritical antisolvent (SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW.

  2. Qualitative dosimetric system for radiation processing. Technology for pilot scale preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraru, R.

    1998-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice for radiation processing requires a very strictly tracking of the processed products. A method of labelling and identification of the irradiated and nonirradiated products is required. The qualitative dosimetric system provides a fast method for monitoring the product flow. Such dosimeters are attached on each product box, usually as labels, and offer a YES/NO information about the passing of products through the radiation field. Usually, this information consists in a change of colour. The qualitative dosimetric system that we realised is based on the degradation of polyvinylchloride (PVC) under radiation field. An amount of hydrochloric acid is released in this reaction. A pH indicator, included in the system, changes its colour at different absorbed dose. The changes of colour happened in a certain pH interval called turning range. We used as pH indicator the RED CONGO colorant with turning range of pH = 3 to 5 (from blue to red). A schematic view of the qualitative dosimeter is given. The initial colour is red and it continuously changes to brown, at 1 kGy absorbed dose, and to blue-green, for 5-100 kGy. The main features of this qualitative dosimetric system are: - Quick and easy to read information about product passing through radiation field; - Absorbed dose range, 1-300 kGy; - Independence of absorbed dose rate in the interval 5-100 kGy/h; - Stability, 3 year in the dark and 1 year in sun light; - Good reproducibility. The preparation technology consists in the following steps: 1. Preparation of the solutions: a) PVC in cyclohexanone solution b) RED CONGO in water solution; 2. Preparation of the system support consisting in dropping the PVC solution on adhesive labels; 3. Sample preparation consists in dropping the colorant solution on the system support; 4. Batch trial tests. The trial test was performed at IETI 10000 irradiation plant belonging to IFIN-HH and the reference absorbed dose was determined by Fricke dosimetry. The

  3. Preparation of functional composite materials based on chemically derived graphene using solution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M; Hyun, W J; Mun, S C; Park, O O

    2015-01-01

    Chemically derived graphenes were assembled into functional composite materials using solution process from stable solvent dispersion. We have developed foldable electronic circuits on paper substrates using vacuum filtration of graphene nanoplates dispersion and a selective transfer process without need for special equipment. The electronic circuits on paper substrates revealed only a small change in conductance under various folding angles and maintained an electronic path after repetitive folding and unfolding. We also prepared flexible. binder-free graphene paper-like materials by addition of graphene oxide as a film stabilizer. This graphene papers showed outstanding electrical conductivity up to 26,000 S/m and high charge capacity as an anode in lithium-ion battery without any post-treatments. For last case, multi-functional thin film structures of graphene nanoplates were fabricated by using layer-by-layer assembly technique, showing optical transparency, electrical conductivity and enhanced gas barrier property. (paper)

  4. RBS and NRA of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Huerta, L.; Pineda, J.C.; Zavala, E.P.; Barrera, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Vargas, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study of cobalt oxide thin films produced by the sol-gel process on aluminum and glass substrates. These films have been analyzed using two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a) a standard RBS 4 He 2 MeV and b) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using a 1 MeV deuterium beam. The 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C nuclear reaction provides information that carbon is incorporated into the film structure, which could be associated to the sinterization film process. Other film measurements such as optical properties, XRD, and SEM were performed in order to complement the IBA analysis. The results show that cobalt oxide film coatings prepared by this technique have good optical properties as solar absorbers and potential uses in solar energy applications

  5. Facile preparation of self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 surface by electrochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Hiraga, Takuya; Zhu, Chunyu; Tsuji, Etsushi; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-11-01

    Herein we report simple electrochemical processes to fabricate a self-healing superhydrophobic CeO2 coating on Type 304 stainless steel. The CeO2 surface anodically deposited on flat stainless steel surface is hydrophilic, although high temperature-sintered and sputter-deposited CeO2 surface was reported to be hydrophobic. The anodically deposited hydrophilic CeO2 surface is transformed to hydrophobic during air exposure. Specific accumulation of contaminant hydrocarbon on the CeO2 surface is responsible for the transformation to hydrophobic state. The deposition of CeO2 on hierarchically rough stainless steel surface produces superhydrophobic CeO2 surface, which also shows self-healing ability; the surface changes to superhydrophilic after oxygen plasma treatment but superhydrophobic state is recovered repeatedly by air exposure. This work provides a facile method for preparing a self-healing superhydrophobic surface using practical electrochemical processes.

  6. Characterization of Ni ferrites powders prepared by plasma arc discharge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gheisari, Kh., E-mail: khgheisari@scu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farbod, M. [Physics Department, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a single-phase spinel structure from a mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders by plasma arc discharge method. A mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders with the appropriate molar ratio was prepared and formed into a cylindrical shape. The synthesis process was performed in air, oxygen and argon atmospheres with the applied arc current of 400 A and pressure of 1 atm. After establishing an arc between the electrodes, the produced powders were collected and their structure and magnetic properties were examined by XRD and VSM, respectively. ZnO as an impurity was appeared in the as-produced powders owing to the high reactivity of zinc atoms, preventing the formation of Ni–Zn ferrite. A pure spinel structure with the highest saturation magnetization (43.8 emu/g) was observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture. Morphological evaluations using field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that the mean size of fabricated nanoparticles was in the range 100–200 nm and was dependent on the production conditions. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Ni ferrite powders are prepared by plasma arc discharge process. • The mean particle size of the as-synthesized ceramic powders is about 100 nm. • The highest saturation magnetization is observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture.

  7. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Bryan M; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health.

  8. [Improvement of medical processes with Six Sigma - practicable zero-defect quality in preparation for surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobottka, Stephan B; Töpfer, Armin; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria; Schackert, Gabriele; Albrecht, D Michael

    2010-01-01

    Six Sigma is an innovative management- approach to reach practicable zero- defect quality in medical service processes. The Six Sigma principle utilizes strategies, which are based on quantitative measurements and which seek to optimize processes, limit deviations or dispersion from the target process. Hence, Six Sigma aims to eliminate errors or quality problems of all kinds. A pilot project to optimize the preparation for neurosurgery could now show that the Six Sigma method enhanced patient safety in medical care, while at the same time disturbances in the hospital processes and failure costs could be avoided. All six defined safety relevant quality indicators were significantly improved by changes in the workflow by using a standardized process- and patient- oriented approach. Certain defined quality standards such as a 100% complete surgical preparation at start of surgery and the required initial contact of the surgeon with the patient/ surgical record on the eve of surgery could be fulfilled within the range of practical zero- defect quality. Likewise, the degree of completion of the surgical record by 4 p.m. on the eve of surgery and their quality could be improved by a factor of 170 and 16, respectively, at sigma values of 4.43 and 4.38. The other two safety quality indicators "non-communicated changes in the OR- schedule" and the "completeness of the OR- schedule by 12:30 a.m. on the day before surgery" also show an impressive improvement by a factor of 2.8 and 7.7, respectively, corresponding with sigma values of 3.34 and 3.51. The results of this pilot project demonstrate that the Six Sigma method is eminently suitable for improving quality of medical processes. In our experience this methodology is suitable, even for complex clinical processes with a variety of stakeholders. In particular, in processes in which patient safety plays a key role, the objective of achieving a zero- defect quality is reasonable and should definitely be aspirated. Copyright

  9. Effects of Two Different Pozole Preparation Processes on Quality Variables and Pasting Properties of Processed Maize Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gricelda Vázquez-Carrillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two different pozole preparation processes, traditional (TP and industrial (IP, on quality variables, chemical composition, and pasting properties of processed grain of nine maize landraces were evaluated. Nixtamalization and steeping time in TP (~15 h allowed more water absorption resulting in higher moisture content as well as softer debranned nixtamal relative to the debranned nixtamal produced by IP (52 min. Steeping in TP and bleaching in IP increased the pasting temperature, peak viscosity, and time to peak viscosity of maize starch. Flowering time was shorter in IP (120 min and was significantly affected by the hardness of debranned nixtamal and bleached precooked grains. Total dry matter loss was higher in IP (>10.5% than in TP (<5.0%, mainly due to the complete elimination of pedicel and pericarp by the Ca(OH2 + NaOH solution during cooking. Soft grains, with low test weight, a high proportion of floury endosperm, and high peak viscosity, are required to obtain higher yield of bleached precooked grains and soft flowered grains in both processes.

  10. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC 11: SPC & Graphs. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills in working with line graphs and teaching…

  11. Excellent electrochemical performance of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids prepared using a microwave spark assistance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple synthesis route is explored in preparing graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids using cost effective microwave radiation process. ► Electrochemical performance of the synthesized graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids have been compared with graphite and silver nanoparticle based anode materials. ► Graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrid exhibits stable charge/discharge characteristics of 714 mAh g −1 and it is significantly higher compared to natural graphite and silver based electrodes. - Abstract: A simple method is described for the synthesis of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids from graphite and silver precursors using microwave spark ignition process. Adding ecofriendly free radical initiators, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide solution leads to the expansion of graphite to graphene nanosheets. Simultaneously, silver ions intercalated between the graphene layers are reduced to silver nanocrystals leading to the development of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies reveal the successful formation of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the silver nanoparticles formed on the graphene surfaces are face centered cubic crystals. The surface composition and functional groups present on the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids are corroborated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The lithium storage capacity of the synthesized material, when used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries is investigated. Its first specific discharge capacity is observed to be 580 mAh g −1 and this has been increased to 827 mAh g −1 , by incorporating the silver nanoparticles between the graphene platelets. The reversible capacity of the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids is observed to be 714 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher compared to that of graphene (420 mAh g −1

  12. Preparation of biodiesel from waste cooking oil via two-step catalyzed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Liu Pengzhan; Ou Shiyi; Zhang Zhisen

    2007-01-01

    Waste cooking oils (WCO), which contain large amounts of free fatty acids produced in restaurants, are collected by the environmental protection agency in the main cities of China and should be disposed in a suitable way. In this research, a two step catalyzed process was adopted to prepare biodiesel from waste cooking oil whose acid value was 75.92 ± 0.036 mgKOH/g. The free fatty acids of WCO were esterified with methanol catalyzed by ferric sulfate in the first step, and the triglycerides (TGs) in WCO were transesterified with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide in the second step. The results showed that ferric sulfate had high activity to catalyze the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) with methanol, The conversion rate of FFA reached 97.22% when 2 wt% of ferric sulfate was added to the reaction system containing methanol to TG in10:1 (mole ratio) composition and reacted at 95 deg. C for 4 h. The methanol was vacuum evaporated, and transesterification of the remained triglycerides was performed at 65 deg. C for 1 h in a reaction system containing 1 wt% of potassium hydroxide and 6:1 mole ratio of methanol to TG. The final product with 97.02% of biodiesel, obtained after the two step catalyzed process, was analyzed by gas chromatography. This new process has many advantages compared with the old processes, such as no acidic waste water, high efficiency, low equipment cost and easy recovery of the catalyst

  13. Delphi's DETOXSM process: Preparing to treat high organic content hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Goldblatt, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center is sponsoring a full-scale technology demonstration of Delphi Research, Inc.'s patented DETOX SM catalytic wet chemical oxidation waste treatment process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The process is being developed primarily to treat hazardous and mixed wastes within the DOE complex as an alternative to incineration, but it has significant potential to treat wastes in the commercial sector. The results of the demonstration will be intensively studied and used to validate the technology. A critical objective in preparing for the demonstration was the successful completion of a programmatic Operational Readiness Review. Readiness Reviews are required by DOE for all new process startups. The Readiness Review provided the vehicle to ensure that Delphi was ready to start up and operate the DETOX SM process in the safest manner possible by implementing industry accepted management practices for safe operation. This paper provides an overview of the DETOX SM demonstration at SRS, and describes the crucial areas of the Readiness Review that marked the first steps in Delphi's transition from a technology developer to an operating waste treatment services provider

  14. Process Development in the Preparation and Characterization of Silicon Alkoxide From Rice Husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Win; Toe Shein; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The preparation and characterization of silicon alkoxide (silicon isopropoxide) from rice husk char has been studied. In the investigation, four kinds of Myanmar paddies were chemically assayed. Analyses showed the silicon contend varies from 73-92% . Based on the silicon content, the process development in the production of silicon isopropoxide was carried out. In the process development, silicon isopropoxide with a yield of 44.21% was achieved by the direct reaction of isopropanol in situ by silicon tetrachloride, which was directly produced by the chlorination of rice husk char at the high temperature range of 900-1100 C. The novelity of the process was that, silicon isopropoxide was achieved in situ and not by using the old process, where generally isopropanol was reacted with silicon tetrachloride. The physiochemical properties of silicon isopropoxide was confirmed by conventional and modern techniques. In the investigation, the starting materials, silica in the reaction products were characterized, identified and confirmed by modren techniques. Silicon isopropoxide can be a sources of pore silica whereby silicon of 97-99% of purity can be achieved.

  15. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of a thin polysulfone phosphor sheet for the detection of alpha particles using adhesive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B. K.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H.; Chang, U. S.; Oh, W. Z.; Lee, K. W.; Han, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to atomic energy law and connection regs, the surface contamination of nuclear facilities should be monitored routinely. Surface contamination is divided into removable and fixed contamination. Fixed contamination is measured by a direct method with a survey meter. And removable contamination is measured by an indirect method using smear paper and a low background proportional counter. Also, in the decommissioning process of a nuclear research facilities, such as Korean Research Reactor 1 and 2 and Uranium Conversion Plant, a significant amount of nuclear wastes is produced. The wastes contaminated must be surveyed for the disposal and reuse in the future. In the previous study the medium, scintillatorembedded polymer membrane for detecting the alpharay, was prepared by impregnating organic scintillators in a membrane structure. The plastic scintillator consists of polysulfone(PSF) as a matrix with PPO as an organic scintillator and POPOP as a wave shifting agent dissolved in the matrix. But, an organic plastic scintillator was inadequate to detect the alpha particle in the alpha-beta mixing field because its light output is smaller than beta ray one. So, a thin phosphor sheet was prepared, which consisted of a very uniform deposit of silver activated zinc sulfide (ZnS(Ag)) phosphor applied to on side of clear polysulfone plastic sheet

  17. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas; Nele, M., E-mail: nele@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2013-10-15

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  18. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of additives on microstructures of titanate based nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keijiro; Onoki, Takamasa; Nakahira, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    Silica-containing TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes were prepared by the addition of a small amount of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes prepared by the hydrothermal process and a subsequent heat-treatment at 473 K in air. The microstructure and thermal behavior of synthesized silica containing TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes were investigated by various methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAF), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a result, the addition of a small amount of TEOS leaded to the improvement of the thermal stability for TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes. XPS results revealed that Si was combined onto the surface of TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes, forming partial Si-O-Ti chemical bonds. Therefore, it was inferred that the thermal stability could be modified by forming partial Si-O-Ti chemical bonds at interface of silica and TiO 2 -derived titanate nanotubes. (author)

  20. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Weng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  2. Spray-coating process in preparing PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaowei

    2014-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of a liquid-floated rotor micro-gyroscope, the resistance of the moving interface between the rotor and the floating liquid must be reduced. Hydrophobic treatment can reduce the frictional resistance between such interfaces, therefore we proposed a method to prepare a poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-poly-phenylene sulphide (PPS) composite super-hydrophobic coating, based on a spraying process. This method can quickly prepare a continuous, uniform PTFE-PPS composite super-hydrophobic surface on a 2J85 material. This method can be divided into three steps, namely: pre-treatment; chemical etching; and spraying. The total time for this is around three hours. When the PTFE concentration is 4%, the average contact angle of the hydrophobic coating surface is 158°. If silicon dioxide nanoparticles are added, this can further improve the adhesion and mechanical strength of the super-hydrophobic composite coating. The maximum average contact angle can reach as high as 164° when the mass fraction of PTFE, PPS and silicon dioxide is 1:1:1.

  3. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  4. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. F. Santos Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components.

  5. Study of processes for the preparation of U3O8 powder for MTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, R.M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Three preparation methods of high-density U 3 O 8 powder have been studied: grinding of sintered U 3 O 8 pellets, sintering of calcined U 3 O 8 granules; and sintering of ammonium diuranate (ADU) granules. Experiments have been carried out varying ADU calcination time and temperature as well as sintering time, yielding ten U 3 O 8 batches. Powder characteristics, granulometric yield, and number of process steps have been taken into account for comparison purposes. Impurity content, specific surface area, stoichiometry, morphology, density, porosity distribution and phase identification have been considered as parameters for powder characterization. The main conclusions show that the second method (following a 600 0 C/3h ADU calcination) gives the best results. Moreover, the third method gives also good results, but there were some difficulties with ADU handling. (author) [pt

  6. Crossfit training in the process of preparation of the motorized athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Byzdra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work describes the impact of crossfit training on the level of motor skills of athletes, practicing individual and team disciplines. In the first chapter, I analyzed the progress of each component of human efficiency. I presented how you can use them in your sport. The next chapter contains a description of the use of specific crossfit training exercises in the process of motor preparation of athletes and their impact on the achieved sports results. Also i have included  a chapter on the possibilities of self-accelerating regeneration after training and optimization of the biomechanical conditions of the athlete's body, which gives mobility training. The third chapter contains information about programming and periodisation of trainings, taking into account the individual needs of the athlete and the part of the season in which I am currently. The applications are full of concise information about the benefits of this training, but also about the possible dangers of its practice.

  7. Preparation of flexible and heat-resisting conductive transparent film by the pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Hisanao; Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Suzuki, Eiji; Fujimatsu, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigeo; Tsugita, Kouhei; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A pyrosol process was successfully applied for the preparation of a flexible, conductive, and transparent inorganic film, a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film lined with a thin mica layer. This flexible heat-resistant ITO-mica film exhibited high conductivity and transparency, comparable to ITO deposited on glass substrate. The minimum radius of bending for the film, without any recognizable change in the conductivity and appearance, was 8 mm. The ITO deposited on mica showed a large (222) diffraction peak with a smaller (400) peak, in contrast to ITO deposited with (400) orientation on an ordinary glass substrate. Using the ITO-mica film, a prototype model of a flexible organic light emitting diode was fabricated

  8. Nuclear energy as culture: a practical process for preparation of the agents responsible for that transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Soares, Wellington Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil research and development are supported mainly by the government, meaning it is public money So it is important to share the knowledge and benefits from the research with the society. Another important question is the scientific analphabetism that raise difficulties for the comprehension of science and technology related matters. One way to improve the understanding process is the creation of workshops for science popularization which presented outstanding results. Participants of a workshop held by the Nuclear Technology Development Center CDTN - BH evaluated with grade 8.8 (from zero to ten) evincing the excellence of the applied model, simple in its essence: a group comprising scientific researchers, journalists and high school teachers attended several specific talks and was asked to prepare material for science divulgation according to the presented criteria. (author)

  9. Uranium recovery from the concentrated phosphoric acid prepared by the hemi-hydrate process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, E A; Mahdy, M A; Bakr, M Y [Nuclear materials authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Zatout, A A [Faculty of engineering, Alex. university, Alex, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    It has been proved that the uranium dissolution from El-sebaiya phosphate ore was possible by using 10 Kg of K Cl O{sub 4}/ ton rock during the preparation of high strength phosphoric acid using the hemi hydrate process. In the present work, effective extraction of uranium (about 90%) from the high strength phosphoric acid using a new synergistic solvent mixture of 0.75 M D 2 EHPA/0.1 M TOHPO had been a success. Stripping of uranium from the organic phase was possible by 10 M phosphoric acid while the direct precipitation of uranium concentrate from the later was feasible by using N H{sub 4} F in presence of acetone. 8 figs.

  10. Uranium recovery from the concentrated phosphoric acid prepared by the hemi-hydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, E.A.; Mahdy, M.A.; Bakr, M.Y.; Zatout, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proved that the uranium dissolution from El-sebaiya phosphate ore was possible by using 10 Kg of K Cl O 4 / ton rock during the preparation of high strength phosphoric acid using the hemi hydrate process. In the present work, effective extraction of uranium (about 90%) from the high strength phosphoric acid using a new synergistic solvent mixture of 0.75 M D 2 EHPA/0.1 M TOHPO had been a success. Stripping of uranium from the organic phase was possible by 10 M phosphoric acid while the direct precipitation of uranium concentrate from the later was feasible by using N H 4 F in presence of acetone. 8 figs

  11. Preparation and Characterization of PLA-Starch Biodegradable Composites Via Radiation Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemvichian, K.; Suwanmala, P. [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) (Thailand); Kungsumrith, W. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University (TU) (Thailand); Pongprayoon, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-07-01

    This research project aims to apply the use of radiation processing to prepare biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) and cassava starch. Cassava starch, a natural polymer that is inexpensive and abundant, especially in Thailand, will be used as starting material. Functional group of cassava starch will be modified first in order to render starch more compatible with PLA. The monomer with desired functional groups will be grafted onto the backbone of starch via radiation-induced grafting polymerization. Different parameters will be examined to determine the optimum conditions for the grafting polymerization. The modified starch will subsequently be blended with PLA, with and without clay, to form biodegradable composites. In order to further improve the thermal properties, the blends and their composites will be subjected to radiation to induce crosslinking between the molecules of PLA and starch derivatives. (author)

  12. Comprehensive Utilization of Filter Residue from the Preparation Process of Zeolite-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel utilization method of filter residue from the preparation process of zeolite-based catalysts was investigated. Y zeolite and a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst were synthesized from filter residue. Compared to the Y zeolite synthesized by the conventional method, the Y zeolite synthesized from filter residue exhibited better thermal stability. The catalyst possessed wide-pore distribution. In addition, the pore volume, specific surface area, attrition resistance were superior to those of the reference catalyst. The yields of gasoline and light oil increased by 1.93 and 1.48 %, respectively. At the same time, the coke yield decreased by 0.41 %. The catalyst exhibited better gasoline and coke selectivity. The quality of the cracked gasoline had been improved.

  13. Preparing a Health Care White Paper: Providing Structure to the Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Rotarius, Velmarie

    2016-01-01

    Health care leaders operate in a very complex and turbulent business environment. Both government regulations and market forces are very active in the industry. Thus, health care managers have many multifaceted and, sometimes, contradictory expectations placed upon them and their organizations. To ensure professional accountability, health care executives often join professional associations and strive for licenses and certifications that are intended to place the professional above the rest. One important avenue to achieve various licensing and certification accomplishments involves writing a white paper about a specific topic of interest to the industry and organization. Presented herein are structural processes that facilitate the creation and preparation of a health care white paper. Both conceptual and empirical structures of white papers are presented, with the similarities and the differences between conceptual and empirical papers highlighted.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of PLA-Starch Biodegradable Composites Via Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemvichian, K.; Suwanmala, P.; Kungsumrith, W.; Pongprayoon, T.

    2011-01-01

    This research project aims to apply the use of radiation processing to prepare biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) and cassava starch. Cassava starch, a natural polymer that is inexpensive and abundant, especially in Thailand, will be used as starting material. Functional group of cassava starch will be modified first in order to render starch more compatible with PLA. The monomer with desired functional groups will be grafted onto the backbone of starch via radiation-induced grafting polymerization. Different parameters will be examined to determine the optimum conditions for the grafting polymerization. The modified starch will subsequently be blended with PLA, with and without clay, to form biodegradable composites. In order to further improve the thermal properties, the blends and their composites will be subjected to radiation to induce crosslinking between the molecules of PLA and starch derivatives. (author)

  15. Manganese ferrite prepared using reverse micelle process: Structural and magnetic properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mane, M.L. [Department of Physics, S.G.R.G. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Paranda 413502, MS (India); Kumar, Shalendra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Prasad, N.K.; Alla, S.K. [Deptartment of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Mohammed, K.A. [Department of Mathematics & Physics Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa (Oman); Şentürk, Erdoğan [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, Esentepe, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Alimuddin [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by Reverse microemulsion process. • Characterization by XRD, SEM, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and dielectric measurements techniques. • Magnetic properties of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} enhanced after Mn{sup 3+} substitution. • The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increased with Mn{sup 3+} substitution. - Abstract: Reverse microemulsion process was employed to prepare of nanocrystalline Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites. The structural, magnetic and dielectric properties were studied for different concentrations of Mn{sup 3+}. The structural and microstructural properties were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The phase identification of the materials was studied by Rietveld refined XRD patterns which reveals single phase with cubic symmetry for the samples. The lattice parameters were ranged in between 8.369 and 8.379 Å and do not show any significant change with the substitution of Mn{sup 3+}. The average particles size was found to be around 11 ± 3 nm. Magnetization results obtained from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirm that the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite caused an increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution has been analyzed. Magnetic behavior of the samples were also studied at field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) mode. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution was also analyzed. All the magnetic characterization shows that Mn{sup 3+} substitution enhance the magnetic behavior of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles.

  16. Preparation by the nano-casting process of novel porous carbons from large pore zeolite templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F Gaslain; J Parmentier; V Valtchev; J Patarin; C Vix Guterl

    2005-01-01

    The development of new growing industrial applications such as gas storage (e.g.: methane or hydrogen) or electric double-layer capacitors has focussed the attention of many research groups. For this kind of application, porous carbons with finely tailored micro-porosity (i.e.: pore size diameter ≤ 1 nm) appear as very promising materials due to their high surface area and their specific pore size distribution. In order to meet these requirements, attention has been paid towards the feasibility of preparing microporous carbons by the nano-casting process. Since the sizes and shapes of the pores and walls respectively become the walls and pores of the resultant carbons, using templates with different framework topologies leads to various carbon replicas. The works performed with commercially available zeolites employed as templates [1-4] showed that the most promising candidate is the FAU-type zeolite, which is a large zeolite with three-dimensional channel system. The promising results obtained on FAU-type matrices encouraged us to study the microporous carbon formation on large pore zeolites synthesized in our laboratory, such as EMC-1 (International Zeolite Association framework type FAU), zeolite β (BEA) or EMC-2 (EMT). The carbon replicas were prepared following largely the nano-casting method proposed for zeolite Y by the Kyotani research group [4]: either by liquid impregnation of furfuryl alcohol (FA) followed by carbonization or by vapour deposition (CVD) of propylene, or by an association of these two processes. Heat treatment of the mixed materials (zeolite / carbon) could also follow in order to improve the structural ordering of the carbon. After removal of the inorganic template by an acidic treatment, the carbon materials obtained were characterised by several analytical techniques (XRD, N 2 and CO 2 adsorption, electron microscopy, etc...). The unique characteristics of these carbons are discussed in details in this paper and compared to those

  17. The effect of mastication on human motor preparation processing: a study with CNV and MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Honda, Yukiko; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2009-07-01

    To clarify the effect of mastication on motor preparation processing using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the effect of mastication on contingent negative variation (CNV) and reaction time (RT) in Experiment 1, and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) in Experiment 2. The twelve subjects performed four CNV or MRCP sessions, and in the Mastication condition chewed a gum base during the resting period between sessions, Pre (before chewing) and Post 1, 2, and 3 (after chewing). In the Control condition, the subjects performed the same sessions without chewing gum during the intervals between sessions on another day. In Experiment 1, the mean amplitudes of the early- and late-CNV were significantly larger in Mastication than Control at Post 2 and Post 3. RT also differed significantly between Mastication and Control at Post 3. By contrast, in Experiment 2, there were no significant differences between Mastication and Control for the mean amplitudes of MRCPs including Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and negative slope (NS') in any session. These results suggest that mastication influences cognitive processing reflected by CNV with stimulus-triggered movement, rather than motor-related processing reflected by MRCPs relating to self-initiated movement, and provide evidence concerning the mechanisms for the effect of mastication on the human brain.

  18. Preparation of tantalum carbide layers on carbon using the metalliding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Winterton, P. [UFR Langues vivantes, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Taxil, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-03-05

    This work concerns the preparation of tantalum carbide films on carbon-based substrates using the metalliding process in LiF/NaF molten medium (60-40 mol%), containing tantalum heptafluorotantalate ions TaF{sub 7}{sup 2-}, in the 800-900 deg. C temperature range. The process uses a metalliding cell symbolised as: (+) C, TaC{sub x}/LiF-NaF-K{sub 2}TaF{sub 7}/Ta (-) involving the dissolution of Ta at the anode and the reduction of Ta ions in TaC{sub x} at the cathode. The experiments of this process were performed with different carbon substrates as cathodic material: graphite, glassy carbon and carbon braid. Samples analysis (SEM-EDS and XRD) after metalliding showed the formation of tantalum carbides (TaC and Ta{sub 2}C) at the surface of the substrate at a relatively low temperature. A kinetic study, based on the control of the cathodic reaction by the intermetallic diffusion, allowed the diffusion parameters, such as Ta/C diffusion coefficient, to be determined at several temperatures. Furthermore, the results are shown to be independent of the type of carbon substrate.

