WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation instrumentation measurement

  1. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  2. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  3. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  4. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  5. An Instrument to Measure Anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allen B.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-six disadvantaged adults from North Carolina were the subjects in a study that factor-analyzed three instruments designed to measure anomia, yielding a 12-item unidimensional scale. (The refined combination scale is presented as of potential usefulness for research on the effects of educational intervention on anomia.) (LRA)

  6. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grgić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its competitive edge. Reputation is a normal part of our life and an integral part of our society. Our interest in the honesty and integrity of others is firmly established in all cultures and nowadays the focus of this interest is switching increasingly on companies. Corporate reputation can be acquired by means of strong, well-developed strategies, which are crucial for the opinion of stakeholders regarding future stability and competitive sustainability of the company. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that in order to manage it, corporate reputation has to be measured first. However, although the concept of corporate reputation is universally accepted and its significance has been recognized especially in the last two decades, the process of its measurement is still at an early stage and there is no universally accepted instrument for its measurement. Therefore, the author of this paper gives an overview of the instruments used for the measurement of corporate reputation which have gained a foothold through former practical usage.

  7. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Grgić

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its...

  8. The FASES instrument development and experiment preparation for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Gerold; Gollinger, Klaus; Greger, Ralf; Dettmann, Jan; Winter, Josef; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Vincent-Bonnieu, Sebastien; Liggieri, Libero; Clausse, Daniele; Antoni, Mickael

    , location and their time depen-dent evolution. The TCU will be used for the stability experiment ITEM-S and the droplet freezing experiment ITEM-F. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) will give an information about the evolution of the emulsion through the droplet size distribution and the dispersion state of the droplets within the emulsion during a controlled temperature sweep by measuring the latent heat of droplet freezing and melting during the EMPI experiments. For this purpose the calorimeter is equipped with a reference sample filled with a pure liquid matrix and a similar measurement sample filled with the specific emulsion under investigation. The differential heat flux between measurement sample and reference sample is measured with a sensitive heat flux sensor. Each instrument is serviced by a robotic sample stowage system, which accommodates in total 44 different ITEM and EMPI emulsion samples each filled with a specific composition of the emulsion. Currently the flight preparation is ongoing with particular focus on the preparation of the emulsion flight sample set and the instrument's operating parameters. The FASES flight instrument was developed by ASTRIUM Space Transportation Germany with support of RUAG Aerospace Wallisellen under ESA / ESTEC contract. The science team of FASES is supported by ESA/ESTEC (Microgravity Application Programme, AO99-052).

  9. Intelligent sensing, instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

      “Intelligent Sensing, Instrumentation and Measurements” addresses issues towards the development of sensor nodes for wireless Sensor Networks. The fundamentals of sensors, interfacing, power supplies, configuration of sensor node, and GUI development are covered. The book will be useful for engineers and researchers in the field ,especially for higher undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Wireless Sensor Networks or Smart Sensors.

  10. Instrumentation, sterilization, and preparation of robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhandari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The da Vinci surgical system is being used for a wide range of surgical tasks. As the applications of this robot increase, more and more surgeons would like to acquire this piece of equipment. There are a wide range of expensive and sophisticated accessories and instruments that come along with this machine, that need special care and attention. The aim of this chapter is the make the user familiar with the various parts of the robot and to provide guidelines for the safe usage of this equipment.

  11. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22 Section 201.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  12. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Littlejohn, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  13. Free Instrument for Movement Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Norberto; Corrêa, Lorena Peixoto Nogueira Rodriguez Martinez Salles; França, Lucas Gabriel Souza; Cunha, Marcelo do Vale; de Sousa, Marcos Cavalcanti; Vieira, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of a computational tool that serves to obtain continuous measurements of moving objects. The software uses techniques of computer vision, pattern recognition and optical flow, to enable tracking of objects in videos, generating data trajectory, velocity, acceleration and angular movement. The program was applied to track a ball around a simple pendulum. The methodology used to validate it, taking as a basis to compare the values measured by the program, as well as the theoretical values expected according to the model of a simple pendulum. The experiment is appropriate to the method because it was built within the limits of the linear harmonic oscillator and energy losses due to friction had been minimized, making it the most ideal possible. The results indicate that the tool is sensitive and accurate. Deviations of less than a millimeter to the extent of the trajectory, ensures the applicability of the software on physics, whether in research or in teaching topics.

  14. Fundamental Measurements and Instrumentation " CKM "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, A.; Engelfried, J.; Mata, J.; Torres, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.

    2002-07-01

    The physics being pursued by CKM (E921) 1, an experiment recently approved at Fermilab, has as goal testing the description of CP Violation within the Standard model. Measuring the branching ratio of K+ [right arrow] pi+vv with 10% accuracy, we can extract the magnitude of Vtd with an overall precision (including theoretical uncertainties) of 10%. Within the collaboration, the experimental high energy physics group at IF-UASLP has the responsibility for designing, testing, and building two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The present status of the experiment is shown in this poster.

  15. Instrument development for safeguards measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, M.; Davidson, D.; Koskelo, M.; Gardner, G. [Canberra Nuclear Products Group, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New safeguards requirements, such as those resulting from industrial reprocessing activities, makes the faster and more accurate determination of the uranium enrichment and/or the isotopic composition of plutonium essential in measuring the fissile mass. In response to these needs, Canberra has developed several improved safeguards systems in the last few years. In this paper, we will present an overview of our newest safeguards systems and the improvements they contain. The portable systems include the U-Pu InSpector, the IMCA and the JSR-14 systems. All combine automatic control of acquisition electronics and rapid analysis with an integrated software package for ease of use. The U-Pu InSpector incorporates the MGA code used by the IAEA and Euratom for plutonium analysis. The IMCA complies with IAEA PMCN and PMCG procedures for uranium analysis. With the JSR-14, we are currently developing the procedures to provide compliance with the IAEA neutron counting procedures. In addition to portable safeguards systems, Canberra has designed and installed many installed systems such as the WDAS and PSMC systems at PNC Tokai in Japan, and the large unattended neutron/gamma systems at Cogema La Hague and the Melox reprocessing facility in France. (author)

  16. Statistical study of color-measurement instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R T; Billmeyer, F W

    1974-06-01

    In a statistical study of the variability of instrumental color-measurement data, two instruments (a Kollmorgen KCS-40 colorimeter-abridged spectrophotometer and a General Electric Recording Spectrophotometer equipped with a Davidson and Hemmendinger digital tristimulus integrator) provided three modes of measurement. Ten samples were measured 48 times in each mode. Frequency distributions were constructed for several colorimetric quantities, including tristimulus values, chromaticity coordinates, and color differences from the mean. To allow study of the error involved in the measurement of color-difference pairs, three such pairs were included in the ten samples. The beneficial effects of averaging were quantified.

  17. Comparative performance of color-measuring instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, F W

    1969-04-01

    The comparative performance of fifteen different color-measuring instruments was studied for precision (short-term repeatability) and accuracy of color measurement and of color difference measurement. For estimates of accuracy, a GE spectrophotometer was considered the referee instrument. The instruments tested included two integrating sphere spectrophotometers, six integrating sphere colorimeters (four of which were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates), and seven 45 degrees / normal calorimeters (four of which were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates). Up to fifty-three samples were measured, most of them several times, on each instrument. Paint panels, plastics, porcelain enamels, and ceramic tiles were among the samples used. Overall, the well-established IDL D-1 Signature Color-Eye colorimeter-abridged spectrophotometer and the Hunter D25 Color and Color Difference Meter demonstrated the best and next best performance, respectively, in all categories. Several other instruments, both well established and new, were outstanding in one or more respects. All production instruments tested gave generally satisfactory results.

  18. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  19. Geometric and dimensional characteristics of simulated curved canals prepared with proTaper instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Renata de Castro Martins; Maria Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia; Vicente Tadeu Lopes Buono

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study identified which regions of ProTaper instruments work during curved root canal instrumentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve ProTaper instruments of each type, S1, S2, F1, and F2, were assessed morphometrically by measuring tip angle, tip length, tip diameter, length of each pitch along the cutting blades, and instrument diameter at each millimeter from the tip. Curved canals in resin blocks were explored with manual stainless steel files and prepared with ProTaper instr...

  20. Instrumentation for Measurement: a bilingual lab e-book

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Restivo; Fernando Gomes Almeida; Maria Fátima Chouzal; Joaquim Mendes; António Mendes Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Instrumentation for Measurement is a relevantsubject in any engineering curriculum. Based on seven years experience in teaching this topic to mechanical engineering students at Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, the authors have prepared an e-book that presents a set of thirteen experimental modules on physical measurements, calibration procedures and metrological concepts. A modular structure permits the most convenient selection according to any course objectives. For each mo...

  1. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  2. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  3. Towards an Enterprise Architecture Benefits Measurement Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, Henk; Steenbergen, van Marlies; Slot, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Based on the Enterprise Architecture Value Framework (EAVF) - a generic framework to classify benefits of Enterprise Architecture (EA) - a measurement instrument for EA benefits has been developed and tested in a survey with 287 respondents. In this paper we present the results of

  4. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Stefan, E-mail: smoeller@slac.stanford.edu; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sorokin, Andrey A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  5. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  6. Spectral Test Instrument for Color Vision Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balázs Vince Nagy; Gy(o)rgy (A)brahám

    2005-01-01

    Common displays such as CRT or LCD screens have limited capabilities in displaying most color spectra correctly. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they work with three primaries and the colors displayed are the mixture of these three colours. Consequently these devices can be confusing in testing human color identification, because the spectral distribution of the colors displayed is the combined spectrum of the three primaries. We have developed a new instrument for spectrally correct color vision measurement. This instrument uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) and is capable of producing all spectra of perceivable colors, thus with appropriate test methods this instrument can be a reliable and useful tool in testing human color vision and in verifying color vision correction.

  7. Instrument for measurement of low exposure rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, A.; Lindhe, J.C.

    1974-02-01

    An instrument for measurement of exposure rates between 0.1 and 20 R/h was fabricated. The instrument will be used in connection wtth radiation therapy of gynecologic cancer. A lithium-drifted silicon detector is used. The registered pulse information is treated in the instrument so that the exposure rate may be read directly in R/h. The instrument accumulates pulses during one second, and the repetition time is one second, The error is plus or minus 10% at 0.1 R/h, plus or minus 3% at 1 R/h and less than plus or minus 1% at 10 R/h. The repetition time may be altered to 10 sec. at calibration. This means that it is possible to measure 0.01 R/h with the accuracy 10% and 0.1 R/h with the accuracy 3%. The stability with time and temperature, linearity, energy dependence, direction dependence and lifetime was investigated. (SW

  8. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  9. Subjective qualitative assessment of the finish line of prosthetic preparations submitted to different finishing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tallita Foglietto; de Melo, Murilo Pereira; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Ceribelli, Bruno Mafra; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Different instruments have been developed to improve crown finish lines after conventional preparation with diamond rotary instruments. However, more evidence on the effectiveness of these instruments is required. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effectiveness of 4 different instruments used for cervical margin finishing in regard to the external line angle (ELA). Forty-eight freshly extracted third molar teeth with similar dimensions were conventionally prepared for crowns and randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=12) according to the finishing instrument: hand trimmer (HT), tungsten carbide bur (TCB), ultrasonic instrument (UI), and diamond rotary instrument (DRI) mounted in a contra angle handpiece with reduced speed. Photomicrographs from the margin profiles of each tooth were obtained with scanning electron microscopy (×40) before and after finishing procedures. The images were qualitatively analyzed (scores 1-4) by 9 experienced dental professionals. Average results were assessed with the paired t test and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (α=.05). HT, TCB, and UI demonstrated no significant differences between unfinished and finished mean ELA scores. DRI was the only group to demonstrate a significantly improved ELA (Pfinishing instrument capable of significantly improving the ELA, while TCB and UI produced nonsignificant improvement, and HT was detrimental to the ELA. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ozone measurement systems: associated instrumentation and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bellido

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects produced by ozone have lead to a vast regulation to define and establish the quality goals of ambient air, based on common methods and criteria. The surveillance nets of atmospheric pollution are worldwide extended systems and the applied technology for the ozone measurement is nowadays quite standardized. The aim of this paper is to give a general view of the most common systems used in the ozone measurement in ambient air from a practical point of view. The used instrumentation and the usual calibration methods will be described.

  11. JWST science instrument pupil alignment measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalak, Dave; Sullivan, Joe; Ohl, Ray; Antonille, Scott; Beaton, Alexander; Coulter, Phillip; Hartig, George; Kelly, Doug; Lee, David; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Schweiger, Paul; Telfer, Randal; Te Plate, Maurice; Wells, Martyn

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy ( 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. OSIM is a full field, cryogenic, optical simulator of the JWST OTE. It is the "Master Tool" for verifying the cryogenic alignment and optical performance of ISIM by providing simulated point source/star images to each of the four Science Instruments in ISIM. Included in OSIM is a Pupil Imaging Module (PIM) - a large format CCD used for measuring pupil alignment. Located at a virtual stop location within OSIM, the PIM records superimposed shadow images of pupil alignment reference (PAR) targets located in the OSIM and SI pupils. The OSIM Pupil Imaging Module was described by Brent Bos, et al, at SPIE in 2011 prior to ISIM testing. We have recently completed the third and final ISIM cryogenic performance verification test before ISIM was integrated with the OTE. In this paper, we describe PIM implementation, performance, and measurement results.

  12. Measuring Lagrangian accelerations using an instrumented particle

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Robert; Gasteuil, Yoann; Volk, Romain; Pinton, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Accessing and characterizing a flow impose a number of constraints on the employed measurement techniques; in particular optical methods require transparent fluids and windows in the vessel. Whereas one can adapt apparatus, fluid and methods in the lab to these constraints, this is hardly possible for industrial mixers. We present in this article a novel measurement technique which is suitable for opaque or granular flows: an instrumented particle, which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. Its density is adjustable for a wide range of fluids and because of its small size and its wireless data transmission, the system can be used both in industrial and scientific mixers allowing a better understanding of the flow within. We demonstrate the capabilities and precision of the particle by comparing its transmitted acceleration to alternative measurements, in particular in the case of a turbulent von K\\'arm\\'an flow. Our technique shows to be an efficient and fast...

  13. In Vitro Comparison of Instrumentation Time and Cleaning Capacity between Rotary and Manual Preparation Techniques in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahrololoomi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning ability and instrumentation time of manual and rotary methods used for preparation of primary an-terior teeth.Materials and Methods: Forty-four primary anterior teeth were used in this experi-mental study. Access cavities were prepared and India ink was injected into the canals. The samples were divided into three groups according to the instrument and preparation technique. In group I the root canals were manually instrumented with K-files. Rotary Flexmaster instruments were used for canal preparation in Group II, and the samples in Group III (control were not instrumented. After canal preparation, the teeth were cleared with methyl salicilate and the removal of India ink was measured in the cervical, middle and apical thirds. The incidence of file breakage and instrumentation time was recorded in the three study groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and t-tests.Results: There was no significant difference in cleaning capacity between the two tech-niques, but a significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Working time was significantly shorter when using the rotary system. No file fracture was observed during the study period.Conclusion: Regarding the shorter working time for rotary instrumentation and the similar cleaning ability of the two techniques, the application of the rotary system is suggested for preparation of decidious root canals during pulpectomy.

  14. NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

    2004-10-21

    This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data

  15. Development of the emergency physician job satisfaction measurement instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, S; Streiner, D; Hahn, E; Shannon, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the job satisfaction of physicians practicing emergency medicine. A prospective survey involving four separate stages (an item evaluation and reduction stage, a factor analysis stage, a construct validity stage, and a reliability stage) was distributed in Canada to full-time emergency physicians. Three separate survey instruments were administered (an initial draft instrument with 228 items, a pilot instrument with 142 items, and the final instrument with 79 items). Construct validity of the final instrument was tested by evaluating the correlation between physician scores on the instrument, and scores on two instruments measuring the same construct, and three measuring different but related constructs. A draft instrument with 228 items and six hypothetical domains was tested on 61 physicians. Evaluation for frequency endorsement, redundancy, and homogeneity reduced the item pool to 157. The remaining 157 items were used as a pilot instrument and tested on 223 physicians. Factor analysis eliminated 66 items from the pilot instrument, creating a final instrument with 79 items, 11 factors, and six domains. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the final instrument domains is 0.81, and all domain-total correlations are greater than 0.4. All correlations between the final instrument and the construct validity instruments were statistically significant (P job satisfaction, which is both internally consistent and stable.

  16. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  17. INTELLIGENT VIRTUAL CONTROL:MEASURING INSTRUMENT FROM WHOLE TO PART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new concept called intelligent virtual control (IVC), which can be driven by measuring functions, is put forward. This small "intelligent measurement instrument unit (IMIU)", carrying with functions of instrument, consists of different types of intelligent virtual instrument (IVI) through individual components together as building blocks and can be displayed directly on the computer screen. This is a new concept of measuring instrument, and also an important breakthrough after virtual instrument (VI). Virtual control makes instrument resources obtain further exploitation. It brings about a fundamental change to the design and manufacturing mode. The instrument therefore, can not only be produced directly inside a PC, but the product is involved in the "green product" system. So far, all the present digital instruments will grow to be replaced by intelligent control with green characteristics.

  18. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  19. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  20. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  1. Standardization of near infrared spectra measured on multi-instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-11

    Calibration model transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. An approach for calibration transfer based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm is proposed in this work. From the three-way spectral matrix measured on different instruments, the relative intensity of concentration, spectrum and instrument is obtained using trilinear decomposition. Because the relative intensity of instrument is a reflection of the spectral difference between instruments, the spectra measured on different instruments can be standardized by a correction of the coefficients in the relative intensity. Two NIR datasets of corn and tobacco leaf samples measured with three instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra measured on one instrument can be correctly predicted using the partial least squares (PLS) models built with the spectra measured on the other instruments.

  2. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  3. Quantifying the information measured by neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.W. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    The concept of the information content of a scientific measurement is introduced, and a theory is presented which enables the information that may be obtained by a neutron scattering instrument to be calculated. When combined with the time taken to perform the measurement the bandwidth of the instrument is obtained. This bandwidth is effectively a figure of merit which is of use in three respects: in the design of neutron instrumentation, the optimisation of measurements, and in the comparison of one instrument with another.

  4. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-09-01

    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  5. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure...... the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments...

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  7. Optically Powered Temperature Measuring Instrument for Big Rotor①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGDezhong

    1997-01-01

    A micro-power consumption non-contact temperature measuring instrument for big rotos is introduced.As it solver very well the signal coupling under high speed rotation and power supply problem for probe,the instrument can realize persistent on-line temperature measurement for big rotor drived by the ordinary light transmitted by optical fiber under the room light.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance specifications for measurement instruments. Your test system as a whole must meet all the applicable...

  9. Microcomputer based instrument for measuring a novel pulmonary function test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Brian L.; Craine, Eric R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a prototype instrument for measuring the end-tidal concentration of carbon monoxide during human respiration is presented. The instrument automatically samples the final sixty cubic centimeters of exhaled breath, from successive breathing cycles, by coordinating a pump and the breathing cycle with a set of vacuum and pressure sensors. The concentration of carbon monoxide is measured using a nondispersive infrared spectrophotometer. The amount of carbon monoxide present is measured relative to the source air concentration eliminating the need for calibrating the instrument. The testing protocol and measurements can be controlled by a microcomputer connected to the instrument through a standard RS-232 serial interface. When at equilibrium, the end-tidal concentration of CO can be measured in a simple and reproducible fashion. This simplified technology allows for the construction of a small, portable, easy to use instrument that will allow the application of this new pulmonary function test at the point of contact with patients.