  19. Erosion/corrosion concerns in feed preparation systems at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, J.T.; Chandler, C.T.; Daugherty, W.L.; Imrich, K.J.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the high level radioactive waste resulting from these processes as a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF, after having undergone extensive testing, has been approved for operations and is currently immobilizing radioactive waste. To ensure reliability of the DWPF remote canyon processing equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed prior to radioactive operations to determine to what extent erosion/corrosion would impact design life of equipment. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections on critical equipment and follow-up inspections after completion of DWPF cold chemical demonstration runs. Non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques were used to assess erosion/corrosion as well as evaluation of corrosion coupon racks. These results were used to arrive at predicted equipment life for selected feed preparation equipment. It was concluded with the exception of the coil and agitator for the slurry mix evaporator (SME), which are exposed to erosive glass frit particles, all of the equipment should meet its design life

  20. System Engineering on the Use for Ares I,V - the Simpler, the Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William; Greene, William D.; Greasley, Paul; Ackerman, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I and Ares V Vehicles will utilize the J-2X rocket engine developed for NASA by the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Company. The J-2X is an improved higher power version of the original J-2 engine used during the Apollo program. With higher power and updated requirements for safety and performance, the J-2X becomes a new engine using state-of-the-art design methodology, materials and manufacturing processes. The implementation of Systems Engineering (SE) principles enables the rapid J-2X development program to remain aligned with the ARES I and V vehicle programs, Meeting the aggressive development schedule is a challenge. Coordinating the best expertise thai NASA and PWR have to offer requires effectively utilizing resources at multiple sites. This presents formidable communication challenges. SE allows honest and open discussions of issues and problems. This simple idea is often overlooked in large and complex SE programs. Regular and effective meetings linking SE objectives to component designs are used to voice differences of opinions with customer and contractor in attendance so that the best mutual decisions can be made on the shortest possible schedule. Regular technical interchange meetings on secure program wide computer networks and CM processes are effective,in the "Controlled Change" process that exemplifies good SE. Good communication is a key effective SE implementation. The System of Systems approach is the vision of the Orion program which facilitates the establishment of dynamic SE processes at all levels including the engine. SE enables requirements evolution by facilitating organizational and process agility. Flow down and distribution of requirements is controlled by Allocation Reports which breakdown numerical design objectives (weight, reliability, etc.) into quanta goals for each component area. Linked databases of design and verification requirements helps eliminate redundancy and potential mistakes inherent m separated systems. Another

  1. Spectral response variation of a negative-electron-affinity photocathode in the preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Du Yujie; Chang Benkang; Yunsheng Qian

    2006-01-01

    In order to research the spectral response variation of a negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode in the preparation process, we have done two experiments on a transmission-type GaAs photocathode.First, an automatic spectral response recording system is described, which is used to take spectral response curves during the activation procedure of the photocathode. By this system, the spectral response curves of a GaAs:Cs-Ophotocathode measured in situ are presented. Then, after the cathode is sealed with a microchannel plate and a fluorescence screen into the image tube, we measure the spectral response of the tube by another measurement instrument. By way of comparing and analyzing these curves, we can find the typical variation in spectral-responses.The reasons for the variation are discussed. Based on these curves, spectral matching factors of a GaAs cathode for green vegetation and rough concrete are calculated. The visual ranges of night-vision goggles under specific circumstances are estimated. The results show that the spectral response of the NEA photocathode degraded in the sealing process, especially at long wavelengths. The variation has also influenced the whole performance of the intensifier tube

  2. Preparation of Curcumin Loaded Egg Albumin Nanoparticles Using Acetone and Optimization of Desolvation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniesrani Delfiya, D S; Thangavel, K; Amirtham, D

    2016-04-01

    In this study, acetone was used as a desolvating agent to prepare the curcumin-loaded egg albumin nanoparticles. Response surface methodology was employed to analyze the influence of process parameters namely concentration (5-15%w/v) and pH (5-7) of egg albumin solution on solubility, curcumin loading and entrapment efficiency, nanoparticles yield and particle size. Optimum processing conditions obtained from response surface analysis were found to be the egg albumin solution concentration of 8.85%w/v and pH of 5. At this optimum condition, the solubility of 33.57%, curcumin loading of 4.125%, curcumin entrapment efficiency of 55.23%, yield of 72.85% and particles size of 232.6 nm were obtained and these values were related to the values which are predicted using polynomial model equations. Thus, the model equations generated for each response was validated and it can be used to predict the response values at any concentration and pH.

  3. Water-resistive humidity sensor prepared by printing process using polyelectrolyte ink derived from new monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2012-03-21

    A simple strategy was developed based on a new monomer containing both photocurable function and ammonium salt, N-(2-cinnamoyloxy)ethyl-N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (CMDAB) to obtain photocurable polyelectrolyte ink and stable humidity-sensitive membranes by printing process. Humidity-sensitive membranes are photocrosslinked polyelectrolytes obtained from copolymers of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl propyl ammonium bromide (MEPAB), CMDAB and MMA. A flexible gold electrode/polyimide was pretreated with 2-(mercaptoethyl) cinnamamide (MEC) containing a thiol-coupling agent for the purpose of anchoring the humidity-sensitive polyelectrolyte to the gold electrode. The sensors using screen printing methods reduced the deflection of sensor characteristics showing humidity precision ±1%RH. The photocured copolymer MEPAB/CMDAB/MMA = 63/7/30 show good sensitivity (0.0586 logΩ/%RH) changing resistance approximately four orders of magnitude with relative humidity varying from 20% to 95% and fast response and recovery time. The resultant sensors showed acceptable linearity (Y = -0.04X + 7.0, R(2) = -0.9900) and small hysteresis. The reliability including water resistance and a long-term stability were estimated for the application of the flexible humidity sensor prepared by screen printing process.

  4. Process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnstroem, L.K.J.

    1981-04-16

    The invention concerns a process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide - containing raw materials. Fermentation, hereby, occurs in one or several fermentors while dividing one stream of the fermentation liquid into a yeast-concentrate stream and a yeast-free stream and, if neccessary, a sludge stream. The yeast-concentrate stream is re-fed into the fermentor and at least part of the yeast-free stream is directed into a simple evaporator corresponding to one or several distilling stages where it is separated partially in an ethanol-enriched initial vapour stream supplying a facility to produce the desired ethanol quality, and partially in a liquid initial bottom stream re-fed at least in part into the fermentor. The characteristic feature of this new process is that a raw-material stream is fed into a closed circuit containing the fermentor and the evaporator, and that, in the evaporator, the raw-material stream is hydrolysed to a fermentable state. This hydrolysis is carried out most favourably by enzymes - preferably a gluco-amylase - at a temperature ranging from 35/sup 0/C to 75/sup 0/C.

  5. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  6. Benefits of trade facilitation as a simpler procedure for world trade growth

    OpenAIRE

    Miteva-Kacarski, Emilija; Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera

    2011-01-01

    “The simplification and harmonisation of international trade procedures” where trade procedures are the “activities, practices and formalities involved in collecting, presenting, communicating and processing data required for the movement of goods in international trade” is trade facilitation according the WTO. Trade facilitation initiatives benefit both the business community and governments. The business community benefits by obtaining enhanced competitiveness in national and international ...

  7. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  8. The taper of cast post preparation measured using innovative image processing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Hyiasat Ahmad S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No documentation in the literature about taper of cast posts. This study was conducted to measure the degree of cast posts taper, and to evaluate its suitability based on the anatomy aspects of the common candidate teeth for post reconstruction. Methods Working casts for cast posts, prepared using Gates Glidden drills, were collected. Impressions of post spaces were made using polyvinyl siloxan putty/wash technique. Digital camera with a 10' high quality lens was used for capturing two digital images for each impression; one in the Facio-Lingual (FL and the other in the Mesio-Distal (MD directions. Automated image processing program was developed to measure the degree of canal taper. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software and One way Analysis of Variance. Results Eighty four dies for cast posts were collected: 16 for each maxillary anterior teeth subgroup, and 18 for each maxillary and mandibular premolar subgroup. Mean of total taper for all preparations was 10.7 degree. There were no statistical differences among the total taper of all groups (P = .256 or between the MD and FL taper for each subgroup. Mean FL taper for the maxillary first premolars was lower significantly (P = .003 than the maxillary FL taper of the second premolars. FL taper was higher than the MD taper in all teeth except the maxillary first premolars. Conclusions Taper produced did not reflect the differences among the anatomy of teeth. While this technique deemed satisfactory in the maxillary anterior teeth, the same could not be said for the maxillary first premolars. Careful attention to the root anatomy is mandatory.

  9. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  10. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Cerium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Chi, Anthony [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    A simple test tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous cerium oxide microspheres via the internal gelation process.1 Broth formulations of cerium ammonium nitrate [(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous cerium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60 to 90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations to be able to equate the test-tube gelation times to actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broth formulations.

  11. Dissolution enhancement of Deflazacort using hollow crystals prepared by antisolvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, A S; Rauber, G; Campos, C E M; Maurício, M H P; de Avillez, R R; Capobianco, G; Cardoso, S G; Cuffini, S L

    2013-05-13

    Deflazacort (DFZ), a derivate of prednisolone, is a poorly soluble drug which has been proposed to have major advantages over other corticosteroids. Poorly soluble drugs present limited bioavailability due to their low solubility and dissolution rate and several strategies have been developed in order to find ways to improve them. In general, pharmaceutical laboratories use a micronized process to reduce the particle size in order to increase the dissolution of the drugs. However, this process causes changes such as polymorphic transitions, particle agglomeration and a reduction in fluidity and wettability. These solid-state properties affect the dissolution behavior and stability performance of drugs. Crystallization techniques are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and antisolvent crystallization has been used to obtain ultrafine particles. In this study, DFZ was investigated in terms of its antisolvent crystallization in different solvents and under various preparation conditions (methanol/water ratio, stirring and evaporation rate, etc.), in order to compare the physicochemical properties between crystallized samples and raw materials available on the Brazilian market with and without micronization. Crystalline structure, morphology, and particle size, and their correlation with the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate (IDR) and dissolution profile as relevant biopharmaceutical properties were studied. Crystallization conditions were achieved which provided crystalline samples of hollow-shaped crystals with internal channels, which increased the dissolution rate of DFZ. The antisolvent crystallization process allowed the formation of hollow crystals, which demonstrated a better dissolution profile than the raw material (crystalline and micronized), making this a promising technique as a crystallization strategy for improving the dissolution and thus the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of waste products prepared from radioactive contaminated clayey soil cemented according to the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Vinther, A.

    1990-11-01

    Radioactive contaminated soil may arise due to accidents of various types or may be detected during decommisioning of nuclear installations. Ordinary surface soil cannot normally be conditioned using conventional cementation processes since the content of humic materials retards or prevents the solidification. An additive available from the Danish firm Geodur A/S makes it possible to circumvent this difficulty and to produce a monolithic, nondusting waste type using rather small amounts of cement. The report describes work on characterization of such a cemented waste product prepared on basis of clayey top soil from the Risoe area. The claimed advantages of the process was verified, and data for the compression strength (low), hydraulic conductivity (satisfactory) and other pore structure-related properties are given for the obtained products. Unfortunately the behaviour of cesium and strontium, representing two of the most relevant radionuclides, was not too promising. The retention of cesium is satisfactory, but less good than for the untreated soil. Greatly improved cesium retention after drying of the materials was noticed. Good retention of strontium is only obtained after reaction of the material with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The behaviour of the two isotopes in other types of cemented waste is somewhat similar, but the decrease in retention compared with untreated soil makes the process less interesting as a possibility for remedial actions after accidents, etc. Some further studies of the cemented soil waste are beeing made within the frame of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Studies. Elements forming low solublity components in the high pH environment in the cemented soil will probably be retained quite efficiently. This was demonstrated in case of Zn. (author) 11 tabs., 22 ills., 8 refs

  13. Process for the impromptu preparation of a radio-iodine-labelled injectable fatty acid and the preparation of iodinated derivatives suitable for the application of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardy, Andre; Comet, Michel; Coornaert, Sabine; Mathieu, J.P.; Riche, Francoise; Vidal, Michel.

    1983-01-01

    The radioiodine-labelled fatty acid is prepared by reaction of a fatty acid, bromated or iodinated in the #betta# position, with an aqueous solution of radioactive iodide at pH 7 in the presence of carrier iodide. The labelled product obtained is suspended in a buffer solution at pH 9 then dissolved in human serum albumin for injection purposes. The iodinated derivatives used as starting products may be obtained by condensation of a bromated fatty acid and an acetylene alcohol [fr

  14. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R., E-mail: chitta@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Mastanaiah, P. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition.

  15. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Sam, Shiju; Mastanaiah, P.; Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Murthy, C.V.S.; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition

  16. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Tachikawa, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Mito, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I c ) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy TM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 . The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I c ), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  17. Microstructure and Properties of Selected Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys Prepared for SPD Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizek L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in wrought magnesium alloys has been noticed recently, mainly due to development of various SPD (severe plastic deformation methods that enable significant refinement of the microstructure and – as a result – improvement of various functional properties of products. However, forming as-cast magnesium alloys with the increased aluminum content at room temperature is almost impossible. Therefore, application of heat treatment before forming or forming at elevated temperature is recommended for these alloys. The paper presents the influence of selected heat treatment conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the as-cast AZ91 alloy. Deformation behaviour of the as-cast AZ61 alloy at elevated temperatures was analysed as well. The microstructure analysis was performed by means of both light microscopy and SEM. The latter one was used also for fracture analysis. Moreover, the effect of chemical composition modification by lithium addition on the microstructure of the AZ31-based alloy is presented. The test results can be helpful in preparation of the magnesium-aluminum alloys for further processing by means of SPD methods.

  18. Characterization of Ni ferrites powders prepared by plasma arc discharge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Gheisari, Kh.; Farbod, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a single-phase spinel structure from a mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders by plasma arc discharge method. A mixture of zinc, iron and nickel powders with the appropriate molar ratio was prepared and formed into a cylindrical shape. The synthesis process was performed in air, oxygen and argon atmospheres with the applied arc current of 400 A and pressure of 1 atm. After establishing an arc between the electrodes, the produced powders were collected and their structure and magnetic properties were examined by XRD and VSM, respectively. ZnO as an impurity was appeared in the as-produced powders owing to the high reactivity of zinc atoms, preventing the formation of Ni-Zn ferrite. A pure spinel structure with the highest saturation magnetization (43.8 emu/g) was observed as zinc powders removed completely from the initial mixture. Morphological evaluations using field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that the mean size of fabricated nanoparticles was in the range 100-200 nm and was dependent on the production conditions.

  19. Mullite fibres preparation by aqueous sol-gel process and activation energy of mullitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Ding Yaping; Yang Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Mullite fibres were prepared by sol-gel process using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and silica sol. ACs was synthesized from dissolving aluminum powder in a mixture of formic acid and oxalic acid using aluminum chloride hexahydrate as catalyst. A molar ratio of 1:2:1 for aluminum, formic acid and oxalic acid was optimized to obtain clear solution and viscous ACs sol for fibres synthesis. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The gel fibres completely transformed to mullite at 1200 o C, with a smooth surface and uniform diameter. The activation energy for mullite formation in precursor gel fibres was determined by means of differential thermal analysis. The value obtained, E a = 741.4 kJ/mol, was lower than most data reported in the literatures, which was attributed to the silica-alumina micro-phase separation when organic acids decomposed during gel fibres heating.

  20. Nanosized Ni-Mn Oxides Prepared by the Citrate Gel Process and Performances for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin ZHOU; Xiangqian SHEN; Maoxiang JING

    2006-01-01

    Nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders have been successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of the Ni-Mn citrate gel precursors. The powder materials derived from calcination of the gel precursors with various molar ratios of nickel and manganese at different temperatures and time were characterized using thermal analysis (TG-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET).The optimized processing conditions of calcination at 400℃ for 1 h with Ni/Mn molar ratio 6 were proved to produce the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide powders with a high specific surface area of 109.62 m2/g and nanometer particle sizes of 15~30 nm. The capacitance characteristics of the nanosized Ni-Mn oxide electrode in various concentrations of KOH solutions were studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and exhibited both a doublelayer capacitance and a Faradaic capacitance which could be attributed to the electrode consisting of Ni-Mn oxides and residual carbons from the organic gel thermal decomposition. A specific capacitance of 194.8 F/g was obtained for the electrode at the sweep rate of 10 mV/s in 4 mol/L KOH electrolyte and the capacitor showed quite high cyclic stability and is promising for advanced electrochemical capacitors.

  1. Phase study of titanium dioxide nanoparticle prepared via sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji Araoyinbo, Alaba; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Aziz, Nurul Nadia Abdul; Iskandar Azmi, Azwan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been prepared via sol-gel process using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst, and ethanol with deionized water as solvents. The value of pH used is set to 3, 7 and 8. The sols obtained were dried at 100 °C for 1 hr and calcined at 350, 550, and 750 °C for 3 hrs to observe the phase transformation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The morphology analysis is obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope. The phase transformation was investigated by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the pH of the solution affect the agglomeration of titanium dioxide particle. The x-ray diffraction pattern of titanium dioxide shows the anatase phase most abundant at temperature of 350 °C. At temperature of 550 °C the anatase and rutile phase were present. At temperature of 750 °C the rutile phase was the most abundant for pH 3, 7 and 8. It was confirmed that at higher temperature the rutile phase which is the stable phase are mostly present.

  2. Molybdenum oxide nanosheets prepared by an anodizing-exfoliation process and observation of photochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjba, M., E-mail: ranjbar@cc.iut.ac.ir; Delalat, F.; Salamati, H.

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Blue molybdenum oxide nanosheets are prepared by a facile anodizing method. • PdCl{sub 2} solution is able to decolorize the nanosheets from blue to colorless. • The colorless colloids show a strong photochromic effect under UV laser irradiation. - Abstract: Anodizing-exfoliation of molybdenum foil was performed in 0.02 M HCl electrolyte at 30 V. In this process, the electrolyte rapidly turned into a blue colloidal solution of molybdenum oxide nanosheets with fragmented edges observed on transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of particles was free of peak while annealing at a temperature range of 100–500 °C led to formation of monoclinic (for T < 300 °C) and orthorhombic (for T > 300 °C) phases of MoO{sub 3}. Moreover, addition of PdCl{sub 2} (0.2 g/l) salt solution caused a spontaneous bleaching of the initial blue colloid. Annealing of powders extracted from these bleached solutions with different PdCl{sub 2} concentrations at 500 °C led to a preferential growth of (0k0) orientation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the blue nanosheets solution contains mainly Mo{sup 5+} with slightly Mo{sup 6+} oxidation states and each of annealing or salt bleaching procedures can entirely convert Mo{sup 5+} to Mo{sup 6+}. When the bleached solutions was exposed to KrF laser beam (λ = 248 nm) a strong photochromic coloration with a deep blue color was occurred. Regardless of Pd:Mo ratio, the primary and laser irradiated solutions showed analogues optical absorption bands in the 1–3 nm photon energy range while the photochromic process led to a broader absorption band.

  3. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  4. Definition and preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes to confine radioactive wastes and industrial toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement by vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is studied in the CEA for fifteen years. These studies have lead to the preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes. These processes can be applied to non-radioactive toxic materials treatment too. In this work are more particularly described the glassy matrix long-dated behaviour and the different vitrification processes used (by direct induction in cold crucible, by transferred arc plasma). (O.L.). 1 tab

  5. Preparation of interconnected highly porous polymeric structures by a replication and freeze-drying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional degradable porous polymeric structures with high porosities (93-98%) and well-interconnected pore networks have been prepared by freeze-drying polymer solutions in the presence of a leachable template followed by leaching of the template. Templates of the pore network were prepared

  6. Enhanced bulk heterojunction devices prepared by thermal and solvent vapor annealing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.; Wei, Guodan; Wang, Siyi

    2017-09-19

    A method of preparing a bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell through combinations of thermal and solvent vapor annealing are described. Bulk heterojunction films may prepared by known methods such as spin coating, and then exposed to one or more vaporized solvents and thermally annealed in an effort to enhance the crystalline nature of the photoactive materials.

  7. Influence of Process Control Agent on Characterization and Structure of Micron Chitosan Powders Prepared by Ball Milling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chuan-jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With ethyl alcohol or distilled water as process control agent (PCA, micron chitosan powder was prepared by ball milling method. The yield rate, particle size distribution, micro morphology, viscosity average molecular mass, chemical and crystal structures, and thermal properties of these different micron chitosan powders were measured. The results indicate that the yield rate of micron chitosan powders prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA increases significantly, and improves to 94.7% from 25% while the amount of ethyl alcohol is 0.75mL/g. The particle size distribution of micron chitosan powder prepared with ethyl alcohol as PCA is concentrated, while the D50 and D90 in size are 824nm and 1629nm respectively. Chitosan do not react with ethyl alcohol used as PCA, but the viscosity average molecular mass of prepared micron chitosan powder decreases by 23%, the crystal structures are destroyed slightly, and its thermal stability is slightly weakened.

  8. Neural processes mediating the preparation and release of focal motor output are suppressed or absent during imagined movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Jeremy S.; Carlsen, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Movements that are executed or imagined activate a similar subset of cortical regions, but the extent to which this activity represents functionally equivalent neural processes is unclear. During preparation for an executed movement, presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) evokes a premature release of the planned movement with the spatial and temporal features of the tasks essentially intact. If imagined movement incorporates the same preparatory processes as executed movement, then a SAS should release the planned movement during preparation. This hypothesis was tested using an instructed-delay cueing paradigm during which subjects were required to rapidly release a handheld weight while maintaining the posture of the arm or to perform first-person imagery of the same task while holding the weight. In a subset of trials, a SAS was presented at 1500, 500, or 200 ms prior to the release cue. Task-appropriate preparation during executed and imagined movements was confirmed by electroencephalographic recording of a contingent negative variation waveform. During preparation for executed movement, a SAS often resulted in premature release of the weight with the probability of release progressively increasing from 24 % at −1500 ms to 80 % at −200 ms. In contrast, the SAS rarely (movement. However, the SAS frequently evoked the planned postural response (suppression of bicep brachii muscle activity) irrespective of the task or timing of stimulation (even during periods of postural hold without preparation). These findings provide evidence that neural processes mediating the preparation and release of the focal motor task (release of the weight) are markedly attenuated or absent during imagined movement and that postural and focal components of the task are prepared independently. PMID:25744055

  9. Effect of preparation method of metal hydride electrode on efficiency of hydrogen electrosorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giza, Krystyna [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology; Drulis, Henryk [Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research PAS, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    The preparation of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries using LaNi{sub 4.3}Co{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} alloy is presented. The constant current discharge technique is employed to determine the discharge capacity, the exchange current density and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient of the studied electrodes. The electrochemical performance of metal hydride electrode is strongly affected by preparation conditions. The results are compared and the advantages and disadvantages of preparation methods of the electrodes are also discussed.

  10. Preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured powders by one-step activation and chemical reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Huang, Li-Mei; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel wet chemical method was used to prepare TiC/W core–shell structure powders. • TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. • TiC phase was present in the interior of tungsten grains. - Abstract: In the present study, one-step activation and chemical reduction process as a novel wet-chemical route was performed for the preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured ultra-fine powders. The XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDS results demonstrated that the as-synthesized powders are of high purity and uniform with a diameter of approximately 500 nm. It is also found that the TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. Such a unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core–shell nanoparticles with different cores

  11. External validation of approaches to prediction of falls during hospital rehabilitation stays and development of a new simpler tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vratsistas-Curto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To test the external validity of 4 approaches to fall prediction in a rehabilitation setting (Predict_FIRST, Ontario Modified STRATIFY (OMS, physiotherapists’ judgement of fall risk (PT_Risk, and falls in the past year (Past_Falls, and to develop and test the validity of a simpler tool for fall prediction in rehabilitation (Predict_CM2. Participants: A total of 300 consecutively-admitted rehabilitation inpatients. Methods: Prospective inception cohort study. Falls during the rehabilitation stay were monitored. Potential predictors were extracted from medical records. Results: Forty-one patients (14% fell during their rehabilitation stay. The external validity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, for predicting future fallers was: 0.71 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.61–0.81 for OMS (Total_Score; 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57–0.74 for Predict_FIRST; 0.65 (95% CI 0.57–0.73 for PT_Risk; and 0.52 for Past_Falls (95% CI: 0.46–0.60. A simple 3-item tool (Predict_CM2 was developed from the most predictive individual items (impaired mobility/transfer ability, impaired cognition, and male sex. The accuracy of Predict_CM2 was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66–0.81, comparable to OMS (Total_Score (p = 0.52, significantly better than Predict_FIRST (p = 0.04, and Past_Falls (p < 0.001, and approaching significantly better than PT_Risk (p = 0.09. Conclusion: Predict_CM2 is a simpler screening tool with similar accuracy for predicting fallers in rehabilitation to OMS (Total_Score and better accuracy than Predict_FIRST or Past_Falls. External validation of Predict_CM2 is required.

  12. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  13. Radiation processing to ensure the safety and quality of ethnic prepared meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Chander, R.; Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.; Dhokne, V.S.; Bawa, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on microbiological, chemical and sensory qualities of some Indian ethnic dishes, including items from a breakfast menu, meal components and complete meals, as well as some commercially available traditional Indian ready-to-eat meat products, were investigated. Initial total bacteria counts (TBCs) were in the range of 1-3 lg CFU/g in the case of samples prepared in the laboratory, while the counts were higher (3.5-5 lg CFU/g) in the commercial meat products. The TBC increased rapidly during storage at 0-3 deg. C in non-irradiated samples. Radiation processing resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the total bacterial counts. Staphylococcus spp. was completely eliminated by irradiation (1-2 kGy). A dose of 3 kGy was found to be optimal for extending the shelf life of the commercial products by more than 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C compared with the corresponding non-irradiated controls. Lipid peroxidation monitored in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content increased marginally on irradiation and with storage. However, the sensory attributes of products were not significantly affected. The safety of irradiated chilled products was demonstrated by inoculated pack studies with Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The radiation sensitivity of S. aureus and B. cereus in the commercial meat products was initially investigated. The D 10 values of S. aureus in mutton shami kebabs and chicken chilli were 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.37 ± 0.03 kGy, respectively. The D 10 values of B. cereus in mutton shami kebabs and chicken chilli were 0.47 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08 kGy, respectively. S. aureus (inoculated 10 6 CFU/g) was eliminated at a dose of 2.5 kGy in both products, whereas B. cereus was eliminated at 3 kGy. The growth of both the test organisms inoculated into these products during storage at chilled temperatures (0-3 deg. C and 10 deg. C) was studied. No growth of the test organisms was observed at 0-3 deg C. However, at higher

  14. Learning by Preparing to Teach: Fostering Self-Regulatory Processes and Achievement during Complex Mathematics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…

  15. Photoluminescence of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 in the solar cell preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sho, Shirakata; Shinji, Yudate; Jyunji, Honda; Naoki, Iwado

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Sequential step by step photoluminescence (PL) measurements have been carried out on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) films just after each thin-film processes for the fabrication of the CIGS solar cell. These include, (i) the CIGS film deposition on the Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrate by three-stage method (CIGS/Mo/SLG), (ii) the chemical-bath deposition (CBD) of CdS buffer layer, (iii) deposition of undoped ZnO window layer by RF sputtering, (iv) deposition of Al doped ZnO high-conductive window layer by RF sputtering, (v) Al grid electrode deposition for the CIGS solar cell, and (vi) the mechanical scribing for the electrical isolation of small test cells. Roomtemperature PL measurements have been done with the excitation of a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 1 mW) focused on the sample surface to 0.2 mm diameter. PL was dispersed by a polycromator (Horiba: MicroHR) and detected by a cooled InGaAs multichannel detector (1024 pixels). In order to study the uniformity of PL within CIGS films, the two dimensional PL spectrum mapping measurement has been done (0.4-0.6 mm step) using an x-y stage operating in the raster scanning mode. Acquisition time of one PL spectrum was 1 s. Once the fresh CIGS film is exposed to the air, intensity of the near-band-edge PL decreases slowly with time. After few days, PL intensity was one order of magnitude weaker than its initial value. Thus, PL measurement was performed just after the deposition. It was shown that PL spectra of CIGS films taken for each process in the CIGS solar cell preparation. PL of the CIGS film exhibited nearband-edge peak at 1.18 eV. The slight increase of PL intensity was observed after depositions of CdS and ZnO films. After the high conductive ZnO:Al deposition, PL intensity decreases to one third of the initial PL intensity of the fresh CIGS film. No change has been observed with respect to the line shape of PL peaks during the process. In the CIGS solar cell (open circuit condition), PL intensity recovers

  16. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing

  17. Process and equipment development for the preparation of UO2 microspheres using trichloroethylene as gelation medium (Paper No. AL-23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayana, S.; Kumar, N.; Bamankar, Y.R.; Vaidya, V.N.; Sood, D.D.