  10. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  11. The effect of root preparation technique and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Carlos G; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were randomly selected and mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 teeth each for different canal preparation techniques and instrumentation lengths: group A: step-back preparation (SB) with stainless steel files (SF) using root canal length (RCL) to guide instrumentation length; group B: SB using RCL - 1 mm; group C: crown-down preparation (CD) with Profile using RCL; and group D: CD with PF using RCL - 1 mm. Digital images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of instrumentation length (p 0.05) on the development of apical cracks.

  12. School Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey Instruments and Their Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the leadership preparation line of inquiry developed in the past decade by the University Council for Educational Administration/Learning and Teaching in Educational Leadership Special Interest Group Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs, and it particularly addresses the series of survey instruments…

  13. Comparative performance of color-measuring instruments; second report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, F W; Campbell, E D; Marcus, R T

    1974-06-01

    The comparative performance of twelve different late-model color-measuring instruments was studied for precision (short-term repeatability) and conformance of color measurement and color-difference measurement.The instruments tested included four true and two abridged spectrophotometers and six colorimeters, all being integrating-sphere instruments except three 45 degrees /0 degrees colorimeters. All the colorimeters were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates. Forty-four samples taken from the group studied in the previous paper were measured three times on each instrument, by three different well-trained operators. Again, a GE spectrophotometer was considered the reference instrument for conformance studies. Overall, the GE spectrophotometer, the Hunterlab D25D colorimeter, and the Kollmorgen KCS-18 and KCS-40 abridged spectrophotometers demonstrated the best performance. Statistical treatment of the data has been improved vastly since the earlier paper, and some recalculated results are included.

  14. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  15. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2-65 years were involved, scales with 3-7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  17. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  18. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  19. μDirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gostlow

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new instrument (μDirac capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical requirements in the design, and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The design requirements led to μDirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (CFCs and shorter-lived halocarbons having biogenic and anthropogenic sources with measurement precisions ranging from ∼1% sd (CCl4 to ∼9% sd (CH3I. Since the prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground based campaigns. Results from one aircraft and two ground-based deployments are described.

  20. μDirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Yong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new instrument (μDirac capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical design requirements and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground-based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The design requirements led to μDirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (including short-lived tracers having biogenic and anthropogenic sources with measurement precision relative standard deviations ranging from ± 1% (CCl4 to ± 9% (CH3I. The prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 and the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground-based campaigns. Results from an aircraft and a ground-based deployment are described.

  1. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  2. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  3. A Secure System Architecture for Measuring Instruments in Legal Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peters

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems show the tendency of becoming more and more connected. This fact combined with the trend towards the Internet of Things, from which measuring instruments are not immune (e.g., smart meters, lets one assume that security in measuring instruments will inevitably play an important role soon. Additionally, measuring instruments have adopted general-purpose operating systems to offer the user a broader functionality that is not necessarily restricted towards measurement alone. In this paper, a flexible software system architecture is presented that addresses these challenges within the framework of essential requirements laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive of the European Union. This system architecture tries to eliminate the risks general-purpose operating systems have by wrapping them, together with dedicated applications, in secure sandboxes, while supervising the communication between the essential parts and the outside world.

  4. MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    RADU CATALINA; BADEA FLORICA; GRIGORE ANA-MARIA

    2010-01-01

    Any significant management action can be assessed both in terms of success of immediate goals and as effect of the organization ability to embrace change. Market competition intensifies with the development of Romanian society and its needs. Companies that offer different products and services need to impose certain advantages and to increase their performances. The paper will present modern tools for measuring and evaluating organizational performance, namely: Balanced Scorecard, Deming mode...

  5. Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of important...

  6. Astronomical Polarimetry : new concepts, new instruments, new measurements & observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.

    2009-01-01

    All astronomical sources are polarized to some degree. Polarimetry is therefore a powerful astronomical technique. It furnishes unique diagnostics of e.g. magnetic fields and scattering media. This thesis presents new polarimetric concepts, instruments, and measurements targeting astronomical scienc

  7. Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of...

  8. MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU CATALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Any significant management action can be assessed both in terms of success of immediate goals and as effect of the organization ability to embrace change. Market competition intensifies with the development of Romanian society and its needs. Companies that offer different products and services need to impose certain advantages and to increase their performances. The paper will present modern tools for measuring and evaluating organizational performance, namely: Balanced Scorecard, Deming model and Baldrige model. We also present an example for Balance Scorecard, of an organizations belonging to the cosmetics industry.

  9. 77 FR 58419 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for Instrumentation and Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Upgrades for Non-Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for... public comment on Chapter 7, Instrumentation and Control Systems, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1... Content,'' for instrumentation and control upgrades and NUREG-1537, Part 2, ``Guidelines for Preparing...

  10. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  11. Measuring Perceived Anonymity: The Development of a Context Independent Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight M. Hite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess relationships between perceptions of anonymity and behaviors, a context independent instrument is required for measuring the perceptions of anonymity held by individuals.  To date, no such measurement instrument exists that has been shown to be reliable and valid.  The authors employ a rigorous design methodology to develop, test, and substantiate a reliable and valid instrument for measuring perceptions of anonymity across different contexts. The PA measure presented is a five item Likert scale designed to measure perceptions of anonymity across multiple contexts. Results from two separate EFA pilot tests (n=61 and n=60, a test-retest, and a CFA final test (n=292 indicate that the PA measure has good internal consistency reliability (a=.82, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and a single factor structure. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18305

  12. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  13. Calculations of flexibility module in measurements instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    Piezoelectricity has found a lot of applications since it were discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. There are many applications of the direct piezoelectric effect - the production of an electric potential when stress is applied to the piezoelectric material, as well as the reverse piezoelectric effect - the production of strain when an electric field is applied. This work presents a mathematical model of a new model of vibration sensor. The principle of operation of currently used sensors is based on the idea: changes in thickness of the piezoelectric plates cause the vibration of the mechanical element, so-called “fork”. If the “forks” are not buried by the material deformation of the full tiles broadcasting is transmitted to receiver piezoelectric plate. As a result of vibration of receiver plates the cladding is formed on the potential difference proportional to the force. The value of this voltage is processed by an electronic circuit. In the case of backfilling “forks” the electric signal is lower. At the same time is not generated the potential for cladding tiles. Such construction have a lot of drawbacks, for example: need to use several piezoelectric plates, with the increase in number of components is increased failure of sensors, sensors have now produced two forks resonance, using these sensors in moist materials is often the case that the material remains between the forks and at the same time causes a measurement error. Mentioned disadvantages do not appear in the new proposed sensor design. The Galerkin method of the analysis of considered systems will be presented started from development of the mathematical model, to determine the graphs of flexibility and confirm two methods: exact and approximate. Analyzed beam is a part of the vibration level sensor and the results will be used to identify the electrical parameters of the generator. Designing of technical systems containing piezoelectric transducers is a complex process

  14. Developing an instrument to measure effective factors on clinical learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDEH DADGARAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although nursing students spend a large part of their learning period in the clinical environment, clinical learning has not been perceived by its nature yet. To develop an instrument to measure effective factors on clinical learning in nursing students. Methods: This is a mixed methods study performed in 2 steps. First, the researchers defined “clinical learning” in nursing students through qualitative content analysis and designed items of the questionnaire based on semi-structured individual interviews with nursing students. Then, as the second step, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated using the face validity, content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency evaluated on 227 students from fourth or higher semesters. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed, and then, they were analyzed using Max Qualitative Data Analysis and all of qualitative data were analyzed using SPSS 14. Results: To do the study, we constructed the preliminary questionnaire containing 102 expressions. After determination of face and content validities by qualitative and quantitative approaches, the expressions of the questionnaire were reduced to 45. To determine the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was applied. The results indicated that the maximum variance percentage (40.55% was defined by the first 3 factors while the rest of the total variance percentage (59.45% was determined by the other 42 factors. Results of exploratory factor analysis of this questionnaire indicated the presence of 3 instructor-staff, students, and educational related factors. Finally, 41 expressions were kept in 3 factor groups. The α-Cronbach coefficient (0.93 confirmed the high internal consistency of the questionnaire. Conclusion: Results indicated that the prepared questionnaire was an efficient instrument in the study of the effective factors on clinical learning as viewed by nursing students since it

  15. Measurement of sexual functioning after spinal cord injury: preferred instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Brackett, Nancy L; Bodner, Donald;

    2009-01-01

    into male and female sexual function, male reproductive function, and female reproductive function. The instruments that have been used most frequently to measure these aspects of sexual function over the past 5 years were identified by expert consensus. Finally, these instruments were subjected...... and reproductive function after SCI. There were no measures identified to assess female reproductive function. CONCLUSIONS: For clinical trials aiming to improve sexual function after SCI, the FSFI or the IIEF is currently preferred. Although VPA is an appropriate means to assess female sexual responses......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of certain instruments to assess sexuality and fertility after SCI, an expert panel identified key areas to study and evaluated available instruments. These were rated according to certain predefined criteria. METHODS: The authors divided sexual issues...

  16. Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-05-05

    Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

  17. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  18. Standardization Procedure for Two Instruments for Color Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    contract and reported separately. In one of these contracts Billmeyer and Alessi addressed the general reliability of commercial color instruments...collection and the standardization test procedure. 1. F. W. Billmeyer , Jr. and P. J. Alessi (1979, "Assessment of Color- Measuring Instruments for Objective...U.S. Army Natick Research and De- velopment Command, Natick, HA 01760 (ADA094163) Billmeyer , F. W., Jr. and Alessi, P.J. (1979), "Assessment of

  19. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide.

  20. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    A new measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), which is able to discriminate among the large group of elderly who do not depend on help, was tested for content validity and construct validity. Most assessments of functional ability include Physical ADL (PADL) and Instrumental ADL....... The measure of Instrumental ADL included 30 activities in relation to tiredness and reduced speed. Construct validity was tested by the Rasch model for item analysis; internal validity was specifically addressed by assessing the homogeneity of items under different conditions. The Rasch item analysis of IADL...... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...

  1. Comparison of nanoparticle measurement instruments for occupational health applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, J., E-mail: jani.leskinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland); Joutsensaari, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics (Finland); Lyyraenen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Koivisto, J. [Nanosafety Research Center, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Ruusunen, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland); Jaervelae, M.; Tuomi, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Haemeri, K. [University of Helsinki, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics (Finland); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Jokiniemi, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    Nanoparticles are used in many applications because of their novel properties compared to bulk material. A growing number of employees are working with nanomaterials and their exposure to nanoparticles trough inhalation must be evaluated and monitored continuously. However, there is an ongoing debate in the scientific literature about what are the relevant parameters to measure to evaluate exposure to level. In this study, three types of nanoparticles (ammonium sulphate, synthesised TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and aerosolised TiO{sub 2} powder, modes in a range of 30-140 nm mobility size) were measured with commonly used aerosol measurement instruments: scanning and fast mobility particle sizers (SMPS, FMPS), electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), condensation particle counter (CPC) together with nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) to achieve information about the interrelations of the outputs of the instruments. In addition, the ease of use of these instruments was evaluated. Differences between the results of different instruments can mainly be attributed to the nature of test particles. For spherical ammonium sulphate nanoparticles, the data from the instruments were in good agreement while larger differences were observed for particles with more complex morphology, the TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and powder. For instance, the FMPS showed a smaller particle size, a higher number concentration and a narrower size distribution compared with the SMPS for TiO{sub 2} particles. Thus, the type of the nanoparticle was observed to influence the data obtained from these different instruments. Therefore, care and expertise are essential when interpreting results from aerosol measurement instruments to estimate nanoparticle concentrations and properties.

  2. Instrument for thermal radiation flux measurement in high temperature gas flow (Cuernavaca instrument)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afgan, N.H. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal); Leontiev, A.I. [Moscow State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    A new instrument for hemispherical radiation heat flux measurement is proposed. It is based on the theory of blow of the boundary layer, taking into account that at the critical mass flow rate through the porous surface the thermal boundary layer is blown off and only radiation flux from high temperature gases reaches the porous surface. With the measurement of blow of gas flow and the temperature of the porous material, the respective heat flux is obtained. (author)

  3. An Autonomous Ozone Instrument for Atmospheric Measurements from Ocean Buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, E. J.; Rawlins, W. T.; Sholkovitz, E. R.; Hosom, D. S.; Allsup, G. P.; Purcell, M. J.; Scott, D. R.; Mulhall, P.

    2002-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a pollutant. Because of its adverse health effects, there are numerous monitoring stations on land but none over the oceans. We have built an ozone instrument for deployment anywhere at sea from ocean buoys, to study ozone chemistry over the oceans, intercontinental transport of pollution, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone, and to make baseline and long-term time series measurements of ozone in remote locations. The instrument uses direct (Beer's Law) absorption of UV radiation in a dual-path cell, with ambient and ozone-free air alternately switched between the two paths, to measure ozone. Ozone can be measured at a rate of 1 Hz, with a precision of about 1 ppb at sea level. The air inlet and outlet have valves which close automatically under high wind conditions or rain to protect the ozone sensor. The instrument has been packaged for deployment at sea, and tested on a 3-meter discus buoy with other instruments in coastal waters in fall 2001. It can operate autonomously or be controlled via line-of-sight modem or a satellite link. We will present the details of the instrument, and laboratory and buoy test data from its first deployment, including a comparison with a nearby ozone monitoring station on land. We will also present an evaluation of the instrument's performance and describe plans for improvements. In summer 2002, the ozone measurement system will be operated at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory; in the future we anticipate deploying on the Bermuda Testbed Mooring, followed by use on the open ocean to measure long-range transport of ozone.

  4. Health Status Measurement Instruments in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lacasse

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.

  5. Measurement of sexual functioning after spinal cord injury: preferred instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Brackett, Nancy L; Bodner, Donald

    2009-01-01

    into male and female sexual function, male reproductive function, and female reproductive function. The instruments that have been used most frequently to measure these aspects of sexual function over the past 5 years were identified by expert consensus. Finally, these instruments were subjected...... to a critical review. RESULTS: The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the measurement of ejaculatory function and semen quality were considered appropriate measures to assess sexual responses...... and reproductive function after SCI. There were no measures identified to assess female reproductive function. CONCLUSIONS: For clinical trials aiming to improve sexual function after SCI, the FSFI or the IIEF is currently preferred. Although VPA is an appropriate means to assess female sexual responses...

  6. D-Catch instrument : development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos M. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Title. D-Catch instrument: development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals. Aim. This paper is a report of the development and testing of the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the accuracy of nursing documentation in general

  7. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, J.T.; Viehoff, P.B.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sanden, M.W. van der; Wees, P.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement

  8. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M J; Zhang, Z M; Wang, Y J; Li, D W; Zhou, W; Tang, H H; Liu, Y T; Chai, P; Shuai, L; Huang, X C; Liu, S Q; Zhu, M L; Jiang, X P; Zhang, Y W; Li, T; Ma, B; Sun, S F; Sun, L Y; Wang, Q; Lu, Z R; Zhang, T; Wei, L

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  9. An instrument for measuring scintillators efficiently based on silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. J.; Zhang, Z. M.; Wang, Y. J.; Li, D. W.; Zhou, W.; Tang, H. H.; Liu, Y. T.; Chai, P.; Shuai, L.; Huang, X. C.; Liu, S. Q.; Zhu, M. L.; Jiang, X. P.; Zhang, Y. W.; Li, T.; Ma, B.; Sun, S. F.; Sun, L. Y.; Wang, Q.; Lu, Z. R.; Zhang, T.; Wei, L.

    2016-11-01

    An instrument used for measuring multiple scintillators' light output and energy resolution was developed. The instrument consisted of a light sensor array which was composed of 64 discrete SiPMs (Silicon Photomultipliers), a corresponding individual channel readout electronics system, and a data processing algorithm. A Teflon grid and a large interval between adjacent SiPMs were employed to eliminate the optical cross talk among scintillators. The scintillators' light output was obtained by comparing with a reference sample with known light output. Given the SiPM temperature dependency and the difference among each SiPM, a temperature offset correction algorithm and a non-uniformity correction algorithm were added to the instrument. A positioning algorithm, based on nine points, was designed to evaluate the performance of a scintillator array. Tests were performed to evaluate the instrument's performance. The uniformity of 64 channels for light output measurement was better than 98%, the stability was better than 98% when temperature varied from 15 °C to 40 °C, and the nonlinearity under 511 keV was better than 2%. This instrument was capable of selecting scintillators and evaluating the packaging technology of scintillator arrays with high efficiency and accuracy.

  10. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The a

  11. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...

  12. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The

  13. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Nan-qi; SU Hua; LIU Jun

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple.Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer).The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually..

  14. Membrane-based sample preparation for ion chromatography-Techniques, instrumental configurations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Wolfgang; Markeviciute, Inga

    2017-01-06

    Sample preparation is the bottleneck of many analytical methods, including ion chromatography (IC). Procedures based on the application of membranes are important, yet not well appreciated means for clean-up and analyte preconcentration of liquid samples. Filtration, ultrafiltration, the variety of dialysis techniques, i.e. passive dialysis, Donnan dialysis and electrodialysis, as well as gas-diffusion are being reviewed here with respect to their application in combination with IC. Instrumental aspects including hardware requirements, configuration of membrane separation units and membrane characteristics are presented. Operation in batch and flow-through mode is described with emphasis on the latter to in-line coupling with IC, permitting fully automated operation. Attention is also drawn to dialysis probes and microdialysis both providing options for in-situ measurements with inherent selective sampling of analytes and sample preparation. The respective features of the various techniques are outlined with respect to the possibilities of matrix removal and selectivity enhancement. In this article, we provide examples of application of the diverse membrane separation techniques and discuss the benefits and limitations thereof.

  15. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Instruments Measuring Time Varying Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Carvalho, Frederico Marques

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial class A and class S power quality (PQ) instruments when measuring time-varying harmonics. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, two meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. Three-phase voltage signals are applied to PQ instruments, considering 3 situations of time-varying harmonic distortions, whose harmonic distortion values are in accordance with typical values found in power systems. This work is relevant considering that international standardization documents do not pay much attention to this aspect of harmonic distortion.

  17. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  18. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  19. Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector – SERVQUAL (Service Quality), Importance-weighted SERVQUAL, SERVPERF (Service Performance), Importance-weighted SERVPERF and HedPERF (Higher Education Performance). We aim at determining which instrument has the superior measurement capability. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire containing perception items enhanced from the SERVPERF and HE...

  20. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct.

  1. Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Harilaos; Sahin, Onurcan; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

    2014-09-01

    Optical measurement of straylight in the human eye is a challenging task. Issues such as illumination geometry, detector sensitivity and dynamic range as well as various inherent artifacts must be addressed. We developed a novel instrument based on the principle of double-pass optical integration adapted for fast measurements in a clinical setting. The experimental setup was validated using four different diffusers introduced in front of the eyes of ten subjects. Measurement limitations and future implications of rapid optical measurement of straylight in ophthalmic diagnosis are discussed.

  2. Design of a compact, low-price, lifetime measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.; Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin

    1994-08-01

    The technical requirements for a small, rugged, and moderately- priced device for measuring fluorescence lifetimes have been investigated. The suitability and performance of various lifetime measuring schemes were compared. Based on these investigations a compact time-domain instrument was developed allowing measurement of fluorescence decays with a time resolution well below 1 ns. A semiconductor laser (frequency-doubled, if necessary) is used as a light source. Detection is done with a miniaturized photomultiplier. In favorable cases measurement of a fluorescent decay curve is accomplished within less than one minute.