    1990-02-01

    Uranium dioxide microspheres have been prepared by internal gelation process, one of the sol-gel routes for fuel fabrication. The process flow sheet for internal gelation has been modified by employing trichloroethylene(TCE) as an alternate gelation medium. Based on the modified flow sheet, a 5Kg/day assembly for the production of UO 2 microspheres has been developed and installed. (author). 1 fig

  18. The effect of processing and composition on the properties of polylactide–multiwall carbon nanotube composites prepared by solvent casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Reza; Naguib, Hani; Kim, Jae-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of processing solvent and filler concentration on the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of polylactide (PLA)–multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) composites. PLA–MWNT composites were prepared by a solvent casting method using two different solvents, chloroform and 1,4-dioxane, in compositions of 0, 0.5, 2 and 5 wt% MWNTs. The dispersion of the MWNTs in PLA was examined using a scanning electron microscope and was found to be improved when 1,4-dioxane was used as the solvent as compared with when chloroform was used. Owing to their better MWNT dispersion, composites prepared using 1,4-dioxane displayed a greater dependence on the MWNT concentration of the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Composites prepared using 1,4-dioxane had a greater effect on PLA's decomposition temperature and displayed faster crystallization kinetics than those prepared using chloroform. Not only was the conductivity of 1,4-dioxane prepared composites greater than that of chloroform prepared composites, but also the filler percolation point was observed to be reduced as well (less than 0.5 wt% MWNTs). At 5 wt% MWNT composition, a 31% increase in Young's modulus was observed in 1,4-dioxane prepared composites while a 14% improvement was observed in chloroform prepared composites, as compared with neat PLA. On the basis of the results, it is believed that the chemical interaction between the carboxylated MWNTs and 1,4-dioxane allows for a better dispersion of the MWNTs in PLA

  19. The preparation and certification of zirconyl chloride CRM-inhouse from process result of zircon mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin; Sajimo; Supriyanto; Isman Mulyadi T

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and certification of the zirconyl chloride certified reference material (CRM) has been carried out from the row material of the zircon mineral. The zircon mineral was processing in the Feeder with the velocity of 17 kg/hour and produced the zircon concentrate. The zircon concentrate was mixed with NaOH, NaF, Na 2 CO 3 and H 2 O. The mixture was melted in the Furnace at 750°C for 2 hours. The results of molten was pressed with aquadest and then was participated for 24 hours. The solid was separated from the filtrate, and then it was dried in the Oven at 105°C for 3 hours, those result was called sodium zirconate. Sodium zirconate was leaching with HCl, it was found the zirconyl chloride solution and then was evaporated it was found the zirconyl chloride concentrated solution. This solution was crystallized, then obtained the zirconyl chloride crystal. It was washed with ethanol, so retrieved the crystal white zirconyl chloride. The crystal white zirconyl chloride was dried in the Oven at 90°C, it was crushed with stainless steel powder and sieved to 200 mesh of the particle size. The crystal white zirconyl chloride was stirred up to homogenous in the Homogenizer. Next was treated the homogenization and the stabilisation testing with statistically method. Zirconyl chloride crystals was standardized by using standard ZrOCl 2 8 H 2 O made in E. Merck, were include the chemical compounds test with XRD Spectrometry, the composition the content of crystals and the specific gravity. From the evaluation of the homogenization and stabilisation testing, the crystal zirconyl chloride was homogeneous, stable and it was fulfil to physically behavior as CRM. Compared with the standard zirconyl chloride, ZrOCl 2 8 H 2 O, the XRD spectra and chemical composition (96,263%), the content of crystals (98,625%). and specific gravity (97,190%) of the zirconyl chloride crystal were nearly same respectively. Certificate of the parameters testing results in the CRM the

  20. Comparison of the two cerebral hemispheres in inhibitory processes operative during movement preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest that in right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in praxis, relative to the right hemisphere. However hemispheric asymmetries assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has not shown consistent differences in corticospinal (CS) excitability of the two hemispheres during movements. In the current study, we systematically explored hemispheric asymmetries in inhibitory processes that are manifest during movement preparation and initiation. Single-pulse TMS was applied over the left or right primary motor cortex (M1LEFT and M1RIGHT, respectively) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the contralateral hand while participants performed a two-choice reaction time task requiring a cued movement of the left or right index finger. In Experiments 1 and 2, TMS probes were obtained during a delay period following the presentation of the preparatory cue that provided partial or full information about the required response. MEPs were suppressed relative to baseline regardless of whether they were elicited in a cued or uncued hand. Importantly, the magnitude of these inhibitory changes in CS excitability was similar when TMS was applied over M1LEFT or M1RIGHT, irrespective of the amount of information carried by the preparatory cue. In Experiment 3, there was no preparatory cue and TMS was applied at various time points after the imperative signal. When CS excitability was probed in the cued effector, MEPs were initially inhibited and then rose across the reaction time interval. This function was similar for M1LEFT and M1RIGHT TMS. When CS excitability was probed in the uncued effector, MEPs remained inhibited throughout the RT interval. However, MEPs in right FDI became more inhibited during selection and initiation of a left hand movement, whereas MEPs in left FDI remained relatively invariant across RT interval for the right hand. In addition to these task-specific effects, there

  1. Optimization of Sample Preparation processes of Bone Material for Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhani, Madelen; Wuhrer, Richard; Green, Hayley

    2018-03-30

    Raman spectroscopy has recently been investigated for use in the calculation of postmortem interval from skeletal material. The fluorescence generated by samples, which affects the interpretation of Raman data, is a major limitation. This study compares the effectiveness of two sample preparation techniques, chemical bleaching and scraping, in the reduction of fluorescence from bone samples during testing with Raman spectroscopy. Visual assessment of Raman spectra obtained at 1064 nm excitation following the preparation protocols indicates an overall reduction in fluorescence. Results demonstrate that scraping is more effective at resolving fluorescence than chemical bleaching. The scraping of skeletonized remains prior to Raman analysis is a less destructive method and allows for the preservation of a bone sample in a state closest to its original form, which is beneficial in forensic investigations. It is recommended that bone scraping supersedes chemical bleaching as the preferred method for sample preparation prior to Raman spectroscopy. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Preparation of multishell ICF target plastic-foam cushion materials by thermally induced phase-inversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Moreno, D.K.; Marsters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Homogenous, low-density plastic foams for ICF targets have been prepared by thermally induced phase inversion processes. Uniform, open cell foams have been obtained by the rapid freezing of water solutions of modified cellulose polymers with densities in the range of 5 mg/cm 3 to 0.7 mg/cm 3 and respective average cell sizes of 2 to 40 micrometers. In addition, low-density, microcellular foams have been prepared from the hydrocarbon polymer poly(4-methyl-l-pentene) via a similar phase inversion process using homogenous solutions in organic solvents. These foams have densities from 2 to 5 mg/cm 3 and average cell sizes of 20 micrometers. The physical-chemical aspects of the thermally induced phase inversion process is presented

  3. Optimized spray drying process for preparation of one-step calcium-alginate gel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste [Department of physic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “ss. Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-03-25

    Calcium-alginate micro particles have been used extensively in drug delivery systems. Therefore we establish a one-step method for preparation of internally gelated micro particles with spherical shape and narrow size distribution. We use four types of alginate with different G/M ratio and molar weight. The size of the particles is measured using light diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements showed that with this method, micro particles with size distribution around 4 micrometers can be prepared, and SEM imaging showed that those particles are spherical in shape.

  4. 4-cyano-3-hydroxybutanoyl hydrazines, derivatives and process for the preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01

    Novel 4-cyano-3-hydroxybutanoyl hydrazides (10), particularly R-chiral intermediates are described. The intermediates are useful in preparing (R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid (L-carnitine) and R-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB) and chiral chemical intermediates which are medically useful.

  5. Preparation of antinutrients-reduced dhokla using response surface process optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Anand; Kumari, Sarita; Nout, Martinus J.R.; Sarkar, Prabir K.

    2018-01-01

    Dhokla, a popular indigenous savoury dish of India, is prepared by soaking bengalgram dal and rice, grinding separately, mixing the batters, and spontaneously fermenting and steaming of mixed batter. Central composite rotatable response surface designs for soaking, fermentation and steaming at

  6. Process for the preparation of a dynamite compositon of the gelatin type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A method is described for preparation of a high explosive composition. The composition is a mixture of a liquid gelatin nitric ester explosive with nitrocellulose and at least 1% by wt of a lower aliphatic glycol together with a salt furnishing dissolved oxygen. The thickener for the mixture is one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) and/or mixtures of them. (2 claims)

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from uranate microspheres prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of silicone oil from urania microspheres prepared through sol-gel route was investigated. The influence of pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the extraction efficiency was studied. Experimental conditions were optimised for the complete removal of silicone oil from urania microspheres. (author)

  8. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed--accuracy trade-offs: effects of advance preparation for processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed--accuracy trade-off(SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is little effect of advance preparation for a given processing time, suggesting that the discrimination mechanisms underlying SAT functions are driven solely by bottom-up information processing in perceptual discrimination tasks.

  9. Software and Hardware System for Fast Processes Study When Preparing Foundation Beds of Oil and Gas Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of existing technologies for preparing foundation beds of oil and gas buildings and structures has revealed the lack of reasoned recommendations on the selection of rational technical and technological parameters of compaction. To study the nature of the dynamics of fast processes during compaction of foundation beds of oil and gas facilities, a specialized software and hardware system was developed. The method of calculating the basic technical parameters of the equipment for recording fast processes is presented, as well as the algorithm for processing the experimental data. The performed preliminary studies confirmed the accuracy of the decisions made and the calculations performed.

  10. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  11. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  12. Can the acceptance of nuclear reactors be raised by a simpler, more transparent safety concept employing improved containments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sociological and psychological findings are presented which describe problems society faces with risky technologies. It turns out that for a small but influential group of the society not only the risk, but also the transparency of the technology and the engineered safeguards are important. For this group an improvement of the transparency should raise the acceptance of the technology. However, for the majority of the public, broad discussions about a different more transparent safety concept could generate a feeling of insecurity, especially concerning existing nuclear power plants. In order to improve the transparency in engineered safeguards of nuclear reactors, four basic principles are introduced. Nuclear containments, which remain intact after failure of all emergency cooling systems resulting in a core meltdown accident with steam and hydrogen explosions, are in line with these principles. Such containments are under investigation in Germany right now. It is pointed out that the public should be informed prudently about this work to improve the containments, and the required transparency of the engineered safeguards should be underlined as a major goal. Vague descriptions, providing only superficially information about safer reactors, could easily cause misunderstandings. If one goes along this line a simpler and more transparent safety concept employing improved containments will have the potential to raise the acceptance of nuclear reactors. (orig.)

  13. Manufacture of high-strength composite materials from prepregs prepared by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laricheva, V.P.; Korotkij, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific principles of the manufacture of high-strength heat-resistant polymer composite materials with the successive ionizing-radiation and heat treatment (via the step of long-lived prepregs) were developed. Methods for the selection of components for the preparation of long-lived prepregs, as well as for the determination of the optimal curing conditions, were proposed. The mechanical properties of the materials were studied [ru

  14. Katrina's Legacy: Processes for Patient Disaster Preparation Have Improved but Important Gaps Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icenogle, Marjorie; Eastburn, Sasha; Arrieta, Martha

    2016-11-01

    Ensuring continuity of care for patients with chronic illness, who are elderly or indigent presents unique challenges after disasters; this population has fewer financial resources, is less likely to evacuate, has limited access to recovery resources and is significantly dependent on charitable and government-funded institutions for care. This study expands a previous investigation of the extent to which healthcare providers in coastal Mississippi and Alabama have made changes to facilitate continued care to these populations after disasters. Key informants representing healthcare and social services organizations serving health-disparate residents of the Mississippi and Alabama Gulf Coast were interviewed regarding disaster preparation planning for the period of 2009-2012. Interview transcripts were qualitatively coded and analyzed for emerging themes using ATLAS.ti software. Participant organizations have implemented changes to ensure continuity of care for patients with chronic illness in case of disasters. Changes include patient assistance with predisaster preparation and training; evacuation planning and assistance; support to find resources in evacuation destinations; equipping patients with prescription information, diagnoses, treatment plans and advance medications when a disaster is imminent; multiple methods for patients to communicate with providers and more mandated medical needs shelters. Patients whose chronic conditions were diagnosed post-Katrina are more likely to underestimate the need to prepare. Further, patients' lack of compliance tends to increase as time passes from disasters. Although changes were implemented, results indicate that these may be inadequate to completely address patient needs. Thus, additional efforts may be needed, underscoring the complexity of adequate disaster preparation among disparate populations. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of calcium chloride on the preparation of NdFeB alloy powder by calciothermic reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R.K.; Verma, A.; Raina, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    The calciothermic reduction process has been identified to be one of the cost effective processes for producing NdFeB from Nd 2 O 3 . Use of CaCl 2 as slag former in calciothermic reduction is well established. This paper describes the effect of CaCl 2 on the various properties of NdFeB alloy powder prepared by calciothermic reduction. The effect of CaCl 2 on ease of disintegration of the reacted product during calcium leaching, particle size distribution, grain size, lattice parameters and residual calcium has been studied and compared with the alloy powder prepared without using calcium chloride. Addition of CaCl 2 has been found to result in easier disintegration, reduction in grain size and more uniform particle size distribution. Substantial decrease in the residual calcium in case of charge consisting of CaCl 2 was observed. The effect of lattice parameters was not found to be very significant. (author)

  16. Selection of dissolution process for spent fuels and preparation of corrosion test solution simulated to dissolver (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Terakado, Shogo; Koya, Toshio; Hamada, Shozo; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-03-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of reprocessing equipment materials used in the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, we have proceeded a mock-up test and laboratory tests for getting corrosion parameters. In a dissolver made of zirconium, the simulation of test solutions to the practical solution which includes the high concentration of radioactive elements such as FP and TRU is one of the important issues with respect to the life prediction. On this experiment, the dissolution process of spent fuels and the preparation of test solution for evaluating the corrosion resistance of dissolver materials were selected. These processes were tested in the No.3 cell of WASTEF. The test solution for corrosion tests was prepared by adjusting the uranium and nitric acid concentrations. (author)

  17. Superconducting materials fabrication process and materials obtained. Procede de preparation de materiaux supraconducteurs et materiaux ainsi obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, M O; Magnier, C

    1989-03-24

    The preparation process of a fine powder of YBaCuO type superconductors of easy sintering comprises: mixing in presence of alcohol an aqueous solution of rare earth nitrate or acetate, alkaline earth nitrate or acetate and copper nitrate or acetate and an oxalic acid solution, the pH value of the mixture is comprised between 2 and 4, the obtained precipitate is separated, dried, calcined and eventually crushed.

  18. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wu; Jixiao Wang; Bin Ou; Song Zhao; Zhi Wang; Shichang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high tr...

  19. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin; Kim, Jeumjong

    2013-01-01

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO 2 /SO 4 silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na 2 SO 4 , and CuSO 4 /K 2 CO 3 under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO 4 and K 2 CO 3 in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH 2 OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH 2 OH·HCl/K 2 CO 3 in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in Table 1, compound 1a was treated with hydroxylamine

  20. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and CuSO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH{sub 2}OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH{sub 2}OH·HCl/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in

  1. A new manufacturing process to remove thrombogenic factors (II, VII, IX, X, and XI) from intravenous immunoglobulin gamma preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Hwarn; Kang, Gil Bu; Kang, Dae Eun; Hong, Jeung Woon; Lee, Min Gyu; Kim, Ki Yong; Han, Jeung Whan

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and particularly XIa) remaining in high concentrations in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations can form thrombi, causing thromboembolic events, and in serious cases, result in death. Therefore, manufacturers of biological products must investigate the ability of their production processes to remove procoagulant activities. Previously, we were able to remove coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X from our IVIG preparation through ethanol precipitation, but factor XIa, which plays an important role in thrombosis, remained in the intermediate products. Here, we used a chromatographic process using a new resin that binds with high capacity to IgG and removes procoagulant activities. The procoagulant activities were reduced to low levels as determined by the thrombin generation assay: 250 s, FXI/FXIa ELISA: <0.31 ng/mL. Even after spiking with FXIa at a concentration 32.5 times higher than the concentration in normal specimens, the procoagulant activities were below the detection limit (<0.31 ng/mL). These results demonstrate the ability of our manufacturing process to remove procoagulant activities to below the detection limit (except by NaPTT), suggesting a reduced risk of thromboembolic events that maybe potentially caused by our IVIG preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural changes evaluation with Raman spectroscopy in meat batters prepared by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Li, Xiang; He, Hong-Ju; Ma, Han-Jun; Song, Zhao-Jun

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the structural changes of meat and protein of pork batters produced by chopping or beating process through the phase-contrast micrograph, laser light scattering analyzer, scanning electronic microscopy and Raman spectrometer. The results showed that the shattered myofibrilla fragments were shorter and particle-sizes were smaller in the raw batter produced by beating process than those in the chopping process. Compared with the raw and cooked batters produced by chopping process, modifications in amide I and amide III bands revealed a significant decrease of α -helix content and an increase of β -sheet, β -turn and random coils content in the beating process. The changes in secondary structure of protein in the batter produced by beating process was thermally stable. Moreover, more tyrosine residues were buried, and more gauche-gauche-trans disulfide bonds conformations and hydrophobic interactions were formed in the batter produced by beating process.

  3. Experimental substantiation of combined methods for designing processes for the commercial preparation of gas at gas condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, G R; Karlinskii, E D; Posypkina, T V

    1977-04-01

    An analysis is made of the possibility of using two analytical methods for studying vapor--liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbon mixtures that are used in designing the separation of natural gas and the stabilization of condensate--the Chao and Sider method, which uses computations by equilibrium constants. A combined computational method is proposed for describing a unified process of natural gas separation and condensate stabilization. The method of preparing the original data for the computation of the separation and stabilization processes can be significantly simplified. 10 references, 1 table.

  4. Application of residual polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms as an enzyme preparation in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Konishi, Y; Tsujiyama, S

    2016-11-01

    To examine the activities of residual enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms, which are a traditional foodstuff in Japanese cuisine, for possible applications in food processing. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes remained intact in dried shiitake mushrooms and the activities of amylase, β-glucosidase and pectinase were high. A potato digestion was tested using dried shiitake powder. The enzymes reacted with potato tuber specimens to solubilize sugars even under a heterogeneous solid-state condition and that their reaction modes were different at 38 and 50 °C. Dried shiitake mushrooms have a potential use in food processing as an enzyme preparation.

  5. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  6. The properties of B-Sb thin films prepared by molecular flow region PVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Nakano, M.; Doi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is the first description on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of amorphous PVD B 12 Sb 2 films prepared using the reaction of decaborane gas with evaporated antimony gas on Si (1900 A) / SiO x (3700 A) / Si (100) (625 μm) substrate at the temperature 350 deg. C. Ohmic metals contacts of the film were examined by making evaporated Al, followed by annealing at 200 deg. C. The comparatively high mobility of ∼100 cm 2 /V s and high thermoelectric figures-of-merit of ∼10 -4 /K were confirmed

  7. A facile dip-coating process for preparing highly durable superhydrophobic surface with multi-scale structures on paint films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Yin, Long; Wang, Qingjun; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin

    2009-09-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with multi-scale nano/microstructures have been prepared on epoxy paint surfaces using a feasible dip-coating process. The microstructures with 5-10 microm protuberances were first prepared on epoxy paint surface by sandblast. Then the nanostructures were introduced on the microstructure surface by anchoring 50-100 nm SiO(2) particles (nano-SiO(2)) onto the sandblasted paint surface, which was completed by dip-coating with a nano-SiO(2)/epoxy adhesive solution (M1). At last the surface was further modified for enhancing hydrophobicity by another dip-coating with a solution of a low surface energy polymer, aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) modified epoxy adhesive (M2). The water contact angle of the as-prepared samples reached as high as 167.8 degrees and the sliding angle was 7 degrees. The prepared superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent durability to the high speed scouring test and high stability in neutral and basic aqueous solutions and some common organic solvents. In addition, this method can be adopted to fabricate large scale samples with a good homogeneity of the whole surface at very low cost.

  8. High performance supercapacitor using N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with an oxime nitrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, S. Suresh; Elavarasan, A.; Sathish, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with oxime nitrogen source (DMG) showed enhanced performance in electrochemical supercapacitor application. A maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g was achieved with a high specific capacity retention of 98% after 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. - Highlights: • N-functionalised graphene synthesized via supercritical fluid processing. • DMG, an oxime based nitrogen precursor. • Maximum specific capacitance of 286 F/g at 0.5 A/g in aqueous solution. • Pyridinic as well as quarternary nitrogen for enhanced capacitance. - Abstract: Heteroatom doped graphene has been proved for its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage systems. Here, nitrogen (N) doped graphene was prepared via two different techniques namely supercritical fluid assisted processing and hydrothermal heat treatment using dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as an oxime nitrogen precursor. The FT-IR and Raman spectra showed the N-containing functional group in the graphene. The XRD analysis revealed the complete reduction of graphene oxide during the supercritical fluid processing. The elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the amount and nature of N-doping in the graphene, respectively. The surface morphology and physical nature of the samples were analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrode materials was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid assisted processing exhibit enhanced capacitive behaviour with a maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g. The cycling studies showed 98% specific capacity retention with 100% coulombic efficiency over 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance of N

  9. Electrochemical properties of CuO hollow nanopowders prepared from formless Cu–C composite via nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hwa [Daegu Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 80 Daehakro Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Ju [Suncheon Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Suncheon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process that relied on nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion; these nanopowders have potential applications in lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid is used as both the carbon source material and chelating agent and plays a key role in the preparation of the hollow nanopowders. The formless Cu–C composite that formed as an intermediate product transforms into slightly aggregated CuO hollow nanopowders after post-treatment at 300 and 400 °C under an air atmosphere. The CuO hollow nanopowders exhibit higher initial discharge capacities and better cycling performances than those of the filled-structured CuO nanopowders, which are prepared at a post-treatment temperature of 500 °C under an air atmosphere. The discharge capacities of the CuO nanopowders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C for the 150{sup th} cycle at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} are 793, 632, and 464 mA h g{sup −1}, respectively, and their capacity retentions calculated from the maximum discharge capacities are 88, 80, and 73%, respectively. The CuO nanopowders with hollow structures exhibit better structural stability for repeated lithium insertion and desertion processes than those with filled structures. - Highlights: • Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process. • Cu–C composite transforms into CuO hollow nanopowders by Kirkendall diffusion. • Hollow CuO nanopowders show good electrochemical properties for lithium-ion storage.

  10. Advancement of Solidification Processing Technology Through Real Time X-Ray Transmission Microscopy: Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of samples were prepared for the real time X-ray transmission microscopy (XTM) characterization. In the first series directional solidification experiments were carried out to evaluate the critical velocity of engulfment of zirconia particles in the Al and Al-Ni eutectic matrix under ground (l-g) conditions. The particle distribution in the samples was recorded on video before and after the samples were directionally solidified. In the second series samples of the above two type of composites were prepared for directional solidification runs to be carried out on the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) aboard the space shuttle during the LMS mission in June 1996. X-ray microscopy proved to be an invaluable tool for characterizing the particle distribution in the metal matrix samples. This kind of analysis helped in determining accurately the critical velocity of engulfment of ceramic particles by the melt interface in the opaque metal matrix composites. The quality of the cast samples with respect to porosity and instrumented thermocouple sheath breakage or shift could be easily viewed and thus helped in selecting samples for the space shuttle experiments. Summarizing the merits of this technique it can be stated that this technique enabled the use of cast metal matrix composite samples since the particle location was known prior to the experiment.

  11. Numerical investigation of influence thermal preparation coal on nitric oxides formation in combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernetskaya, N. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Chernetsky, M.; Dekterev, A. [Siberian Federal Univ., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Coal thermalpreparation before furnace delivery is effective method to reduce NOx emissions, shown by experiments in small-scale facilities (Babiy VI, Alaverdov PI, Influence of thermal preparation pulverized coal on nitric oxides outlet for combustion different metamorphized coal. ATI, 1983). This paper presents the mathematical model of burning thermal preparation coal. Validation of the model was carried out on laboratory-scale plant of All-Russia thermal engineering institute. Modeling of low-emissive burner with preliminary heating coal dust is made for the purpose of search of burner optimal constructions which provides low concentration of nitric oxides in the boiler. For modeling are used in-house CFD code ''{sigma}Flow'' (Dekterev AA, Gavrilov AA, Harlamov EB, Litvintcev KY, J Comput Technol 8(Part 1):250-255, 2003).

  12. Oromucosal film preparations: points to consider for patient centricity and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Raphael; Visser, J Carolina; Frijlink, Henderik W; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Preis, Maren

    2016-01-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia, oromucosal films comprise mucoadhesive buccal films and orodispersible films. Both oral dosage forms receive considerable interest in the recent years as commercially available pharmaceutical products and as small scale personalized extemporaneous preparations. In this review, technological issues such as viscosity of the casting liquid, mechanical properties of the film, upscaling and the stability of the casting solution and produced films will be discussed. Furthermore, patient-related problems like appearance, mucosal irritation, taste, drug load, safety and biopharmaceutics are described. Current knowledge and directions for solutions are summarized. The viscosity of the casting solution is a key factor for producing suitable films. This parameter is amongst others dependent on the polymer and active pharmaceutical ingredient, and the further excipients that are used. For optimal patient compliance, an acceptable taste and palatability are desirable. Safe and inert excipients should be used and appropriate packaging should be provided to produced films. Absorption through the oral mucosa will vary for each active compound, formulation and patient, which gives rise to pharmacokinetic questions. Finally, the European Pharmacopoeia needs to specify methods, requirement and definitions for oromucosal film preparations based on bio-relevant data.

  13. Effect of ammonium hydroxide on preparation process of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Arabi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper the effect of ammonium hydroxide addition to the solution of metallic oxide on sol gel preparation process of YBCO is studied with differential thermal analysis, thermal graviometry and X-ray diffraction. Two samples with and without ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide prevents both barium nitrate precipitate during the gel preparation and also unwanted reaction as well as increasing homogeneous product. After drying the gel, the samples heated up to 1050°C in DTA apparatus in order to find more accurate the type and the temperature of reaction during the preparation process. After the initial reactions in the samples, Y2Cu2O5 and 123 phases are created in the range of 780-840°C and then the 123 phase is strengthened at 900-950°C. As shown in X-ray data, 123 was the only phase after this range. In addition ammonium hydroxide support and increase the creation of 123 phase at lower temperature.

  14. Preparation of cotton linter nanowhiskers by high-pressure homogenization process and its application in thermoplastic starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadekar, N. R.; Karande, V. S.; Vigneshwaran, N.; Kadam, P. G.; Mhaske, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    The present work deals with the preparation of cotton linter nanowhiskers (CLNW) by acid hydrolysis and subsequent processing in a high-pressure homogenizer. Prepared CLNW were then used as a reinforcing material in thermoplastic starch (TPS), with an aim to improve its performance properties. Concentration of CLNW was varied as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% in TPS. TPS/CLNW nanocomposite films were prepared by solution-casting process. The nanocomposite films were characterized by tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (OP), X-ray diffraction and light transmittance properties. 3 wt% CLNW-loaded TPS nanocomposite films demonstrated 88 % improvement in the tensile strength as compared to the pristine TPS polymer film; whereas, WVP and OP decreased by 90 and 92 %, respectively, which is highly appreciable compared to the quantity of CLNW added. DSC thermograms of nanocomposite films did not show any significant effect on melting temperature as compared to the pristine TPS. Light transmittance ( T r) value of TPS decreased with increased content of CLNW. Better interaction between CLNW and TPS, caused due to the hydrophilic nature of both the materials, and uniform distribution of CLNW in TPS were the prime reason for the improvement in properties observed at 3 wt% loading of CLNW in TPS. However, CLNW was seen to have formed agglomerates at higher concentration as determined from SEM analysis. These nanocomposite films can have potential use in food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  15. Microencapsulation by solvent extraction/evaporation: reviewing the state of the art of microsphere preparation process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sergio; Merkle, Hans P; Gander, Bruno

    2005-02-02

    The therapeutic benefit of microencapsulated drugs and vaccines brought forth the need to prepare such particles in larger quantities and in sufficient quality suitable for clinical trials and commercialisation. Very commonly, microencapsulation processes are based on the principle of so-called "solvent extraction/evaporation". While initial lab-scale experiments are frequently performed in simple beaker/stirrer setups, clinical trials and market introduction require more sophisticated technologies, allowing for economic, robust, well-controllable and aseptic production of microspheres. To this aim, various technologies have been examined for microsphere preparation, among them are static mixing, extrusion through needles, membranes and microfabricated microchannel devices, dripping using electrostatic forces and ultrasonic jet excitation. This article reviews the current state of the art in solvent extraction/evaporation-based microencapsulation technologies. Its focus is on process-related aspects, as described in the scientific and patent literature. Our findings will be outlined according to the four major substeps of microsphere preparation by solvent extraction/evaporation, namely, (i) incorporation of the bioactive compound, (ii) formation of the microdroplets, (iii) solvent removal and (iv) harvesting and drying the particles. Both, well-established and more advanced technologies will be reviewed.

  16. Processing and Preparation of Brassica Vegetables and the Fate of Glucosinolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2016-01-01

    The healthiness of a vegetable cannot solely be inferred from the amount of
    health-promoting compounds in the raw materials. Brassica vegetables, for
    example, are consumed mostly after processing to improve palatability and to
    extend the shelf life. However, processing also results to

  17. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  18. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by DC arc discharge process under reduced pressure in an air atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown using a DC arc discharge process in an air atmosphere and relevant process parameters were investigated. Without using an inert gas, multi walled carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in the deposit area of the cathode even in an air atmosphere, but single walled carbon nanotubes were not detected in the soot area despite using the same process conditions as in the inert gas. The air pressure for the highest yield of multi walled CNTs was 300 Torr. In addition, the quantity of amorphous carbon and other nanoparticles in the process chamber was remarkably reduced by this technique, showing that an efficient, feasible method of large scale CNT fabrication could be achieved by the arc discharge process

  19. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhai, Yuanming; Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. "1H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  20. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhai, Yuanming [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  1. Easy and industrially applicable impregnation process for preparation of diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun; Gokce, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The high porosity, high oil and water absorption capacity and low density of diatomite make it ideal for industrial applications. The porous structure of diatomite protects phase change materials (PCMs) from environmental factors as a supporting matrix and phase changes occur in nanopores of diatomite. Previous research on diatomite/PCMs composites aimed optimal composite preparation but many methods were feasible only in laboratory scale. In large scale industrial fabrication, easy, continuous and steady state methods are need to be performed. The main purpose of this study was to prepare leakage-free, thermally stable nanocomposite PCMs (nanoCPCMs) by an easy, continuous and steady state method for high temperature thermal energy storage applications. A series of nanoCPCMs with different paraffin:diatomite mass ratios were prepared. The properties of nanoCPCMs have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The leak (exudation) test was performed on prepared composites at higher temperatures (95 °C) in comparison with literature. As the optimum composite for thermal energy storage applications, thermal reliability of nanoCPCM was evaluated after 400 cycles of melting and freezing. NanoCPCM melted at 36.55 °C with latent heat of 53.1 J/g. - Highlights: • Diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy and industrially applicable impregnation process was developed. • Influence of diatomite: PCM mass ratio on thermal properties reported.

  2. Preparation and properties of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O materials by the alkoxide process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Fusaoki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Usami, Ryo; Yoshizaki, Kiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Homogeneous starting solutions were synthesized using Bi, Sr, Ca and Cu alkoxides. Powders, thick films and gel fibers were prepared respectively by controlling hydrolysis using the same solutions. The synthesized powder had a homogeneous particle size. The fired powder showed a good crystallization property. The thick film coated on MgO substrate using the synthesized sol solution had a smooth surface and a uniformity of each metal elements. The film showed the c-axis orientation and was shown to have the zero resistance temperature of 90 K and the critical current density of 180 A/cm 2 at 77 K. The fiber drawn from the viscous gel solution showed a comparatively large shrinkage with hear treatment. The fired fiber was brittle and had a low strength. It was also found for the fired fiber that zero resistance temperature was 70 K and the critical current density was 90 A/cm 2 at 77 K

  3. Preparation of one-dimensional nickel nanowires by self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dapeng; Sun Dongbai; Yu Hongying; Qiu Zhigang; Meng Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembly nickel nanowires were prepared by soft template method in ethylene glycol solutions. The structure and micro-morphology of the products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results showed that the products were pure nickel powders with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. A growth model was presented to explain the growth mechanism. The effects of pH value, surfactant, reaction temperature and reaction time on the synthesis of nickel nanowires were discussed. When pH > 11.5, the reaction temperature was between 80 deg. C and 90 deg. C, and the concentration of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was higher than 7.0 x 10 -3 , zigzag nickel nanowires with slenderness ratio about 20 could be synthesized

  4. The use of bacteriological preparates to test processes in radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Igali, S.; Kovacs, A.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental factors influencing the irradiation sensitivity of micro-organisms, bacterium stocks being suitable for biological checking up and spore test organism used nowadays are reviewed. According to the tests made on Bacillus pumilus E601 and Bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A stockes with Noratom, PX-γ-30 and 60 Co radiation sources the irradiation sensitivity of the same products irradiated with the same dose can differ in the function of the radiation source and the dose rate. It seems necessary to produce the test preparates in the same way in a central laboratory and to calibrate them to single radiation sources. It is advisable to check up the factual microbicidal effect of the nominal dosage by a biological dosimeter. The method reviewed potentiates a much higher confidence than that of conventional sterility tests and its additional advantage is the cheapness. (K.A.)