  3. Quantifying Human Response: Linking metrological and psychometric characterisations of Man as a Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, L. R.; Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2013-09-01

    A better understanding of how to characterise human response is essential to improved person-centred care and other situations where human factors are crucial. Challenges to introducing classical metrological concepts such as measurement uncertainty and traceability when characterising Man as a Measurement Instrument include the failure of many statistical tools when applied to ordinal measurement scales and a lack of metrological references in, for instance, healthcare. The present work attempts to link metrological and psychometric (Rasch) characterisation of Man as a Measurement Instrument in a study of elementary tasks, such as counting dots, where one knows independently the expected value because the measurement object (collection of dots) is prepared in advance. The analysis is compared and contrasted with recent approaches to this problem by others, for instance using signal error fidelity.

  4. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  5. Differences in torsional performance of single- and multiple-instrument rotary systems for glide path preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Singh, Rupinderpal; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    A new rotary instrument has been developed to simplify the glide path preparation in root canals before shaping procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak torque and force induced by nickel-titanium PathFile multiple-instrument system and the recently developed M-Wire ProGlider single instrument during glide path preparation of mesial root canals in extracted mandibular molars. Each independent canal of eight mesial roots of mandibular molars was randomly assigned to achieve a reproducible glide path with a new set of either PathFile #1 and #2 or ProGlider after negotiation with a 10 K-file. Tests were run in a standardized fashion using a torque-testing platform. Peak torque (N cm) and force (N) were registered and analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests were applied. Preliminary data for stationary torque at failure were also obtained and compared with peak torque for each instrument. PathFile #1 and #2 instruments showed statistically lower peak torque (p = 0.001) and peak force (p = 0.008) than ProGlider. Torque at failure according to ADA No. 28/ISO 36030-1 was not significantly different from peak torque during glide path preparation for ProGlider instruments while it was significantly higher for PathFile #1 and #2 (p path preparation compared to ProGlider, which is possibly subjected to a greater contact with the canal walls due to the increase in its flute diameter at middle and coronal levels.

  6. Optical radiation measurements for photovoltaic applications: instrumentation uncertainty and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daryl R.; Reda, Ibrahim; Wilcox, Stephen; Andreas, Afshin

    2004-11-01

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) devices in the laboratory and in the field requires accurate knowledge of the optical radiation stimulating the devices. We briefly describe the radiometric instrumentation used for characterizing broadband and spectral irradiance for PV applications. Spectral radiometric measurement systems are used to characterize solar simulators (continuous and pulsed, or flash sources) and natural sunlight. Broadband radiometers (pyranometers and pyrheliometers) are used to assess solar resources for renewable applications and develop and validate broadband solar radiation models for estimating system performance. We describe the sources and magnitudes of uncertainty associated with calibrations and measuremens using these instruments. The basic calibration and measurement uncertainty associated with this instrumentaion are based on the guidlines described in the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Bureau INternationale des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Guide to Uncertainty in Measurement. The additional contributions to uncertainty arising from the uncertainty in characterization functions and correction schemes are discussed and ilustrated. Finally, empirical comparisons of several solar radiometer instrumentation sets illustrate that the best measurement accuracy for broadband radiation is on the order of 3%, and spectrally dependent uncertainty for spectroradiometer systems range from 4% in the visible to 8% to 10% in the ultraviolet and infrared.

  7. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM, and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  8. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  9. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  10. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  11. Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkens, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem establishes the impossibility of a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, or equivalently, that quantum theory is contextual. In this paper, an operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (i) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory, (ii) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures rather than just sharp measurements, and (iii) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality.

  12. Roughness measurements with an AFM-CMM instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, application of a Large Range AFM to roughness analyses is presented: measurements on different calibration standards covering a range of 4.8×0.1 mm2 were performed. Upon extraction of single profiles from the three-dimensional data set, roughness can be evaluated in compliance...... with ISO standards. Profiles from the Large range AFM were directly compared with those obtained by a traceable stylus instrument, resulting from probing the same surface region....

  13. Spectral measurements of PMCs from SBUV/2 instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deland, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The SBUV/2 (Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet, model 2) instrument is designed to monitor ozone stratospheric profile and total column ozone using measurements of the Earth's backscattered ultraviolet albedo. We have previously demonstrated that the normal radiance measurements from SBUV/2 instruments, which sample 12 discrete wavelengths between 252 and 340 nm during each scan, can be used to identify polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Some SBUV/2 instruments also periodically view the earth in continuous scan mode, covering the wavelength range 160 400 nm with 0.15 nm sampling. Analysis of these data show PMC occurrence rates similar to the normal discrete scan results, although the observation technique reduces the number of daily measurements by a factor of six. PMC observed by SBUV/2 instruments show a monotonic variation in the residual spectral albedo over the wavelength range 250 300 nm, with maximum enhancements of 10 15% at 250 nm. This result is consistent with microphysical model predictions from Jensen [1989.A numerical model of polar mesospheric cloud formation and evolution, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Colorado]. We find no evidence for a systematic localized increase in PMC residual albedo for wavelengths near 260 nm, in contrast to the recently reported results from the MSX UVISI instrument [Carbary J.F., et al., 2004. Evidence for bimodal particle distribution from the spectra of polar mesospheric clouds. Geophysics Research. Letters 31, L13108]. This result is observed for three different SBUV/2 instruments in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere data over a 13-year span. Our Mie scattering calculations show that the location and magnitude of the 260 nm “hump” feature is dependent upon the specific scattering angles appropriate to the MSX measurements. Although it explains the MSX spectrum, the bimodal size distribution proposed by Carbary et al. (2004), cannot explain the lack of scattering angle dependence of the SBUV/2 spectral shapes. The

  14. Instrument-specific features within the observation preparation software for LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey; Trowitzsch, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The LINC-NIRVANA (LN) Observation Preparation Software (LOPS) supports an observer during the complex process of preparing the observations for LINC-NIRVANA (LN). LN is a German-Italian beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope. The instrument exploits its full capability by means of Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics and an IR Fringe and Flexure Tracker. These sub-systems of the LN instrument and the fixed geometry of the telescope put specific constraints on the observation and scheduling process. LOPS is committed to a generic approach which allows to easily include new features on the so called procedure-plug-in level (low level). Considering specific aspects of the LN instrument the implementation on the generic procedure level is not adequate enough, because an user/observer needs to deal with a lot of instrument-specific parameters when preparing an observation program (OP). For this reason, LOPS provides a high-level application plug-in system which allows to maintain the features of an OP also as separate application in order to benefit from the more advanced GUI. In this paper we present the Guide Star Buffer concept as an exemplary feature-specific application in the framework of LOPS. It is dedicated to search, select and organize guide stars in the corresponding groups needed for LN observations.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring... § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. (a) Compliance with § 75.1719-1(d... intensity measurements may be made at any time longwall or shortwall mining equipment is operated...

  16. Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic

  17. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  18. Project Vanguard Magnetic-Field Instrumentation and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, J. P.; Storarik, J. D.; Shapiro, I. R.; Cain, J. C.

    1960-01-01

    The Vanguard III Satellite, 1959 Eta, placed in orbit on September 18, 1959, contained a proton precessional magnetometer for magnetic-field studies of exceptional accuracy. Throughout the 85 days of battery life, the instrumentation functioned according to plan. Measurements of the absolute total field were obtained in the meridian belts of Minitrack stations at altitudes 510 to 3750 kilometers and at latitudes +/- 33.4 degrees. Surface magnetic observatories were operated at eight of the Minitrack stations to furnish correlative information. This paper reviews briefly the instrumentation employed in these experiments, and the data collection and reduction procedures. Emphasis is given to results from a preliminary analysis. Specifically, this analysis bears on the accuracy of computed fields, the stability of the earth's field in space, the Capetown anomaly, and magnetic-storm effects.

  19. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  20. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN and how to select an outcome measurement instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwine B. Mokkink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing tools for selecting the most appropriate available instrument. Method: In this paper these tools are described, i.e. the COSMIN taxonomy and definition of measurement properties; the COSMIN checklist to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties; a search filter for finding studies on measurement properties; a protocol for systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; a database of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; and a guideline for selecting outcome measurement instruments for Core Outcome Sets in clinical trials. Currently, we are updating the COSMIN checklist, particularly the standards for content validity studies. Also new standards for studies using Item Response Theory methods will be developed. Additionally, in the future we want to develop standards for studies on the quality of non-patient reported outcome measures, such as clinician-reported outcomes and performance-based outcomes. Conclusions: In summary, we plea for more standardization in the use of outcome measurement instruments, for conducting high quality systematic reviews on measurement instruments in which the best available outcome measurement instrument is recommended, and for stopping the use of poor outcome measurement instruments.

  1. A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the amount and timing of surface runoff at multiple scales is needed to understand fundamental hydrological processes. At the plot-scale (i.e., length scales on the order of 1 to 10 m current methods for direct measurement of runoff either store the water in a collection vessel, which is unconducive to long-term monitoring studies, or utilize expensive installations such as large-scale tipping buckets or flume/weir systems. We developed an alternative low-cost, robust and reliable instrument to measure runoff that we call the "Upwelling Bernoulli Tube" (UBeTube. The UBeTube instrument is a pipe with a slot machined in its side that is installed vertically at the base of a runoff collection system. The flow rate through the slot is inferred by measuring the water height within the pipe. The geometry of the slot can be modified to suit the range of flow rates expected for a given site; we demonstrate a slot geometry which is capable of measuring flow rates across more than three orders of magnitude (up to 300 L min−1 while requiring only 30 cm of hydraulic head. System accuracy is dependent on both the geometry of the slot and the accuracy of the water level measurements. With an off-the-shelf pressure transducer sensor, the mean theoretical error for the demonstrated slot geometry was ~17% (ranging from errors of more than 50% at low flow rates to less than 2% at high flow rates, while the observed error during validation was 1–25%. A simple correction factor reduced this mean error to −14%, and further reductions in error could be achieved through the use of taller, narrower slot dimensions (which requires greater head gradients to drive flow or through more accurate water level measurements. The UBeTube device has been successfully employed in a long-term rainfall-runoff study, demonstrating the ability of the instrument to measure surface runoff across a range of flows and conditions.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. Instrument maintenance of ultrasonic influences parameters measurement in technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomal V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The contact and non-contact vibration meters for intermittent and continuous control of the vibration amplitude in the ultrasonic technological equipment have been developed. And in order to estimate the cavitation intensity in liquids the authors have developed cavitation activity indicators and cavitation sensitivity meters, allowing to measure the magnitude of the signal level in the range of maximum spectral density of cavitation noise. The developed instruments allow to improve the quality of products, reduce the defect rate and power consumption of equipment by maintaining optimum conditions of the process.

  4. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Measurement comparisons and operational experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D.; Bruhn, D.; Day, L. A.; Kasemir, K. U.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Ledford, J.; Lysenko, W.; Madsen, D. W.; Martinez, D. G.; O'Hara, J. F.; Pieck, M.; Power, J. F.; Sellyey, W.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility has been used to characterize the pulsed- and cw-beam performance of a 6.7 MeV, 100 mA radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Diagnostic instrumentation, primarily located in a short beam transport downstream of the RFQ, allow facility commissioners and operators to measure and monitor the RFQ's accelerated and total beam transmission, beam loss, bunched beam current, beam energy and output phase, and beam position. Transverse beam profile measurements are acquired under both low and high duty-factor pulsed beam conditions using a slow wire scanner and a camera that images beam-induced fluorescence. The wire scanner is also used to acquire transverse beam emittance information using a technique known as a "quad scan". This paper reviews the measurement performance and discusses the resulting data.

  5. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-07-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  7. Quantifying soil CO2 respiration measurement error across instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, C. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of instrumental methodologies have been developed in an attempt to accurately measure the rate of soil CO2 respiration. Among the most commonly used are the static and dynamic chamber systems. The degree to which these methods misread or perturb the soil CO2 signal, however, is poorly understood. One source of error in particular is the introduction of lateral diffusion due to the disturbance of the steady-state CO2 concentrations. The addition of soil collars to the chamber system attempts to address this perturbation, but may induce additional errors from the increased physical disturbance. Using a numerical 3D soil-atmosphere diffusion model, we are undertaking a comprehensive comparative study of existing static and dynamic chambers, as well as a solid-state CTFD probe. Specifically, we are examining the 3D diffusion errors associated with each method and opportunities for correction. In this study, the impact of collar length, chamber geometry, chamber mixing and diffusion parameters on the magnitude of lateral diffusion around the instrument are quantified in order to provide insight into obtaining more accurate soil respiration estimates. Results suggest that while each method can approximate the true flux rate under idealized conditions, the associated errors can be of a high magnitude and may vary substantially in their sensitivity to these parameters. In some cases, factors such as the collar length and chamber exchange rate used are coupled in their effect on accuracy. Due to the widespread use of these instruments, it is critical that the nature of their biases and inaccuracies be understood in order to inform future development, ensure the accuracy of current measurements and to facilitate inter-comparison between existing datasets.

  8. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  9. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  10. Quantifying and handling errors in instrumental measurements using the measurement error theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Bro, R.; Brockhoff, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement error modelling is used for investigating the influence of measurement/sampling error on univariate predictions of water content and water-holding capacity (reference measurement) from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations (instrumental) measured on two gadoid fish species....... This is a new way of using the measurement error theory. Reliability ratios illustrate that the models for the two fish species are influenced differently by the error. However, the error seems to influence the predictions of the two reference measures in the same way. The effect of using replicated x......-measurements is illustrated by simulated data and by NMR relaxations measured several times on each fish. The standard error of the Physical determination of the reference values is lower than the standard error of the NMR measurements. In this case, lower prediction error is obtained by replicating the instrumental...

  11. Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Willems

    2013-11-01

    Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1 that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2 that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other.

  12. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  13. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  14. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  15. Temperatures stabilization of a field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R.; Wawrowski, S.; Charland, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Enrichment measurements with sodium iodide (NaI) detectors are hampered with a number of problems related to the temperature behavior of NaI crystals and the associated electronics. This problem is of particular concern in applications requiring the use of fixed regions of interest; such applications are used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The Canberra IMCA is a new portable instrument for such applications which can use either a NaI or a Ge detector. In developing the IMCA to meet the IAEA requirements for NaI detectors, Canberra has designed a system with a new temperature stabilization method capable of maintaining the detector stability at 0.5% over a temperature range of -10 to +50{degrees}C. This paper includes a detailed description of this IMCA temperature stabilization system, as well as test results for a range of temperatures using uranium standards.

  16. Set of instruments for measuring the characteristics of optical waveguides in a production environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Svirid

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Developed a set of instruments, which includes instruments for measuring aperture characteristics of OB, OB dispersion characteristics and the loss agents. Considered applicable measurement methods, the design and specifications of the devices.

  17. The method of translation additive and multiplicative error in the instrumental component of the measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskyi, Olexander M.; Kucheruk, Volodymyr Y.; Bogachuk, Volodymyr V.; Gromaszek, Konrad; Wójcik, Waldemar; Smailova, Saule; Askarova, Nursanat

    2016-09-01

    The paper proposes a method of conversion additive and multiplicative errors, mathematical models are obtained by a Taylor expansion of the transformation equations used measuring instruments in the instrumental component of the measurement uncertainty.

  18. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  19. An Instrument to Prepare for Acute Care of the Individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Migyanka, Joann M.; Cramer, Ryan; McGonigle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an instrument to allow individuals with autism spectrum disorder, their families and/or their caregivers to prepare emergency department staff for the care needs of this patient population ahead of acute presentation.

  20. The IMCA: A field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, G.H.; Koskelo, M.; Moeslinger, M. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States); Mayer, R.L. II; McGinnis, B.R. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Wishard, B. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    The IMCA (Inspection Multi-Channel Analyzer) is a portable gamma-ray spectrometer designed to measure the enrichment of uranium either in a laboratory or in the field. The IMCA consists of a Canberra InSpector Multi-Channel Analyzer, sodium iodide or a planar germanium detector, and special application software. The system possesses a high degree of automation. The IMCA uses the uranium enrichment meter principle, and is designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for the verification of enriched uranium materials. The IMCA is available with MGA plutonium isotopic analysis software or MGAU uranium analysis software as well. In this paper, the authors present a detailed description of the hardware and software of the IMCA system, as well as results from preliminary measurements testing compliance of IMCA with IAEA requirements using uranium standards and UF6 cylinders. Measurements performed on UF6 cylinders in the field under variable environmental conditions (temperatures ranging from 0 to 35 C) have shown that good results can be achieved. The enrichment of UF6 contained in the cylinder is determined by using calibration constants generated from an instrument calibration, using traceable uranium oxide standards, performed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. The IMCA software is designed to make the necessary matrix and container corrections to ensure that accurate results are achieved in the field.

  1. Analysis of mechanical preparations in extracted teeth using ProTaper rotary instruments: value of the safety quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J Y; Machtou, P; Ruddle, C; Micallef, J P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Endographe to analyze the vertical forces and torque developed during mechanical preparations in extracted teeth. The data collected in this study may be used to calculate the safety quotient (SQ) as proposed by J.T. McSpadden. The SQ formula is defined as the torque required to break a file at D3 divided by the mean working torque required to cut dentin. The Endographe is a unique force-analyzer device equipped to measure, record, and generate graphs of the vertical forces and torque exerted during root canal preparation. All preparations were performed by endodontists in roots with narrow, more restrictive canals, larger, more open canals, or in roots sectioned in two halves. All canals, including the sectioned canals, were prepared with ProTaper files in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines for use. For narrow canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g.cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 232 (+/- 60) g (F2) and from 80 (+/- 24) g x cm (F1) to 150 (+/- 45) g x cm (S2), respectively. For large canals, the mean values of the generated vertical forces (g) and torque (g x cm) varied from 80 (+/- 20) g (SX) to 340 (+/- 20) g (F1) and from 31 (+/- 9) g x cm (S2) to 96 (+/- 35) g x cm (SX), respectively. The SQ varied from 0.93 to 7.95 for narrow canals and from 1.58 to 14.50 for large canals. The SQ is intended to provide values that can be analyzed to predict whether a rotary file will have a tendency to break or will work safely during clinical use. However, if the formula is going to provide useful information, it must index the "rotation to failure torque" with the "mean working torque" at a specific location along the cutting blades of a file. Additionally, this mathematical formula does not account for factors such as the concentration of forces, the way the instruments are used, or the wear of the instruments. A precise protocol for canal preparation should emphasize using

  2. [Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloica, Milos; Vulićević, Zoran R; Mandinić, Zoran; Radović, Ivana; Jovicić, Olivera; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient's discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine) for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient's adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry.

  3. Spectrometric methods used in the calibration of radiodiagnostic measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, W. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Recently a set of parameters for checking the quality of radiation for use in diagnostic radiology was established at the calibration facility of Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI). The establishment of the radiation quality required re-evaluation of the correction factors for the primary air-kerma standards. Free-air ionisation chambers require several correction factors to measure air-kerma according to its definition. These correction factors were calculated for the NMi free-air chamber by Monte Carlo simulations for monoenergetic photons in the energy range from 10 keV to 320 keV. The actual correction factors follow from weighting these mono-energetic correction factors with the air-kerma spectrum of the photon beam. This paper describes the determination of the photon spectra of the X-ray qualities used for the calibration of dosimetric instruments used in radiodiagnostics. The detector used for these measurements is a planar HPGe-detector, placed in the direct beam of the X-ray machine. To convert the measured pulse height spectrum to the actual photon spectrum corrections must be made for fluorescent photon escape, single and multiple compton scattering inside the detector, and detector efficiency. From the calculated photon spectra a number of parameters of the X-ray beam can be calculated. The calculated first and second half value layer in aluminum and copper are compared with the measured values of these parameters to validate the method of spectrum reconstruction. Moreover the spectrum measurements offer the possibility to calibrate the X-ray generator in terms of maximum high voltage. The maximum photon energy in the spectrum is used as a standard for calibration of kVp-meters.