  5. PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TUBULAR CERAMIC SUPPORT FOR MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE PREPARED FROM PYROPHYLLITE CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedallah Talidi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubular macroporous support for ceramic microfiltration membranes were prepared by extrusion followed by sintering of the low cost pyrophyllite clay. Clay powders mixed with some organic additives can be extruded to form a porous tubular support. The average pore size of the membrane is observed to increase from 5 µm to 10.8 µm when sintering temperature increase from 900 °C to 1200 °C. However, with the increase in temperature from 900 °C to 1200 °C, the support porosity is reduced from 47% to 30% and flexural strength is increased from 4 MPa to 17 MPa. The fabricated macro-porous supports are expected to have potential applications in the pre-treatment and also can be used like support for membranes of ultra-filtration.

  6. [Planning by service organisation priorities. The process of preparing strategic service-organisation plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Costa, Dolors; Busqué, Anna; Lacasa, Carme

    2008-12-01

    Strategic planning designs the general setting and the strategic principles of a healthcare system, as well as the general guidelines that govern the development of a health system. Strategic service-organisation plans deal with translating healthcare policies into service policies and respond, principally, to the need for services; these give rise to problems that require a solution. They are developed in line with advances in scientific knowledge, the implementation and current characteristics of the healthcare services and the evolution in the competences of professional teams. There are five stages for their development: identification of health/service requirements; prioritisation of needs in health/services; definition of and agreement on service organisation models (care model and service portfolio); the preparation of and agreement on territorial action plans; introduction and evaluation. A conceptual framework is presented along with practical applications carried out in Catalonia.

  7. Research of Hydrogen Preparation with Catalytic Steam-Carbon Reaction Driven by Photo-Thermochemistry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of hydrogen preparation from steam-carbon reaction catalyzed by K2CO3 was carried out at 700°C, which was driven by the solar reaction system simulated with Xenon lamp. It can be found that the rate of reaction with catalyst is 10 times more than that without catalyst. However, for the catalytic reaction, there is no obvious change for the rate of hydrogen generation with catalyst content range from 10% to 20%. Besides, the conversion efficiency of solar energy to chemical energy is more than 13.1% over that by photovoltaic-electrolysis route. An analysis to the mechanism of catalytic steam-carbon reaction with K2CO3 is given, and an explanation to the nonbalanced [H2]/[CO + 2CO2] is presented, which is a phenomenon usually observed in experiment.

  8. Preparation of the in-house neutron detectors and the software needed to process experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.; Haj-Hassan, H.; Helal, W.

    2007-04-01

    In - house neutron activation detectors were prepared in this work using pure commercial gold. The neutron self-shielding factors in the foils for both thermal and epithermal neutrons have been determined experimentally. The work shows good results repeatability and good agreement with certified activation monitors. the software KHW for neutron flux measurements using local and standards gold foils was designed and performed locally. it deals as well with irradiated uranium spectrums to calculate some important fission product ratios for neutron flux measurement. Some experiments were performed to investigate the possibility of using uranium, produced in the pilot plant, as fission neutron detector. The results shows the possibility of using fission product ratios to determine the cooling time of the samples. It shows also the possibility of using fission and activation product ratios as an indicators of neutron fluences ratios.(author)

  9. Sintering process of Eu doped luminescent glass prepared from porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai, T; Murakami, M; Yamashita, M; Okajima, T; Umesaki, N

    2011-01-01

    Eu doped high silica glass prepared by sintering porous glass exhibits blue luminescence with high quantum efficiency. In this work, we studied effects of sintering temperature on valance state of europium ion. To investigate a change of valance state of Eu, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Intensity of blue emission at around 430nm drastically increases when the sintering temperature is above 1000 deg. C. From XANES spectra, it is found that almost all the Eu exist as Eu 3+ in a samples sintered below 900 deg. C, while more than 70% of Eu exist as Eu 2+ in the sample sintered at 1050 deg. C and 1100 deg. C. The drastic change of oxidation state of europium ion between 900 and 1050 deg. C is discussed in relation to the structural change probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  10. Preparation of Si3N4 Form Diatomite via a Carbothermal Reduction-Nitridation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Huang, Zhaohui; Mei, Lefu; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yangai; Wu, Xiaowen; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-05-01

    Si3N4 was produced using diatomite and sucrose as silicon and carbon sources, respectively. The effect of the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time on the morphology and phase compositions of the final products was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase equilibrium relationships of the system at different heating temperatures were also investigated based on the thermodynamic analysis. The results indicate that the phase compositions depended on the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time. Fabrication of Si3N4 from the precursor via carbothermal reduction nitridation was achieved at 1550°C for 1-8 h using a C/SiO2 molar ratio of 3.0. The as-prepared Si3N4 contained a low amount of Fe3Si (<1 wt.%).

  11. Composition suitable as collection agent in ore flotation process and preparation of said composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, C.R.; Parlman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A composition and process are provided for the recovery of the values of zinc, molybdenum, copper, lead, ion (pyrite), and iron-containing small amounts of gold or uranium, or both, from ores comprising these mineral sulfides. The aqueous composition is the impure form of an alkali metal alkyl trithiocarbonate compound. The process comprises employing said aqueous composition as a collection agent for the above minerals in an ore recovery process. A process for the separation of zinc values from lead values from an ore comprising both is provided by employing an alkali metal alkyl trithiocarbonate compound as a collection agent for zinc. In addition, both a composition and process are provided for the recovery of the values of iron, copper, and lead from ores comprising these values. The composition consists essentially of a dispersant and an impure form of an alkali metal alkyl trithiocarbonate compound. The process comprises employing this composition as a collection agent for the above minerals in an ore recovery process

  12. Process for uranium separation and preparation of UO4.2NH3.2HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuzoguz, H.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A process for treating the aqueous effluents that are produced in converting gaseous UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) into solid UO 2 (uranium dioxide) by way of an intermediate (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (''AUC'' Compound) is disclosed. These effluents, which contain large amounts of NH 4 + , CO 3 2- , F - , and a small amount of U are mixed with H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) in order to expel CO 2 (carbon dioxide) and thereby reduce the carbonate concentration. The uranium is precipitated through treatment with H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide) and the fluoride is easily recovered in the form of CaF 2 (calcium fluoride) by contacting the process liquid with CaO (calcium oxide). The presence of SO 4 2- (sulfate) in the process liquid during CaO contacting seems to prevent the development of a difficult-to-filter colloid. The process also provides for NH 3 recovery and recycling. Liquids discharged from the process, moreover, are essentially free of environmental pollutants. The waste treatment products, i.e., CO 2 , NH 3 , and U are economically recovered and recycled back into the UF 6 → UO 2 conversion process. The process, moreover, recovers the uranium as a precipitate in the second stage. This precipitate is a new inorganic chemical compound UO 4 .2NH 3 .2HF [uranyl peroxide-2-ammonia-2-(hydrogen fluoride)

  13. Latent structure analysis in the pharmaceutical process of tablets prepared by wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Otoguro, Saori; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Granule characteristics are some of the important intermediate qualities that determine tablet properties. However, the relationships between granule and tablet characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties using a non-linear response surface method (RSM) incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) and a Bayesian network (BN). Tablets containing lactose (Lac), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were prepared by wet granulation. Ten formulations were prepared by an extreme vertices design. The angle of repose (Y 1 ), compressibility (Y 2 ), cohesion force (Y 3 ), internal friction angle (Y 4 ), and mean particle size (Y 5 ) were measured as granule characteristics. Tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured as tablet properties. RSM-S results showed that TS increased with increasing amounts of MCC and Lac. DT decreased with increasing amounts of MCC and CS. The optimal BN models were predicted using four evaluation indices -Y 3 was shown to be the most important factor for TS, whereas Y 2 , Y 3 , and Y 4 were relatively important for predicting DT. Moreover, tablets with excellent tablet properties (i.e. high TS and low DT) were produced by relatively high Y 1 , low Y 2 , high Y 3 , high Y 4 , and middle Y 5 values, and resulted from the middle of MCC, middle-to-low CS, low Lac, and middle-to-low magnesium stearate (Mg-St) amounts. The RSM-S and BN techniques are useful for revealing complex relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties.

  14. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO2/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Karima; Hbaieb, Souhaira; Amdouni, Noureddine; Kalfat, Rafik; Chevalier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO 2 and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO 2 particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO 2 particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO 2 content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO 2 blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO 2 when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co 3 O 4 formed by chemical decomposition of Li x CoO 2 . Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO 2 was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO 2 into Co 3 O 4

  15. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickman, B.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes...

  16. Rapid preparation of solution-processed InGaZnO thin films by microwave annealing and photoirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Ogura, Shintaro; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Yoshida, Manabu; Fukuda, Nobuko; Uemura, Sei, E-mail: sei-uemura@aist.go.jp [Flexible Electronics Research Center (FLEC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We fabricated solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by microwave (MW) annealing an IGZO precursor film followed by irradiating with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. MW annealing allows more rapid heating of the precursor film than conventional annealing processes using a hot plate or electric oven and promotes the crystallization of IGZO. VUV irradiation was used to reduce the duration and temperature of the post-annealing step. Consequently, the IGZO TFTs fabricated through MW annealing for 5 min and VUV irradiation for 1 min exhibited an on/off current ratio of 10{sup 8} and a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. These results indicate that MW annealing and photoirradiation is an effective combination for annealing solution processed IGZO precursor films to prepare the semiconductor layers of TFTs.

  17. Rapid preparation of solution-processed InGaZnO thin films by microwave annealing and photoirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Ogura, Shintaro; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Yoshida, Manabu; Fukuda, Nobuko; Uemura, Sei

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by microwave (MW) annealing an IGZO precursor film followed by irradiating with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. MW annealing allows more rapid heating of the precursor film than conventional annealing processes using a hot plate or electric oven and promotes the crystallization of IGZO. VUV irradiation was used to reduce the duration and temperature of the post-annealing step. Consequently, the IGZO TFTs fabricated through MW annealing for 5 min and VUV irradiation for 1 min exhibited an on/off current ratio of 10 8 and a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm 2  V −1  s −1 . These results indicate that MW annealing and photoirradiation is an effective combination for annealing solution processed IGZO precursor films to prepare the semiconductor layers of TFTs

  18. Microstructural examination by TEM of WC/Co composites prepared by conventional and Microwave processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, D.; Cheng, J.; Papworth, A.J.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, significant developments and advances have taken place in the field of microwave processing of ceramics, composites and metals. Microwave sintering technology of WC/Co based hard metal parts has been now developed for commercial products. Microwave processed WC/Co parts reportedly have exhibited superior performance over standard parts. Additionally, the microwave process requires only one tenth of the total cycle time employed in a conventional process. Laboratory corrosion and impact resistance tests have proved that microwave processed WC/Co parts are several times more resistant than the conventional parts of the same composition. The scanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) examination conducted an conventionally and microwave sintered WC/Co samples exhibited remarkable difference in the chemistry of cobalt binder phase. It is understood that the superior mechanical properties of microwave sintered part are due to the pure cobalt phase present at the grain boundary of WC grains, while the conventionally sintered part showed there was substantial inter-alloying of Co with tungsten. (author)

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Malaysian Dolomites as a Tar Cracking Catalyst in Biomass Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of local Malaysian dolomites were characterized to investigate their suitability for use as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process. The dolomites were calcined to examine the effect of the calcination process on dolomite’s catalytic activity and properties. The modifications undergone by dolomites consequent to thermal treatment were investigated using various analytical methods. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses indicated that the dolomites underwent two stages of decomposition during the calcination process. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyses showed that thermal treatment of dolomite played a significant role in the disappearance of the CaMg(CO32 phase, producing the MgO-CaO form of dolomite. The scanning electron microscopy microphotographs of dolomite indicated that the morphological properties were profoundly affected by the calcination process, which led to the formation of a highly porous surface with small spherical particles. In addition, the calcination of dolomite led to the elimination of carbon dioxide and increases in the values of the specific surface area and average pore diameter, as indicated by surface area analysis. The results showed that calcined Malaysian dolomites have great potential to be applied as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process based on their favorable physical properties.

  20. Biochar Preparation from Simulated Municipal Solid Waste Employing Low Temperature Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeprasert, C.; Leelachaikul, P.; Jangkobpattana, G.; Phumprasop, K.; Kiattiwat, T.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on carbonization process of simulated municipal solid waste (MSW). Simulated MSW consists of a representative of food residue (68%), plastic waste (20%), paper (8%), and textile (4%). Laboratory-scale carbonization was performed in this study using a vertical-type pyrolyzer varying carbonization temperature (300, 350, 400, and 450 °C) and heating rate (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min). Appearance of the biochar product was in black and the volume was significantly reduced. Low carbonization temperature (300 °C) might not completely decompose plastic materials in MSW. Results showed that the carbonization at the temperature of 400 °C with the heating rate of 5 °C/min was the optimal condition. The yield of biochar from the optimal process was 50.6% with the heating value of 26.85 MJ/kg. Energy input of the process was attributed to water evaporation and the decomposition of plastics and paper. Energy output of the process was highest at the optimal condition. Energy output and input ratio was around 1.3-1.7 showing the feasibility of the carbonization process in all heating rate condition.

  1. Preparation of (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes by high temperature sintering and post-annealing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, L.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    A novel heat treatment process was developed to fabricate (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes with high critical current density (J(c)). The process can be divided into two parts: reformation and post-annealing. Tapes were first heated to the maximum temperature (830-860 degreesC) followed by slow cooling...... (reformation). Then, tape, were annealed between 760 and 820 degreesC (post-annealing). Reformation is expected to produce a large amount of liquid phase which may heat microcracks, decrease porosity, and improve grain growth. However, since the sintering temperature is beyond the Bi-2223 single-phase region......-energy synchrotron XRD and SEM/EDX. Some process parameters e.g. sintering temperature. cooling rate. and post-annealing time were optimised. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Mono-domain YBa2Cu3Oy superconductor fabrics prepared by an infiltration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, E.; Noudem, J.G.; Tarka, M.; Schmitz, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel process for the fabrication of a new form of YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (123) superconducting material, with the dimensions of a thick film and the microstructure of a melt-textured single-domain bulk is described. The process allows the fabrication of 123 as a self-supporting fabric or as a thick film on various substrate materials. The process, which is generic and economical, uses commercially available Y 2 O 3 fabrics as a precursor material. The Y 2 O 3 cloth is infiltrated with barium cuprates and copper oxides from a liquid-phase source, then converted into Y 2 BaCuO 5 (211) phase and eventually to 123. The nucleation and growth of the 123 phase is controlled by seeding the cloth with an oriented heterogeneous MgO or Nd123 seed. Interesting application areas for the new form of the 123 mono-domain fabric are discussed. (author)

  3. Study the Polyol Process of Preparing the ru Doped FePt Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Jen-Ho; Su, Hui-Chia; Huang, Tzu Wen

    The structure of Ru doped FePt nanoparticles using polyol process was studied. The particle size grown is around 5 nm, and a shell structure might be formed. By selecting the time and temperature of adding the Ru precursors into solution, three different processes to synthesize the FePtRu particles were studied resulting in different growing mechanics. The possible models during the reaction process are also discussed. The phase transition temperature for the as-grown FCC FePt nanoparticle to transform into L10 FePt nanoparticle is about 823 K which is about the same as the one without doping Ru atoms. From the XAS study of each element, the possible scenario is that: although Ru atoms with the size close to the Pt, they do not totally replace the Pt sites in the FePt alloy. Instead, most of Ru formed a shell outside the FePt nanoparticles and Fe atoms are replaced.

  4. Cloning, preparation and preliminary crystallographic studies of penicillin V acylase autoproteolytic processing mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P. Manish; Brannigan, James A.; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, G. Guy; Suresh, C. G.

    2004-01-01

    The production, crystallization and characterization of three inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase from B. sphaericus in their respective precursor and processed forms are reported. The space groups are different for the native enzyme and the mutants. The crystallization of three catalytically inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase (PVA) from Bacillus sphaericus in precursor and processed forms is reported. The mutant proteins crystallize in different primitive monoclinic space groups that are distinct from the crystal forms for the native enzyme. Directed mutants and clone constructs were designed to study the post-translational autoproteolytic processing of PVA. The catalytically inactive mutants will provide three-dimensional structures of precursor PVA forms, plus open a route to the study of enzyme–substrate complexes for this industrially important enzyme

  5. Preparation of Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films by a mist CVD process with aqueous precursor solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoharu Tadanaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li4Ti5O12 thin films were prepared by a mist CVD process, using an aqueous solution of lithium nitrate and a water-soluble titanium lactate complex as the source of Li and Ti, respectively. In this process, mist particles ultrasonically atomized from a source aqueous solution were transferred by nitrogen gas to a heating substrate to prepare thin films. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 500 nm were obtained. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, formation of Li4Ti5O12 spinel phase was confirmed in the obtained thin film sintered at 700 °C for 4 h. The cell with the thin films as an electrode exhibited a capacity of about 110 mAh g−1, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  6. Influence of electron beam Irradiation on PP/Piassava fiber composite prepared by melt extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Michelle G.; Ferreira, Maiara S.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    In the latest years, the interest for the use of natural fibers in materials composites polymeric has increased significantly due to their environmental and technological advantages. Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) have been used as reinforcement in the matrix of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. In the present work (20%, in mass), piassava fibers with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were incorporated in the polypropylene matrix (PP) no irradiated and polypropylene matrix containing 10 % and 30 % of polypropylene treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy (PP/PPi/Piassava). The composites PP/Piassava and PP/PPi/Piassava were prepared by using a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The composite material samples obtained were treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature, in presence of air. After irradiation treatment, the irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests, melt flow index (MFI), sol-gel analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF FUROSEMIDE LIQUISOLID TABLETS PREPARATION PROCESS LEADING TO THEIR MASS AND SIZE REDUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Mateusz; Woyna-Orlewicz, Krzysztof; Khalid, Mohammad Hassan; Jachowicz, Renata

    2016-09-01

    The great number of drug substances currently used in solid oral dosage forms is characterized by poor water solubility. Therefore, various methods of dissolution rate enhancement are an important topic of research interest in modem drug technology. The purpose of this study was to enhance the furosemide dissolution rate from liquisolid tablets while maintaining an acceptable size and mass. Two types of dibasic calcium phosphate (Fujicalin®/Emcompress®) and microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur® 102/Vivapur® 12) were used as carriers and magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® US2) was used as a coating material. The flowable liquid retention potential for those excipients was tested by measuring the angle of slide. To evaluate the impact of used excipients on tablet properties fourteen tablet formulations were prepared. It was found that LS2 tablets containing spherically granulated dibasic calcium phosphate and magnesium aluminometasilicate exhibit the best dissolution profile and mechanical properties while tablets composed only with Neusilin® US2 was characterized by the smallest size and mass with preserved good mechanical properties and furosemide dissolution.

  8. Dielectric properties of BNT-xBT prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer B. Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The BNT ceramic sample might be a good replacement for PZT piezoelectric in industrial applications, especially in energy harvesting from crystal vibrations. In order to enhance the performance of BNT ceramic, the solid solution was chosen by substitution with Ba+2 at Morphtropic Phase Boundary (MPB. The BNT-xBT powders with x=1, 0.07, 0.06 and 0 were prepared by the hydrothermal method with average particle size (65–150nm at (90∘C/72h. The ceramic disc was sintered at (1150∘C/4h and showed excellent relative density of about 96%. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the MPB for x=0.06 and 0.07, while the BNT had a rhombohedral structure and BT had a tetragonal structure. The dielectric measurements showed that BNT, BNT-7BT, BNT-6BT behave as the relaxator ferroelectric and showed a strong dependence on frequency, especially in the MPB region while BT behaves as a normal ferroelectric. Both the Curie temperature and depolarization temperature decrease at the MPB region and showed strong dependency on frequency.

  9. Regulatory preparations towards commencement of uranium mining and processing of radioactive ores in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurisha, M.; Kim, C-L.

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory preparatory work undertaken by the government of the United Republic of Tanzania through the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) following the Mkuyu River Uranium Project definitive feasibility study is discussed. The project, which has been taken over by ARMZ Uranium One, acquired a construction permit in April 2013, where by 345 km"2 of land inside the 50,000 km"2 world heritage Selous Game Reserve was allocated for the purpose. The project has been realized through the government effort to strengthen the regulatory framework via the revised Atomic Energy Act No.7 of 2003, preparations of Radiation Safety in Mining and Radioactive Ores Regulations of 2011, and the human resource capacity development in areas related to inspection and licensing. Sample collection in Bahi and Manyoni areas in the central part of the country to investigate uranium uptake from the plants and radioactivity from water and plant samples is ongoing. The regulatory preparatory work will provide an opportunity to the public to comprehend the measures undertaken by TAEC to protect human health and the environment. (author)

  10. Preparation and characterization of two organoclays aiming its use in adsorption processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazzoler, H.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.; Vazzoler, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Were prepared two organoclays aiming at studying their adsorption properties. The clayssed were the Brazilian Bentongel and Argentina Green Lake. The clays were characterized and organoclays. Performed analyzes of X-Ray diffraction, infrared, SEM, thermogravimetry and swelling experiments Foster and adsorption ASTM. The X-ray diffraction indicated collation of lamellar organic cation used. The variations thermogravimetrics were negative and ranged from around 24% in organophilic clays. The results of infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of bands that show this barge. The form of the particles/agglomerates of clay minerals was verified by SEM before and after organofilization. The values of the measures of swelling were up to 30 mL/g for some solvents. The adsorption test showed good ability of sorption per gram of clay, reaching respectively 10.2g/g and 9.9 g/g for gasoline and ethylbenzene. These high values indicate that the modified clay may have potential use in sectors of environmental toxicity control industrial and separation. (author)

  11. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  12. Highly Efficient Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Low-Temperature Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PEDOT:PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C60 layer before deposition of the top electrode. No high temperature annealing step is needed, which also allows processing on flexible plastic substrates. Only the optimization of all of these layers leads to highly efficient and reproducible results. In this work, we describe the effects of different processing conditions, especially the influence of the C60 top layer on the device performance.

  13. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  14. How does the high school mathematics teacher prepares the learning process based on the 2013 curriculum 2017 revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, I. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Riyadi

    2018-03-01

    2013 Curriculum (K13) provides an opportunity for students to develop the potential attitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary for life and society and contribute to the welfare of human life. The K13 2017 revision requires teachers to integrate 21st-century skills in the learning process. They are consist of critical thinking and problem-solving, communication, creativity and innovation, and collaboration (4C skills), Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), literacy movement, and character education. This study is a qualitative research that aims to describe the steps performed by a high school mathematics teacher in preparing the Lesson Plan (RPP) in accordance with K13 2017 revision. The subject of this study is a Civil Servant Mathematics teacher at SMAN 1 Wuryantoro, Wonogiri Regency. This study used interview method with time triangulation technique to obtain valid data. Based on the interviews it is concluded that in preparing the RPP in accordance with K13 revision 2017, the teacher is guided by The Minister of Education and Culture Regulation (Permendikbud) Number 22 of 2016 and Pedoman Penyusunan RPP Abad 21. The first step taken by the teacher in preparing and developing RPP is quoting KI from Permendikbud Number 21 2016 and KD from Permendikbud Number 24 of 2016. After that, teacher formulates Indicators of Competency Achievement (IPK) in accordance with KD, learning objectives in accordance with IPK, learning materials in accordance with IPK, learning activities integrating 21st-century skills and in line with learning objectives, learning assessment instruments, and learning reflection activities.

  15. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  16. Gas Sensing Properties of Metal Doped WO3 Thin Film Sensors Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition and DC Sputtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Mosharraf Hossain; Ueda, Tsuyoshi; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Ebihara, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films gas sensors were prepared by the KrF excimer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The films were prepared on the quartz glass, silicon and also on the Al2O3 sensor substrates with platinum interdigitated electrodes. The effect of doping of the platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) or gold (Au) on the WO3 thin film was also investigated. These metals were doped to the WO3 thin film by the DC sputtering process during the PLD. The substrate temperature and the oxygen pressure were 400 °C and 100 mTorr, respectively, during the deposition. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sensitivity of the prepared sensors to 60 ppm NO gas was examined using the two terminal resistance method in a chamber at atmospheric pressure and operating temperatures of 25-350 °C. The sensitivity of the WO3 thin films doped with Pt, Pd, or Au was found to be higher than that of the undoped WO3 thin film.

  17. Classroom Quality Rating Systems: How Do Teachers Prepare and What Do They Think about the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Brown, E. Glyn; Hooks, Laura McDonald; Marshall, Betty Jo

    2008-01-01

    Working with the South Carolina Department of Education, the authors surveyed prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers whose schools participated in a quality rating system to see what they did to get ready for the observation and what they thought of the evaluation process. The authors also asked them what they thought about the quality of their…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of Am/Cm melter feed preparation process upset recovery flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results from the development of flowsheets to recover from credible processing errors specified in TTR 99-MNSS/SE-006. The proposed flowsheets were developed in laboratory scale equipment and will be utilized with minor modifications for full scale demonstrations in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility

  19. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Preparing Youth for College and Career: A Process Evaluation of Urban Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodos, Brett; Pergamit, Michael R.; Edelstein, Sara; George, Taz; Freiman, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    This report presents baseline and process study findings of an evaluation of the Urban Alliance high school internship program, which provides training, mentoring, and work experience to high school seniors from distressed communities in Washington, DC, Baltimore, Northern Virginia, and Chicago. The report, which focuses on the program's…

  1. Characterization of microcrystalline I-layer for solar cells prepared in low temperature - plastic compatible process

    KAUST Repository

    Sliz, Rafal; Ahnood, Arman; Nathan, Arokia; Myllyla, Risto; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    Microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si) lms deposited using a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) process constitute an important material for manufacturing low-cost, large-area thin-lm devices, such as solar cells or thin-lm transistors

  2. Arts-based Research Processes in ECEC: Examples from Preparing and Conducting a Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill Vist

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this methodological article, different concepts and possibilities related to how arts-based research processes can contribute in the early phases of ECEC research will be presented and discussed. Despite a setback of art subjects in Norwegian ECEC and early childhood teacher’s education, the field of arts still plays an important role, and is expected to be research-based. Thus, there should be a need for an aesthetical and arts-based dimension in researching ECEC, not only in the subject matter, but also in the method, context, outcome and dissemination. The article focuses on methodological issues in the question development/design phase and the data collection phase, exemplified by the author’s own experiences in arts-based research processes. These processes include participation in dance and music performance as thinking or reflection tools in research, and an arts-based interview method. Some narrative writing processes will also be commented upon. Theoretically, the article primarily leans upon Barone and Eisner’s arts-based research and Irwin and Springgay’s a/r/tography.

  3. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Liberman, N.; Shapiro, O.

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e.,

  4. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  5. Epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings and films prepared by sol-gel process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Brus, Jiří; Matějka, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3-4 (2004), s. 7-15 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0735; GA AV ČR IAA4050008; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : sol-gel process * nanocomposite s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Lowering the environmental impact of high-kappa/ metal gate stack surface preparation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Davoud

    ABSTRACT Hafnium based oxides and silicates are promising high-κ dielectrics to replace SiO2 as gate material for state-of-the-art semiconductor devices. However, integrating these new high-κ materials into the existing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process remains a challenge. One particular area of concern is the use of large amounts of HF during wet etching of hafnium based oxides and silicates. The patterning of thin films of these materials is accomplished by wet etching in HF solutions. The use of HF allows dissolution of hafnium as an anionic fluoride complex. Etch selectivity with respect to SiO2 is achieved by appropriately diluting the solutions and using slightly elevated temperatures. From an ESH point of view, it would be beneficial to develop methods which would lower the use of HF. The first objective of this study is to find new chemistries and developments of new wet etch methods to reduce fluoride consumption during wet etching of hafnium based high-κ materials. Another related issue with major environmental impact is the usage of large amounts of rinsing water for removal of HF in post-etch cleaning step. Both of these require a better understanding of the HF interaction with the high-κ surface during the etching, cleaning, and rinsing processes. During the rinse, the cleaning chemical is removed from the wafers. Ensuring optimal resource usage and cycle time during the rinse requires a sound understanding and quantitative description of the transport effects that dominate the removal rate of the cleaning chemicals from the surfaces. Multiple processes, such as desorption and re-adsorption, diffusion, migration and convection, all factor into the removal rate of the cleaning chemical during the rinse. Any of these processes can be the removal rate limiting process, the bottleneck of the rinse. In fact, the process limiting the removal rate generally changes as the rinse progresses, offering the opportunity to save resources

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite biomaterials prepared by microwave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rosmamuhamadani; Arawi, Ainaa Zafirah Omar; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Mahat, Mohd Muzamir; Jais, Umi Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an attractive and widely utilized bio-ceramic material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its close resemblance of native tooth and bone crystal structure. Synthetic HA exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties. Osteoconductivity means the ability to provide the appropriate scaffold or template for bone formation. Calcium phosphate biomaterials [(HA), tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/TCP)] with appropriate three-dimensional geometry are able to bind and concentrate endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in circulation, and may become osteoinductive and can be effective carriers of bone cell seeds. This HA can be used in bio-implants as well as drug delivery application due to the unique properties of HA. Biomaterials synthesized from the natural species like mussel shells have additional benefits such as high purity, less expensive and high bio compatibility. In this project, HA-nanoparticles of different crystallite size were prepared by microwave synthesis of precursors. High purity CaO was extracted from the natural mussel shells for the synthesis of nano HA. Dried nano HA powders were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique for the determination of crystal structure and impurity content. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) investigation was employed for the morphological investigation of nano HA powders. From the results obtained, it was concluded that by altering the irradiation time, nano HA powders of different crystallite sizes and morphologies could be produced. Crystallite sizes calculated from the XRD patterns are found to be in the range of 10-55 nm depending on the irradiation time.