  4. Instrumental objective measurement of veal calves carcass colour at slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vandoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6700 veal calves were used to compare the ability of chromameter CR300 in measuring the veal meat colour on-line at slaughterhouse and to develop a prediction equation of colour score based on relationship between instrumental and visual assessments. A total of 5000 carcasses were used to develop equation of prediction while 1700 were used to test it. The meat colour was assessed subjectively in 3 different slaughterhouses by the slaughterhouse’s judges 10h post mortem and objectively by chromameter CR300 45 post mortem on the Rectus abdominis. The prediction equation classified correctly 79% of carcasses and was characterized by an R2 of 78%. Furthermore it has to be underlined that the chroma contributes to the total R2 with a 0.21 partial R2. This data confirmed that chromameter CR300 can be used on-line to measure objectively veal meat colour at the end of the slaughter line.

  5. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerodyne is developing a sulfate detection instrument, based on the Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrophotometer (TILDAS) technology and...

  6. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  7. The measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings: a systematic review of measurement properties of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing call by consumers and governments for healthcare to adopt systems and approaches to care to improve patient safety. Collaboration within healthcare settings is an important factor for improving systems of care. By using validated measurement instruments a standardized approach to assessing collaboration is possible, otherwise it is only an assumption that collaboration is occurring in any healthcare setting. The objective of this review was to evaluate and compare measurement properties of instruments that measure collaboration within healthcare settings, specifically those which have been psychometrically tested and validated. Participants could be healthcare professionals, the patient or any non-professional who contributes to a patient's care, for example, family members, chaplains or orderlies. The term participant type means the designation of any one participant; for example 'nurse', 'social worker' or 'administrator'. More than two participant types was mandatory. The focus of this review was the validity of tools used to measure collaboration within healthcare settings. The types of studies considered for inclusion were validation studies, but quantitative study designs such as randomized controlled trials, controlled trials and case studies were also eligible for inclusion. Studies that focused on Interprofessional Education, were published as an abstract only, contained patient self-reporting only or were not about care delivery were excluded. The outcome of interest was validation and interpretability of the instrument being assessed and included content validity, construct validity and reliability. Interpretability is characterized by statistics such as mean and standard deviation which can be translated to a qualitative meaning. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central

  8. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  9. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  10. A new instrument for high statistics measurement of photomultiplier characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, C; Costa, M; Di Capua, F; Kulikovskiy, V; Mele, R; Migliozzi, P; Mollo, C M; Pellegrino, C; Riccobene, G; Vivolo, D

    2016-01-01

    Since the early days of experimental particle physics photomultipliers (PMTs) have played an important role in the detector design. Thanks to their capability of fast photon counting, PMTs are extensively used in the new-generation of astroparticle physics experiments, such as air, ice and water Cherenkov detectors. The use of PMTs of 3-inches or smaller diameter was made possible thanks to the capability of building detectors with large photocathode area distributed in a sustainable number of channels. Small size PMTs ($\\leq$ 3-inches) show little sensitivity to the Earth magnetic field, small transit time, stable transit time spread; the price per photocathode area is less comparing to the one for the large area PMTs, typically used so far in such applications. In this paper we report on the design and performance of a new instrument for mass characterisation of PMTs (from 1-inch to 3-inch size), capable to calibrate hundreds of PMTs per day and provide measurements of dark counts, signal amplitude, late-, ...

  11. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  12. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  13. Fabrication and Testing of Viscosity Measuring Instrument (Viscometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. HASSAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a simple and portable viscometer for the measurement of bulk viscosity of different Newtonian fluids. It is aimed at making available the instrument in local markets and consequently reducing or eliminating the prohibitive cost of importation. The method employed is the use of a D.C motor to rotate a disc having holes for infra-red light to pass through and fall on a photo-diode thus undergoing amplification and this signal being translated on a moving-coil meter as a deflection. The motor speed is kept constant but varies with changes in viscosity of the fluid during stirring, which alter signals being read on the meter. The faster is revolution per minute of the disc, the less the deflection on the meter and vise-versa. From the results of tests conducted on various sample fluids using data on standard Newtonian fluids as reliable guide the efficiency of the viscometer was 76.5%.

  14. Comparing and studying crack formation during apical cavity preparation using ultrasonic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabian M.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major goals of periradicular surgery is to create a good apical sea! at the apex. This"nis done by sectioning of 2 to 3mm from the apex, preparation of a class I cavity and filling with a"nbiocompatible material."nThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether ultrasonic units used for root end"npreparations could change the surface & structure of resected root ends, as competed to common"nmethods of retropreparation. Eighty-five extracted single rooted teeth were divided into five similar"ngroups. Then instrumented and filled with lateral condensation method. Then three millimeter of apex"nwas resected, retropreparaiions in two groups were done with low speed handpiece and round V ^ur"nand cavities in two other groups prepared with the highest power of dentspiay ultrasonic unit with TFI-"n10 tip and in one other group prepared with the highest power of neo sonic ultrasonic unit with diamond"ncoated CT-1 retro tip."nFollowing root resection and retropreparation the surface of resected root ends were examined for the"npresence of any cracks or structural changes on the surface of resected root ends with stereo microscope"n50x."nThe results of this study showed thai high power settings of ultrasonic units can increase the potential of"ncrack formation on resected root surfaces. In conclusion it is better to use low power setting of ultrasonic"nfor retropreparation.

  15. A new method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between ultrashort pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonggang Ji; Yuxin Leng; Yunpei Deng; Bin Tang; Haihe Lu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using second-order autocorrelation conception, a novel method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between two linearly polarized ultrashort pulses with real time were presented. The experiment demonstrated that the measuring method and instrument were simple and accurate (the measurement error < 5 fs). During measuring, there was no moving element resulting in dynamic measurement error.

  16. Demonstration of the ExoMars sample preparation and distribution system jointly with an optical instrument head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Wolfgang; Thiele, Hans; Hofmann, Peter; Baglioni, Pietro

    The ExoMars program will search for past and present life on Mars. ExoMars will address important scientific goals and demonstrate key in-situ enabling technologies. Among such technologies are the acquisition, preparation, distribution and analysis of samples from Mars surface rocks and from the subsurface. The 2018 mission will land an ESA rover on Mars which carries a sample preparation and distribution system (SPDS) and a suite of analytical instruments, the Pasteur Payload with its Analytical Laboratory Drawer (ALD). Kayser-Threde GmbH (Germany) will be responsible for the SPDS as a subcontractor under the mission prime Thales Alenia Space. The SPDS comprises a number of complex mechanisms and mechanical devices designed to transport drill core samples within the rover analytical laboratory, to crush them to powder with a fine grain size, to portion discrete amounts of powdered sample material, to distribute and fill the material into sample containers and to prepare flat sample surfaces for scientific analysis. Breadboards of the crushing mechanism, the dosing mechanism and a distribution carousel with sample containers and a powder sample surface flattening mechanism were built and tested. Kayser-Threde, as a member of the Spanish led ExoMars Raman Instrument team, is also responsible for development of the Raman optical head, which will be mounted inside ALD and will inspect the crushed samples, when they are presented to the instrument by the distribution carousel. Within this activity, which is performed under contract with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the University of Jena (Germany) and funded by the German DLR, Kayser-Threde can demonstrate Raman measurements with the optical head and a COTS laser and spectrometer and thus simulate the full Raman instrument optical path. An autofocus system with actuator and feedback optics is also part of this activity, which allows focusing the 50 m Raman spot on the surface of the powdered sample

  17. Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient’s discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient’s adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  18. Method of 14C Sample Preparation for AMS Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xu-ran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out the application research of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, the principle of sample preparation were systematically studied and more attention was paid to improve the preparation process efficiently. The set of integrated system of sample preparation was built up on the research. The experimental results showed that the sample preparation scheme was able to meet the demand of AMS measurement.

  19. Preparation of human resources for future nuclear energy using FBNR as the instrument of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang; Espinoza, Patricio; Guerrero, Victor Hugo [Escuela Politecnica Nacional (EPN), Quito (Ecuador); and others

    2015-11-15

    An increasing number of developing countries are showing interest to become the emerging countries to nuclear energy. Most of these countries lack human resources and adequate infrastructures to enter such a venture. The principle objective of activities of FBNR Group is to train human resources for the countries that at the present lack the necessary conditions, but aim at the future clean and safe nuclear energy through the fourth generation and INPRO compatible nuclear reactors. The preparation for the future nuclear energy is done through development of innovative nuclear reactor that meets the INPRO philosophies and criteria. These countries may or may not have decided as yet to utilize nuclear energy, but are interested to gain a strong educational foundation for their future. The research and development of a small innovative nuclear reactor FBNR is used as the instrument for learning. The young scientists will learn how to be innovative with the vision of INPRO philosophy and criteria.

  20. Comparison of dentinal damage induced by different nickel-titanium rotary instruments during canal preparation: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwani Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare dentinal damage caused by hand and rotary nickel-titanium instruments using ProTaper, K3 Endo, and Easy RaCe systems after root canal preparation. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were randomly divided into five experimental groups of 30 teeth each and biomechanical preparation was done: Group 1 with unprepared teeth; Group 2 were prepared with hand files; Group 3 with ProTaper rotary instruments; Group 4 with K3 rotary; Group 5 with Easy RaCe rotary instruments. Then, roots were cut horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from apex and were viewed under stereomicroscope. The presence of dentinal defects was noted. Statistical analysis: Groups were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: Significant difference was seen between groups. No defects were found in unprepared roots and those prepared with hand files. ProTaper, K3 rotary, and Easy RaCe preparations resulted in dentinal defects in 23.3%, 10%, and 16.7% of teeth, respectively. More defects were shown in coronal and middle sections, and no defect was seen in apical third. Conclusion: The present study revealed that use of rotary instruments could result in an increased chance for dentinal defects as compared to hand instrumentation.

  1. Measuring Instrument Constructs of Return Factors for Green Office Building Investments Variables Using Rasch Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of 106 responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur. The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent (person reliability is at 0.91 and 0.95 respectively.

  2. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  3. SHIM-Free Breadboard Instrument Design, Integration, and First Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-23

    The concept is similar to a Michelson interferometer with the return mirrors replaced by fixed, tilted diffraction gratings. Figure 1 shows the basic...Cardon, R.R. Conway, C.M. Brown, J. Wimperis, "Robust monolithic ultraviolet interferometer for the SHIMMER instrument on STPSat-l," Applied Optics, 42

  4. Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: measuring cyclic fatigue and other physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ove A; Kappeler, Stefan; Bucher, Willi; Barbakow, Fred

    2002-04-01

    An increasing number of engine-driven rotary systems are marketed to shape root canals. Although these systems may improve the quality of canal preparations, the risk for instrument fracture is also increased. Unfortunately, the stresses generated in rotary instruments when shaping curved root canals have not been adequately studied. Consequently, the aim of an ongoing project was to develop a measurement platform that could more accurately detail physical parameters generated in a simulated clinical situation. Such a platform was constructed by fitting a torque-measuring device between the rotating endodontic instrument and the motor driving it. Apically directed force and instrument insertion depth were also recorded. Additional devices were constructed to assess cyclic fatigue and static fracture loads. The current pilot study evaluated GT rotary instruments during the shaping of curved canals in plastic blocks as well as "ISO 3630-1 torque to fracture" and number of rotations required for fatigue fracture. Results indicated that torques in excess of 40 Nmm were generated by rotary GT-Files, a significantly higher figure than static fracture loads (less than 13 Nmm for the size 20. 12 GT-File). Furthermore, the number of rotations needed to shape simulated canals with a 5 mm radius of curvature in plastic blocks was 10 times lower than the number of rotations needed to fracture instruments in a "cyclic fatigue test". Apical forces were always greater than 1 N, and in some specimens, scores of 8 N or more were recorded. Further studies are required using extracted natural teeth, with their wide anatomical variation, in order to reduce the incidence of fracture of rotary instruments. In this way, the clinical potential of engine-driven rotary instruments to safely prepare curved canals can be fully appreciated.

  5. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  6. Development of a Self-Rating instrument to Measure Team Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Koning, L. de; Hof, T.; Dongen, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the development of an instrument to measure team situation awareness (TSA). Individual team member SA may or may not be shared through communication processes with other team members. Most existing instruments do not measure these processes but measure TSA as a

  7. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  8. Development and preliminary testing of a self-rating instrument to measure self-directed learning ability of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Fen; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lee-Hsieh, Jane

    2010-09-01

    With the growing trend of preparing students for lifelong learning, the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) has been increasingly applied in the context of higher education. In order to foster lifelong learning, abilities among nursing students, faculties need to have an appropriate instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students. The objectives of this study were to develop an instrument to measure the SDL abilities of nursing students and to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. This study was conducted in 4 phases. In Phase 1, based on a review of the literature, the researchers developed an instrument to measure SDL. In Phase 2, two rounds of the Delphi study were conducted, to determine the content validity of the instrument. In Phase 3, a convenience sample of 1072 nursing students from two representative schools across three different types of nursing programs were recruited to test the construct validity of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI). Finally, in Phase 4, the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. The resulting SDLI consists of 20 items across the following four domains: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal, communication. The final model in confirmatory factor analysis revealed that this 20-item SDLI indicated a good fit of the model. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .916 and for the four domains were .801, .861, .785, and .765, respectively. The SDLI is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying student SDL abilities. It is available to students in nursing and similar medical programs to evaluate their own SDL. This scale may also enable nursing faculty to assess students' SDL status, design better lesson plans and curricula, and, implement appropriate teaching strategies for nursing students in order to foster the growth of lifelong learning abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Valid instrument for measuring quality of life in youth: VIHDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Martínez Lozano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the validity and reliability of VIDHAB instrument, its objective is to evaluate the quality of urban life of the youth of the municipality of Cucuta, Colombia. Follows a descriptive study design validation through multidimensional scaling factor analysis, construct validity, and face. The study population were people aged 18-28 in Cucuta, the sample comprised 1180 habitants. Results: a scale of 57 items was obtained. Factor analysis showed dimensions of life satisfaction, quality of public space, poverty rate, perception of public space; Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach's alpha 0.81 to 0.89, overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.967 (95%, from 0.933 to 0.984, average sum of differences in items -1.3 (SD: 8.5 and Kappa indices above 0.86 shows high agreement among experts. Conclusion: VIDHAB is a valid and reliable for the context Cucuta, Colombia instrument.

  10. Measuring Pilot Proficiency on an Instrument Training Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    featmr• of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) could be suc- cess tuj ly used to facilitate the development and validation of a recording...for the instrument training maneuver Vertical S-A in which the unique record/playback features of the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) were...the ASPT revealed several format and observe--workload problems that needed correction. SFollowing revision, the booklet (Appendix A) was given a

  11. Preparation Measurements and Assessment of Roof Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Richard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Architectural Engineering at the Civil Engineering Faculty TU of Kosice, in its ongoing research, aims to monitor the physical properties of building envelope structures with emphasis placed on hydrothermal problems, at present. The research focuses on the assembly of equipment in climate chambers with their respective sample envelopes and fenestration systems, which are involved in a measuring experiment. The prime aim is to design a logical and transparent system for gathering, evaluating and storing hydrothermal related data. This contribution further illustrates the embedding system of measurement points in installed samples and the system of monitoring their physical properties over an annual period.

  12. Preparation Measurements and Assessment of Roof Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Richard; Bagoňa, Miloslav

    2014-11-01

    The Institute of Architectural Engineering at the Civil Engineering Faculty TU of Kosice, in its ongoing research, aims to monitor the physical properties of building envelope structures with emphasis placed on hydrothermal problems, at present. The research focuses on the assembly of equipment in climate chambers with their respective sample envelopes and fenestration systems, which are involved in a measuring experiment. The prime aim is to design a logical and transparent system for gathering, evaluating and storing hydrothermal related data. This contribution further illustrates the embedding system of measurement points in installed samples and the system of monitoring their physical properties over an annual period.

  13. Preparations for the Launch of the EXOMARS Raman Laser Spectrometer — A Review of Recent Studies Which Highlight the Astrobiological and Geological Capabilities of Portable Raman Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. B.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Ingley, R.; Harris, L.; McHugh, M.; Malherbe, C.; Jehlicka, J.; Marshall, C.; Parnell, J.

    2014-06-01

    A review of experiments performed on natural and analogue samples with prototype/portable instrumentation in preparation for the launch of the Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument on the ExoMars rover.

  14. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  15. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, l...

  16. [Value of electronic measuring instruments for optimizing functional TMJ diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, B; Keese, E; Kubein-Meesenburg, D

    1989-09-01

    In order to get additional information about the significance of electronic axiographic recordings in TMJ-diagnosis, 34 patients, who showed 47 clicking TMJs, were examined by use of an electronic axiographic instrument (SAS-system). The frequency of the detected findings emphasize the value of electronic axiographic devices for differential diagnosis. In detail the following conclusions could be drawn: examination of different types of movement is recommended because clicking must not exist in all types, recording in more than one plane is necessary in order to detect the (prevailing) plane of dislocation, a magnification of tracings provides addition information concerning different types of clicking.

  17. Technology as an instrument to measure the school cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelsón Javier Correa Romero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To face the enormous social changes that are underway, the assertive communication is of a great importance for the human coexistence, therefore, it is vital the search for novel ways to mediate among the forms of interactions generated from the services internet is offering. Through participant observations, interviews, analysis of documents and diverse strategies to innovate the coexistence, it is possible to establish “Technology as a mediate instrument for the school coexistence”, which uses the modern communication as a tool to face the school conflicts among equals, and as a way of active participation.

  18. Effect of whey protein concentrate on texture of fat-free desserts: sensory and instrumental measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how changes in the product formulation can modify its characteristics. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC on the texture of fat-free dairy desserts. The correlation between instrumental and sensory measurements was also investigated. Four formulations were prepared with different WPC concentrations (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 wt. (% and were evaluated using the texture profile analysis (TPA and rheology. Thickness was evaluated by nine trained panelists. Formulations containing WPC showed higher firmness, elasticity, chewiness, and gumminess and clearly differed from the control as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA. Flow behavior was characterized as time-dependent and pseudoplastic. Formulation with 4.5% WPC at 10 °C showed the highest thixotropic behavior. Experimental data were fitted to Herschel-Bulkley model. The addition of WPC contributed to the texture of the fat-free dairy dessert. The yield stress, apparent viscosity, and perceived thickness in the dairy desserts increased with WPC concentration. The presence of WPC promotes the formation of a stronger gel structure as a result of protein-protein interactions. The correlation between instrumental parameters and thickness provided practical results for food industries.

  19. A Partnership between the Dallas County Community College District and Texas Instruments: Using Total Quality Management to Reinvent Workforce Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, J. William

    1994-01-01

    Describes elements of a partnership between Dallas County Community College District and Texas Instruments that draws on the concepts and processes of Total Quality Management (TQM). Suggests that such partnerships have the net effect of significantly improving and reinventing cooperative efforts to prepare students for the workforce. (MAB)

  20. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

  2. An Instrument to Measure the Cognitive Ability Evaluation of the Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, John F.