  8. Effect of Preparation Method on Phase Formation Process and Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn2.5Ge Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sobhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the phase formation process of Mn2.5Ge samples, prepared by mechanical alloying of Mn and Ge metal powders and annealing, has been studied. Results showed that in the milled samples the stable phase is Mn11Ge8 compound with orthorhombic structure and Pnam space group. The value of saturation magnetization increases by increasing milling time from 0.2 up to 1.95 (Am2Kg-1. The remanece of the samples increases by increasing the milling time while the coercivity decreases. Annealing of 15-hour milled sample results in disappearance of Mn and Ge and the formation of new phases of Mn3Ge, Mn5Ge2, Mn5Ge3 and Mn2.3Ge. Mn3Ge is the main phase with Do22 tetragonal structure and I4/mmm space group which is stable and dominant. The enhancement of saturation magnetization in the annealed sample is related to the formation of three new magnetic phases and the increase of coercivity is due to the presence of Mn3Ge compound with tetragonal structure. Studies were replicated on samples made by arc melting method to compare the results and to investigate the effect of the preparation method on phase formation and structural and magnetic properties of the materials. In these samples the saturation value was in range of 0.2 up to 1.95 (Am2Kg-1 depending on preparation methods. Rietveld refinement shows that Mn2.3Ge sample prepared from arc melted under 620oC anealing is single phase. Magnetic analysis of this sample show a saturation magnetization of 5.252(Am2Kg-1 and 0.005 T coercive field.

  9. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Aiqin; Chen Huawei

    2010-01-01

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  11. Ferronickel Preparation from Nickeliferous Laterite by Rotary Kiln-Electric Furnace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Jia, Hao; Luo, Jun; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    Nickel is an important strategic metal, which is mainly used for stainless steel production. In the recent years, ferronickel has been used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel for alleviating the cost of stainless steel production. Rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) smelting is currently the world-wide mainstreaming process for ferronickel production from nickeliferous laterite ore, in spite of the high power consumption. In this study, aiming to provide some meaningful guidance for ferronickel production of RKEF smelting, reductive roasting followed by smelting process was carried out. The conditions including reducing parameters (roasting temperature and time) and smelting parameters (coke dosage, CaO dosage, melting temperature and time) were ascertained. The metal recovery ratios, as well as Ni, Fe, S and P content of ferronickel were considered. The results showed that a ferronickel containing 10. 32 wt. % Ni was obtained from a laterite with 1. 85 wt. % Ni, the nickel recovery ratio was about 99%.

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H 2 and NH 3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H 2 and NH 3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  13. Preparation of soft-agglomerated nano-sized ceramic powders by sol-gel combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Ma, X.H.; Yan, Q.Z.; Ge, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The soft-agglomerated Gd 2 BaCuO 5 (Gd211) nano-powders were synthesized by sol-gel combustion process with binary ligand and the special pretreatment on gel. The mechanism of the formation of weakly agglomerated structure was studied in detail. The results showed that network structure in gelation process was found to be a decisive factor for preventing agglomeration of colloidal particles. The removal of free water, coordinated water, and most of hydroxyl groups during pretreatment further inhibited the formation of hydrogen bonds between adjacent particles. The soft-agglomeration of the particles was confirmed by isolated particles in calcined Gd211 powders and in green compact, a narrow monomodal pore size distribution of the green compact and the low agglomeration coefficient of the calcined Gd211 powder. Extension this process to synthesis of BaCeO 3 , BaTiO 3 and Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 powders, also led to weakly agglomerated nano-powders. It suggests that this method represents a powerful and facile method for the creation of doped and multi-component nano-sized ceramic powders.

  14. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  15. Halothane effects on metabolic processes in cholinergic synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.V.W.

    1984-01-01

    Synaptosomes are an excellent model system for examining metabolic processes that occur in nerve endings. In this study they were used to examine the effects of halothane, an inhalational anesthetic, on metabolic processes associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. They were also used to study possible mechanisms involved with supplying the cytosol with activated acetyl groups produced in the mitochondria. In synaptosomes, halothane reversibly inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, and inhibits choline uptake in a competitive-like manner. It also depresses 14 CO 2 evolution from labeled pyruvate, glucose and succinate, decreases the activity of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and completely inhibits pentose phosphate pathway activity. Halothane also significantly enhances glucose utilization and lactate production. However, halothane has no effect on choline acetyltransferases activity or total synaptosomal acetyl CoA levels. These alterations of metabolic processes leads to the suggestion that the primary effect of halothane is to decrease the NAD + /NADH potential, possibly resulting from mitochondrial NADH-CoQ reductase inhibition. This in combination with halothane's inhibition of choline transport would reduce the availability of both choline and acetyl CoA, precursors required for acetylcholine synthesis

  16. A novel process for preparation of titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag: NH4HF2-HF leaching and hydrolyzing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Guo, Yufeng; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Sui, Yulei; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Lingzhi

    2018-02-15

    A novel process to prepare titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag by NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching and hydrolyzing process has been developed. In this present study, the effects of [NH 4 + ]/[F] mXolar ratio, leaching temperature, [F] concentration, liquid/solid mass ratio, leaching time on the Ti extraction, and the phase transformations have been investigated to reveal the leaching mechanism of Ti-bearing electric furnace slag in NH 4 HF 2 -HF solution. In the NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching process, the MgTi 2 O 5 and Al 2 TiO 5 are converted to TiF 6 2- and Mg-Al-bearing precipitate. Ti extraction rate reached 98.84% under the optimal conditions. In addition, 98.25% iron ions can be removed in the presence of NaCl prior to hydrolysis process. The effects of pH and temperature on the selective hydrolysis of TiF 6 2- during hydrolysis process were also studied. In the hydrolysis process, the TiF 6 2- is converted to (NH 4 ) 2 TiOF 4 . By calcination, high grade TiO 2 powder with its purity of 99.88% was obtained, using which the products, well crystallized anatase and rutile, were obtained through roasting at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface microstructure and cell biocompatibility of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate prepared by a biomimetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Erlin; Zou Chunming; Yu Guoning

    2009-01-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings with 0.14 to 1.14 at.% Si on pure titanium were prepared by a biomimetic process. The microstructure characterization and the cell compatibility of the Si-HA coatings were studied in comparison with that of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating prepared in the same way. The prepared Si-HA coatings and HA coating were only partially crystallized or in nano-scaled crystals. The introduction of Si element in HA significantly reduced P and Ca content, but densified the coating. The atom ratio of Ca to (P + Si) in the Si-HA coatings was in a range of 1.61-1.73, increasing slightly with an increase in the Si content. FTIR results displayed that Si entered HA in a form of SiO 4 unit by substituting for PO 4 unit. The cell attachment test showed that the HA and Si-HA coatings exhibited better cell response than the uncoated titanium, but no difference was observed in the cell response between the HA coating and the Si-HA coatings. Both the HA coating and the Si-HA coatings demonstrated a significantly higher cell growth rate than the uncoated pure titanium (p < 0.05) in all incubation periods while the Si-HA coating exhibited a significantly higher cell growth rate than the HA coating (p < 0.05). Si-HA with 0.42 at.% Si presented the best cell biocompatibility in all of the incubation periods. It was suggested that the synthesis mode of HA and Si-HA coatings in a simulated body environment in the biomimetic process contribute significantly to good cell biocompatibility

  18. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.R.; Solangi, B.A.; Nadeem, U.; Zehra, B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  19. Comparative Study Of The Preparation Of Maleic Anhydride-g-Polypropylene By Two Grafting Processes Using Peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, R.M.; Wang, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Polypropylene grafting with Maleic anhydride is a thoroughly known technique. Its wide application is due, mainly,to the controlled changing in the polarity of this polymer, which increases the interfacial adhesion in blends and compounds. In this study, two grafting processes were compared. In the first, the maleic anhydride was grafted on polypropylene in a solution batch process, carried out in a round-bottom vessel. The second approach was carried out by reactive extrusion of polypropylene in the presence of peroxide and maleic anhydride. The samples thus prepared were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, WAXS, EDS e SEM. It was possible to conclude that the solution technique was more efficient than the reactive extrusion; however the later was easier to accomplish due to the high viscosity of PP. (author)

  20. Electroless Sliver-Plating Process in the Preparation of 103Pd-125I Hybrid Brachytherapy Seed Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhong-yong1,2;CHEN Bin-da1;Lv Xiao-zhou1;LU Jin-hui1;CUI Hai-ping1,2

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroless 103Pd plating and electroless Ag plating and chemical 125I depositing were took place on the surface of carbon rods in turn, which was a reliable method for the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid brachytherapy seed cores. 103Pd and 125I were deposited on the same substrate effectively through silver coating as a bridge. The process of electroless Ag plating was a novel and important step in the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid seed. In this work, the process of electroless Ag plating was studied using 0.5×3.0 mm carbon rods with palladium coating as substrate, silver-ammino complex as precursor, 110mAg as radioactive tracer, and hydrazine as reductant. The optimum conditions were AgNO3 2g/L,Na2EDTA 40 g/L,NH3•H2O 16.25%,H4N2•H2O 5‰,pH=10,t=60 min,and T=35 ℃. Sliver deposited on each carbon rod was uniform, and sliver-coating was white and smooth.

  1. A series of spinel phase cathode materials prepared by a simple hydrothermal process for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yanyu; Bao Shujuan; Li Hulin

    2006-01-01

    A series of spinel-structured materials have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure in an aqueous medium. The new synthetic method is time and energy saving i.e., no further thermal treatment and extended grinding. The main experimental process involved the insertion of lithium into electrolytic manganese dioxide with glucose as a mild reductant in an autoclave. Both the hydrothermal temperature and the presence of glucose play the critical roles in determining the final spinel integrity. Particular electrochemical performance has also been systematically explored, and the results show that Al 3+ , F - co-substituted spinels have the best combination of initial capacity and capacity retention among all these samples, exhibited the initial capacity of 115 mAh/g and maintained more than 90% of the initial value at the 50th cycle. - Graphical abstract: It is a SEM image of the spinel LiMn 2 O 4 , which was prepared by this novel hydrothermal procedure. It illustrates that reasonable-crystallized spinel oxide has occurred through the special hydrothermal process and the average particle size declined to about 1 μm. This homogeneous grain size distribution provides an important morphological basis for the reversibility and accessibility of lithium ion insertion/extraction reactions

  2. Preparation of highly absorbing polymeric hydrogels by radiation processing: mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some highly absorbing polymeric hydrogels such as acrylic polymers were produced by radiation processing with gamma sources Co-60 of 10,000 Ci, 3 kGy/h and an electron beam accelerator of 3 - 6 MeV, 0.3 - 3 kGy/s. For practical purposes, such as different applications in agriculture, etc, we studied the physical properties of residual monomers by refractometric and polarographic methods and the mechanical properties (gel strength) with devices made in our laboratory. (Author)

  3. Mixing process in the preparation of feed pellets at technological conditions rational parametres choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of ingredients – the most important process step in the manufacture of fodder pellets. The technology involves using molasses (warmed to 30–40 °C as a binder. In its composition is administered a mixture of salts of trace elements (copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, cobalt carbonate, potassium iodide, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium selenite, vitamins, salt, magnesium oxide, feed limestone, mono calcium phosphate and lime. Research on the development of feed pellets were carried out in laboratory conditions using experimental equipment. Mixer-reactor created the conditions for heating and temperature control of mass be mixed due to the occurring chemical reaction between water contained in the molasses, and the presence of oxides of calcium and magnesium. The choice of rational parameters of the mixing process upon receipt of fodder pellets allows to provide the high quality product with minimal energy costs. The ranges of the input information factors selected with the aid of a central rotatable uniforms-planning allowed with 56 experiments in a third-multiple replication to obtain the regression equation adequately describing the mixing process. The main factors were: the content of molasses, %; the content of calcium oxide, %; frequency of rotation of the stirrer, rpm; the content of salt in the recipe, %; the temperature of blending, °C. Output factors – productivity, kg/h; energy consumption, kWh; homogeneity of mixing, %. In the result of experiments impact factors and mathematical model of the process that allows to define output parameters within chosen ranges of variation of input factors are obtained. Greatest influence – the content of molasses in the product, the lowest – content of salt in the recipe. Efficiency of mixing hard distributed components pertaining to the most important biologically active substances was evaluated. Content (% of entered of vitamins and minerals in the pellets did not differ

  4. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići - 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  5. Preparation of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets from HDDR-processed powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kenta, E-mail: k-takagi@aist.go.jp [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Akada, Misaho [Magnetic Materials R& D Center, Research Associations of Magnetic Materials for High-Efficiency Motors (MagHEM), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Soda, Rikio; Ozaki, Kimihiro [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    The electric-current sintering technique was used to fully densify hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination (HDDR)-processed Nd–Fe–B powder at temperatures below the grain growth temperature in order to produce high-coercive bulk magnets. However, the sintered magnets exhibited anomalous coercivity reduction that depended on sintered density. Reheating examination of the sintered magnets revealed that the reduced coercivity was increased in proportion to the heating temperature, resulting in complete recovery of coercivity. As a result, the combination of electric-current sintering and post-annealing produced sintered magnets with a coercivity of 15 kOe. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence that associated the anomalous coercivity reduction and recovery with grain boundary morphology. On the other hand, various HDDR powders with different particle sizes were sintered, and finer powders yielded lower coercivity after sintering, implying that the anomalous coercivity reduction was associated with particle surface oxides of the raw powder. - Highlights: • We conduct a sintering of HDDR-processed Nd–Fe–B powder without coercivity reduction. • Rapid current sintering allows densification of this powder without grain growth. • However, the sintered magnets show an anomalous coercivity reduction phenomenon. • It is found that post-annealing completely recovers the reduced coercivity. • The anomalous coercivity reduction would be due to surface oxide of the raw powder.

  6. Residue dissipation and processing factor for dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil during raisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar; Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2015-03-01

    A method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of the residues of dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil in grape and raisin matrix by ethyl acetate based extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the dissipation rate kinetics and processing factor (PF) for these pesticides during raisin making. Residue data during the drying process were best fitted to 1st+1st order rate kinetics with half-life ranging between 8-9 days for dimethomorph, 12-13 days for famoxadone and 9-10 days for cymoxanil at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF values calculated were 1.03 and 1.14 for dimethomorph, 1.95 and 2.09 for famoxadone, and 1.99 and 1.35 for cymoxanil at SD and DD, respectively. PF value >1 indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making. The residues of detected pesticides in market samples of raisins were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphie, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The most significant part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was the one-piece removal and shipment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Implicit in the RPV transport was the task of qualifying the RPV as a waste package acceptable for shipment. Soon after physical decommissioning began on September 1985, questions regarding the packaging certification and transport of the RPV from Shippingport, Pennsylvania to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Waste Burial Site necessitated reexamination of several planning assumptions. A complete reassessment of the regulatory requirements governing the RPV shipment resulted in a programmatic decision to obtain a type B(U) Certificate of Compliance and abandon the originally planned US Department of Transportation (DOT) low specific activity (LSA) shipment. The decision process resulting in this conclusion was extensive and involved many organizations and agencies. Incidental to this process, several subtle certification issues were identified that required resolution. Some of these issues involved the definition of LSA material for large packages; interpretation and compliance with DOE, DOT and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for the transport of radioactive material; incorporation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations by the Panama Canal; and DOE policy requiring advance notification to states of radioactive waste shipments. 2 figs

  8. Characterization of microcrystalline I-layer for solar cells prepared in low temperature - plastic compatible process

    KAUST Repository

    Sliz, Rafal

    2012-06-01

    Microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si) lms deposited using a Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) process constitute an important material for manufacturing low-cost, large-area thin-lm devices, such as solar cells or thin-lm transistors. Although the deposition of electronic-grade mc-Si using the PECVD process is now well established, the high substrate temperature required (~400°C) does not lend itself to electronic devices with exible form factors fabricated on low-cost plastic substrates. In this study, we rst investigated an intrinsic mc-Si layer deposited at plastic-compatible substrate temperatures (~150°C) by characterising the properties of the lm and then evaluated its applicability to p-i-n solar cells though device characterisation. When the performance of the solar cell was correlated with lm properties, it was found that, although it compared unfavourably with mc-Si deposited at higher temperatures, it remained a very promising option. Nonetheless, further development is required to increase the overall eciency of mc-Si exible solar cells.

  9. The ATLAS Fast Tracker Processing Units - input and output data preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolz, Arthur Eugen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Fast Tracker is a hardware processor built to reconstruct tracks at a rate of up to 100 kHz and provide them to the high level trigger system. The Fast Tracker will allow the trigger to utilize tracking information from the entire detector at an earlier event selection stage than ever before, allowing for more efficient event rejection. The connection of the system from to the detector read-outs and to the high level trigger computing farms are made through custom boards implementing Advanced Telecommunications Computing Technologies standard. The input is processed by the Input Mezzanines and Data Formatter boards, designed to receive and sort the data coming from the Pixel and Semi-conductor Tracker. The Fast Tracker to Level-2 Interface Card connects the system to the computing farm. The Input Mezzanines are 128 boards, performing clustering, placed on the 32 Data Formatter mother boards that sort the information into 64 logical regions required by the downstream processing units. This necessitat...

  10. Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphie, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The most significant part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was the one-piece removal and shipment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Implicit in the RPV transport was the task of qualifying the RPV as a waste package acceptable for shipment. Soon after physical decommissioning began on September, 1985, questions regarding the packaging certification and transport of the RPV from Shippingport, Pennsylvania to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford waste burial site necessitated reexamination of several planning assumptions. A complete reassessment of the regulatory requirements governing the RPV shipment resulting in a programmatic decision to obtain a Type B(U) Certification of Compliance and abandon the originally planned U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) low specific activity (LSA) shipment. The decision process resulting in this conclusion was extensive and involved many organizations and agencies. Incidental to this process, several subtle certification issues were identified that required resolution. Some of these issues involved the definition of LSA material for large packages; interpretation and compliance with DOE, DOT and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for the transport of radioactive material; incorporation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations by the Panama Canal; and DOE policy requiring advance notification to states of radioactive waste shipments

  11. CVD apparatus and process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, A.J.; Devore, C.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Moeller, H.H.

    1990-01-23

    An apparatus and process for the chemical vapor deposition of a matrix into a preform having circumferentially wound ceramic fibers, comprises heating one surface of the preform while cooling the other surface thereof. The resulting product may have fibers that are wound on radial planes or at an angle from the radial planes. The fibers can also be precoated with pyrolytic carbon before application of the matrix. The matrix is applied by passing reactant gas through the preform thereof to the other side thereof for the initial deposition of matrix near such other surface of the preform. The matrix fills in the preform from the other side surface thereof to the surface of the side of application thereof until a desired amount of matrix has been deposited. 6 figs.

  12. Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Subramanian; Sabesan, Muthukumaran

    2010-01-01

    Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform – infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible. PMID:21808573

  13. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  14. The preparation of reports of a significant event at a uranium processing or uranium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Licenses to operate uranium processing or uranium handling facilities require that certain events be reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and to other regulatory authorities. Reports of a significant event describe unusual events which had or could have had a significant impact on the safety of facility operations, the worker, the public or on the environment. The purpose of this guide is to suggest an acceptable method of reporting a significant event to the AECB and to describe the information that should be included. The reports of a significant event are made available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the AECB's policy on public access to licensing information

  15. Process for the preparation of unsatured hydrocarbons. Verfahren zur Herstellung ungesaettigter Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tmenov, D N; Svintsov, N I; Schapovalova, L P; Tabakov, A V; Dvoretsky, M L; Vasiliev, G I; Schestovsky, G P; Kandalova, V D; Korotkevitsch, B S; Lukaschov, A I

    1980-07-31

    Parrafins, olefines or alkyl aromatic compounds can be dehydrated using a catalyst with a molybdenum oxide compound as the active component and magnesium oxide and crystalline clay or titanium oxide or aluminium oxide as carrier. Monoolefines are formed, which are returned to the contact area, and diolefines. The oxygen of the catalyst is used up in the process, so that this has to be regenerated by a gas rich in oxygen at intervals. In order to avoid oxidation cracking by the oxygen, the catalyst must be flushed with an inert gas before reuse. Dehydration occurs in a fluidised bed, where the yield of olefines is increased by dilution of the hydrocarbons by an inert gas.

  16. Synthesis and crystal kinetics of cerium oxide nanocrystallites prepared by co-precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Hon, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized at a relatively low temperature using cerium nitrate as starting materials in a water solution by a co-precipitation process. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K by XRD analysis. When calcined from 473 to 1273 K, the crystallization of the face-centered cubic phase was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 10.0 to 43.8 nm with calcining temperature increasing from 673 to 1273 K. The activation energy for growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to be 16.0 kJ mol -1 .

  17. Synthesis and crystal kinetics of cerium oxide nanocrystallites prepared by co-precipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hon, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Cerium oxide nanocrystallites were synthesized at a relatively low temperature using cerium nitrate as starting materials in a water solution by a co-precipitation process. Effect of calcination temperature on the crystallite growth of cerium oxide nano-powders was investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The crystallization temperature of the cerium oxide powders was estimated to be about 273 K by XRD analysis. When calcined from 473 to 1273 K, the crystallization of the face-centered cubic phase was observed by XRD. The crystallite size of the cerium oxide increased from 10.0 to 43.8 nm with calcining temperature increasing from 673 to 1273 K. The activation energy for growth of cerium oxide nanoparticles was found to be 16.0 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  18. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  19. Transparent conductive Ta2O5-codoped ITO thin films prepared by different heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Dong, X.P.; Wu, J.S.; Xu, X.F.

    2008-01-01

    Tantalum-doped indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by a cosputtering technique with an ITO target and a Ta 2 O 5 target. The variations of microstructure, electrical and optical properties with substrate temperature and annealing temperature were investigated in some detail. Ta-doped ITO thin films showed better crystalline structure with different prominent plane orientation by different heating process. ITO:Ta thin films deposited at room temperature showed better optical and electrical properties. Increasing substrate temperature and reasonable annealing temperature could remarkably improve the optical and electrical properties of the films. The variation of carrier concentration had an important influence on near-IR reflection, near-UV absorption and optical bandgap. ITO:Ta thin films showed wider optical bandgap. ITO:Ta thin films under the optimum parameters had a sheet resistance of 10-20 and ohm;/sq and a transmittance of 85% with an optical bandgap of above 4.0 eV. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Stability assessment of lycopene microemulsion prepared using tomato industrial waste against various processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2017-11-01

    Green separation techniques are growing at a greater rate than solvent extraction as a result of the constant consumer drive to 'go natural'. Considering the increasing evidence of the health benefits of lycopene and massive tomato industrial waste, in the present study, lycopene was extracted from tomato industrial waste using microemulsion technique and its mean droplet size and size distribution was determined. Moreover, the effects of pasteurization, sterilization, freeze-thaw cycles and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the thermodynamic stability, turbidity and lycopene concentration of the lycopene microemulsion were monitored. Freeze-thaw cycles, pasteurization and short exposure to UV irradiation showed no or negligible influence on lycopene content and turbidity of the microemulsion. However, long exposure to UV (260 min) reduced the lycopene content and turbidity by 34% and 10%, respectively. HHST (higher-heat shorter-time) and sterilization also reduced lycopene content (25%) and increased turbidity (32%). The lycopene microemulsion showed satisfactory stability over a process where its monodispersity and nanosize could be of potential advantage to the food and related industries. Regarding the carcinogenicity of synthetic colourants, potential applications of the lycopene microemulsion include in soft drinks and minced meat, which would result in a better colour and well-documented health-promoting qualities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Optical Constants of Crystallized TiO2 Coatings Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide coatings have been deposited by the sol-gel dip-coating method. Crystallization of titanium oxide coatings was then achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Characterization technique, based on least-square fitting to the measured reflectance and transmittance spectra, is used to determine the refractive indices of the crystallized TiO2 coatings. The stability of the synthesized sol was also investigated by dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer. The influence of the thermal annealing on the optical properties was then discussed. The increase in refractive index with high temperature thermal annealing process was observed, obtaining refractive index values from 1.98 to 2.57 at He-Ne laser wavelength of 633 nm. The Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies indicate that the index variation is due to the changes in crystalline phase, density, and morphology during thermal annealing.

  2. Application of life cycle assessment to production processes of environmentally sustainable concrete, prepared with artificial aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, R.; Colangelo, F.; Palumbo, M.; Cioffi, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about the application of Life Cycle Assessment (L.C.A.) on environmentally sustainable concrete production processes. The goal of this experimentations is to assess environmental impact and energy demand related to concrete production, by using, in different admixtures, natural and artificial aggregates, belonging from treatments of different kind of industrial wastes characterized by very small particle sizes. Particular attention was concentrated on the utilization of fine fraction since it is difficult to recover in usual fields of recycling (i.e. aggers, crowl spaces, etc.). This study follows the approach from cradle to cradle. This experimentation was conducted in relation to four concrete admixtures produced, one of them containing only natural aggregate, and the other ones obtained by substituting the 10% of aggregate respectively with inert wastes as construction and demolition waste (CeD waste). cement kiln dust (CKD) and marble sludge. For all admixtures six different end-life scenarios have been proposed, one of them considers all materials transported in landfill while the other ones consider a partial transportation on landfill (15%) and a recycle of the 85% of wastes obtained after demolition of structures [it

  3. Process for the preparation of deuterium enriched water in the production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrin, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis gas facility is operated for n consecutive periods. During the first period excess feed water is added to the facility. The effluent from the resulting mixture is fed to a storage container. During the following n-1 operating periods the stored effluent water is used as feed for the synthesis gas facility. The effluent from each operating period is stored in layers with corresponding deuterium concentration in the storage container. The effluent from the last operating period involving the highest deuterium concentration is fed to a second container and from there to a heavy water production unit. In order to recuperate the deuterium contained in the gas mixture leaving the condensor (consisting of hydrogen, vapour and residual compounds), the mixture is fed to an exchange stage. There the mixture is isotopically exchanged with additional water in a cross flow whereby this water gets enriched in deuterium and is fed to the synthesis gas facility. The process leads to an improved yield of heavy water in the heavy water production facility

  4. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  5. Rheology Guided Rational Selection of Processing Temperature To Prepare Copovidone-Nifedipine Amorphous Solid Dispersions via Hot Melt Extrusion (HME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhang, Jingtao; DiNunzio, James; Leone, Anthony; Huang, Chengbin; Brown, Chad D

    2016-10-03

    The production of amorphous solid dispersions via hot melt extrusion (HME) relies on elevated temperature and prolonged residence time, which can result in potential degradation and decomposition of thermally sensitive components. Herein, the rheological properties of a physical mixture of polymer and an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate HME processing temperature. In the currently studied copovidone-nifedipine system, a critical temperature, which is substantially lower (∼13 °C) than the melting point of crystalline API, was captured during a temperature ramp examination and regarded as the critical point at which the API could molecularly dissolve into the polymer. Based on the identification of this critical point, various solid dispersions were prepared by HME processing below, at, and above the critical temperature (both below and above the melting temperature (T m ) of crystalline API). In addition, the resultant extrudates along with two control solid dispersions prepared by physical mixing and cryogenic milling were assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, rheology, and solid-state NMR. Physicochemical properties of resultant solid dispersions indicated that the identified critical temperature is sufficient for the polymer-API system to reach a molecular-level mixing, manifested by the transparent and smooth appearance of extrudates, the absence of API crystalline diffraction and melting peaks, dramatically decreased rheological properties, and significantly improved polymer-API miscibility. Once the critical temperature has been achieved, further raising the processing temperature only results in limited improvement of API dispersion, reflected by slightly reduced storage modulus and complex viscosity and limited improvement in miscibility.

  6. Parallel processing streams for motor output and sensory prediction during action preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-03-15

    Sensory consequences of one's own actions are perceived as less intense than identical, externally generated stimuli. This is generally taken as evidence for sensory prediction of action consequences. Accordingly, recent theoretical models explain this attenuation by an anticipatory modulation of sensory processing prior to stimulus onset (Roussel et al. 2013) or even action execution (Brown et al. 2013). Experimentally, prestimulus changes that occur in anticipation of self-generated sensations are difficult to disentangle from more general effects of stimulus expectation, attention and task load (performing an action). Here, we show that an established manipulation of subjective agency over a stimulus leads to a predictive modulation in sensory cortex that is independent of these factors. We recorded magnetoencephalography while subjects performed a simple action with either hand and judged the loudness of a tone caused by the action. Effector selection was manipulated by subliminal motor priming. Compatible priming is known to enhance a subjective experience of agency over a consequent stimulus (Chambon and Haggard 2012). In line with this effect on subjective agency, we found stronger sensory attenuation when the action that caused the tone was compatibly primed. This perceptual effect was reflected in a transient phase-locked signal in auditory cortex before stimulus onset and motor execution. Interestingly, this sensory signal emerged at a time when the hemispheric lateralization of motor signals in M1 indicated ongoing effector selection. Our findings confirm theoretical predictions of a sensory modulation prior to self-generated sensations and support the idea that a sensory prediction is generated in parallel to motor output (Walsh and Haggard 2010), before an efference copy becomes available. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Preparation of tantalum-based alloys by a unique CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, W.A.; Meier, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with the formation of alloys by CVD is the achievement of compositional uniformity. In a typical deposition apparatus, wherein reactant gases are made to flow over the substrate in a continuous manner, this nonuniformity is inherent for two reasons. The composition of the gas stream changes as a function of its distance of travel over the substrate and, inevitably, one of the reactant compounds is more easily reduced than the other(s). This problem was overcome by the development of a process termed ''pulsing.'' In it reactant gases are periodically injected into a previously evacuated reaction chamber where they cover the substrate almost instantaneously. By this technique, gas composition at any point in time is not dependent upon distance along the substrate. Formation of alternating layers of the alloy components and subsequent homogenization allows the formation of an alloy of uniform composition with the composition being determined by the duration and relative number of the various cycles. This technique has been utilized to produce dense alloys with the composition Ta--10 wt percent W by depositing alternating layers of TA and W by the hydrogen reduction of TaCl 5 and WCl 6 . The alloys were uniform in thickness and composition over lengths in excess of 20 cm and the target composition was attained. A similar attempt to deposit a Ta--8 wt percent W--2 wt percent Hf alloy was unsuccessful because of the difficulty in reducing HfCl 4 at temperatures below those at which gas phase nucleation of Ta and W occurred (1200 and 1175 0 C respectively). 7 fig

  8. Preparation of Cyano-Substituted Tetraphenylethylene Derivatives and Their Applications in Solution-Processable OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of organic luminescent materials with high solid-state efficiency is of vital importance for their applications in optoelectronic fields. Here, a series of AIE luminogens (AIE gens, (Z-2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenyl-3-phenylacrylonitrile (SFC, and 2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenylfumaronitrile (DFC, utilizing 2,3,3-triphenylacrylonitrile and 2,3-diphenylfumaronitrile as respective centers, are designed and synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions with high yields. The cis- and trans-isomers of DFC are also successfully obtained. All of them are thermally stable and show good solubility in common organic solvents. They all emit weakly in solution, but become strong emitters when fabricated into solid films. It is found introduction of one additional cyano group in DFC induced a big red-shift in solid-state emission, owing to its high electron-withdrawing ability. The cis- and trans-DFC show similar photophysical and Cyclic voltammogram (CV behaviors. Non-doped solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs using the three compounds as light-emitting layers are fabricated. SFC gives the best device performance with a maximum luminance of 5201 cd m−2, a maximum current efficiency of 3.67 cd A−1 and a maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQE of 1.37%. Red-shifted EL spectra are observed for cis- and trans-DFC-based device, and the OLED using trans-DFC as active layer exhibits better performance, which might derive from their different conformation in film state.

  9. Modernization of the automation control system of technological processes at the preparation plant in the conditions of technical re-equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhovets, M. V.; Wenger, K. G.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Shipunov, M. V.; Grachev, V. V.; Melkozerov, M. Yu; Fairoshin, Sh A.

    2018-05-01

    The experience of modernization of the automation control system of technological processes at the preparation plant under the conditions of technical re-equipment of the preparation plant “Barzasskoye Tovarischestvo” LLC (Berezovsky) is considered. The automated process control systems (APCS), the modernization goals and the ways to achieve them are indicated, the main subsystems of the integrated APCS are presented, the enlarged functional and technical structure of the upgraded system is given. The procedure for commissioning an upgraded system is described.

  10. Process Parameters on the Crystallization and Morphology of Hydroxyapatite Powders Prepared by a Hydrolysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moo-Chin; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Lin; Hung, I.-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Shih, Wei-Jen

    2013-07-01

    The effects of process parameters on the crystallization and morphology of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) powders synthesized from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, DCPD) using a hydrolysis method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to characterize the synthesized powders. When DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 2.5 NaOH solution (Na(aq)) at 303 K to 348 K (30 °C to 75 °C) for 1 hour, the XRD results revealed that HA was obtained for all the as-dried samples. The SEM morphology of the HA powders for DCPD hydrolysis produced at 348 K (75 °C) shows regular alignment and a short rod shape with a size of 200 nm in length and 50 nm in width. With DCPD hydrolysis in 2.5 M NaOH(aq) holding at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 to 24 hours, XRD results demonstrated that all samples were HA and no other phases could be detected. Moreover, the XRD results also show that all the as-dried powders still maintained the HA structure when DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 0.1 to 5 M NaOH(aq) at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour. Otherwise, the full transformation from HA to octa-calcium phosphate (OCP, Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O) occurred when hydrolysis happened in 10 M NaOH(aq). FT-IR spectra analysis revealed that some carbonated HA (Ca10(PO4)6(CO3), CHA) had formed. The SEM morphology results show that the 60 to 65 nm width of the uniformly long rods with regular alignment formed in the HA powder aggregates when DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 2.5 M NaOH(aq) at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour.

  11. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO2 nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongbiao; Dong Fan; Zhao Weirong; Guo Sen

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N - ) states above the valence band of TiO 2 modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO 2 nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO 2

  12. Environmentally benign process for the preparation of antimicrobial α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (tulipalin B) from tulip biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Hayashi, Emiko; Kawakami, Shohei; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Tulipalin B (α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, PaB) is an antimicrobial natural product occurring in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). PaB is directly formed from the precursor glucose ester 6-tuliposide B (PosB) by endogenous Pos-converting enzyme (TCE). Despite the potential usefulness of antibacterial PaB in various industrial applications, lack of facile synthetic schemes hampers its practical use. Herein, we describe an environmentally benign and facile process for the preparation of PaB using tulip biomass materials based on one-step enzyme reaction catalyzed by TCE without the use of petroleum-derived solvents. By screening 115 tulip cultivars, we found three elite cultivars, which accumulated PosB almost exclusively in flower tissues. The flower extracts with aqueous ethanol were partially purified with activated charcoal and subjected to the enzyme reaction with reusable immobilized TCE prepared from bulb crude extracts. The reaction was completed in a few hours at room temperature, and PaB was purified with activated charcoal and ethanol in a batch-wise manner.

  13. Restart of the chemical preparation process for the fabrication of ZnO varistors for ferroelectric neutron generator power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Steven John

    2005-01-01

    To date, all varistors used in ferroelectric neutron generators have been supplied from a single, proprietary source, General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE CR and D). To protect against the vulnerability of a single source, Sandia initiated a program in the early 1980's to develop a second source for this material. A chemical preparation process for making homogeneous, high purity ZnO-based varistor powder was generated, scaled to production quantities, and transferred to external suppliers. In 1992, the chem-prep varistor program was suspended when it appeared there was sufficient inventory of GE CR and D material to supply ferroelectric neutron generator production for many years. In 1999, neutron generator production schedules increased substantially, resulting in a predicted exhaustion of the existing supply of varistor material within five years. The chem-prep program was restarted in January, 2000. The goals of the program were to (1) duplicate the chem-prep powder synthesis process that had been qualified for WR production, (2) demonstrate sintered billets from the chem-prep powder met requirements, (3) develop a process for rod fabrication and demonstrate that all component specifications could be met, and (4) optimize the process from powder synthesis through component fabrication for full-scale production. The first three of these goals have been met and are discussed in this report. A facility for the fabrication of production quantities of chem-prep powder has been established. All batches since the restart have met compositional requirements, but differences in sintering behavior between the original process and the restarted process were noted. Investigation into the equipment, precipitant stoichiometry, and powder processing procedures were not able to resolve the discrepancies. It was determined that the restarted process, which incorporated Na doping for electrical stability (a process that was not introduced until the end of the

  14. Process controls for Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 prepared by mechanical alloying and hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Lim, Young-Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Jae-Soung; Yang, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    p-Type Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 solid solutions were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot pressing (HP) under different process conditions, after which the transport and the thermoelectric properties were evaluated. The relative densities of all hot-pressed specimens were over 98%, and the microstructure and crystal orientation were independent of the HP direction. All specimens exhibited p-type conduction, and the electrical resistivity was observed to increase slightly with increasing temperature, indicating a degenerate semiconductor behavior. The carrier concentration decreased with increasing HP temperature while the mobility increased. The maximum figure of merit obtained was 0.86 at 323 K for Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 hot-pressed at 648 K.

  15. A series of spinel phase cathode materials prepared by a simple hydrothermal process for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Yu; Bao, Shu-Juan; Li, Hu-Lin

    2006-07-01

    A series of spinel-structured materials have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure in an aqueous medium. The new synthetic method is time and energy saving i.e., no further thermal treatment and extended grinding. The main experimental process involved the insertion of lithium into electrolytic manganese dioxide with glucose as a mild reductant in an autoclave. Both the hydrothermal temperature and the presence of glucose play the critical roles in determining the final spinel integrity. Particular electrochemical performance has also been systematically explored, and the results show that Al 3+, F - co-substituted spinels have the best combination of initial capacity and capacity retention among all these samples, exhibited the initial capacity of 115 mAh/g and maintained more than 90% of the initial value at the 50th cycle.

  16. Process optimization for the preparation of straw feedstuff for rearing yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    It has been confirmed in our previous work that in bioregenerative life support systems, feeding yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) using fermented straw has the potential to provide good animal protein for astronauts, meanwhile treating with plant wastes. However, since the nitrogen content in straw is very low, T. molitor larvae can not obtain sufficient nitrogen, which results in a relatively low growth efficiency. In this study, wheat straw powder was mixed with simulated human urine before fermentation. Condition parameters, e.g. urine:straw ratio, moisture content, inoculation dose, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and pH were optimized using Taguchi method. Larval growth rate and average individual mass of mature larva increased significantly in the group of T. molitor larvae fed with feedstuff prepared with the optimized process.

  17. Preparation of porous hollow silica spheres via a layer-by-layer process and the chromatographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaobing; Gong, Cairong; Chen, Xujuan; Fan, Guoliang; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Hollow silica spheres possessing excellent mechanical properties were successfully prepared through a layer-by-layer process using uniform polystyrene (PS) latex fabricated by dispersion polymerization as template. The formation of hollow SiO2 micro-spheres, structures and properties were observed in detail by zeta potential, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. The results indicated that the hollow spheres were uniform with particle diameter of 1.6 μm and shell thickness of 150 nm. The surface area was 511 m2/g and the pore diameter was 8.36 nm. A new stationary phase for HPLC was obtained by using C18-derivatized hollow SiO2 micro-spheres as packing materials and the chromatographic properties were evaluated for the separation of some regular small molecules. The packed column showed low column pressure, high values of efficiency (up to about 43 000 plates/m) and appropriate asymmetry factors.

  18. Preparation of Pt Nanocatalyst on Carbon Materials via a Reduction Reaction of a Pt Precursor in a Drying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, Woo-Kum; Rim, Hyung-Ryul; Joung, Gyu-Bum; Weidner, John W; Lee, Hong-Ki

    2016-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) nanocatalyst for a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was prepared on a carbon black particle or a graphite particle coated with a nafion polymer via a reduction of platinum(II) bis(acetylacetonate) denoted as Pt(acac)2 as a Pt precursor in a drying process. Sublimed Pt(acac)2 adsorbed on the nafion-coated carbon materials was reduced to Pt nanoparticles in a glass reactor at 180 degrees C of N2 atmosphere. The morphology of Pt nanoparticles on carbon materials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the distribution of Pt nanoparticles was done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was estimated by analyzing the TEM image using an image analyzer. It was found that nano-sized Pt particles were deposited on the surface of carbon materials, and the number density and the average particle size increased with increasing reduction time.

  19. Contributions in the Preparation and Processing of Composite Material Type Silumin 3 - Reinforced Matrix with S235JR Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Belu-Nica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented concrete data on developing technological batches of metal composite material (MCM type Silumin 3-reinforced matrix with steel mesh S235JR, with the indicating of the parameter and of the distinct stages of work. The samples from prepared batches were cut along and across by water jet abrasive process and were subjected to a destructive testing program and microstructural examination, obtaining results in concordance with the desired quality. The abrasive material used for cut was GMA granite with the average mesh of 80, the particle size ranging between 150-300 µm, density 2300 kg/m3 and melting point 1240°C.

  20. A Novel Process to Prepare Chitosan Macrospheres without Shrinkage and its Application to Immobilize β-Galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fang Sun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new process for the preparation of chitosan macrospheres, which was simple and practicable, was suggested in this paper and various chitosans with different molecular weight were used as materials to immobilize β-galactosidase and the chitosan macrospheres with the lowest molecular weight (500 000 was selected as enzyme immobilization carrier based on the highest enzyme activity. In order to overcome the shrinkage of chitosan during drying, the wet macrospheres obtained was treated by 30% glycerol solution for 1 h before drying and the results showed that the dried chitosan macrospheres obtained could keep almost the same structure as its wet form, which was very important for chitosan as enzyme carrier in industry. Finally, β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae was immobilized on above dry chitosan macrospheres and a satisfactory result of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in enzyme activity yield, pH stability, thermal stability, operational stability, Michaelis constants Km and the maximum velocity (Vm

  1. Antibacterial property of CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders prepared by a self-combustion glycine nitrate process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nien, Yung-Tang, E-mail: ytnien@nfu.edu.tw [Deparment of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Hu, Mon-Ru [Deparment of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin, 63201, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Te-Wei [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, 10608, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jaw-Shiow [Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Hsinchu, 30062, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Porous CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders were prepared via glycine nitrate process (GNP) at 175 °C in ambient air. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a pure delafossite phase of CuCrO{sub 2} with numerous broad peaks, indicating a crystallite size of approximately 20 nm. The surface area of the CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders was larger than 50 m{sup 2}/g, nearly 100 times greater than that of bulk powders (0.47 m{sup 2}/g). Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) were chosen as the antibacterial evaluation indicators for both the nanopowders and bulk powders. The results showed that 1750 ppm nanopowders inhibited the growth of E. coli. As a control, the bulk powders showed a normal growth profile. The antibacterial property of the CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders can be attributed to the extremely large surface area, which induces rapid release of Cu ions and strong adhesion of nanopowders to bacteria. - Highlights: • CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders was prepared by low-temperature glycine nitrate process. • 1250–1500 ppm of CuCrO{sub 2} nanopowders were found to depress the growth of Escherichia coli. • Bulk powders by the solid state reaction exhibited no antibacterial property. • The antibacterial property of nanopowders was attributed to rapid Cu ion releases. • Heavy adhesion of nanopowders to bacteria also resulted in antibacterial property.

  2. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ, p-benzoquinone (BQ, co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  3. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Jixiao; Ou, Bin; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2018-02-12

    Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ), p-benzoquinone (BQ), co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB) and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  4. Preparation of iron-deposited graphite surface for application as cathode material during electrochemical vat-dyeing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbu Kulandainathan, M.; Kiruthika, K.; Christopher, G.; Babu, K. Firoz; Muthukumaran, A.; Noel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Iron-deposited graphite surfaces were prepared, characterized and employed as cathode materials for electrochemical vat-dyeing process containing very low concentration of sodium dithionite. The electrodeposition, in presence of ammonium thiocyanate and gelatin or animal glue as binding additives, were found to give finer iron deposits for improved electrochemical dyeing application. The electrodeposits were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods, before and after electrochemical dyeing process. The electrochemical activity of the iron-deposited graphite electrodes always stored in water seems to depend on the surface-bound Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ redox species. Vat dyes like C.I. Vat Violet 1, C.I. Vat Green 1 and C.I. Vat Blue 4 could be efficiently dyed employing these above electrode materials. The colour intensity and washing fastness of the dyed fabrics were found to be equal with conventionally dyed fabrics. The electrodes could also be reused for the dyeing process

  5. Preparation, melting behavior and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends processed by vane extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wei, E-mail: zw55624@163.com; Chen, Rongyuan; Zhang, Haichen; Qu, Jinping, E-mail: jpqu@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-03-09

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends were prepared by vane extruder which is a type of novel polymer processing extruder based on elongation force field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) were used respectively to analyze the compatibility, the melting behavior and thermal stability properties of PLA/PPC blends affected by the different content of PPC. The results showed that with the increase of the PPC content, the glass transition temperature of PLA was reduced, and the glass transition temperature of PPC was increased, which indicated that PLA and PPC had partial compatibility. The cold crystallization temperature of PLA increased with the increase of the PPC content, which showed that PPC hindered the cold crystallization process of PLA. The addition of PPC had little impact on the melting process of PLA, and the melting temperature of PLA was almost kept the same value. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of PPC was worse than that of PLA, the addition of PPC reduced the thermal stability of PLA.

  6. Compact Process for the Preparation of Microfine Spherical High-Niobium-Containing TiAl Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J. B.; Lu, X.; Liu, C. C.; Wang, L. N.; Qu, X. H.

    2015-03-01

    High-Nb-containing TiAl alloys are a new generation of materials for high-temperature structural applications because of their superior high-temperature mechanical properties. The alloy powders can be widely used for additive manufacturing, thermal spraying, and powder metallurgy. Because of the difficulty of making microfine spherical alloy powders in quantity by conventional techniques, a compact method was proposed, which consisted of two-step ball milling of elemental powders and subsequent radio frequency (RF) argon plasma spheroidization. In comparison with conventional mechanical alloying techniques, the two-step milling process can be used to prepare alloy powders with uniform scale in a short milling time with no addition of process control agent. This makes the process effective and less contaminating. After RF argon plasma spheroidization, the powders produced exhibit good sphericity, and the number-average diameter is about 8.2 μm with a symmetric unimodal particle size distribution. The powders perform high composition homogeneity and contain predominately supersaturated α 2-Ti3Al phase. The oxygen and carbon contents of the spheroidized powder are 0.47% and 0.050%, respectively.

  7. Highly efficient fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by nepheline prepared from kaolinite through alkali-hydrothermal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Li, Zishun; Tang, Xuekun; Li, Guangze

    2017-07-01

    A direct alkali-hydrothermal induced transformation process was adopted to prepare nepheline from raw kaolinite (shortened form RK in this paper) and NaOH solution in this paper. Structure and morphology characterizations of the synthetic product showed that the nepheline possessed high degree of crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. Specific surface area of nepheline is 18 m 2 /g, with a point of zero charge at around pH 5.0-5.5. The fluoride (F - ions) adsorption by the synthetic nepheline (shortened form SN in this paper) from aqueous solution was also investigated under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process well matched the Langmuir isotherm model with an amazing maximum adsorption capacity of 183 mg/g at 323 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 ) for adsorption on SN were also determined from the temperature dependence. The adsorption capacities of fluoride on SN increased with increasing of temperature and initial concentration. Initial pH value also had influence on adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride was rapidly increased in 5-60 min and thereafter increased slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 90-180 min under all conditions. The adsorption followed a pseudo-second order rate law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF SELF-DEFENSE OF THE MUNICIPALITIES – PREPARATION FOR THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AT DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Dobó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research, which was started in 2013 focuses on the decision-making process after vis-mayor situations (Dobó, 2013. Disaster Management in Hungary is a less known and researched area. However, over the last years natural problems had great impact on the decision making process of the local government (Csefkó, 1997. The disasters transformed the processes that had been working so far. The examination of the changed decisions became very important. Researches were carried out by the Disaster Management Department of National University of Public Service. One of the most important projects is the Critical infrastructure protection that could provide practical knowledge about the topic. The decision-making process after the crisis had not been analysed in previous studies. This research can be divided into several parts. First, there is exploration of the theoretical frameworks, laws and regulations. The decisions of the local government and the disaster management process can be presented by becoming familiar with the previous disasters. The most important stage will be the examination of the post-disaster period when the roles and the transformation of the players can be demonstrated. The methodology is complex. In the first phase, after consideration of the literature, the focus is on the changes of the law. The second stage contains media monitoring, document and map examination as well as interviews with the actors. In the third stage, the observation comes as a new method to the second phase: cooperative decision making process, crisis communication replacement, social reconciliation. The topic at any time is up to date due to the fact that while the preparedness for a crisis has become more urgent, the prediction of vis-mayor situations and consequently, the preparation is almost impossible. In this context, the decision-making process of 15 municipalities, which are now live every day of their flood, pour of the river-wall or red mud

  9. Cotton fibers nano-TiO2 composites prepared by as-assembly process and the photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, J.H.; Hsu, C.T.; Qin, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticles self-assemble process under the assistant of carboxylic group. ► The carboxylic group was introduced by displacement reaction. ► The loading amount of nano-TiO 2 was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. ► UV–Vis experiments showed these fibers had efficient photocatalysis. ► The degradation reaction Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys zero-order rate law. -- Abstract: This paper describes photocatalytic cotton fibers produced by a TiO 2 nanoparticle self-assembly process with the assistance of carboxylic groups. The carboxylic group was introduced by a displacement reaction, the molecular structure of the glucose unit was studied by utilizing solid 13 C NMR. The appearance of the prepared fibers was observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that nano-TiO 2 coated uniformly on the fiber surface. The loading amount of nano-TiO 2 was depended on the displacement degree of C-6-OH. UV–Vis experiments showed these coated fibers undergo photocatalysis efficiently. The degradation reaction of Rhodamine 6G under UV light obeys the zero-order rate law.

  10. Microstructure and Properties of Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x Composite Prepared by Reactive Liquid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Maria Nalu; Setti, Dalmarino; Paredes, Ramón Sigifredo Cortés

    2018-04-01

    A Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x composite was prepared using reactive liquid processing (RLP) through controlled mixture of carbon steel and aluminum in the liquid state. The microstructure and phases of the composite were assessed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the density, hardness, microhardness, and elastic modulus were evaluated. The Fe3Al-Fe3AlC x composite consisted of 65 vol pct Fe3Al and 35 vol pct Fe3AlC x ( κ). The κ phase contained 10.62 at. pct C, resulting in the stoichiometry Fe3AlC0.475. The elastic modulus of the Fe3Al-Fe3AlC0.475 composite followed the rule of mixtures. The RLP technique was shown to be capable of producing Fe3Al-Fe3AlC0.475 with a microstructure and properties similar to those achieved using other processing techniques reported in the literature.

  11. Effect of Processing Variables on Tensile Modulus and Morphology of Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared in an Internal Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Jollands, M.; Kao, N.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study on effect of internal mixer on high density Polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites preparation was done. Effect of temperature, rotor rotation (rpm), and mixing time, as well as rotor type (Roller and Banbury) on mechanical properties and morphology of HDPE/clay nanocomposites were studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. The model was developed according to secant modulus and confirmed to morphology analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The finding suggests that there is different mechanisms occurred in each rotor to improve the mechanical properties. The mechanism in Roller is medium shear and medium diffusion, while Banbury is high shear and low diffusion. The difference in mechanism to disperse the clay particles attribute to the different optimum processing conditions in each rotor. The settings for roller samples are predicted around mid temperature, mid speed, and mid mixing time. There is no optimum setting for Banbury within the processing boundaries. The best settings for Banbury are at low, high, low settings. The morphology results showed a hybrid composite structure, with some exfoliations and some intercalations. There was a correlation between better mechanical properties and morphology with more exfoliation and thinner intercalated particles.

  12. Autohydrolysis processing as an alternative to enhance cellulose solubility and preparation of its regenerated bio-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Sinyee, E-mail: gansinyee@hotmail.com; Zakaria, Sarani, E-mail: szakaria@ukm.edu.my; Chen, Ruey Shan; Chia, Chin Hua; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedehmaryam

    2017-05-01

    Kenaf core pulp has been successfully autohydrolysed using an autoclave heated in oil bath at various reaction temperature at 100, 120 and 140 °C. Membranes, hydrogels and aerogels were then prepared from autohydrolysed kenaf in urea/alkaline medium by casting on the glass plate, by using epichlorohydrin (ECH) as cross-linker via stirring and freeze-drying method, respectively. The autohydrolysis process reduced the molecular weight of cellulose and enhanced cellulose solubility and viscosity. Structure and properties of the regenerated products were measured with Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer and swelling testing. As the autohydrolysis temperature increased, the porosity of cellulose membranes (as seen from the morphology) increased. The autohydrolysis process improved the swelling porperties and transparency of regenerated cellulose hydrogels. This finding is expected to be useful in reducing molecular weight of cellulose in order to produce regenerated bio-based cellulose materials. - Highlights: • Autohydrolysis temperature is negatively correlated to cellulose molecular weight. • Cellulose solubility and viscosity are improved after cellulose pretreatment. • Autohydrolysis improved the properties of regenerated cellulose materials.

  13. Room temperature plasma oxidation: A new process for preparation of ultrathin layers of silicon oxide, and high dielectric constant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, J.C.; Estrada, M.; Baez, H.; Cerdeira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present basic features and oxidation law of the room temperature plasma oxidation (RTPO), as a new process for preparation of less than 2 nm thick layers of SiO 2 , and high-k layers of TiO 2 . We show that oxidation rate follows a potential law dependence on oxidation time. The proportionality constant is function of pressure, plasma power, reagent gas and plasma density, while the exponent depends only on the reactive gas. These parameters are related to the physical phenomena occurring inside the plasma, during oxidation. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated with these layers are characterized by capacitance-voltage, current-voltage and current-voltage-temperature measurements. Less than 2.5 nm SiO 2 layers with surface roughness similar to thermal oxide films, surface state density below 3 x 10 11 cm -2 and current density in the expected range for each corresponding thickness, were obtained by RTPO in a parallel-plate reactor, at 180 mW/cm 2 and pressure range between 9.33 and 66.5 Pa (0.07 and 0.5 Torr) using O 2 and N 2 O as reactive gases. MOS capacitors with TiO 2 layers formed by RTPO of sputtered Ti layers are also characterized. Finally, MOS capacitors with stacked layers of TiO 2 over SiO 2 , both layers obtained by RTPO, were prepared and evaluated to determine the feasibility of the use of TiO 2 as a candidate for next technology nodes

  14. Preparation of LiMO2(M=Co,Ni) cathode materials for intermediate temperature fuel cells by sol-gel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, S.W.; Wu, Q.Y.; Zhan, Z.L.

    1999-01-01

    LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni) was prepared by complexing sol-gel processes. The phase and thermal stability were characterized by XRD and TG analyses. LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 phases are formed around 400 degrees C and 700 degrees C respectively in our synthesis process. LiNiO2 exhibit higher electrical conductivity...

  15. Preparation of natural pyrite nanoparticles by high energy planetary ball milling as a nanocatalyst for heterogeneous Fenton process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathinia, Siavash [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathinia, Mehrangiz [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Ali Akbar [Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: a_khataee@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrite nanoparticles were successfully produced by planetary ball milling process. • The physical and chemical properties of pyrite nanoparticles were fully examined. • The degradation of AO7 was notably enhanced by pyrite nanoparticles Fenton system. • The influences of basic operational parameters were investigated using CCD. - Abstract: In the present study pyrite nanoparticles were prepared by high energy mechanical ball milling utilizing a planetary ball mill. Various pyrite samples were produced by changing the milling time from 2 h to 6 h, in the constant milling speed of 320 rpm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) linked with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) were performed to explain the characteristics of primary (unmilled) and milled pyrite samples. The average particle size distribution of the produced pyrite during 6 h milling was found to be between 20 nm and 100 nm. The catalytic performance of the different pyrite samples was examined in the heterogeneous Fenton process for degradation of C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) solution. Results showed that the decolorization efficiency of AO7 in the presence of 6 h-milled pyrite sample was the highest. The impact of key parameters on the degradation efficiency of AO7 by pyrite nanoparticles catalyzed Fenton process was modeled using central composite design (CCD). Accordingly, the maximum removal efficiency of 96.30% was achieved at initial AO7 concentration of 16 mg/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 5 mmol/L, catalyst amount of 0.5 g/L and reaction time of 25 min.

  16. THE KINETICS OF CONTAMINANTS ACCUMULATION IN THE JET FUEL DURING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ITS PREPARATION FOR AIRCRAFT REFUELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Brailko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is payed to the tasks for ensuring domestic and international aircraft safety and regularity, which are multifaceted and complex. One of them is the system of ensuring the quality of aviation fuel for refueling aircraft at airports. A significant influence of the quality, chemical composition and fuel range on the reliability and lifetime of components and parts of the aircraft fuel system was studied in the process of development and experience accumulation of aircraft operating, processes of aviation fuel production, as well as during storage, quality control, transportation, refueling preparation and aircraft refueling. Currently, work is being done to study the influence of fuel quality on the units of the technological scheme of fuel-filling complexes, which provide the required cleanliness of the fuel according to the regulations. The article describes the trend level of aviation fuel cleanliness at the stages from receipt to issuance to the refueling station. The evaluation of compliance with existing regulations on the level of jet fuel cleanliness and the efficiency of fuel cleaning facilities is carried out. It is stated that one of the problems of insufficient level of aviation fuel cleaning quality is a violation of the acceptable contamination level of the fuel before the filter. It was found that the disadvantage of the used filter paper is the fiber wash out process. According to this research it was found that while cleaning fuel from mechanical admixtures it is necessary to take into account the technical condition of the filtering element, and proposal was developed for fuel-filling systems to ensure aviation fuel cleanliness in compliance with regulations.

  17. Microbiological safety of tenderized, proteinaceous, semi-processed and processed food prepared from poultry treated with ionizing radiation and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a microbiological point of view, poultry meat is considered to be one of the most contaminated raw foods, harbouring bacteria, including pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. Some of these pathogens can survive the heat treatment used during the further processing of poultry meat into ready to eat products such as sausages and patties, and thus endanger consumer health, particularly in the young, the elderly and the immunocompromised. L. monocytogenes is of particular concern. This Gram positive, non-spore forming, psychrotrophic pathogen has been recognized as one of the causes of a severe food borne illness. The organism is relatively heat stable and can multiply under refrigeration conditions, but is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A survey conducted in Israel demonstrated that raw poultry meat was heavily contaminated with L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen could also be recovered from ready to eat poultry products. It was proposed that treatment of the raw meat with ionizing radiation prior to heating and use of the hazard analysis critical control point concept in the further processing plant would result in the elimination of contamination in ready to eat products. (author)

  18. The effect of temperature and addition of reducing agent on sodium stannate preparation from cassiterite by the alkaline roasting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Andriyah, Lia; Arini, Tri; Firdiyono, F.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium stannate is an intermediate compound with the formula Na2SnO3. This compound is easily dissolved in water and has many applications in the electroplating industry, tin alloy production, and catalysts for organic synthesis. In this occasion was investigated the effect of temperature and the addition of reducing agent on making of sodium stannate phase from cassiterite by an alkaline roasting process using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Firstly, cassiterite was roasted at 700 °C for 3 hours and continued leaching process using 10% HCl solution at 110 °C for 2 hours. The cassiterite residue than was dried at 110 °C and mixed homogenously with a Na2CO3 decomposer at a mass ratio Na2CO3/cassiterite as 5:3 for the decomposition process. It was done by variation temperatures (300 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 870 °C, 900 °C) for 3 hours, variation times (3, 4, 5 hours) at a roasting temperature of 700 °C and addition of reducing agent such as sub-bituminous coal. The result of the experiment shows that cassiterite prepared by roasting and acid leaching process has the chemical composition as follows: 59.98% Sn, 22.58% O, 3.20% Ce, 3.15% La, 2.57% Nd, 1.67% Ti, 1.56% Fe, 1.24% P, 0.62% Ca and others. The Na2SnO3 phase begins to form at a roasting temperature of 870 °C for 3 hours. Although the roasting times was extended from 3 hours to 5 hours at 700 °C, the Na2SnO3 phase also has not yet formed. In other conditions, the addition of coal reducing agent to the roasting process would cause formations of Sn metal besides Na2SnO3 phase at 870 °C. At temperatures lower than 870 °C, the addition of coal only forms Sn metal, whereas the sodium stannate phase is not formed.