    Described is the development of an instrument designed to measure the cognitive ability of evaluation in high school chemistry students. The instrument was composed of several situations found in chemistry courses, each designed to measure a student's evaluation ability based on his knowledge of kinetic-molecular theory as it applied to gases,…

  3. Development of the instrument IMAQE-Food to measure effectiveness of quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Manufacturers use several quality assurance systems to assure quality. However, their effectiveness cannot be assessed because an instrument does not exist. This article is based on a study that was set up to identify performance measurement indicators of an instrument that measures

  4. Development of a Measurement Instrument to Assess Students' Electrolyte Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shanshan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    To assess students' conceptual understanding levels and diagnose alternative frameworks of the electrolyte concept, a measurement instrument was developed using the Rasch model. This paper reports the use of the measurement instrument to assess 559 students from grade 10 to grade 12 in two cities. The results provided both diagnostic and summative…

  5. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  6. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  7. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-31

    Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  8. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.;

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  9. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an important new outcome measure for patients with GERD with a partial response to PPI therapy.

  10. The Problem of the Instrument Stabilization During Hydrographic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felski Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing any measurement on watercraft is connected with many additional difficulties caused by the sea-environment. The most important is the problem of spatial stabilization of measurement systems, which are usually fastened to craft body. As soon as usually these measurement are executed during the move of the craft additional question is the accuracy of execution the planed trajectory.

  11. The development of an integrated assessment instrument for measuring analytical thinking and science process skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto, Rohaeti, Eli; LFX, Endang Widjajanti; Suyanta

    2017-05-01

    This research aims to develop instrument and determine the characteristics of an integrated assessment instrument. This research uses 4-D model, which includes define, design, develop, and disseminate. The primary product is validated by expert judgment, tested it's readability by students, and assessed it's feasibility by chemistry teachers. This research involved 246 students of grade XI of four senior high schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data collection techniques include interview, questionnaire, and test. Data collection instruments include interview guideline, item validation sheet, users' response questionnaire, instrument readability questionnaire, and essay test. The results show that the integrated assessment instrument has Aiken validity value of 0.95. Item reliability was 0.99 and person reliability was 0.69. Teachers' response to the integrated assessment instrument is very good. Therefore, the integrated assessment instrument is feasible to be applied to measure the students' analytical thinking and science process skills.

  12. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional team-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Parchman, Michael L; Fuda, Kathleen Kerwin; Schaefer, Judith; Levin, Jessica; Hunt, Meaghan; Ricciardi, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional team-based care is increasingly regarded as an important feature of delivery systems redesigned to provide more efficient and higher quality care, including primary care. Measurement of the functioning of such teams might enable improvement of team effectiveness and could facilitate research on team-based primary care. Our aims were to develop a conceptual framework of high-functioning primary care teams to identify and review instruments that measure the constructs identified in the framework, and to create a searchable, web-based atlas of such instruments (available at: http://primarycaremeasures.ahrq.gov/team-based-care/ ). Our conceptual framework was developed from existing frameworks, the teamwork literature, and expert input. The framework is based on an Input-Mediator-Output model and includes 12 constructs to which we mapped both instruments as a whole, and individual instrument items. Instruments were also reviewed for relevance to measuring team-based care, and characterized. Instruments were identified from peer-reviewed and grey literature, measure databases, and expert input. From nearly 200 instruments initially identified, we found 48 to be relevant to measuring team-based primary care. The majority of instruments were surveys (n = 44), and the remainder (n = 4) were observational checklists. Most instruments had been developed/tested in healthcare settings (n = 30) and addressed multiple constructs, most commonly communication (n = 42), heedful interrelating (n = 42), respectful interactions (n = 40), and shared explicit goals (n = 37). The majority of instruments had some reliability testing (n = 39) and over half included validity testing (n = 29). Currently available instruments offer promise to researchers and practitioners to assess teams' performance, but additional work is needed to adapt these instruments for primary care settings.

  13. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  14. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cabanillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p<0.05. Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  15. Novel Instrument to Measure Aerosol Fluorescence, Absorption, and Scattering Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Picarro, Inc proposes to develop the first cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) system to measure fluorescence, absorption, and scattering properties of atmospheric...

  16. New Concepts in Instrumentation Development to Measure the Perry Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcia

    The Perry scheme of intellectual and ethical development has become widely used in a range of academic disciplines and such areas as career training and faculty consultation. However, current measurement techniques for the scheme, whether interview format or paper and pencil measures, do not adequately address issues related to assessing cognitive…

  17. High impulse voltage and current measurement techniques fundamentals, measuring instruments, measuring methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Equipment to be installed in electric power-transmission and distribution systems must pass acceptance tests with standardized high-voltage or high-current test impulses which simulate the stress on the insulation caused by external lightning discharges and switching operations in the grid. High impulse voltages and currents are also used in many other fields of science and engineering for various applications. Therefore, precise impulse-measurement techniques are necessary, either to prevent an over- or understressing of the insulation or to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of the application. The book deals with: principal generator circuits for generating high-voltage and high-current impulses measuring systems and their calibration according to IEC 60060 and IEC 62475 methods of estimating uncertainties of measurement mathematical and experimental basis for characterizing the transfer behavior of spatially extended systems used for measuring fast transients. This book is intended for engineers and ...

  18. Development of an Instrument to Measure Students' Attitudes towards Piano Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umuzdas, Mehmet Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Practicing the piano is a systematic part of the instrument-learning process. It contains all development practices from the analysis of the work to the improvement of performance. Students usually practice the piano as a preparation for performing in courses, exams, or on stage and they do it individually. The mentality which emerges during the…

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Students' Attitudes towards Piano Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umuzdas, Mehmet Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Practicing the piano is a systematic part of the instrument-learning process. It contains all development practices from the analysis of the work to the improvement of performance. Students usually practice the piano as a preparation for performing in courses, exams, or on stage and they do it individually. The mentality which emerges during the…

  20. A NEW INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LOCAL MOISTURE CONTENTS IN MOIST POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-tian; WANG Ji-hao; GUI Ke-ting; SHI Ming-heng

    2005-01-01

    A new instrument was developed for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media based on the needle-type capacitance sensor and single-chip microprocessor technique. The working principle, the structure and characteristics of the hardware and software of the instrument were presented. The dynamic response characteristics and reliability of the instrument were experimentally determined. As an example, the instrument was employed to measure the heat and mass transport properties of a moist porous material. The experimental results show that the instrument can be used for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media and would be an effective tool for determining the heat and mass transport properties in moist porous media.

  1. Time series analysis of the response of measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakaki, Dimitra; Polatoglou, Hariton

    2012-01-01

    In this work the significance of treating a set of measurements as a time series is being explored. Time Series Analysis (TSA) techniques, part of the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) approach, can provide much insight regarding the stochastic correlations that are induced on the outcome of an experiment by the measurement system and can provide criteria for the limited use of the classical variance in metrology. Specifically, techniques such as the Lag Plots, Autocorrelation Function, Power Spectral Density and Allan Variance are used to analyze series of sequential measurements, collected at equal time intervals from an electromechanical transducer. These techniques are used in conjunction with power law models of stochastic noise in order to characterize time or frequency regimes for which the usually assumed white noise model is adequate for the description of the measurement system response. However, through the detection of colored noise, usually referred to as flicker noise, which is expected to appear ...

  2. Absolute viscosity measured using instrumented parallel plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, H. H.

    1967-01-01

    An automatic system measures the true average shear viscosity of liquids and viscoelastic materials, using the parallel plate method and automatically displays the results on a graphic record. This eliminates apparatus setup and extensive calculations.

  3. A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  4. A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Andujar Marquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

  5. POLARBEAR-2: an instrument for CMB polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Y; Akiba, Y; Aleman, C; Arnold, K; Baccigalupi, C; Barch, B; Barron, D; Bender, A; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Ducout, A; Dunner, R; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feeney, S; Feng, C; Fuller, G; Gilbert, A J; Goeckner-Wald, N; Groh, J; Hall, G; Halverson, N; Hamada, T; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howe, L; Irie, F; Jaehnig, G; Jaffe, A; Jeongh, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J P; Kazemzadeh, K; Keating, B G; Kermish, Z; Keskital, R; Kisner, T; Kusaka, A; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leon, D; Linder, E V; Lowry, L; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N; Mizukami, K; Montgomery, J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Raum, C R; Rebeiz, G M; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Segaw, Y; Sherwin, B D; Shirley, I; Siritanasak, P; Stebor, N; Suzuki, R Stompor A; Tajima, O; Takada, S; Takatori, S; Teply, G P; Tikhomirol, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Zahn, A; Zahn, O

    2016-01-01

    POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment that will be located in the Atacama highland in Chile at an altitude of 5200 m. Its science goals are to measure the CMB polarization signals originating from both primordial gravitational waves and weak lensing. PB-2 is designed to measure the tensor to scalar ratio, r, with precision {\\sigma}(r) < 0.01, and the sum of neutrino masses, {\\Sigma}m{\

  6. Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

  7. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  8. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  9. Development of an Instrument to Measure Consumer Satisfaction in Vocational Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Michele E.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2004-01-01

    Although state agencies are required by law to assess their consumers' satisfaction with vocational rehabilitation (VR), each state uses its own instrument to measure satisfaction. This not only makes comparisons across states impossible but also means that the quality of these instruments varies widely from state to state. As with other…

  10. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagana, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised,

  11. The knee adduction moment measured with an instrumented force shoe in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van den Josien C.; Esch, van der Martin; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Dekker, Joost; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Peter H.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    The external knee adduction moment (KAdM) during gait is an important parameter in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). KAdM measurement is currently restricted to instruments only available in gait laboratories. However, ambulatory movement analysis technology, including instrumented force shoes

  12. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  13. Developing an instrument for measuring TQM implementation in a Chinese context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1999-01-01

    From an extensive review of the literature of total quality management (TQM), eleven constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring these constructs was developed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and validated using data from 212 Chinese manufact

  14. Developing an instrument for measuring TQM implementation in a Chinese context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.

    1999-01-01

    From an extensive review of the literature of total quality management (TQM), eleven constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring these constructs was developed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and validated using data from 212 Chinese

  15. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  16. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagana, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised,

  17. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  18. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leeuw, G. de; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research

  19. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henzing, J.S.; Leeuw, G. de; Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Friess, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Grossmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Piesanie, A. du; Pinardi, G.; Puentadura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI’s 5 Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Resear

  20. Reflectances from a supercontinuum laser-based instrument: hyperspectral, polarimetric and angular measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas; Hespel, Laurent

    2012-12-31

    Recent developments of active hyperspectral systems require optical characterization of man-made materials for instrument calibration. This work presents an original supercontinuum laser-based instrument designed by Onera, The French Aerospace Lab, for fast hyperspectral polarimetric and angular reflectances measurements. The spectral range is from 480 nm to 1000 nm with a 1 nm spectral resolution. Different polarization configurations are made possible in whole spectrum. This paper reviews the design and the calibration of the instrument. Hyper-spectral polarimetric and angular reflectances are measured for reference and man-made materials such as paint coatings. Physical properties of reflectances as positivity, energy conservation and Helmholtz reciprocity are retrieved from measurements.

  1. Reliability of Instruments Measuring At-Risk and Problem Gambling Among Young Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Info covering the years 2009–2015. In total, 50 original research articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: target age under 29 years, using an instrument designed for youth, and reporting a reliability estimate. Articles were evaluated with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool...... instruments for youth have not been rigorously evaluated yet. Further research is needed especially concerning instruments designed for clinical use.......This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc...

  2. The Problem of the Instrument Stabilization During Hydrographic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felski, Andrzej; Naus, Krzysztof; Wąż, Mariusz

    2016-06-01

    Performing any measurement on watercraft is connected with many additional difficulties caused by the sea-environment. The most important is the problem of spatial stabilization of measurement systems, which are usually fastened to craft body. As soon as usually these measurement are executed during the move of the craft additional question is the accuracy of execution the planed trajectory. This is a problem for all investigators, especially when system use spatially configured beams of any antennas or other sensors, regardless is it receiving or transmitting one. Different aspects of these question are the subject of research activity of Institute of Navigation and Maritime Hydrography of Polish Naval Academy. In this paper the review of works executed in last years are presented.

  3. Measuring Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Organizational Climate: Instrument Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Poghosyan, Lusine

    2017-08-01

    No tool exists measuring certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) organizational climate. The study's purpose is to adapt a validated tool to measure CRNA organizational climate. Content validity of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Organizational Climate Questionnaire (CRNA-OCQ) was established. Pilot testing was conducted to determine internal reliability consistency of the subscales. Experts rated the tool as content valid. The subscales had high internal consistency reliability (with respective Cronbach's alphas): CRNA-Anesthesiologist Relations (.753), CRNA-Physician Relations (.833), CRNA-Administration Relations (.895), Independent Practice (.830), Support for CRNA Practice (.683), and Professional Visibility (.772). Further refinement of the CRNA-OCQ is necessary. Measurement and assessment of CRNA organizational climate may produce evidence needed to improve provider and patient outcomes.

  4. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING AND TRANSMISSION THE SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's energy is distributed over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum and Sun behaves approximately like a "blackbody" radiating at a temperature of about 5800 K with maximum output in the green-yellow part of the visible spectrum, around 500 nm. Not all solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface due to a various optical phenomena in regard to solar radiation crossing the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to investigate them, there are two general categories of instruments used to measure the transmission of solar radiation through Earth's atmosphere: instruments that measure radiation from the entire sky and instruments that measure only direct solar radiation. Within each of these categories, instruments can be further subdivided into those that measure radiation over a broad range of wavelengths and those that measure only specific wavelengths.

  5. Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

    2014-03-01

    Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

  6. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  7. Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

  8. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  9. Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

  10. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments' measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990-2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument's usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee's criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar's instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners' Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing instruments and to longitudinal studies.

  11. E-MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SUBJECT OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT IN ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryake Fajaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an e-module as a medium of learning for the practice course of Measuring Instruments and Measurement in the Department of Electronics Engineering Education of Yogyakarta State University and to determine the feasibility of the e-module. This study employed a method of research and development. The development process was conducted through four phases by using the model of Lee and Owens which consisted of analysis phase, design phase, developing and implementation phase, as well as evaluation phase.The evaluation was conducted in several stages. Firstly, an alpha test for product validation was conducted by the experts on material and media. After that, a beta test was conducted by testing the product in small group users. The subjects of this study were the students of Electronics Engineering. The instruments used to collect the data were a validation sheet and questionnaires. The results of qualitative data were then modified into quantitative data with a range of 1 to 5, then they were converted with a rating scale to determine the feasibility of the medium. The results showed that based on the alpha test, the medium was in a very high quality. Meanwhile, in the beta test of the instructional aspect, in terms of material and evaluation and the multimedia aspect the e-module was respectively considered feasible and quite feasible. The four indicators namely text, image, animation and video were all generally considered feasible. In terms of usage aspect, the e-module was considered feasible where its two indicators, namely instructions and navigation, were generally regarded as very feasible by all respondents.

  12. A Critical Review of Instruments Measuring Breastfeeding Attitudes, Knowledge, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Corrine S; Lei, Ann; Young, Sera L; Tuthill, Emily L

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding provides beneficial health outcomes for infants and their mothers, and increasing its practice is a national priority in many countries. Despite increasing support to exclusively breastfeed, the prevalence at 6 months remains low. Breastfeeding behavior is influenced by a myriad of determinants, including breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. Effective measurement of these determinants is critical to provide optimal support for women throughout the breastfeeding period. However, there are a multitude of available instruments measuring these constructs, which makes identification of an appropriate instrument challenging. Research aim: Our aim was to identify and critically examine the existing instruments measuring breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. A total of 16 instruments was identified. Each instrument's purpose, theoretical underpinnings, and validity were analyzed. An overview, validation and adaptation for use in other settings was assessed for each instrument. Depth of reporting and validation testing differed greatly between instruments. Content, construct, and predictive validity were present for most but not all scales. When selecting and adapting instruments, attention should be paid to domains within the scale, number of items, and adaptation.

  13. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Ken [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, Sebastien C [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    An AMC system was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape.

  14. Measurement Instruments and Software Used in Biotribology Research Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurin Andrei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Precision measurements of friction processes have a key role in a variety of industrial processes. The emergence of fine electronic circuit techniques greatly expands capabilities of control. There are some difficulties for their full implementation today, especially when it regards the accuracy and frequency of measurements. The motion-measuring method in real-time system is considered in this article, paying special attention to increased accuracy. This method is based on rapid analog digital converter (ADC, transmission program and digital signal processor (DSP algorithms. Description of laboratory devices is included: Tribal-T and universal friction machine (MTU-01 designed for “Pin on disc” tests. Great emphasis is placed on the usability of accelerometers. The present study examined the collected data via laboratory system for data acquisition and control, and processing it in the laboratory of Biotribology. Laboratory supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA algorithms is described below. Task of regulation is not considered. This paper describes only methods of automatic control theory to analyze the frictional quality.

  15. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

    1984-06-01

    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  16. Using the refined ICF Linking Rules to compare the content of existing instruments and assessments: a systematic review and exemplary analysis of instruments measuring participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Hopfe, Maren; Kus, Sandra; Mader, Luzius; Prodinger, Birgit

    2016-07-14

    Existing instruments measuring participation may vary with respect to various aspects. This study aimed to examine the comparability of existing instruments measuring participation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by considering aspects of content, the perspective adopted and the categorization of response options. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify instruments that have been commonly used to measure participation. Concepts of identified instruments were then linked to the ICF following the refined ICF Linking Rules. Aspects of content, perspective adopted and categorization of response options were documented. Out of 315 instruments identified in the full-text screening, 41 instruments were included. Concepts of six instruments were linked entirely to the ICF component Activities and Participation; of 10 instruments still 80% of their concepts. A descriptive perspective was adopted in most items across instruments (75%), mostly in combination with an intensity rating. An appraisal perspective was found in 18% and questions from a need or dependency perspective were least frequent (7%). Accounting for aspects of content, perspective and categorization of responses in the linking of instruments to the ICF provides detailed information for the comparison of instruments and guidance on narrowing down the choices of suitable instruments from a content point of view. Implications for Rehabilitation For clinicians and researchers who need to identify a specific instrument for a given purpose, the findings of this review can serve as a screening tool for instruments measuring participation in terms of the following: • Their content covered based on the ICF. • The perspective adopted in the instrument (e.g., descriptive, need/dependency or appraisal). • The categorization of their response options (e.g., intensity or frequency).

  17. Design and Test of an Instrument for Measuring Microthermal Seeing on the Magdalena Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Klinglesmith, D. A., III; Speights, J.; Clements, A.; Patel, J.

    2009-05-01

    We have constructed and operated an automated instrument for measuring ground-level microthermal seeing at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located at an altitude of 10500' in the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico, USA. It is the planned site for the MRO Optical Interferometer (MROI) planned for up to 10 collecting elements, each with a diameter of 1.4 m, and baselines eventually up to approximately 400 m. As part of the preparation for construction we deployed a system to characterize the ground-level seeing across the observatory site. The instrument is built largely of off-the-shelf components, with only the sensor head and power supply requiring electronic board assembly. Even in those cases the board architecture is very simple. The first proof-of-concept system was deployed for several weeks in the autumn of 2004, and has since undergone several iterations. The latest configuration operates entirely off batteries, incorporates wireless data acquisition, and is thus able to operate in an area with no shelter, power, or communications. In this paper we present the design of the instrument, and show initial data. The microthermal tower has four sensor pairs at heights from 0.8 to 4.41 m, significantly lower than other microthermal experiments, because of the need to characterize the seeing near the ground. We find significant variation in the contribution of this range of heights to the seeing, contributing up to 0farcs3 of the seeing at some times and only 0farcs02 at other times. The individual sensor power spectra have a slope in the range of 1.4--1.5, which is lower than the 1.67 slope predicted by Kolmogorov turbulence theory. We measure the well known effect of improved seeing immediately around sunset. While we find significant variation in the microthermal seeing, we did not find a pattern of corresponding variations in weather conditions, suggesting that a complicated set of factors control microthermal turbulence.