  19. Concordance between a simpler definition of major depressive disorder and Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition: an independent replication in an outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) symptom criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) are somewhat lengthy with several studies showing that clinicians have difficulty recalling all 9 symptoms. Moreover, the criteria include somatic symptoms that are difficult to apply in patients with medical illnesses. To address these problems, a simpler definition of MDD was developed that did not include the somatic symptoms. Previous reports found high levels of agreement between the simplified and full DSM-IV definition of MDD. However, the same research group has conducted all previous studies of psychiatric patients. The goal of the present study was to determine if a high level of concordance between the 2 definitions would be replicated in an independent setting. We interviewed 2907 psychiatric outpatients presenting for treatment at the Boston University Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders. A trained diagnostic rater administered a semistructured interview and inquired about all symptoms of depression for all patients. A high level of agreement was found between the DSM-IV and the simpler definition of MDD. The absolute level of agreement between the 2 definitions was 95.5% and the κ coefficient was 0.88. Thus, consistent with previous studies, a high level of concordance was found between a simpler definition of MDD and the DSM-IV definition. This new definition offers 2 advantages over the current DSM-IV definition-it is briefer, and it is easier to apply with medically ill patients because it is free of somatic symptoms. Implications of these findings for DSM-5 are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcins and Its Application to the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Analogues Thereof. Discovery of Simpler Designed and Potent Trioxacarcin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Chen, Pengxi; Zhu, Shugao; Cai, Quan; Erande, Rohan D; Li, Ruofan; Sun, Hongbao; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Aujay, Monette; Sandoval, Joseph; Gavrilyuk, Julia

    2017-11-01

    A streamlined total synthesis of the naturally occurring antitumor agents trioxacarcins is described, along with its application to the construction of a series of designed analogues of these complex natural products. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds revealed a number of highly potent, and yet structurally simpler, compounds that are effective against certain cancer cell lines, including a drug-resistant line. A novel one-step synthesis of anthraquinones and chloro anthraquinones from simple ketone precursors and phenylselenyl chloride is also described. The reported work, featuring novel chemistry and cascade reactions, has potential applications in cancer therapy, including targeted approaches as in antibody-drug conjugates.

  1. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif

    2017-11-08

    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  2. The role of herbometallic preparations in traditional medicine--a review on mica drug processing and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Apsara; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Bandara, Ratnayake; Abayasekara, Charmalie

    2014-09-11

    Biotite mica enriched with Fe(2+) ions are widely used as a major mineral ingredient in traditional pharmaceutical science of alchemy (Rasashastra). Abhrak bhasma (mica ash), a pharmaceutical product containing treated mica, is utilized, for example, in Ayurvedic treatments for ailments such as gastritis, renal disease, skin disease and mainly in rejuvenation formulations. However, the untreated mica minerals may be harmful when used directly, as they carry considerably high amounts of trace-elements that can cause undesirable effects in the human body. In order to remove toxic factors and produce readily absorbable materials having high nutrient capacity, specific thermal and chemical treatments (purification, detoxification, particle size reduction and incineration) are performed during the preparation of Rasashastra. This review evaluates the chemical and pharmacological aspects of mica ash as well as the technological aspects of mica ash production. The detailed literature review on the chemistry and scientific basis of mica ash, its preparation techniques, mica alterations and pharmaceutical applications was carried out by using published Ayurvedic text books and research articles, available from Science Direct, on mica minerals, mica ash and their physico-chemical alteration processes and pharmacological applications. During the purification and detoxification procedures, heating followed by quenching (in ionic medium) influences the structural distortion and the development of stress-induced cracks and spallations of the micaceous plates. Thus, the efficient diffusion of the external medium takes place at successive heating and quenching steps. Acidic organic liquids and animal byproducts can enhance the cation exchange capacity and solubility of mica. Further, these natural compounds facilitate the removal of toxic-elements in the structure. When treated-mica and paddy husks are tied up in a cloth and squeezed, particle size reduction and further

  3. Preparation and modification of VO2 thin film on R-sapphire substrate by rapid thermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nai-Wei; Hu, Ming; Xia, Xiao-Xu; Wei, Xiao-Ying; Liang, Ji-Ran

    2014-04-01

    The VO2 thin film with high performance of metal-insulator transition (MIT) is prepared on R-sapphire substrate for the first time by magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process (RTP). The electrical characteristic and THz transmittance of MIT in VO2 film are studied by four-point probe method and THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and search engine marketing (SEM) are employed to analyze the crystalline structure, valence state, surface morphology of the film. Results indicate that the properties of VO2 film which is oxidized from the metal vanadium film in oxygen atmosphere are improved with a follow-up RTP modification in nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallization and components of VO2 film are improved and the film becomes compact and uniform. A better phase transition performance is shown that the resistance changes nearly 3 orders of magnitude with a 2-°C hysteresis width and the THz transmittances are reduced by 64% and 60% in thermal and optical excitation respectively.

  4. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Musa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4 in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers.

  5. Preparation and modification of VO2 thin film on R-sapphire substrate by rapid thermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nai-Wei; Hu Ming; Xia Xiao-Xu; Wei Xiao-Ying; Liang Ji-Ran

    2014-01-01

    The VO 2 thin film with high performance of metal–insulator transition (MIT) is prepared on R-sapphire substrate for the first time by magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal process (RTP). The electrical characteristic and THz transmittance of MIT in VO 2 film are studied by four-point probe method and THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and search engine marketing (SEM) are employed to analyze the crystalline structure, valence state, surface morphology of the film. Results indicate that the properties of VO 2 film which is oxidized from the metal vanadium film in oxygen atmosphere are improved with a follow-up RTP modification in nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallization and components of VO 2 film are improved and the film becomes compact and uniform. A better phase transition performance is shown that the resistance changes nearly 3 orders of magnitude with a 2-°C hysteresis width and the THz transmittances are reduced by 64% and 60% in thermal and optical excitation respectively. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  7. The effect of preparation processes on polonium 210 transfer from tea and mate leaves to aqueous extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2002-08-01

    Polonium 210 was determined in 34 kinds of tea samples and 8 kinds of mate samples collected from the local market. The results have shown that the activities of 210 Po in tea and meta samples were relatively high and varied between 5.5 and 39 Bq.Kg -1 , and 47 to 82 Bq.Kg -1 in tea and mate samples respectively. In order to estimate the annual intake of 210 Po by drinking of the aqueous extract of these materials, preparation processes of the leaves were performed at different conditions (temperature, duration of soaking). The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred to the aqueous extract varied between 9 and 21% and 3 and 15% for tea leaves and mate respectively. There was a clear variations in the soluble amount according to the applied different conditions of soaking. The annual intake of 210 Po due to drinking tea and meta extracts was calculated and found to be 9 Bq.year -1 and 151 Bq.year -1 for tea and mate respectively. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of quercetin-loaded silica microspheres stabilized by combined multiple emulsion and sol-gel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite exhibiting a wide spectrum of cosmeceutical properties, flavonoids and related compounds have some limitations related to their stability and solubility in distilledwater. In this project, we prepared silica microspheres using a novel method that uses polyol-in-oil-in-water (P/O/W emulsion and sol-gel methods as techniques for stabilizing quercetin. A stable microsphere suspension was successfully preparedusing a mixed solvent system comprising a polyol-phase medium for performing the sol-gel processing of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as an inorganic precursor with outer water phase. The morphology of the microsphere was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, which showed a characteristic spherical particle shape with a smooth surface. Furthermore, SEM/EDSanalysis of a representative microsphere demonstrated that the inner structure of the silica microspheres was filled with quercetin. The mean diameter of the microsphere was in the range 20.6-35.0 μm, and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 17.8% to 27.5%. The free and encapsulated quercetin samples were incubated in separateaqueous solutions at 25 and 42°C for 28 days. The residualcontent of the quercetin encapsulated by silica microspheres was 82% at 42°C. In contrast, that of the free quercetin stored at 42°C decreased to ~24%.

  9. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wan, Min [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Yong-Qiang [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Rong-Ying [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhao, Yuan-Di, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  10. Preparation and characterization of protein isolate from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP processing allows selective, pH-induced water solubility of proteins with concurrent separation of lipids and removal of materials not intended for human consumption such as bone, scales, skin, etc. Recovered proteins retain functional properties and nutritional value. Four roe protein isolates (RPIs from yellowfin tuna roe were prepared under different solubilization and precipitation condition (pH 11/4.5, pH 11/5.5, pH 12/4.5 and pH 12/5.5. RPIs contained 2.3–5.0 % moisture, 79.1–87.8 % protein, 5.6–7.4 % lipid and 3.0–3.8 % ash. Protein content of RPI-1 and RPI-2 precipitated at pH 4.5 and 5.5 after alkaline solubilization at pH 11, was higher than those of RPI-3 and RPI-4 after alkaline solubilization at pH 12 (P < 0.05. Lipid content (5.6–7.4 % of RPIs was lower than that of freeze-dried concentrate (10.6 %. And leucine and lysine of RPIs were the most abundant amino acids (8.8–9.4 and 8.5–8.9 g/100 g protein, respectively. S, Na, P, K as minerals were the major elements in RPIs. SDS-PAGE of RPIs showed bands at 100, 45, 25 and 15 K. Moisture and protein contents of process water as a 2’nd byproduct were 98.9–99.0 and 1.3–1.8 %, respectively. Therefore, yellowfin tuna roe isolate could be a promising source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feeds.

  11. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  12. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  13. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-09-04

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using "wire-guided" method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  14. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You David J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A computer numerical control (CNC apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study. This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate. Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction. The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability, in rapid succession (using droplets

  15. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd–Fe–B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoya; Hu, Lianxi; Wang, Erde

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase in the starting Nd–Fe–B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH 2.7 , Fe 2 B, and α-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density–pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: ► Nano-structured disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. ► Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders. ► Density–pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. ► As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. ► The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 (atomic ratio) alloy powders, which were prepared by three different processing routes including melt spinning, mechanical milling in argon, and mechanically activated disproportionation by milling in

  16. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd-Fe-B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Lianxi, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Erde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the starting Nd-Fe-B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B, and {alpha}-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density-pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density-pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy

  17. Process of preparing superconductive oxide complexes containing L, Ba, Cu and O and method of using the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, K.; Selvamanickam, V.

    1995-01-01

    A superconductor material having a current density, J, of from about 30,000 to about 85,000 amps/cm 2 at zero magnetic field and 77 K is disclosed. The 123 superconductor, of the formula L 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ wherein L is preferably yttrium, is capable of entrapping sufficiently high magnetic fields and exhibits a low microwave surface resistance. The process of preparing the superconductor comprises compacting the bulk product, L 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O, and then sintering the reaction product at a temperature between about 40 C to about 90 C below its melting point, i.e., for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ at a temperature of approximately 940 C. The composition is then heated in a preheated chamber maintained at approximately 1090 C to about 1,200 C (approximately 1,100 C for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ ) until it has been decomposed, and is then rapidly cooled to a temperature between about 10 C to about 30 C above its melting point, i.e. for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ a temperature of 1,030 C, and then is controlled cooled at a rate of 1 C/hr until it reaches a temperature of about 20 C to about 40 C below its melting point, i.e., for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ a temperature of 980 C. The composition is steadily held at this temperature for at least eight hours, and then cooled to a temperature of approximately 400 C below its melting point (for Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ approximately a temperature of 600 C). The material is then slowly cooled by another 200 C and is then annealed in oxygen. 5 figs

  18. Chemical composition of protein concentrate prepared from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by cook-dried process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roe is the term used to describe fish eggs (oocytes gathered in skeins and is one of the most valuable food products from fishery sources. Thus, means of processing are required to convert the underutilized yellowfin tuna roes (YTR into more marketable and acceptable forms as protein concentrate. Roe protein concentrates (RPCs were prepared by cooking condition (boil-dried concentrate, BDC and steam-dried concentrate, SDC, respectively and un-cooking condition (freeze-dried concentrate, FDC from yellowfin tuna roe. The yield of RPCs was in the range from 22.2 to 25.3 g/100 g of roe. RPCs contained protein (72.3–77.3 %, moisture (4.3–5.6 %, lipid (10.6–11.3 % and ash (4.3–5.7 % as the major constituents. The prominent amino acids of RPCs were aspartic acid, 8.7–9.2, glutamic acid, 13.1–13.2, and leucine, 8.5–8.6 g/100 g of protein. Major differences were not observed in each of the amino acid. K, S, Na, and P as minerals were the major elements in RPCs. No difference noted in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein band (15–100 K possibly representing partial hydrolysis of myosin. Therefore, RPCs from YTR could be use potential protein ingredient for human food and animal feeds.

  19. The crack propagating behavior of composite coatings prepared by PEO on aluminized steel during in situ tensile processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhitong; Li Guang; Wu Zhenqiang; Xia Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Composite coatings on the aluminized steel were prepared by the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique, which comprised of Fe-Al layer, Al layer and Al 2 O 3 layer. → The evaluation method of the crack critical opening displacement δ c was introduced to describe quantitatively the resistance of Al layer to the propagation behavior of cracks and evaluate the fracture behavior of composite coatings. → The crack propagating model was established. - Abstract: This paper investigates the in situ tensile cracks propagating behavior of composite coatings on the aluminized steel generated using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique. Cross-sectional micrographs and elemental compositions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The composite coatings were shown to consist of Fe-Al, Al and Al 2 O 3 layers. The cracks propagating behavior was observed in real-time in situ SEM tensile test. In tensile process, the cracks were temporarily stopped when cracks propagated from Fe-Al layer to Al layer. The critical crack opening displacement δ c was introduced to quantitatively describe the resistance of the Al layer. There was a functional relation among the thickness ratio t Al /t Al 2 O 3 , the δ c of composite coatings and tensile cracks' spacing. The δ c increased with the increasing of the thickness ratio (t Al /t Al 2 O 3 ). The high δ c value means high fracture resistance. Therefore, a control of the thickness ratio t Al /t Al 2 O 3 was concerned as a key to improve the toughness and strength of the aluminized steel.

  20. Implementation of new integrated evaporation equipment for the preparation of 238U targets and improvement of the deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleeuw, D.; Lewis, D.; Moens, A.; Sibbens, G.; Wiss, T.

    2018-05-01

    Measurement of neutron cross section data is a core activity of the JRC-Directorate G for Nuclear Safety and Security in Geel. After a period of reduced activity and in line with a renewed interest for nuclear data required for GenIV reactors and waste minimization, the demand for high quality actinide targets increased. Physical vapour deposition by thermal evaporation is a key technique to prepare homogeneous thin actinide layers, but due to ageing effects the earlier in-house developed equipment can no longer provide the required quality. Because of a current lack of experience and human resources cooperation with private companies is required for the development of new deposition equipment directly integrated in a glove box. In this paper we describe the design, implementation and validation of the first commercial actinide evaporator in a glove box as well as the optimization of the deposition process. Highly enriched 238U3O8 was converted to 238UF4 powder and several deposition runs were performed on different substrates. The deposition parameters were varied and defined in order to guarantee physical and chemical stable homogeneous UF4 layers, even on polished substrates which was not longer feasible with the older equipment. The stability problem is discussed in view of the thin layer growth by physical vapour deposition and the influence of the deposition parameters on the layer quality. The deposits were characterized for the total mass by means of substitution weighing and for the areal density of 238U by means of alpha particle counting and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The quality of the layer was visually evaluated and by means of stereo microscopy and auto radiography.

  1. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  2. Development of resistance welding process. 4. Preparation of pressuring enclosed creep test specimen of 7A material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hideo; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya

    2001-02-01

    Mechanical strength in the position welded by resistance welding system was examined in 1999. The test specimens were destroyed in the welding position in a shorter time than expected in the creep test. Therefore, test specimens were prepared to evaluate the cause of destruction. Inner-pressure enclosed creep test specimens were prepared by resistance welding method. Cladding material with low deviation of thickness and high re-crystallization rate was used. Heat treatment after resistance welding was performed to remove the influence of residual stress and the precipitation of carbides. (1) Before preparation of specimens, the welding condition was fixed. Three test specimens were prepared. Two specimens without heat treatment were transported to MMS in Oarai Engineering Center on Aug. 4, 2000. One specimen with heat treatment was transported to MMS after evaluating the residual stress to get optimum heat treatment condition. (2) Specimens were prepared with welding end plugs to both ends of ferritic ODS cladding. Enclosing sides were welded with highly strong Ferritic/Martensitic steel end plugs. The other sides were welded with ferritic ODS end plugs. (3) Some kinds of electrical wave data were obtained during performing welding. Welding position was evaluated with supersonic detector after performing welding. (4) Mechanical strength of welding position in high temperature 800degC was confirmed to be equal to or larger than that of cladding material. The highly qualified specimens in the present were successfully prepared. (author)

  3. Preparation of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders by a modified polyethylene glycol based sol-gel process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    A modified sol-gel process based on polyethylene glycol has been developed for preparing (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders in view of Ag-sheeted tape manufacture. A careful control of the pH and concentration temperature yields an amorphous gel, which can be converted to a fine and extremely...

  4. Redesign of a Grignard-Based Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Batch Synthesis to a Flow Process for the Preparation of Melitracen HCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael J.; Skovby, Tommy; Mealy, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A Grignard-based batch process, for the preparation of Melitracen HCl, has been redesigned to fit a continuous reactor system. The Grignard addition is carried out at room temperature, with subsequent hydrolysis of the magnesium alkoxide intermediate followed by dehydration of the resulting alcoh...

  5. Dynamics of volume of competition practice and facilities of training of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovenko S.P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysed and systematized information in relation to the volume of competition practice and facilities of different primary orientation of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation. The expert questioning is conducted 16 trainers. The documents of planning of training process are analysed, the analysis of diaries of sportsmen is carried out (n=22. The volume of competition practice of sportsmen and facilities of training of different primary orientation is certain. The results of analysis in relation to the construction of training process are reflected by the leading trainers of Ukraine on track-and-field. An approach classification of facilities of training taking into account the specific of training process of sportsmen is presented. It is set that the volume of facilities of general preparation is most on the initial stages of long-term perfection, then stabilized on the stages specialized base and preparations to higher achievements and a few diminishes on maximal implementation of individual possibilities and maintainance of higher sporting trade phases. It is related to diminishing of duration of the general preparatory stages of annual preparation.

  6. Reflections on the process of selecting and preparing teams: the case of the brazilian youth masculine volleyball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Shigunov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out with the aim to analyze the methodological strategy adopted by the coach of the Brazilian youth man volleyball team during training sessions in the preparation period. As a data gathering method, 45 videos were taken during sessions, 28 in Belo Horizonte and 17 in Poços de Caldas. A semi-structured interview was also held with the coach and the coaching staff . The results of the research indicated that the coach’s pedagogical practice was strongly influenced by technical, developmental and systemic methodological conceptions. This practice was developed through a combination of different methodologies, such as analytic, synthetic, structuralist, dynamic and progressive. The relationship between the coaching staff and the athletes was harmonious and respectful. It was shown that, besides to anthropometric, conditioning, technical-coordinating, tactical-cognitive and psychological factors, the twelve athletes who represented Brazil in the World Youth Championshipwere also chosen for other qualities. Among the qualities to be mentioned are the capacity for leadership, group cohesion, courage and determination . The research pointed out that the preparation process of the Brazilian team was carried out with great competence, through a correct division of training time and a careful selection of the athletes, following international standard criteria such as height, strength and individual technical skills. RESUMO Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o propósito de analisar a estratégia metodológica adotada pelo técnico da seleção brasileira masculina de voleibol infanto-juvenil nos treinamentos no período preparatório da equipe. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram realizadas filmagens em vídeo de 45 sessões de treinamentos, sendo 28 em Belo horizonte e 17 em Poços de Caldas. Também foi realizada uma entrevista semi-estruturada com o treinador da seleção brasileira e a sua comissão técnica. Os

  7. Solid-state flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes prepared using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Kaialy, Waseem; Ghori, Muhammad U; Trivedi, Vivek; Snowden, Martin J; Alexander, Bruce David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the apparent solubility and dissolution properties of flurbiprofen through inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins. Especially, the efficacy of supercritical fluid technology as a preparative technique for the preparation of flurbiprofen-methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was evaluated. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing and were evaluated by solubility, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, practical yield, drug content estimation and in vitro dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were conducted to study the possibility of molecular arrangement of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The studies support the formation of stable molecular inclusion complexes between the drug and cyclodextrin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the dissolution properties of flurbiprofen were significantly enhanced by the binary mixtures prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing. The amount of flurbiprofen dissolved into solution alone was very low with 1.11±0.09% dissolving at the end of 60min, while the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 200bar released 99.39±2.34% of the drug at the end of 30min. All the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C exhibited a drug release of more than 80% within the first 10min irrespective of the pressure employed. The study demonstrated the single step, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide process as a promising approach for the preparation of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in solid-state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput analysis for preparation, processing and analysis of TiO2 coatings on steel by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadrado Gil, Marcos; Van Driessche, Isabel; Van Gils, Sake; Lommens, Petra; Castelein, Pieter; De Buysser, Klaartje

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High-throughput preparation of TiO 2 aqueous precursors. ► Analysis of stability and surface tension. ► Deposition of TiO 2 coatings. - Abstract: A high-throughput preparation, processing and analysis of titania coatings prepared by chemical solution deposition from water-based precursors at low temperature (≈250 °C) on two different types of steel substrates (Aluzinc® and bright annealed) is presented. The use of the high-throughput equipment allows fast preparation of multiple samples saving time, energy and material; and helps to test the scalability of the process. The process itself includes the use of IR curing for aqueous ceramic precursors and possibilities of using UV irradiation before the final sintering step. The IR curing method permits a much faster curing step compared to normal high temperature treatments in traditional convection devices (i.e., tube furnaces). The formulations, also prepared by high-throughput equipment, are found to be stable in the operational pH range of the substrates (6.5–8.5). Titanium alkoxides itself lack stability in pure water-based environments, but the presence of the different organic complexing agents prevents it from hydrolysis and precipitation reactions. The wetting interaction between the substrates and the various formulations is studied by the determination of the surface free energy of the substrates and the polar and dispersive components of the surface tension of the solutions. The mild temperature program used for preparation of the coatings however does not lead to the formation of pure crystalline material, necessary for the desired photocatalytic and super-hydrophilic behavior of these coatings. Nevertheless, some activity can be reported for these amorphous coatings by monitoring the discoloration of methylene blue in water under UV irradiation.

  9. Comparison of GERG-2008 and simpler EoS models in calculation of phase equilibrium and physical properties of natural gas related systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Accurate description of thermodynamic properties of natural gas systems is of great significance in the oil and gas industry. For this application, non-cubic equations of state (EoSs) are advantageous due to their better density and compressibility description. Among the non-cubic models, GERG-2008...... is a new wide-range EoS for natural gases and other mixtures of 21 natural gas components. It is considered as a standard reference equation suitable for natural gas applications where highly accurate thermodynamic properties are required. Soave's modification of Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR) Eo......S is another model that despite its empirical nature, provides accurate density description even around the critical point. It is much simpler than GERG-2008 and easier to handle and generalize to reservoir oil fluids. This study presents a comprehensive comparison between GERG-2008 and other cubic (SRK and PR...

  10. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon from waste tobacco by a simple pre-treatment process and their application in electrochemical capacitor and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Lou, Jiaying; Bai, Shizhe; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan; Ling, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pre-treatment process is used to prepared N-doped carbon from waste biomass. • Waste tobaccos, which are limited for the disposal, are used as the raw materials. • The product shows a specific surface area and nitrogen content. • Its electrochemical performance is better than commercial activated carbon. • Its CO 2 sorption performance is also better than commercial activated carbon. - Abstract: Preparing nitrogen-doped porous carbons directly from waste biomass has received considerable interest for the purpose of realizing the atomic economy. In this study, N-doped porous carbons have been successfully prepared from waste tobaccos (WT) by a simple pre-treatment process. The sample calcinated at 700 °C (WT-700) shows a micro/meso-porous structures with a BET surface area of 1104 m 2 g −1 and a nitrogen content of ca. 19.08 wt.% (EDS). Performance studies demonstrate that WT-700 displays 170 F g −1 electrocapacitivity at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 (in 6 M KOH), and a CO 2 capacity of 3.6 mmol g −1 at 0 °C and 1 bar, and a selectivity of ca. 32 for CO 2 over N 2 at 25 °C. Our studies indicate that it is feasible to prepare N-enriched porous carbons from waste natural crops by a pre-treatment process for potential industrial application

  11. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-J. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuang 1st Rd., Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Dayeh University, 112 Shan-Jiau Road, Da-Tsuen, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da Road, Kung-ching Li, Miao Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mcwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw

    2007-05-31

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 2 {mu}m for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 {mu}m for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1.

  12. Structural and morphological studies on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate acid) (PHB)/chitosan drug releasing microspheres prepared by both single and double emulsion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-J.; Chen, Y.-H.; Shih, C.-J.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Drug releasing microspheres of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)/chitosan (PHB/CTS) with various compositions have been synthesized by both single and double emulsion methods, and collected by a freeze-drying process. In this study, gentamicin was used as an antibacterial medicine coated with PHB. The PHB/CTS microspheres of various compositions prepared by a single emulsion process (SEP) were identified as the major PHB phase together with a minor unknown Phase X by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. However, in the microspheres prepared using a double emulsion process (DEP) the dominant Phase was X and the minor phase was PHB. The size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by SEP increased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 2 μm for 5:1. However, the size of the PHB/CTS microspheres prepared by DEP decreased with the PHB/CTS ratio from 1 μm for 1:1 to 800 nm for 5:1

  13. Preparation of Polymeric Resin Beads Using Gamma Irradiation and Chemical Processes for Use in the Recovery of Some Alkali Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, H. H.; Khalil, F. H.; Ibrahim, G. M.; El-Gammal, B.

    2007-01-01

    Syntheses of resin beads from unsaturated polyester and urea-formaldehyde were carried out by dispersion polymerization. The reaction was performed through gamma irradiation and chemical processing. Factors affecting the reaction and syntheses parameters that are the type and viscosity of dispersant, irradiation dose and agitation rate on the resin beads size were thoroughly investigated. The resulting resin beads were smooth on their spherical surface and the beads diameters were in the range 2-200μm. Some measurements such as beads diameter, surface hardness and scanning electron microscopy were studied. The bead diameter was generally decreased with increasing concentration and viscosity of the dispersant and agitation rate. A comparison study between irradiation and chemical processes for resin beads synthesis was discussed to identify the suitable process for preparing a resin beads in a pilot scale. The different methods of preparation were tried to be applied in the recovery of Li + , Na+, k + and Cs + ions from acidic media.

  14. [Study on processing adjuvant medicines in Lei Gong's treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruixian

    2010-09-01

    There were 268 kinds of medicines recorded in the book of Lei Gong's Treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun). Among these medicines, 178 medicines were prepared with adjuvant medicines, including general and special compatible adjuvant medicines. These adjuvant medicines used in this book can be explained by the theory of "seven-relation compatibility". The author tried to explain the usage and their compatibility of these adjuvant medicines and put forward that attention should be paid to the changes in functions of medicines and the influences of society should be paid attention.

  15. Convenient hydrothermal decomposition process for preparation of nanocrystalline mineral Cu3BiS3 and Pb1-xBi2x/3S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Junqing; Deng Bin; Wang Chunrui; Tang Kaibin; Qian Yitai

    2003-01-01

    Mineral nanocrystalline Cu 3 BiS 3 and Pb 1-x Bi 2x/3 S (or Bi 0.22 Pb 0.89 S 1.22 ) have been prepared at low synthetic temperature of 100-150 deg. C by convenient hydrothermal decomposition process. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and element analysis were used to characterize and measure the samples. The as-prepared Cu 3 BiS 3 sample consisted of whisker-like particles with an average size of 50x10 nm 2 and the Pb 1-x Bi 2x/3 S sample displayed aggregative particles with size in the range of 30-50 nm. Preliminary results showed that the prepared precursors, reaction temperature and time played a role in the formation of the final products. A possible reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly

  16. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  17. Using existing growth models to predict RCW habitat development following site preparation: pitfalls of the process and potential growth response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Land managers throughout the Southeast are interested in restoring the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem, due in part to its value as habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In 2003, we established a study at Camp Lejeune, NC, to determine the effects of common site preparation...

  18. Dispersing and stabilizing effect of nonaqueous media with different acid-base functions when preparing process suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshevar, V.D.; Rat'ko, A.I.; Mironenko, I.N.