  18. UAV Flight Instrumentation for the In-Situ Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research, Inc. (LGR) proposes to develop a flight ready instrument, capable of deployment on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to simultaneously measure in...

  19. Measuring Emotions Toward Wildlife: A Review of Generic Methods and Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Fehres, P.; Campbell, M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are recognizing the importance of studying emotions for understanding human–wildlife interactions. This article reviews generic methods and instruments for assessing emotions, as developed within the affective sciences. Four broad categories of emotion measures can be distinguished: (a)

  20. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  1. Measuring Empowerment Among People With Psychotic Disorders: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Gaag, van der M.; Bruggeman, R.; Busschbach, J.T.; Wiersma, D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared three instruments that are used to measure empowerment of people with psychotic disorders. The study evaluated internal consistency, discriminant and convergent validity, sensitivity to symptom levels, and clinical usefulness. METHODS: Fifty patients in the Netherlands

  2. Measuring Empowerment Among People With Psychotic Disorders : A Comparison of Three Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, Stynke; van der Gaag, Mark; Bruggeman, Richard; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study compared three instruments that are used to measure empowerment of people with psychotic disorders. The study evaluated internal consistency, discriminant and convergent validity, sensitivity to symptom levels, and clinical usefulness. Methods: Fifty patients in the Netherlands

  3. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Pharmacy and Medical Students’ Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Van Winkle, Lon J.; Fjortoft, Nancy; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure pharmacy students’ attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration, and compare those attitudes to the attitudes of medical students.

  4. UAV Flight Instrumentation for the In-Situ Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research, Inc. (LGR) proposes to develop a flight ready instrument, capable of deployment on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to simultaneously measure in...

  5. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  6. Integrative Review of Instruments to Measure Team Performance During Neonatal Resuscitation Simulations in the Birthing Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary-Muronda, Valerie; Pope, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    To identify instruments appropriate to measure interprofessional team performance in neonatal resuscitation (NR), describe the validity and reliability of extant NR instruments, and determine instruments for use in interprofessional birthing room NR simulations. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid MEDLINE, Proquest, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched. We used inclusion and exclusion criteria and screened 641 abstracts from January 2000 through December 2014 for relevance to the research question. We reviewed 78 full-text primary research publications in English and excluded 37 publications not specific to pediatrics or neonatology. After in-depth review of the 41 studies that remained, we excluded additional studies if they did not have an interprofessional focus, include psychometric information, or include a measurement instrument. Ten publications met the inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed, categorized, and scored to identify instruments to measure interprofessional team performance in simulations of birthing room NR. A social ecological model was used as a guide framework to identify multiple influencing factors at various levels that affect team performance. Ten instruments with documentation of validity and reliability for technical competence and team processes in interprofessional birthing room NR teams were identified. Extant instruments rarely address the multiple factors that may impede interprofessional team performance in birthing room NR. It is necessary for researchers to engage in rigorous psychometric testing of measurement instruments to ensure their validity and reliability for interprofessional NR teams and consider tests or updates (if necessary) of extant instruments rather than the development of new instruments. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Labor Relations and Social Dialogue: Measurement and Diagnosis Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Social dialogue and tripartism play an important role in promoting and strengthening fundamental principles and rights at work, promoting job creation and expanding social protection. In the context of the severe challenges of globalization, a growing number of developing countries are recognizing the need to faster dialogue, partnership and participatory approaches to decision-making. Thus, social dialogue becomes a prerequisite for efficient corporate governance and means to attain national economic and social objectives and to contribute to poverty reduction policies. We shall propose a diagnosis and analysis system in order to measure and monitor the evolution of the industrial relations and social dialogue.

  8. Is there a role for the use of aviation assessment instruments in surgical training preparation? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk-Vos, Aline C; Heres, Marion H; Kesteloo, Jasper; Verburg, Dick; Hiddema, Frans; Lie, Desiree A; de Korne, Dirk F

    2017-01-01

    Selection for surgical residency programmes could potentially be improved through pretraining preparation, after assessment of surgical candidates' sensorimotor skills and personality traits. Existing aviation pilot selection instruments are available to test sensorimotor skills and personality traits. This study examined selected instruments to assess medical trainees' sensorimotor skills and personality traits. Aviation's validated computer-based Computerized Pilot Aptitude and Screening System (COMPASS) and Checklist Professional Profile (CPP) were applied to 166 final year medical students during a surgical clerkship between 2013 and 2015. All trainees completed COMPASS and CPP within the prescribed 2 hours. Compared with an age-matched and gender-matched cohort of 165 pilot candidates, medical trainees scored significantly higher on eye-hand coordination (peye-hand-foot coordination (pdominance (p<0.001), ambition (p<0.001) and resilience (p<0.001). Final year medical trainees from one medical school were able to complete aviation's sensorimotor skills and personality traits selection instruments within the set time frame. They scored differently from aviation trainees on selected skills and personality traits. The applicability and utility of aviation instruments to presurgical training preparation remains to be tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Training of Specialists in Information and Measurement Instrumentation in the Competence Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Kvesko Svetlana; Shinn Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Refocusing the assessment of the results of educational process from “qualifications” to the concepts of “competence” and “competency” is important in the context for the theoretical and methodological analysis of training in the sphere of information and measurement instrumentation and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to study of the training of today’s experts in the field of Information and Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation in the competence discourse. Based on the app...

  10. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  11. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately.

  12. Remote state preparation using positive operator-valued measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Siendong, E-mail: sdhuang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-04

    We consider the process of remote state preparation using a pure state |ψ〉 with the maximal Schmidt number n. For any given state σ, pure or mixed, a construction of a positive operator-valued measure {M_j}{sub j=0}{sup n} is provided. The classical outcome j=0 indicates the failure of a remote preparation of σ. All other classical outcomes j>0 correspond to unitary transformations of the receiver system such that σ can be prepared. The total probability of successful remote preparation depends on the state σ. Our protocol is a variation of conclusive teleportation and the classical bits required for this protocol are given by log{sub 2}(n+1), which is nearly half that of conclusive teleportation.

  13. Quantifying instrumentation background and measurement uncertainty through cross-domain coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D. K.; Larsen, B.; Weaver, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Space physics measurement data are inherently riddled with background and noise signals that are difficult to separate from the desired true measurements. These issues become more vital to understand quantitatively as we make use of multiple instrumentation sets and satellite platforms. It is essential to develop a rigorous understanding of uncertainty in space measurements, particularly as spacecraft become more autonomous, in order to identify events of interest and predict the nominal behavior of space plasmas. We use data from the Van Allen Probes to demonstrate statistical techniques that can be applied to measurements of the HOPE and RPS instruments on the Van Allen Probes toward a solid and quantitative understanding of the true uncertainty of its measurements. This work provides a framework that predicts HOPE background measurements from the RPS foreground measurements and a definition of an event of interest from the HOPE instrumentation perspective.

  14. A novel wide-range precision instrument for measuring three-dimensional surface topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xu-dong; CHEN Yu-rong; XIE Tie-bang

    2008-01-01

    We developed a measuring instrument that had wide range, high precision, small measuring touch force. The instrument for three-dimensional (3D) surface topography measurement was composed of a high precision displacement sensor based on the Michelson interference principle, a 3D platform based on vertical scanning, a measuring and control circuit, and an industrial control computer. It was a closed loop control system, which changed the traditional moving stylus scanning style into a moving platform scanning style. When the workpiece was measured, the lever of the displacement sensor returned to the balanced position in every sample interval according to the zero offset of the displacement sensor. The non-linear error caused by the rotation of the lever was, therefore, very small even if the measuring range was wide. The instrument can measure the roughness and the profile size of a curved surface.

  15. Modelling and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation for Integrated AFM-CMM Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bariani, Paolo; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modelling of an integrated AFM - CMM instrument, its calibration, and estimation of measurement uncertainty. Positioning errors were seen to limit the instrument performance. Software for off-line stitching of single AFM scans was developed and verified, which allows...... compensation of such errors. A geometrical model of the instrument was produced, describing the interaction between AFM and CMM systematic errors. The model parameters were quantified through calibration, and the model used for establishing an optimised measurement procedure for surface mapping. A maximum...... uncertainty of 0.8% was achieved for the case of surface mapping of 1.2*1.2 mm2 consisting of 49 single AFM scanned areas....

  16. Diffuse scattering measurements with synchrotron radiation: Instrumentation and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, E.; Georgopoulos, P.

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of diffuse scattering from single crystalline specimens in the reflection mode has generally been acknowledged as a very powerful means of obtaining structural information on local atomic arrangements in disordered alloys, intermetallics and ceramics. However, owing to the low intensities encountered and the large number of measurements required for such an analysis, experiments have been extremely time consuming and few have been attempted. Synchrotron radiation makes it possible to conduct such experiments in a matter of hours and much higher quality data can be obtained than in the laboratory. This paper describes the experimental procedures and methods applied to a study of Al-Cu age hardening alloys conducted at the Cornell Synchrotron Source (CHESS). (orig.).

  17. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  18. Preparation of a new autonomous instrumented radiometric calibration site: Gobabeb, Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, Claire; Bialek, Agnieszka; Marks, Amelia; Woolliams, Emma; Berthelot, Béatrice; Meygret, Aimé; Marcq, Sébastien; Bouvet, Marc; Fox, Nigel

    2015-10-01

    A new permanently instrumented radiometric calibration site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric Calibration Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring instrumentation will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and calibration by NPL of the instruments and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent instrumentation) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.

  19. INSTRUMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF KNEE LAXITY IN ANTERO-POSTERIOR DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Jeromel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. A magnitude of clinical tests (like Lachman test are used to diagnose antero-posterior knee instability. They are easy to preform but they are very subjective. An experienced practitioner is often required. An alternative to standard clinical tests is the usage of arthrometer which requires a cooperative patient (maximal relaxation of thigh muscles.The aims of this study were to assess the antero-posterior laxity of both knees in the normal population (population without prior injury to the knee and to determine knee laxity in terms of total relaxation (usage of miorelaxant under general anaesthesia. We compared the difference between the left and right knee of the same individual and the influence of ageing and gender on knee laxity. We also studied the influences of diabetes and long-term corticosteroid therapy.We wanted to prove the following theories: complete relaxation of thigh muscles has an effect on measurement of knee laxity; the individual without prior knee injury has no statistically side to side difference; the laxity increases with age; women have grater ligamentous laxity than men; laxity increases as the result of diabetes and also as a result of longterm corticosteroid therapy.Methods. Arthrometer KT 1000/STM (Medmetric was used in our survey. We analysed 90 individuals (aged 18–81 who haven’t had knee injuries in the past.Among them were 45 (50% men and 45 (50% women. 8 (8.9% of them were diabetics and 4 (4.4% of them received long-term corticosteroid therapy.We assessed the antero-posterior laxity of both knees of an individual under the effect of general anaesthetic. Each measurement was repeated thrice. The same procedure was used to determinate antero-posterior laxity without the usage of anaesthetic.Results. We concluded that muscle relaxation affects the antero-posterior laxity of the knee (all the differences were statistically significant, p < 0.001. Side to side difference was minimal (statistically

  20. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  1. Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser

    OpenAIRE

    Beloica Miloš; Vulićević Zoran R.; Mandinić Zoran; Radović Ivana; Jovičić Olivera; Carević Momir; Tekić Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient’s discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine) for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniqu...

  2. Taking laser Doppler vibrometry off the tripod: correction of measurements affected by instrument vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkon, Ben J.; Rothberg, Steve J.

    2017-04-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometers (LDVs) are now well-established as an effective non-contact alternative to traditional contacting transducers. Despite 30 years of successful applications, however, very little attention has been given to sensitivity to vibration of the instrument itself. In this paper, the sensitivity to instrument vibration is confirmed before development theoretically and experimentally of a practical scheme to enable correction of measurements for arbitrary instrument vibration. The scheme requires a pair of correction sensors with appropriate orientation and relative location, while using frequency domain processing to accommodate inter-channel time delay and signal integrations. Error reductions in excess of 30 dB are delivered in laboratory tests with simultaneous instrument and target vibration over a broad frequency range. Ultimately, application to measurement on a vehicle simulator experiencing high levels of vibration demonstrates the practical nature of the correction technique and its robustness in a challenging measurement environment.

  3. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  4. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  5. Measuring Financial Literacy: Developing and Testing a Measurement Instrument with a Selected Group of South African Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…

  6. [Instrumentation for blood pressure measurements: historical aspects, concepts and sources of error].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, T L; Arcuri, E A; Martins, E

    1998-04-01

    According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  7. Quantification and handling of sampling errors in instrumental measurements: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Bro, R.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental measurements are often used to represent a whole object even though only a small part of the object is actually measured. This can introduce an error due to the inhomogeneity of the product. Together with other errors resulting from the measuring process, such errors may have a serio...

  8. Exploring a conceptual measurement instrument to assess performance predictors of small tourism business in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J.C. Van Zyl

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was set out to develop a model of entrepreneurial leadership that can recognize success factors of the owners of small and micro tourism enterprises within the South African context. The study attempts to combine various reliable and valid measurement instruments together, in conceptualising a more comprehensive and unified model that could test the nature and extent of the interrelationships between entrepreneurial leadership, market orientation, relationship marketing orientation and small tourism performance identified in a previous study by Van Zyl and Mathur-Helm (2007. Hence, a complex measurement instrument was conceptually constructed by the present study. Problem investigated: The Van Zyl and Mathur-Helm's (2007 study found that entrepreneurial leadership could best be described through a combination of distinct components. Hence the following instruments, entrepreneurial proclivity, ethical orientation, revised self-leadership, market orientation and relationship marketing orientation, with wide ranging dimensions of entrepreneurship, tourism, marketing and leadership, were brought together in formulating a comprehensive and complex measurement instrument. Methodology: It is a descriptive and a theoretical article that conceptually describes the development of a complex measurement instrument and thus secondary data from previous studies are used as comparative analysis for discussions and examinations. Implications: The paper recommends implications for South Africa's small tourism businesses, the government and the training institutions, by suggesting a model of performance predictors that can measure entrepreneurial leadership and can distinguish between successful (performing and unsuccessful (non-performing owner-managers of such ventures. Moreover, the instrument is aimed at providing insights into the kind of skills that a particular entrepreneurial leader and / or an owner manager of a small tourism

  9. Testing elementary and secondary school students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking: the constructing of valid and reliable measure instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim; Holthuis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Historical reasoning competencies play an important role in history education. However, valid and reliable large-scale measurement instruments to assess these competencies are scarce. This study considers two instruments for measuring students’ ability to perform historical perspective taking (HPT)

  10. A systematic review of mobility instruments and their measurement properties for older acute medical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlowitz David J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge for older patients following acute hospitalisation and has also been identified as a predictor of many important outcomes for this patient group. This review aimed to identify a physical performance instrument that is not disease specific that has the properties required to accurately measure and monitor the mobility of older medical patients in the acute hospital setting. Methods Databases initially searched were Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials without language restriction or limits on year of publication until July 2005. After analysis of this yield, a second step was the systematic search of Medline, Cinahl and Embase until August 2005 for evidence of the clinical utility of each potentially suitable instrument. Reports were included in this review if instruments described had face validity for measuring from bed bound to independent levels of ambulation, the items were suitable for application in an acute hospital setting and the instrument required observation (rather than self-report of physical performance. Evidence of the clinical utility of each potentially suitable instrument was considered if data on measurement properties were reported. Results Three instruments, the Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS, Hierarchical Assessment of Balance and Mobility (HABAM and the Physical Performance Mobility Examination (PPME were identified as potentially relevant. Clinimetric evaluation indicated that the HABAM has the most desirable properties of these three instruments. However, the HABAM has the limitation of a ceiling effect in an older acute medical patient population and reliability and minimally clinically important difference (MCID estimates have not been reported for the Rasch refined HABAM. These limitations support the proposal that a new mobility instrument is

  11. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lawson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rooney, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9–10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community, and to collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways from the workshop and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts, supply discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest what the most pressing MHK technology needs are and how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources can be utilized to assist the marine energy industry in the most effective manner.

  12. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Lawson, M.; Rooney, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology (MHK) Instrumentation, Measurement, and Computer Modeling Workshop was hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Broomfield, Colorado, July 9-10, 2012. The workshop brought together over 60 experts in marine energy technologies to disseminate technical information to the marine energy community and collect information to help identify ways in which the development of a commercially viable marine energy industry can be accelerated. The workshop was comprised of plenary sessions that reviewed the state of the marine energy industry and technical sessions that covered specific topics of relevance. Each session consisted of presentations, followed by facilitated discussions. During the facilitated discussions, the session chairs posed several prepared questions to the presenters and audience to encourage communication and the exchange of ideas between technical experts. Following the workshop, attendees were asked to provide written feedback on their takeaways and their best ideas on how to accelerate the pace of marine energy technology development. The first four sections of this document give a general overview of the workshop format, provide presentation abstracts and discussion session notes, and list responses to the post-workshop questions. The final section presents key findings and conclusions from the workshop that suggest how the U.S. Department of Energy and national laboratory resources can be utilized to most effectively assist the marine energy industry.

  13. Design details of Intelligent Instruments for PLC-free Cryogenic measurements, control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Chaudhary, Anup; Datta, T. S.; Maity, T.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic network for linear accelerator operations demand a large number of Cryogenic sensors, associated instruments and other control-instrumentation to measure, monitor and control different cryogenic parameters remotely. Here we describe an alternate approach of six types of newly designed integrated intelligent cryogenic instruments called device-servers which has the complete circuitry for various sensor-front-end analog instrumentation and the common digital back-end http-server built together, to make crateless PLC-free model of controls and data acquisition. These identified instruments each sensor-specific viz. LHe server, LN2 Server, Control output server, Pressure server, Vacuum server and Temperature server are completely deployed over LAN for the cryogenic operations of IUAC linac (Inter University Accelerator Centre linear Accelerator), New Delhi. This indigenous design gives certain salient features like global connectivity, low cost due to crateless model, easy signal processing due to integrated design, less cabling and device-interconnectivity etc.

  14. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, C.A.S.; Shemesh, H.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects (fractures and craze lines) after canal preparation with different nickel-titanium rotary files. Two hundred sixty mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (n = 40). The other teeth were prepared e

  15. A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

    2013-01-01

    Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest.

  16. Rocket-borne measurements of electron temperature and density with the Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Widholm, M.; Lessard, M. R.; Riley, P.; Heavisides, J.; Moen, J. I.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Bekkeng, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Determining electron temperature in the ionosphere is a fundamentally important measurement for space science. Obtaining measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (>700 km) is difficult because of limitations on ground-based radar and classic spacecraft instrumentation. In light of these limitations, the rocket-borne Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer (ERPA) was developed to allow for accurate in situ measurement of ionospheric electron temperature with a simple and low-resource instrument. The compact ERPA, a traditional retarding potential analyzer with multiple baffle collimators, allows for a straightforward calculation of electron temperature. Since its first mission in 2004, it has amassed significant flight heritage and obtained data used in multiple studies investigating a myriad of phenomena related to magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In addition to highlighting the scientific contributions of the ERPA instrument, this paper outlines its theory and operation, the methodology used to obtain electron temperature measurements, and a comparative study suggesting that the ERPA can also provide electron density measurements.

  17. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; Uşak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

  18. Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Sanchez, S.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Timakova, T. G.; Tejedor, J. I. G.; Titov, K. G.

    2013-04-01

    This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

  19. Evaluation of instruments developed to measure the clinical learning environment: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Katie

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the clinical learning environment has a huge impact on student learning. This article reviews current methods available for evaluating the clinical learning environment. Five instruments were identified that measure the clinical learning environment. All of these instruments focus solely on the student perspective of the clinical learning environment. Although gaining student input is important, there are other perspectives that offer valuable insights on the nature of the clinical learning environment. The findings from this integrative review indicate the need for future development and testing of an instrument to evaluate the clinical learning environment from the staff nurse and nurse faculty perspective.

  20. GPS Radiation Measurements: Instrument Modeling and Simulation (Project w14_gpsradiation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The following topics are covered: electron response simulations and typical calculated response. Monte Carlo calculations of the response of future charged particle instruments (dosimeters) intended to measure the flux of charged particles in space were performed. The electron channels are called E1- E11 – each of which is intended to detect a different range of electron energies. These instruments are on current and future GPS satellites.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2004-07-31

    In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

  2. 77 FR 41206 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for Instrumentation and Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Upgrades for Non-Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for... public comment on Chapter 7, Section 7.3, Reactor Control System, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1... Content,'' for instrumentation and control (I&C) upgrades and NUREG-1537, Part 2, ``Guidelines...

  3. Measurement of the convergence angle in teeth prepared for single crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NokarS

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Retention, resistance and marginal integrity mostly depend on tooth preparation. An appropriate convergence angle fulfil this purpose, to high extent. In this study, a new method was used to measure the convergence angle of the teeth prepared for single crowns in Genera! practitioners" offices in Tehran. In order to do this. 325 dyes, prepared by General dentists in Tehran, were collected from 10 laboratories. All dyes wore trimmed at the area below the finishing line and then were scanned (Genius Color page- FIR 6 buccoiingualiy and mesiodistaily. Convergence angle of dyes were also measured with Adobe Photoshop (5.0 software. Data were analyzed by variance analysis test and 1- student bv the help of SPSS software. Results showed that the average convergence angle ranged from 16.18+8.34 to 35.1 8~10.38 which belonged to maxillary canine and mandibular molars, respectively, and the measured convergence angle is more than the ideal value of 10-16 degrees. Dyes of the madibular molars were ma"illar" convergent. These conclusions are helpful for professors, dentistry students and dentists, and arc an indicative of the practice quality of General practitioners in Tehran. Due to the fact that a convergence angle, more than the allowed limitation, endangers retention, resistance and marginal integrity of the restoration, paying attention to the principles of tooth preparation and proper application of instruments and dental cements, can progress fwed restorations quality.

  4. Electronic instrumentation for the nuclear radiation measurement; Instrumentacion electronica para la medicion de la radiacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the obtained results in the research, development and construction of the electronic instrumentation required for the measurement of the essential characteristics of the nuclear radiation: The quantity of radiation and its energy components. With this information, many practical instruments can be developed and applied in different fields of science and technology. In this work, some instruments were developed for their application in the areas of medicine, industry, and particle physics research. Several measurement systems based on PIN type diodes are proposed for: a) the measurement of the operational characteristics of the X-ray machines and the X-rays emitted in medical radio-diagnostic, b) X-ray spectroscopy and c) radiation spectroscopy of charged particles. The contribution of this work is, precisely, the development of new instruments that use the PIN diode as the sensorial element. In this way, existing problems in nuclear instrumentation are overcame, specially in the fields of medical physics and particle physics. Likewise, different types of charge and current preamplifiers, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, were developed for these instruments. (Author)

  5. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge in the remote sensing arena. Developing the tools needed to remotely measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is an important priority. The Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) is being developed to address this need. WISM is an airborne instrument comprised of a dual-frequency (X- and Ku-bands) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and dual-frequency (K- and Ka-bands) radiometer. A unique feature of this instrument is that all measurement bands share a common antenna aperture consisting of an array feed reflector that covers the entire bandwidth. This paper covers the design and fabrication of the wideband array feed which is based on tightly coupled dipole arrays. Implementation using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process results in a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from 8 to 40 gigahertz.

  6. Development of source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Li

    2002-01-01

    Source range measurement instrument in Xi'an pulsed reactor is key equipment of low-side measuring in source range. At the same time, it is also weighty component of out-of-pile neutron-flux level observation system. The authors have done some researching and renovating based on the similar type devices used in nuclear reactor to improve the meter sensitivity, measuring range, noise proof features, reliability in running and maintainability which belong to the main performance index of the instrument. The design ideas, configurations, working principle, performance indexes, technique features and effect in utilizing are introduced briefly

  7. Prototype of a Dsp-Based Instrument for In-Service Wireless Transmitter Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angrisani Leopoldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a DSP-based instrument for in-service transmitter power measurements is presented. The instrument implements a signal-selective algorithm for power measurements that is suitable for use in wireless environments, where possible uncontrolled interfering sources are present in the radio channel and are overlapped to the signal emitted by the transmitter under test, possibly in both time and frequency domain. The measurement method exploits the principles of cyclic spectral analysis, which are briefly recalled in the paper. Potentialities, as well as limitations of the prototype use are discussed, and the results of experiments with both modulated and unmodulated interfering sources are presented.

  8. Energy Spectra of Geomagnetically Trapped Light Isotopes Measured by NINA-2 Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. V.; Bakaldin, A.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Korotkov, M.; Leonov, A.; Voronov, S.; Bidoli, V.; Caoslino, M.; De Pascale, M.; Furano, G.; Iannucci, A.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Boezio, M.; Bonvincini, V.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Adriani, O.; Papini, P.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Ricci, M.; Castellini, G.

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports about the energy spectrum of geomagnetically trapped protons, deuterons, tritons and He isotop es measured by the instrument NINA2 at the low boundary of the South Atlantic Anomaly. NINA-2 on board the satellite MITA has been in orbit from 15 July 2000 to 10 August 2001, flying with circular polar orbit (87° inclination), at an altitude between 300-440 km. Differential energy spectra were measured at L-shell ˜ 1.2 and local magnetic field b< 0.22 G. Data from NINA-2 are compared with measurements made onboard Resurs-01 N4 satellite with NINA instrument. Possible solar modulation effects are discussed.

  9. Development and test of a Microwave Ice Accretion Measurement Instrument (MIAMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenheim, B.; Rocks, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an ice accretion measurement instrument that is a highly sensitive, accurate, rugged and reliable microprocessor controlled device using low level microwave energy for non-instrusive real time measurement and recording of ice growth history, including ice thickness and accretion rate is discussed. Data is displayed and recorded digitally. New experimental data is presented, obtained with the instrument, which demonstrates its ability to measure ice growth on a two-dimensional airfoil. The device is suitable for aircraft icing protection. It may be mounted flush, non-intrusively, on any part of an aircraft skin including rotor blades and engine inlets.

  10. PAIN PERCEPTION OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS DURING CAVITY PREPARATION WITH Er:YAG LASER AND CONVENTIONAL ROTARY INSTRUMENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Belcheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the pain perception of pediatric patients during cavity preparation with the use of Erbium:YAG laser 2940 nm and conventional rotary instruments. Methods and materials: A group of ninety 6-12-years-old patients with matched carious lesions (D3 threshold, WHO system was divided into two equal treatment groups and treated without anaesthesia. In the intervention group the cavities were prepared with Erbium:YAG laser 2940nm and in the control group with conventional rotary instruments. At the end of the treatment each patient was asked to point the degree of its pain on the universal pain assessment tool. Results: Participants in the laser treatment group reported significantly lower pain scores compared to participants in the control group (p<0.005. The analysis of pain indicated that in the intervention group the scores obtained from the majority of cases (71.1% were low and only one patient reported severe pain perception. In the conventional treatment group the results showed approximately equal frequency for low (40% and moderate (42.2% pain level. Conclusions: The Erbium:YAG lasers produce less pain compared to the conventional mechanical preparation. They offer new and useful possibilities in restorative dentistry in pediatric dentistry and are good treatment options.

  11. EDITORIAL: The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009) The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugui, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    The papers for this special feature have been selected for publication after the successful measurement forum that took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2009. ISMTII-2009 presented state-of-the-art approaches and solutions in the most challenging areas and focused on microscale and nanoscale measurements and metrology; novel measurements and diagnostic technologies, including nondestructive and dimensional inspection; measurements for geometrical and mechanical quantities, terahertz technologies for science, industry and biomedicine; intelligent measuring instruments and systems for industry and transport; optical and x-ray tomography and interferometry, metrology and characterization of materials, measurements and metrology for the humanitarian fields; and education in measurement science. We believe that scientists and specialists around the world found there the newest information on measurement technology and intelligent instruments, and this will stimulate work in these areas which is an essential part of progress in measurement. The ISMTII Symposia have been held successfully every two years from 1989 in the People's Republic of China, Hungary, Egypt, Hong Kong, UK and Japan under the direction of ICMI. In 2009 the ISMTII measuring forum took place in Russia, and it is a great honour for our country, as well as for the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian Branch—Novosibirsk Scientific Center. This Symposium was located in historic Saint Petersburg, which from its foundation has been a unique bridge of communication between countries on all continents, and participation provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experience, information and knowledge between specialists from different countries and fields. On behalf of the Organizers, Steering Committee and International Program Committee I would like to thank all the participants for their valuable contributions without which this special feature would not have become reality, as well

  12. A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Waveform in X-Ray Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Hernández, Marco A.

    2004-09-01

    The experience gained in the quality control in X-ray units used in Radiology has demonstrated that the measurement of the waveform of the X-ray beam, measured as the response of a radiation detector is very helpful to decide if the unit fulfills the quality control requirements and also has been useful to define some kind of faults in the unit. Several instruments are available on the market to make this measurement but they need in general a storage or digital oscilloscope to see the waveform. In this work a stand alone new instrument is proposed in which the waveform is seen in a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The instrument is based in the X-ray response of a photo diode. The analog response depending on time is converted to digital numbers that are stored sequentially in a memory. The stored information is recovered with a microcontroller and reconstructed in the screen of the LCD. The instrument is able to measure in the mammographic range from 22 kV to 35 kV and in the conventional range from 40 kV to 120 kV in the different settings of current encountered on practical applications, the time range for the measurement of the X-ray shot is from 100 ms to 3 s. The instrument can be useful in quality control practices and in the verification and maintenance of X-ray units.

  13. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two d

  14. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  15. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  16. Voice-Related Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O.; Daniero, James J.; Hovis, Kristen L.; Sathe, Nila; Jacobson, Barbara; Penson, David F.; Feurer, Irene D.; McPheeters, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on voice-related patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures in adults and to evaluate each instrument for the presence of important measurement properties. Method: MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Health…

  17. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration, particulate measurement. 92.117 Section 92.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement... orifice, a bellmouth nozzle, or a laminar flow element or an NIST traceable flow calibration device...

  18. A self-designed instrument to evaluate cavosurface angle for class I amalgam cavity preparation: A learning aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ankit; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Ballal, Vasudev; Sharma, Padmaja

    2012-07-01

    Fighting the controversies, amalgam, as a posterior restorative material has survived till date. The fate of amalgam restoration is determined by geometry of the cavity preparation and cavosurface angle is one integral part of the cavity, which decides the marginal characteristics of the restoration and health of the tooth. Low edge strength of amalgam highlights the importance of cavosurface angle. However, at the same time conservation of the tooth also should be considered. This article presents a self-designed instrument to evaluate and obtain a cavosurface angle close to 110°. The design of the instrument also helps in evaluating parameters, such as depth of the cavity, undercut angle, and allows finishing of the buccal or lingual walls.

  19. Measuring disability in patients with chronic low back pain: the usefulness of different instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijer, Wietske

    2006-01-01

    Measuring disability is an important topic in rehabilitation research in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Due to the major impact of CLBP on functioning in both daily living and work, measuring disability in patients with CLBP is best described in terms of limitations in activities and restrictions in participation in daily living and work. A frequently used measurement instrument in rehabilitation medicine to measure self-reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) in...

  20. Wearable and modular functional near-infrared spectroscopy instrument with multidistance measurements at four wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Dominik; Lambercy, Olivier; Scholkmann, Felix; Wolf, Martin; Gassert, Roger

    2017-10-01

    With the aim of transitioning functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technology from the laboratory environment to everyday applications, the field has seen a recent push toward the development of wearable/miniaturized, multiwavelength, multidistance, and modular instruments. However, it is challenging to unite all these requirements in a precision instrument with low noise, low drift, and fast sampling characteristics. We present the concept and development of a wearable fNIRS instrument that combines all these key features with the goal of reliably and accurately capturing brain hemodynamics. The proposed instrument consists of a modular network of miniaturized optode modules that include a four-wavelength light source and a highly sensitive silicon photomultiplier detector. Simultaneous measurements with short-separation (7.5 mm; containing predominantly extracerebral signals) and long-separation (20 mm or more; containing both extracerebral and cerebral information) channels are used with short-channel regression filtering methods to increase robustness of fNIRS measurements. Performance of the instrument was characterized with phantom measurements and further validated in human in vivo measurements, demonstrating the good raw signal quality (signal-to-noise ratio of 64 dB for short channels; robust measurements up to 50 mm; dynamic optical range larger than 160 dB), the valid estimation of concentration changes (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome-c-oxidase) in muscle and brain, and the detection of task-evoked brain activity. The results of our preliminary tests suggest that the presented fNIRS instrument outperforms existing instruments in many aspects and bears high potential for real-time single-trial fNIRS applications as required for wearable brain-computer interfaces.

  1. Measuring health literacy regarding infectious respiratory diseases: a new skills-based instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS: This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual's reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials were selected to enable measurement of the skills, which were sourced from the WHO, China CDC, and Chinese Center of Health Education. The information involved the distribution of epidemics, immunization programs, early symptoms, means of disease prevention, individual's preventative behavior, use of medications and thermometers, treatment plans and the location of hospitals. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect participants. Psychometric properties were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. RESULTS: The overall degree of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument were 0.693 and 0.482 respectively. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.864. As for validity, six factors were extracted from 30 items, which together explained 47.3% of the instrument's variance. And based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral and internet based information seeking skills (χ(2 = 9.200, P>0.05, GFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.988, AGFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028. CONCLUSION: The new instrument has good reliability and validity, and it could be used to assess the health literacy regarding respiratory infectious disease status of different groups.

  2. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  3. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  4. The use of patient-specific measurement instruments in the process of goal-setting: a systematic review of available instruments and their feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, A.; Beurskens, A.; Koke, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the currently available patient-specific measurement instruments used in the process of goal-setting and to assess their feasibility. METHODS: After a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and REHABDATA, patient-specific instruments w

  5. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  6. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  7. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  8. Validating an instrument for measuring brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dara Singh Karpal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop and propose a valid and reliable instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia. An instrument to measure brand equity was constructed with adaptations from two key sources, namely Yew Leh and Lee (2011 and Yoo and Donthu (2001. As such the study only focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations. The usable sample population included 909 respondents from 12 states of West Malaysia which were selected using a quota sampling plan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and reliability analysis were carried out to test and validate the proposed brand equity instrument containing four components (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty with a total of 13 items. Results from the CFA and reliability analysis indicated that all the items representing the four components were valid and can be used to measure the brand equity of organizations that are practicing CSR. The study tried to set an empirical basis for brand equity and CSR related research which could be used by future researchers in different industries and geographical locations. The study also implies the need for organizations to assess the success of their CSR efforts through the use of the proposed instrument in order to gauge whether all their CSR efforts translate to improved brand equity.

  9. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-01-15

    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  10. Rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus with low demands on sample preparation and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboigbodin, Kevin E; Brummer, Mirko; Ojalehto, Tuomas; Hoser, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus has only recently gained attention due to recent large outbreaks worldwide. An easy to use nucleic acid amplification test could play an important role in the early detection of the infection and patient management. Here, we report a rapid and robust isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay for the detection of Zika virus. The method is cost-effective and compatible with portable instrumentation, enabling near patient testing and field use.

  11. Factor analyses of an Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Bamps, Yvan; LaFrance, W Curt; Stoll, Shelley; Shegog, Ross; Buelow, Janice; Shafer, Patricia; Thompson, Nancy J; McGee, Robin E; Hatfield, Katherine

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of an enhanced Adult Epilepsy Self-Management Measurement Instrument (AESMMI). An instrument of 113 items, covering 10 a priori self-management domains, was generated through a multiphase process, based on a review of the literature, validated epilepsy and other chronic condition self-management scales and expert input. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were conducted on data collected from 422 adults with epilepsy. The instrument was reduced to 65 items, converging on 11 factors: Health-care Communication, Coping, Treatment Management, Seizure Tracking, Social Support, Seizure Response, Wellness, Medication Adherence, Safety, Stress Management, and Proactivity. Exploratory factors supported the construct validity for 6 a priori domains, albeit with significant changes in the retained items or in their scope and 3 new factors. One a priori domain was split in 2 subscales pertaining to treatment. The configuration of the 11 factors provides additional insight into epilepsy self-management behaviors. Internal consistency reliability of the 65-item instrument was high (α=.935). Correlations with independent measures of health status, quality of life, depression, seizure severity, and life impact of epilepsy further validated the instrument. This instrument shows potential for use in research and clinical settings and for assessing intervention outcomes and self-management behaviors in adults with epilepsy.

  12. Double-theodolite measurement system used in the image calibration of space photographic instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; QIAO Yan-feng; SU Wan-xin; LIU Ze-xun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of characterizing the image of space photographic instrument is to gain the space included angles from three coordinate axes in the three-dimensional coordinate of the image and the directionality of the three axes of coordinate in the frame of axes of the instrument. The two reference frames will keep in the same direction finally by adjusting according to space angles. This problem was solved by a new high-precision measurement system composed of a double-theodolite and a set of communication system. In the survey system, two TDA5005 total stations from Leica Company will be selected as the double-theodolite and the interdependence of both coordinate systems can be achieved by moving the stations only at one time. Therefore, this measurement system provides a highly efficient and high-precision surveying method to the image calibration of the space photographic instrument. According to the experiment, its measuring accuracy can reach arc-second level.

  13. A Practitioner's Instrument for Measuring Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Surrounding Learner-Centered Classroom Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, Alyson E; Garner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation of a Mathematics Teaching Pedagogical and Discourse Beliefs Instrument (MTPDBI), a 20 item partial-credit survey designed and analyzed using Rasch measurement theory. Items on the MTPDBI address beliefs about the nature of mathematics, teaching and learning mathematics, and classroom discourse practices. A Rasch partial credit model (Masters, 1982) was estimated from the pilot study data. Results show that item separation reliability is .96 and person separation reliability is .71. Other analyses indicate the instrument is a viable measure of secondary teachers' beliefs about reform-oriented mathematics teaching and learning. This instrument is proposed as a useful measure of teacher beliefs for those working with pre-service and in-service teacher development.

  14. Application of Roll-Isolated Inertial Measurement Units to the Instrumentation of Spinning Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEADER,MARK E.

    2000-12-01

    Roll-isolated inertial measurement units are developed at Sandia for use in the instrumentation, guidance, and control of rapidly spinning vehicles. Roll-isolation is accomplished by supporting the inertial instrument cluster (gyros and accelerometers) on a single gimbal, the axis of which is parallel to the vehicle's spin axis. A rotary motor on the gimbal is driven by a servo loop to null the roll gyro output, thus inertially stabilizing the gimbal and instrument cluster while the vehicle spins around it. Roll-isolation prevents saturation of the roll gyro by the high vehicle spin rate, and vastly reduces measurement errors arising from gyro scale factor and alignment uncertainties. Nine versions of Sandia-developed roll-isolated inertial measurement units have been flown on a total of 27 flight tests since 1972.