    1999-01-01

    Dispersing and stabilizing effect of organic liquids related to the Lewis acids and baser is studied when preparing the suspensions of certain minerals and metal oxides, beryllium oxide, in particular. Practical recommendations are provided for the choice of dispersing media to produce stable suspensions

  19. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  20. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

  1. The End of the Line, Preparing the Main Plant Process Building for Demolition at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hackett, M.; Gorsuch, G.; Sullivan, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act of 1980 authorized the Department of Energy to conduct a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant in West Valley, New York to demonstrate solidification techniques to prepare high-level liquid waste for disposal. The reprocessing facility at this site was the only commercial NRC-licensed spent fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. The spent fuel reprocessing operations ended in 1972 and DoE's cleanup operations have been underway since 1982. High-level waste solidification was safely concluded in 2002 and follow-on activities at the site have been concentrated on facility decontamination and waste management and off-site disposal. Among the features that remain at the WVDP site is the highly-contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The five-story reinforced concrete structure, which was formerly used to reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel, contains residual levels of contamination in some areas that prohibit safe human entry. DoE's long-range plans for the site include demolition of the MPPB. Current site contractor, West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES), while actively working to dismantle equipment and decontaminate areas inside the MPPB, has developed a conceptual two-phase plan for demolishing the structure that provides a cost-effective, lower-dose alternative to conventional demolition techniques. This paper discusses the current condition of the MPPB and the demolition-ready preparations conducted in the facility thus far. This paper also introduces the concept of a two-part surgical demolition plan that has been proposed and is being evaluated as a safe method of demolishing the structure. The practical applications that support feasibility for the demolition approach are being demonstrated through current work applications in the MPPB. The Inside-Out Demolition proposal for the MPPB is a safe

  2. Study of preparation and survey of radioisotopes tracer applications of gold nanoparticles in the multi-phase industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thai Kim Ngan; Trinh Cong Son; Duong Thi Bich Chi; Tran Tri Hai; Nguyen Huu Quang; Bui Trong Duy; Le Trong Nghia; Ngo Duc Tin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by Turkevich and Brust method. The labeled gold in liquids is the colloidal form with nano size particle of gold. This particles is of high dispersity in the liquid phase that makes them a good physical tracer. The stability and dissolve of AuNPs in solvents such as water, toluene are hereafter discussed. The size of AuNPs was determined through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (author)

  3. Preparation of a ceramic superconductor from ultrafine particles by freeze-dry process in Ba-Y-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyao; Qian Yitai; Wan Yanjian; Rong Jingfang; Zhang Han; Pan Guoqiang; Zhao Yong; Zhang Qirui

    1989-01-01

    Freeze-dry technique is first reported for preparing ceramic ultrafines. The single-phase complex oxide Ba 2 YCu 3 O/sub 9-δ/, a poly-crystallized compound, and ceramic superconductor have been synthesized successfully. The experimental results show that not only is the ceramic superconductor obtained uniform with fine particles and excellent superconductivity, but the conditions for solid reactions are relatively limited

  4. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  5. Preparation of titanium oxide and metal titanates as powders, thin films, and microspheres by complex sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Olczak, T.; Lada, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Jakubaszek, U.; Sartowska, B.; Goretta, K.C.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Contini, V.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium oxide, for many years an important pigment, has recently been applied widely as a photocatalyst or as supports for metallic catalysts, gas sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, and water and air purification devices. Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and titanates based on Ba, Sr and Ca were prepared from commercial solutions of TiCl 4 and HNO 3 . The main preparation steps for the sols consisted of elimination of Cl - by distillation with HNO 3 and addition of metal hydroxides for the titanates. Resulting sols were gelled and used to: (a) prepare irregularly shaped powders by evaporation; (b) produce by a dipping technique thin films on glass, Ag or Ti supports; (c) produce spherical powders (diameters <100 μm) by solvent extraction. Results of thermal and X-ray-diffraction analyses indicated that the temperatures required to form the various compounds were lower than those necessary to form the compounds by conventional solid-state reactions and comparable to those required with use of organometallic based sol-gel methods. Temperatures of formation could be further reduced by addition of ascorbic acid (ASC) to the sols

  6. Studies on processes of damage and the stability of two preparations of human growth hormone labelled with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, M.L.C.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Two HGH preparations were studied to obtain stable 125 I labelled products, with high specific activity, good biding capacity and long shelf life. Alterations affecting unlabelled protein hormone were also considered. Modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex were studied. The preparations studied were: HGH (NIH) and HGH always freshly prepared at IEA. The detection, study on nature and elimination of the interference of 'damaged' radioactive components was done by checking their presence and behaviour during labelling, purification or storage and comparing with some 'false labelling' (without HGH). Both hormones were labelled with a high specific activity, with immunoactivity up to three months. Loss in binding happened during storage for radioactive products as well as for unlabelled proteins. The absence of Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) used as protein carrier and protector, produced a peak of aggregate; when presented, BSA carried a large amount of radioactivity forming most of the 'peak of the damage product' eluting from Sephadex. These two peaks interfere negatively in RIA and can effect calculations on specific activity, yield and absolute amount in term of mass of the labelled product. The best conditions for storage are at-20 0 C in dry lyophilized powder or frozen solution; at 4 0 C in solution the product is inactivated. Both labelled products showed an increased mobility in comparison with the unlabelled done. This can be attributed to a decreased isoelectric point due to the iodination of tyrosine or to alterations in the structure caused by reagents used in the labelling [pt

  7. APPLICATION OF THE CLOND TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF STUDYING. THE CYCLE OF PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED HUMANITARIAN, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PREPARING THE FUTURE PVIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Bakhmat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the innovative approaches in preparing the future primary school teachers which aim. Their competence in mastering the sphere of planning the secondary school work. It is realized by means of the cloud cervices. The introduction of the organizer SkyDrive into the studying process of higher education establish ments strengthens students cognitive activity, stimulates their creativity, helps the formation of professional skills and habits as well as their competiveness in general.

  8. Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol-gel vs melt-processing route)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, J.V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, R. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Fosca, M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); De Bonis, A. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A. [Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, UR INSTM ' Roma Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Albertini, V. Rossi [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Caminiti, R. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); Ravaglioli, A. [Parco Torricelli delle Arti e delle Scienze, Via Granarolo, 64-48018 Faenza (Ra) (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target was prepared by sol-gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass-ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol-gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm{sup 2} and 500 Degree-Sign C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 {mu}m thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 {mu}m thick sol-gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  9. The Resin-Embedded Cornea Prepared Via Rapid Processing Protocol : A Good Histomorphometric Target for Clinical Investigation in Ophthalmology and Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Pike See; Mohidin, Norhani; Mohd Ali, Bariah; Maung, Myint; Latif, Azian Abdul

    2008-01-01

    This study illustrates and quantifies the changes on corneal tissue between the paraffin-embedded and resin-embedded blocks and thus, selects a better target in investigational ophthalmology and optometry via light microscopy. Corneas of two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were used in this study. The formalin-fixed cornea was prepared in paraffin block via the conventional tissue processing protocol (4-day protocol) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The glutaraldehyde-fixed cornea was prepared in resin block via the rapid and modified tissue processing procedure (1.2-day protocol) and stained with toluidine blue. The paraffin-embedded sample exhibits various undesired tissue damage and artifact such as thinner epithelium (due to the substantial volumic extraction from the tissue), thicker stroma layer (due to the separation of lamellae and the presence of voids) and the distorted endothelium. In contrast, the resin-embedded corneal tissue has demonstrated satisfactory corneal ultrastructural preservation. The rapid and modified tissue processing method for preparing the resin-embedded is particularly beneficial to accelerate the microscopic evaluation in ophthalmology and optometry. PMID:22570589

  10. Bioactive glass–ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol–gel vs melt-processing route)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, J.V.; Teghil, R.; Fosca, M.; De Bonis, A.; Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A.; Albertini, V. Rossi; Caminiti, R.; Ravaglioli, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bioactive glass–ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. ► Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. ► Target was prepared by sol–gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. ► Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. ► The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass–ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol–gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm 2 and 500 °C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 μm thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 μm thick sol–gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  11. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  12. Formation of nanoparticles and defects in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} prepared by the metal organic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); SAIC, Washington, DC 20003 (United States)], E-mail: goswami@anvil.nrl.navy.mil; Holtz, R.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rupich, M.W. [American Superconductors Inc., Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Spanos, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Nanoparticles and defects have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy in fully reacted YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO), prepared by the metal-organic deposition (MOD) process. Two types of particles, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuY{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ranging from 10 to 100 nm, have been observed in the YBCO matrix. The YBCO contains a large number of planar defects and a considerable number of (1 1 0) rotational twins. Details of the nanoparticles and defects in the MOD-processed YBCO films are presented in this paper.

  13. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization

  14. The stability and dielectric performance of BiNbO{sub 4} prepared by citrate method assisting sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Haifa [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Chen, Bei; Luo, Hongying; Li, Haiqin; Zheng, Liuyang; Yang, Jien; Liu, Hairui; Liu, Zhiyong [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Low-temperature β phase BiNbO{sub 4} powders (denoted as Low-β) were prepared by a citrate method using home-made water-soluble niobium precursors. The stability of Low-β was systematically investigated from the aspects including calcination temperature, incubation time, and stress existing in pellets. Pure Low-β can be obtained between 700 and 750 C and the crystal evolution of Low-β has not completed yet, compared with high-temperature β phase. Low-β is kinetically stable and no phase transition occurs when increasing the incubation time below 750 C. Above 750 C, both the calcination temperature and incubation time can induce the abnormal phase transition from Low-β to α phase; also, stress existing in pellets can effectively activate the phase transition of Low-β. We can conclude that the Low-β is thermodynamically unstable, while in kinetics, Low-β is stable. The dielectric properties of BiNbO{sub 4} ceramics were investigated to analyze the influence of phase of BiNbO{sub 4} powders precursors, especially the effect of phase transition of Low-β. It's found that BiNbO{sub 4} powders firstly calcined at 700 C is the best precursor to prepare dense ceramics with uniform grain size and the dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of BiNbO{sub 4} ceramics prepared at 1000 C is 56.6 and 0.001 at 10 kHz, respectively. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Improment of process for preparing and testing hydrogels in wound/burn treatment to apply a licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Pham Thi Thu Hong; Doan Binh; Tran Tich Canh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogel based on PVA/PVP/KC/CMC for burn wound dressing has been prepared by cross linking irradiation. The characteristics of the hydrogel such as gel fraction, mechanical properties, the equilibrium swelling degree in water and in pseudo-extra cellular fluid (PECF), and the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were measured. The microbe penetration, burn-wound healing effects, skin irritation and sterility level of the hydrogel were tested and analyzed. In addition, a technology system for producing hydrogel in a 500 pieces/batch/4hr scale was designed. (author)

  16. Validation of the CORB75 (confusion, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥ 75 years) as a simpler pneumonia severity rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gondar, O; Vila-Corcoles, A; Rodriguez-Blanco, T; Hospital, I; Salsench, E; Ansa, X; Saun, N

    2014-04-01

    This study compares the ability of two simpler severity rules (classical CRB65 vs. proposed CORB75) in predicting short-term mortality in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A population-based study was undertaken involving 610 patients ≥ 65 years old with radiographically confirmed CAP diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 in Tarragona, Spain (350 cases in the derivation cohort, 260 cases in the validation cohort). Severity rules were calculated at the time of diagnosis, and 30-day mortality was considered as the dependent variable. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) was used to compare the discriminative power of the severity rules. Eighty deaths (46 in the derivation and 34 in the validation cohorts) were observed, which gives a mortality rate of 13.1 % (15.6 % for hospitalized and 3.3 % for outpatient cases). After multivariable analyses, besides CRB (confusion, respiration rate ≥ 30/min, systolic blood pressure AUC statistics for predicting mortality in the derivation and validation cohorts were 0.79 and 0.82, respectively. In the derivation cohort, a CORB75 score ≥ 2 showed 78.3 % sensitivity and 65.5 % specificity for mortality (in the validation cohort, these were 82.4 and 71.7 %, respectively). The proposed CORB75 scoring system has good discriminative power in predicting short-term mortality among elderly people with CAP, which supports its use for severity assessment of these patients in primary care.

  17. Flow Asymmetric Propargylation: Development of Continuous Processes for the Preparation of a Chiral β-Amino Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sheeran, Jillian W; Clausen, Andrew M; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Bio, Matthew M; Bader, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The development of a flow chemistry process for asymmetric propargylation using allene gas as a reagent is reported. The connected continuous process of allene dissolution, lithiation, Li-Zn transmetallation, and asymmetric propargylation provides homopropargyl β-amino alcohol 1 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity in high yield. This flow process enables practical use of an unstable allenyllithium intermediate. The process uses the commercially available and recyclable (1S,2R)-N-pyrrolidinyl norephedrine as a ligand to promote the highly diastereoselective (32:1) propargylation. Judicious selection of mixers based on the chemistry requirement and real-time monitoring of the process using process analytical technology (PAT) enabled stable and scalable flow chemistry runs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sample preparation of energy materials for X-ray nanotomography with micromanipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Camino, Fernando E; Wang, Jun

    2014-06-06

    X-ray nanotomography presents an unprecedented opportunity to study energy storage/conversion materials at nanometer scales in three dimensions, with both elemental and chemical sensitivity. A critical step in obtaining high-quality X-ray nanotomography data is reliable sample preparation to ensure that the entire sample fits within the field of view of the X-ray microscope. Although focused-ion-beam lift-out has previously been used for large sample (few to tens of microns) preparation, a difficult undercut and lift-out procedure results in a time-consuming sample preparation process. Herein, we propose a much simpler and direct sample preparation method to resolve the issues that block the view of the sample base after milling and during the lift-out process. This method is applied on a solid-oxide fuel cell and a lithium-ion battery electrode, before numerous critical 3D morphological parameters are extracted, which are highly relevant to their electrochemical performance. A broad application of this method for microstructure study with X-ray nanotomography is discussed and presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Microstructure and associated properties of YBa2Cu3Ox superconductors prepared by melt-processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    From the standpoint of applications, melt-processed bulk YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO) superconductors are of considerable interest. We have studied the microstructure and levitation force of melt-processed YBCO, YBCO plus Y 2 BaCuO 5 , and YBCO plus Pt samples. Large single crystalline samples, grown using a seeding technique, were also studied. The levitation force is highest in melt-processed samples made by the seeding technique. 6 figs, 24 refs

  20. Composite coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation followed by sol-gel process and in vitro degradation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Bai Kuifeng; Fu Zhenya; Zhang Caili; Zhou Huan; Wang Liguo; Zhu Shijie; Guan Shaokang; Li Dongsheng; Hu Junhua

    2012-01-01

    A Mg phosphate coating was prepared on home-developed Mg-Zn-Ca alloy to improve its anticorrosion performance in simulated body fluid (SBF, Kokubo solution). The coating was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) method at the working voltage of 120-140 V. Evident improvement of anticorrosion was obtained even through the surface was porous. To further diminish the contact with SBF, a TiO 2 layer was coated on the porous MAO layer by sol-gel dip coating followed by an annealing treatment. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the MAO and TiO 2 /MAO coated alloys was evaluated by anodic polarization measurements. The pores on Mg phosphate layer provided accommodation sites for the subsequent TiO 2 sol-gel coating which sealed the pores and hence significantly enhanced the anticorrosion while single MAO coating only improve anticorrosion within a limited range. The present result indicates that fabrication of composite coatings is a significant strategy to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy and other alloys, thus enhancing the potential of using Mg alloys as bio-implants.

  1. Enhancement of the electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt-Sn-P/C catalysts prepared by chemical deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhong; Ge, Junjie; Tian, Tian; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei; Lu, Tianhong

    In this paper, five Pt 3Sn 1/C catalysts have been prepared using three different methods. It was found that phosphorus deposited on the surface of carbon with Pt and Sn when sodium hypophosphite was used as reducing agent by optimization of synthetic conditions such as pH in the synthetic solution and temperature. The deposition of phosphorus should be effective on the size reduction and markedly reduces PtSn nanoparticle size, and raise electrochemical active surface (EAS) area of catalyst and improve the catalytic performance. TEM images show PtSnP nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the carbon surface with average diameters of 2 nm. The optimum composition is Pt 3Sn 1P 2/C (note PtSn/C-3) catalyst in my work. With this composition, it shows very high activity for the electrooxidation of ethanol and exhibit enhanced performance compared with other two Pt 3Sn 1/C catalysts that prepared using ethylene glycol reduction method (note PtSn/C-EG) and borohydride reduction method (note PtSn/-B). The maximum power densities of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) were 61 mW cm -2 that is 150 and 170% higher than that of the PtSn/C-EG and PtSn/C-B catalyst.

  2. Preparation of CaO/Fly ash as a catalyst inhibitor for transesterification process off palm oil in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwani, Z.; Fatra, W.; Saputra, E.; Maulana, R.

    2018-03-01

    A palm fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst was prepared and used in transesterification from off-grade palm oil for biodiesel production. The catalyst synthesized by loading CaO of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) into fly ash through impregnation method. The optimum catalyst preparation conditions were determined by influence of calcination temperature and weight ratio of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and fly ash. Catalyst with highest catalytic activity was achieved when calcined at 800 °C and proportion of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O to fly ash is 80:20. Under the conditions of oil : methanol ratio of 1:6, catalyst dosage of 6 wt% and temperature of 70 °C for 2 h, the biodiesel yield reaches to 71.77%. CaO, SiO2, Ca(OH)2 and Ca2SiO4 were found in the catalyst through X-ray diffraction (XRD) while the basic strength of the catalyst H_ in the range 9.3 – 11. Surface area of the developed catalyst is 24.342 m2/g through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Characteristics of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, flash point has been matched with standard for biodiesel specification of Indonesia.

  3. Enhancement of the electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt-Sn-P/C catalysts prepared by chemical deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Xinzhong; Ge, Junjie; Tian, Tian [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei; Lu, Tianhong [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2007-10-25

    In this paper, five Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}/C catalysts have been prepared using three different methods. It was found that phosphorus deposited on the surface of carbon with Pt and Sn when sodium hypophosphite was used as reducing agent by optimization of synthetic conditions such as pH in the synthetic solution and temperature. The deposition of phosphorus should be effective on the size reduction and markedly reduces PtSn nanoparticle size, and raise electrochemical active surface (EAS) area of catalyst and improve the catalytic performance. TEM images show PtSnP nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the carbon surface with average diameters of 2 nm. The optimum composition is Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}P{sub 2}/C (note PtSn/C-3) catalyst in my work. With this composition, it shows very high activity for the electrooxidation of ethanol and exhibit enhanced performance compared with other two Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}/C catalysts that prepared using ethylene glycol reduction method (note PtSn/C-EG) and borohydride reduction method (note PtSn/-B). The maximum power densities of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) were 61 mW cm{sup -2} that is 150 and 170% higher than that of the PtSn/C-EG and PtSn/C-B catalyst. (author)

  4. Preparation of SmBCO layer for the surface optimization of GdYBCO film by MOCVD process based on a simple self-heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2018-07-01

    The MOCVD process was adopted to grow the REBa2Cu3O7-δ ((REBCO), RE = rare earth elements) films on the LaMnO3 (LMO) templates. Meanwhile, the LMO-template tapes are heated by the joule effect after applying a heating current through the Hastelloy metal substrates. The surface of GdYBCO films prepared by MOCVD method is prone to form outgrowths. So the surface morphology of GdYBCO film is optimized by depositing the SmBCO layer, which is an important process method for the preparation of high-quality multilayer REBCO films. At last, the GdYBCO/SmBCO/GdYBCO multilayer films were successfully prepared on the LMO templates based on the simple self-heating method. It is demonstrated that the GdYBCO surface was well improved by the characterization analysis of scanning electron microscope. And the Δω of REBCO (005) and Δφ of REBCO (103), which were performed by an X-ray diffraction system, are respectively 1.3° and 3.3° What's more, the critical current density (Jc) has been more than 3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) and the critical current (Ic) basically shows a trend of good linear increase with the increase of the number of REBCO layers.

  5. Investigation on the thermodynamic analysis, preparation and characterization of LaNi5 - hydrogen storage alloy by magnesiothermic reduction diffusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giresan G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses on the preparation of LaNi5 intermetallic compound by “Metallothermic reduction diffusion process”. Experiments were carried out using oxides and chlorides of La and Ni metal powders as the raw materials with granular Mg powder as the reductant. The thermal reduction process was carried out at 900 ºC for 9 hrs in Ar atmosphere. After the completion of reaction, the contents were purified by treating with dilute acetic acid followed by de-ionized water. Thermodynamic feasibility studies were carried out to determine the probabilistic nature of formation of the desired compound. Thermal analysis was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase purity and the elemental composition of the alloy were assessed by XRD and EDX analyses. The morphological features of the prepared powders were examined by SEM. From this study, it has been concluded that LaNi5 alloy can be prepared with an appreciable purity by the Metallothermic reduction diffusion process.

  6. Enhanced reversible lithium storage in a nano-Si/MWCNT free-standing paper electrode prepared by a simple filtration and post sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Lu; Zhong Haoxiang; Zhang Lingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-Si/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite paper was prepared as free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. The prepared paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved electrochemical performance, maintaining a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle. - Abstract: Nano-Si/(multi-wall carbon nanotube) (Si/MWCNT) composite paper was prepared as flexible electrode for lithium ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nanosized Si particles were dispersed homogeneously and intertwined by the MWCNT throughout the whole paper electrode. After thermal sintering, Si/MWCNT paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved flexibility with a high Si content of 35.6 wt% as compared with before sintering, and retained a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle.

  7. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N. [JSC - Design-Prospecting and Scientific-Research Institute of Industrial Technology -, Kashirskoye Highway, 33, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A. [JSC - State Scientific Center - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors -, Ulyanovsk region, Dimitrovgrad - 10, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  8. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  9. A cost-effective process to prepare VO2 (M) powder and films with superior thermochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiudi; Zhang, Hua; Chai, Guanqi; Sun, Yaoming; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Haoliang; Chen, Lihua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Combining codeposition and short time post annealing, VO 2 (M) with high quality and excellent phase transition performance is obtained. After mixing the VO 2 powder with acrylic resin, the composite films deposited on glass show superior visible transmission and solar modulation, which can be used as an excellent candidate of low cost smart window in energy saving field. - Highlights: • The VO 2 powder obtained by short time thermolysis method is high purity and crystallinity with superior phase transition performance. • The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about −30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. • After mixing VO 2 powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite films is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. • Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film prepared by 1.3 at% tungsten doped VO 2 still show superior transmission modulation about 26.4%, which means that it is a potential candidate as smart windows. - Abstract: VO 2 powder with superior phase transition performance was prepared by convenient thermolysis method. The results illustrated that VO 2 powder show high purity and crystallinity. VO 2 particles are transformed from cluster to quasi-sphere with the increase of annealing temperature. The DSC analysis proves that VO 2 show superior phase transition performance around 68 °C. The phase transition temperature can be reduced to 33.5 °C by 1.8 at% tungsten doping. The maximum decreasing efficiency of phase transition temperature is about −30 K/at% with w = 0.4 at%. After mixing VO 2 powder with acrylic resin, the maximal visible transmission of the composite thin films on glass is 48% and the transmission modulation at 2000 nm is 37.3% with phase transition temperature of 66.2 °C. Though the phase transition performance is weakened by tungsten doping, the film

  10. Thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polystyrene/boron nitride nanocomposites prepared by in situ reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xingyi; Wang, Shen; Zhu, Ming; Yang, Ke; Jiang, Pingkai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Thermally conductive and electrically insulating polymer/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites are highly attractive for various applications in many thermal management fields. However, so far most of the preparation methods for polymer/BN nanocomposites have usually caused difficulties in the material post processing. Here, an in situ grafting approach is designed to fabricate thermally conductive, electrically insulating and post-melt processable polystyrene (PS)/BN nanosphere (BNNS) nanocomposites by initiating styrene (St) on the surface functionalized BNNSs via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced thermal conductivity. For example, at a St/BN feeding ratio of 5:1, an enhancement ratio of 1375% is achieved in comparison with pure PS. Moreover, the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites show a desirable weak dependence on frequency, and the dielectric loss tangent of the nanocomposites remains at a very low level. More importantly, the nanocomposites can be subjected to multiple melt processing to form different shapes. Our method can become a universal approach to prepare thermally conductive, electrically insulating and melt-processable polymer nanocomposites with diverse monomers and nanofillers. (paper)

  11. High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yuan Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm.

  12. Polyethylene ionomer-based nano-composite foams prepared by a batch process and MuCell injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidetomo; Mori, Tomoki; Okamoto, Masami; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To understand the correlation between foamability and melt rheology of polyethylene-based ionomers having different degrees of the neutralization and corresponding nano-composites, we have conducted the foam processing via a batch process in an autoclave and microcellular foam injection molding (FIM) process using the MuCell technology. We have discussed the obtainable morphological properties in both foaming processes. All cellular structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The competitive phenomenon between the cell nucleation and the cell growth including the coalescence of cell was discussed in light of the interfacial energy and the relaxation rate as revealed by the modified classical nucleation theory and rheological measurement, respectively. The FIM process led to the opposite behavior in the cell growth and coalescence of cell as compared with that of the batch process, where the ionic cross-linked structure has significant contribution to retard the cell growth and coalescence of cell. The mechanical properties of the structural foams obtained by FIM process were discussed.

  13. Preparation process and properties of LiCoO{sub 2}/PANI/dodecylbenzenesulfonate composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchichi, Karima, E-mail: ferchichikarima1@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Hbaieb, Souhaira, E-mail: souhaira.bouchaira@gmail.com [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Amdouni, Noureddine, E-mail: nouredin.amdouni@fst.rnu.tn [UR Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Solides, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kalfat, Rafik, E-mail: rafik.kalfat@gmail.com [Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Chevalier, Yves, E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Génie des Procédés (LAGEP), CNRS UMR 5007, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-10-01

    Composite materials that combine the lithium exchanging material LiCoO{sub 2} and the conductive polymer poly(aniline) (PANI) have been investigated regarding their possible application to electrode materials of lithium batteries. Such composite materials have been prepared by means of polymerization of aniline in acidic suspensions of LiCoO{sub 2} particles. PANI was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline by ammonium persulfate in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as a micellar template and dopant. The composite material consisted in LiCoO{sub 2} particles dispersed in a continuous matrix of PANI. The ribbon-like morphology of the powdered material was distinctly different of the morphologies of the parent materials. The conductive material had conductivity close to that of PANI because the LiCoO{sub 2} content of the composite material was low. The presence of the poorly conductive inorganic phase caused a significant loss of conductivity, showing that LiCoO{sub 2} blocked electronic transfers between PANI crystallites. Ammonium persulfate caused the loss of lithium from LiCoO{sub 2} when it was used at high concentration in the polymerization recipe. In this case a new phase made of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by chemical decomposition of Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2}. Thin films prepared from stable suspensions of composite materials in water show comparable electrical performance to that measured for bulk materials. - Highlights: • LiCoO{sub 2} was incorporated in a conductive polymer matrix made of PANI. • The hybrid material retained the high conductive properties of PANI. • Loss of lithium by persulfate oxidation caused conversion of LiCoO{sub 2} into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of yttrium vanadate phosphor prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Marcela G.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Calefi, Paulo S.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino

    2014-01-01

    We used the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route to synthesize YVO 4 crystalline phases doped with europium III ion. We heat-treated the samples at 600, 800, and 1000 °C and characterized the materials by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and photoluminescence. Larger weight loss occurred until 500 °C, ascribed to removal of residual precursor molecules. X-ray diffraction patterns evidenced YVO 4 phase formation at 600 °C. The crystallite size depended on the heat treatment temperature. SAXS showed that the nature of the system interfaces changed as a function of the thermal treatment. The excitation spectra of the samples displayed the charge transfer band. The photoluminescence data revealed the characteristic transition bands arising from the 5 D 0 → 5 F J (J=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) manifolds under maximum excitation at the charge transfer band and the 5 L 6 level of the Eu 3+ ion. The 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition dominated the emission spectra, indicating that the Eu 3+ ion occupies a site without inversion center. The lifetime and quantum efficiency values were about 0.70 ms and 50%, respectively, corroborating literature results. -- Highlights: • This study described the preparation of the yttrium vanadate by non-hydrolytic sol–gel. • The SAXS curves can be interpreted from the fractal theory for a two-phase model. • The goal of the work is the preparation of the phosphors at low temperature. • The lifetimes depend on wavelength of the excitation

  15. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of yttrium vanadate phosphor prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Marcela G.; Faria, Emerson H. de; Rocha, Lucas A.; Calefi, Paulo S.; Ciuffi, Katia J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira, 201 Franca, SP, CEP 14404-600 (Brazil); Nassar, Eduardo J., E-mail: ejnassar@unifran.br [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira, 201 Franca, SP, CEP 14404-600 (Brazil); Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Ver. Olimpio Grande s/n Itabaiana, SE, CEP 49500-000 (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    We used the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route to synthesize YVO{sub 4} crystalline phases doped with europium III ion. We heat-treated the samples at 600, 800, and 1000 °C and characterized the materials by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and photoluminescence. Larger weight loss occurred until 500 °C, ascribed to removal of residual precursor molecules. X-ray diffraction patterns evidenced YVO{sub 4} phase formation at 600 °C. The crystallite size depended on the heat treatment temperature. SAXS showed that the nature of the system interfaces changed as a function of the thermal treatment. The excitation spectra of the samples displayed the charge transfer band. The photoluminescence data revealed the characteristic transition bands arising from the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 5}F{sub J} (J=0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) manifolds under maximum excitation at the charge transfer band and the {sup 5}L{sub 6} level of the Eu{sup 3+} ion. The {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition dominated the emission spectra, indicating that the Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies a site without inversion center. The lifetime and quantum efficiency values were about 0.70 ms and 50%, respectively, corroborating literature results. -- Highlights: • This study described the preparation of the yttrium vanadate by non-hydrolytic sol–gel. • The SAXS curves can be interpreted from the fractal theory for a two-phase model. • The goal of the work is the preparation of the phosphors at low temperature. • The lifetimes depend on wavelength of the excitation.

  16. Formulation and development of a methodology for selecting desulfurization processes, applicable to diluted sulfurous emissions from copper. Preparation of the engineering for a draft project using electron beam process, selected with this methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aros M, Patricia.

    1997-01-01

    A comparative study of clean desulfurization technologies was prepared. Sulfur abatement processes from S O 2 gas streams were analyzed in 21 processes grouped into 8 different types. Since there are a large number of potentially applicable processes, this thesis presents a process selection methodology based on a technical/economic analysis series, which produces a ranking by scores. Visual Basic 3.0 software was used to develop the program, which can be installed in any computer and uses Windows 95. Based on these results in Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission decided to present a draft project for electron beam technology. The full design and calculation for the humidifying and cooling tower was prepared together with the design of the remaining equipment for size, in order to estimate probable costs. The pre-feasibility evaluation determined that the process would generate profits, when the selling price of ammonium sulfate - which is a byproduct of the process that is used as fertilizer - is above US$ 110/ton. The process cost is heavily influenced by the capital cost of storage facilities, since a long term supply for ammonia reagent is needed. This product is imported in Chile and it is currently an expensive reagent. (author). 33 app., 7 tabs

  17. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  18. Effect of washing process on the magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles prepared by reduction-diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, D.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.; Choi, C. J.

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles with a particle size below 50 nm and excellent magnetic properties were obtained via a novel route which makes use of both spray drying and reduction-diffusion processes. Uniform Nd-Fe-B particles were formed by the optimization of Ca amount as a reducing agent and additional washing by milling in ethanol media. Especially, we implemented a two-step washing process which contributed to the excellent magnetic properties with high remanence and coercivity. After the removal of CaO by novel washing process, the maximum energy product (BH)max of the particles showed 22.1 MGOe. This value is superior to those reported in reduction-diffusion process. We used Henkel plot to assume the mechanism of magnetic interactions of the Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles.

  19. High-density Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor prepared by rapid thermal melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Kear, B. H.; McCandlish, L. E.; Safari, A.; Meskoob, M.

    1989-10-01

    A high quality, dense Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor has been successfully synthesized by rapid thermal melt processing. Conventionally sintered pellets were melted at 1200 °C, cooled rapidly, and then annealed. As-melted samples exhibited semiconductor behavior, which upon annealing became superconducting at 115 K [Tc(zero)=105 K]. A detailed study of various processing techniques has been carried out.

  20. New process of the preparation of catalyzed gas diffusion electrode for PEM fuel cells based on ultrasonic direct solution spray reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, K.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a newly developed process for in-situ catalyst deposition on gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This process has the potential to reduce the number of steps for catalyzed GDE fabrication. In addition, the process offers economic advantages for the fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a home-made catalyst maker with ultrasonic spray method was used to prepare a solution of the carbon supported platinum catalyst on the GDL. The sprayed catalyst powder consisted of carbon support. The catalyst particles did not prevent gas flow channels on the GDL. The catalyst layer was shown to be located only on the top surface of the GDL and was not packed into its flow channel. Results of Cross-section SEM image, crystallization, micro structure and electro-catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction were also discussed. 1 ref., 1 fig.