  15. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.

  16. Non-coincident inter-instrument comparisons of ozone measurements using quasi-conservative coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Lait

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone measurements from ozonesondes, AROTAL, DIAL, and POAM III instruments during the SOLVE-2/VINTERSOL period are composited in a time-varying, flow-following quasi-conservative (PV-θ coordinate space; the resulting composites from each instrument are mapped onto the other instruments' locations and times. The mapped data are then used to intercompare data from the different instruments. Overall, the four ozone data sets are found to be in good agreement. AROTAL shows somewhat lower values below 16 km, and DIAL has a positive bias at the upper limits of its altitude range. These intercomparisons are consistent with those obtained from more conventional near-coincident profiles, where available. Although the PV-θ mapping technique entails larger uncertainties of individual profile differences compared to direct near-coincident comparisons, the ability to include much larger numbers of comparisons can make this technique advantageous.

  17. Measurement of the polarization effects of an instrument using partially polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Accuracy of a radiometer is adversely affected by scene polarization if the receiving optical system is sensitive to polarization. It is therefore necessary to specify and measure the sensitivity of the system to polarized light. The Mueller-Stokes matrix of an instrument may be determined experimentally and used to predict the effects of the instrument on any beam. The specification of a maximum polarization sensitivity stated in terms of the degree of polarization produced in an unpolarized beam can be experimentally verified even though an unpolarized beam is not available in the laboratory for direct measurement.

  18. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance and Force Generated by OneShape Instruments during Curved Canal Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance and the force generated by OneShape files during preparation of simulated curved canals. Methods Six OneShape files (the test) and six ProTaper F2 files (the control) were subject to the bending ability test. Another thirty files of each type were used to prepare artificial canals (n = 60), which were divided into 3 groups according to respective curvatures of the canals (30°, 60°, and 90°). The numbers of cycles to fatigue (NCF) as well as the positive and negative forces that were generated by files during canal preparation were recorded. The scanning electron microscopy was applied to detect the fracture surfaces. Results Compared with ProTaper F2 files, the bending loads of OneShape files were significantly lower at deflections of 45°(P ProTaper files in 30° canals. During the preparation of 30° canals by both files, the negative forces were dominant. With the increase of the curvature, more positive forces were observed. When the OneShape Files were compared with the control, significant different forces were found at D3 and D2 (P ProTaper F2 files. PMID:27513666

  19. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or

  20. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C. van; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of

  1. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  2. Standard practice for evaluating performance characteristics of ultrasonic Pulse-Echo testing instruments and systems without the use of electronic measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for evaluating the following performance characteristics of ultrasonic pulse-echo examination instruments and systems: Horizontal Limit and Linearity; Vertical Limit and Linearity; Resolution - Entry Surface and Far Surface; Sensitivity and Noise; Accuracy of Calibrated Gain Controls. Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this practice are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic testing. Instrument characteristics expressed in purely electronic terms may be measured as described in E1324. 1.2 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be ev...

  3. Synchronic Coronal Hole Mapping Using Multi-instrument EUV Images: Data Preparation and Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Linker, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a method for the automatic mapping of coronal holes (CHs) using simultaneous multi-instrument EUV imaging data. Synchronized EUV images from STEREO/EUVI A and B 195 Å and SDO/AIA 193 Å are preprocessed, including point-spread function deconvolution and the application of data-derived intensity corrections which account for center-to-limb variations (limb brightening) and inter-instrument intensity normalization. We systematically derive a robust limb-brightening correction that takes advantage of unbiased long-term averages of data and respects the physical nature of the problem. The new preprocessing greatly assists in CH detection, allowing for the use of a simplified variable-connectivity, two-threshold region-growing image segmentation algorithm to obtain consistent detection results. We generate synchronic EUV and CH maps, and show a preliminary analysis of CH evolution. Several data and code products are made available to the community (www.predsci.com/chd): for the period of this study (2010 June 10 to 2014 August 18), we provide synchronic EUV and CH map data at 6 hr cadence, data-derived limb-brightening corrections for STEREO/EUVI A and B 195 Å and SDO/AIA 193 Å, and inter-instrument correction factors to equate their intensities. We also provide the CH image segmentation code module (ezseg) implemented in both FORTRAN-OpenMP and GPU-accelerated C-CUDA. A complete implementation of our CH detection pipeline in the form of a ready-to-use MATLAB driver script euv2chm utilizing ezseg is also made available.

  4. NIST traceable measurements of radiance and luminance levels of night-vision-goggle test-instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2014-05-01

    In order to perform radiance and luminance level measurements of night-vision-goggle (NVG) test instruments, NIST developed new-generation transfer-standard radiometers (TR). The new TRs can perform low-level radiance and luminance measurements with SI traceability and low uncertainty. The TRs were calibrated against NIST detector/radiometer standards holding the NIST photometric and radiometric scales. An 815 nm diode laser was used at NIST for the radiance responsivity calibrations. A spectrally flat (constant) filter correction was made for the TRs to correct the spectral responsivity change of the built-in Si photodiode for LEDs peaking at different wavelengths in the different test sets. The radiance responsivity transfer to the test instruments (test-sets) is discussed. The radiance values of the test instruments were measured with the TRs. The TRs propagate the traceablity to the NIST detector-based reference scales. The radiance uncertainty obtained from three TR measurements was 4.6 % (𝑘=2) at a luminance of 3.43 x 10-4 cd/m2. The output radiance of the previously used IR sphere source and the radiance responsivity of a previously used secondary standard detector unit, which was originally calibrated against an IR sphere source, were also measured with the TRs. The performances of the NVG test instruments were evaluated and the manufacturer produced radiance and luminance levels were calibrated with SI/NIST traceability.

  5. The impact of the use of different types of gloves and bare hands for preparation of clean surgical instruments 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Silva; Cruz, Áurea Silveira; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to determine if there are differences on the safety of the preparation of clean surgical instruments using different types of gloves and bare hands and evaluate the microbiological load of these preparations without gloves. Method: laboratory procedure with a pragmatic approach, in which the samples were handled with different types of gloves and bare hands. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were carried out by means of the agar diffusion method. Further samples were subjected to microbiological analysis after being handled without gloves. Results: none of the samples showed cytotoxic effect. All microbiological cultures showed growth of microorganisms, but no microorganism has been recovered after autoclaving. Conclusion: there were no differences in the cytotoxic responses regarding the use of different types of gloves and bare hands in the handling of clean surgical instruments, which could entail iatrogenic risk. It is noteworthy that the use of gloves involves increase in the costs of process and waste generation, and the potential allergenic risk to latex. PMID:27737375

  6. Designing an Instrument to Measure the QoS of a Spanish Virtual Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Beatriz Sainz; de La Torre Díez, Isabel; Salcines, Enrique García; Fernández, Javier Burón; Pernas, Francisco Díaz; Coronado, Miguel López; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    This article describes the development of an instrument, in the form of a survey, which is distributed to users of a B2C website selling electronic books in order to ascertain their satisfaction. The opinions compiled from a pilot sample and the exploratory factor analysis carried out point to factors that best summarise the quality of the application analysed here. Analysis of the initial survey, with a total of 40 items, shaped the final instrument, encompassing 18 items divided into 6 dimensions, which measure the perceptions of users of the application in order to improve the contents of the website. Subsequently, a confirmatory factorial analysis is performed, ensuring the reliability of the study and which confirms that the structure of the instrument developed truly measures service quality in accordance with the requirements of the website in terms of offering a space that fulfils consumer expectations in the Information Society.

  7. Synchronic coronal hole mapping using multi-instrument EUV images: Data preparation and detection method

    CERN Document Server

    Caplan, R M; Linker, J L

    2015-01-01

    A method for the automatic mapping of coronal holes (CH) using simultaneous multi-instrument EUV imaging data is described. Synchronized EUV images from STEREO/EUVI A\\&B 195\\AA\\ and SDO/AIA 193\\AA\\ undergo preprocessing steps that include PSF-deconvolution and the application of data-derived intensity corrections that account for center-to-limb variations (limb-brightening) and inter-instrument intensity normalization. A systematic approach is taken to derive a robust limb-brightening correction technique that takes advantage of unbiased long-term averages of data and respects the physical nature of the problem. The new preprocessing greatly assists in CH detection, allowing for the use of a simplified variable-connectivity two-threshold region growing image segmentation algorithm to obtain consistent detection results. Some examples of the generated synchronic EUV and CH maps are shown, as well as preliminary analysis of CH evolutions. Several data and code products are made available to the community ({...

  8. PC Based Instrument for the Measurement of Dielectric Constant of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramana C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A PC based instrument for the measurement of dielectric constant in liquids has been developed. It is based on the technique that utilizes frequency measurement for determination of capacitance using the personal computer as a tool. The change in frequency of XR–2206 function generator, when the liquid forms the dielectric medium of the dielectric cell, is measured with a personal computer. The programmable interval timer 8254 available in the DIOT card is used to measure the frequency, which in turn determines the capacitance of the cell and dielectric constant. The necessary software is developed in C language. The instrument system covers a wide range of dielectric constant for various liquids. The system is reasonably successful in measuring dielectric constant with an accuracy of ± 0.5 %. The paper deals with the hardware and software details.

  9. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C. C.; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed. PMID:26982452

  10. Development and psychometric testing of an instrument to measure safety climate perceptions in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Rosemary; Bennie, Marion; Maxwell, David; Watson, Anne; de Wet, Carl; Bowie, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A positive and strong safety culture underpins effective learning from patient safety incidents in health care, including the community pharmacy (CP) setting. To build this culture, perceptions of safety climate must be measured with context-specific and reliable instruments. No pre-existing instruments were specifically designed or suitable for CP within Scotland. We therefore aimed to develop a psychometrically sound instrument to measure perceptions of safety climate within Scottish CPs. The first stage, development of a preliminary instrument, comprised three steps: (i) a literature review; (ii) focus group feedback; and (iii) content validation. The second stage, psychometric testing, consisted of three further steps: (iv) a pilot survey; (v) a survey of all CP staff within a single health board in NHS Scotland; and (vi) application of statistical methods, including principal components analysis and calculation of Cronbach's reliability coefficients, to derive the final instrument. The preliminary questionnaire was developed through a process of literature review and feedback. This questionnaire was completed by staff in 50 CPs from the 131 (38%) sampled. 250 completed questionnaires were suitable for analysis. Psychometric evaluation resulted in a 30-item instrument with five positively correlated safety climate factors: leadership, teamwork, safety systems, communication and working conditions. Reliability coefficients were satisfactory for the safety climate factors (α > 0.7) and overall (α = 0.93). The robust nature of the technical design and testing process has resulted in the development of an instrument with sufficient psychometric properties, which can be implemented in the community pharmacy setting in NHS Scotland. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2014-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis.

  12. Extended Measurement Capabilities of the Electron Proton Helium INstrument aboard SOHO - Understanding single detector count rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Terasa, C.

    Forbush (1937) was the first to observe intensity decreases lasting for a few days utilizing ionization chambers. A number of studies on Forbush decreases (FDs) have been performed since then utilizing neutron monitors and space instrumentation. The amplitude of these variations can be as low as a few permil. Therefore intensity measurements need to be of high statistical accuracy. Richardson et al. (1996) suggested therefore to utilize the single counter measurements of the guard counters of the IMP 8 and Helios E6 instruments. Like the above mentioned instruments the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) provides single counting rates. During the extended solar minimum in 2009 its guard detector counted about 25000~counts/minute, allowing to determine intensity variations of less than 2 permil using 30 minute averages. We performed a GEANT 4 simulation of the instrument in order to determine the energy response of all single detectors. It is shown here that their energy thresholds are much lower than the ones of neutron monitors and therefore we developed a criterion that allows to investigate FDs during quiet time periods.

  13. Using Rasch Measurement to Validate an Instrument for Measuring the Quality of Classroom Teaching in Secondary Chemistry Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Liu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Changlong; Jia, Mengying

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to develop a standardized instrument for measuring classroom teaching and learning in secondary chemistry lessons. Based on previous studies and interviews with expert teachers, the progression of five quality levels was constructed hypothetically to represent the quality of chemistry lessons in Chinese secondary schools. The…

  14. Readiness and expectations questionnaire : a cross-cultural measurement instrument for first-year university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of

  15. A reference model of an instrument for quality measurement of semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design of a reference model for an instrument to measure quality of semantic Information System (IS) standards. This design satisfies requirements gathered among potential users, in a previous study. The reference model features three layers: concerned with quality, semantic

  16. Quality of care and patient satisfaction: a review of measuring instruments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, C. van; Sixma, H.; Friele, R.D.; Kerssens, J.J.; Peters, L.

    1995-01-01

    Surveying the literature on the assessment of quality of care from the patient's perspective, the concept has often been operationalized as patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction has been a widely investigated subject in health care research, and dozens of measuring instruments were developed du

  17. Measurement of diffusion of fluorescent compounds and autofluorescence in skin in vivo using a confocal instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschoen, K. K.; Sutton, E. E.; Daly, D.; Girkin, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Using compact and affordable instrumentation based upon fluorescent confocal imaging we have tracked the movement of autofluorescent compounds through skin in near real time with high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. The ability to measure the diffusion of compounds through skin with such resolution plays an important role for applications such as monitoring the penetration of pharmaceuticals applied to skin and assessing the integrity of the skin barrier. Several measurement methods exist, but they suffer from a number of problems such as being slow, expensive, non-portable and lacking sensitivity. To address these issues, we adapted a technique that we previously developed for tracking fluorescent compounds in the eye to measure the autofluorescence and the diffusion of externally applied fluorescent compounds in skin in vivo. Results are presented that show the change in autofluorescence of the volar forearm over the course of a week. We furthermore demonstrate the ability of the instrument to measure the diffusion speed and depth of externally applied fluorescent compounds both in healthy skin and after the skin barrier function has been perturbed. The instrument is currently being developed further for increased sensitivity and multi-wavelength excitation. We believe that the presented instrument is suitable for a large number of applications in fields such as assessment of damage to the skin barrier, development of topical and systemic medication and tracking the diffusion of fluorescent compounds through skin constructs as well as monitoring effects of skin products and general consumer products which may come into contact with the skin.

  18. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  19. Readiness and expectations questionnaire : a cross-cultural measurement instrument for first-year university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of

  20. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  1. Readiness and expectations questionnaire : a cross-cultural measurement instrument for first-year university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of

  2. Quality of local authority occupational therapy services: developing an instrument to measure the user's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered

  3. Beyond Instrumentation: Redesigning Measures and Methods for Evaluating the Graduate College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.; Hackett, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript chronicles the process and products of a redesign for evaluation of the graduate college experience (GCE) which was initiated by a university graduate college, based on its observed need to reconsider and update its measures and methods for assessing graduate students' experiences. We examined the existing instrumentation and…

  4. Quality of local authority occupational therapy services: developing an instrument to measure the user's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered

  5. The Development of a Valid and Reliable Instrument for Measuring Instructional Coaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee Anton; Dudek, Marged Howley; Rittenberg, Rebekah; Larson, William

    2014-01-01

    This research used data from educators and teacher candidates in Ohio (a state in the Midwestern United States) to produce a valid and reliable instrument for measuring instructional coaching skills. The research involved three pilot tests with large samples of respondents. Initial items came from the extant literature on instructional coaching,…

  6. Thermal infrared spectrometer for earth science remote sensing applications : instrument modifications and measurement procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecker, C.; Hook, S.; Meijde, M. van der; Bakker, W.H.; Werff, H.M.A. van der; Wilbrink, H.J.; Ruitenbeek, F.J.A. van; Smeth, J.B. de; Meer, F.D. van der

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe a new instrumental setup at the University of Twente Faculty ITC with an optimized processing chain to measure absolute directional-hemispherical reflectance values of typical earth science samples in the 2.5 to 16 μm range. A Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer was chosen

  7. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  8. Measuring Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Initial Instrument Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta; Cribbs, Jennifer; Simmons, Lakisha

    2015-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to operationalise Moore's transactional distance theory by developing and validating an instrument measuring the related constructs: dialogue, structure, learner autonomy and transactional distance. Data were collected from 227 online students and analysed through an exploratory factor analysis. Results suggest…

  9. Construction of an Instrument to Measure Social Valuation in an Emerging Market Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katono, Isaac Wasswa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to construct a parsimonious instrument to measure social valuation in a collective setting using Uganda as an example. Design/methodology/approach: A triangulation technique was used in this study. Conversations with students, parents, teaching and non-teaching staff at Uganda Christian University (UCU) main campus were…

  10. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Taiwanese Elementary Students' Attitudes toward Their Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the "attitudes toward science class" of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs--science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as…

  11. A dual-energy medical instrument for measurement of x-ray source voltage and dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Naydenov, S. V.; Volkov, V. G.; Opolonin, O. D.; Makhota, S.; Pochet, T.; Smith, C. F.

    2016-03-01

    An original dual-energy detector and medical instrument have been developed to measure the output voltages and dose rates of X-ray sources. Theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to characterize the parameters of a new scintillator-photodiode sandwich-detector based on specially-prepared zinc selenide crystals in which the low-energy detector (LED) works both as the detector of the low-energy radiation and as an absorption filter allowing the highenergy fraction of the radiation to pass through to the high-energy detector (HED). The use of the LED as a low-energy filter in combination with a separate HED opens broad possibilities for such sandwich structures. In particular, it becomes possible to analyze and process the sum, difference and ratio of signals coming from these detectors, ensuring a broad (up to 106) measurement range of X-ray intensity from the source and a leveling of the energy dependence. We have chosen an optimum design of the detector and the geometry of the component LED and HED parts that allow energy-dependence leveling to within specified limits. The deviation in energy dependence of the detector does not exceed about 5% in the energy range from 30 to 120 keV. The developed detector and instrument allow contactless measurement of the anode voltage of an X-ray emitter from 40 to 140 kV with an error no greater than 3%. The dose rate measurement range is from 1 to 200 R/min. An original medical instrument has passed clinical testing and was recommended for use in medical institutions for X-ray diagnostics.

  12. SUBJECTIVE ACCEPTANCE OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS DURING CAVITY PREPARATION WITH Er:YAG LASER AND CONVENTIONAL ROTARY INSTRUMENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Belcheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the subjective acceptance in children during hard dental tissue therapy using Er:YAG laser 2940nm and conventional rotary instruments. Methods and materials: The study included ninety 6-12-years-old children with matched carious lesions (D3 threshold, WHO system, divided into two equal treatment groups. In the intervention group the cavities were prepared with Erbium:YAG laser 2940nm and in the control group with conventional rotary instruments, without anaesthesia. After cavity preparation patient’s subjective acceptance was assessed by a questionnaire concerning primary stress triggers. Results: The annoyance factor (vibration was found as a stress trigger in the majority of control children (86.7%, while in the intervention group it was found in 2.2% of cases. The most anxiety provoking items in the intervention group were smell (67.7% and taste (42.2%. The sound was found to be a stress trigger in more than half of control children (62.2% and less than one-fifth of the children in the intervention group (15.6%. The study results showed significant difference in these items between two groups (p< 0.001. Conclusions: The Erbium:YAG lasers reduce three of four stress triggers in `4S` principle - vibration, sight and sound. They are a good treatment option for fearful children since they have acceptable efficiency in treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders compared to the mechanical preparation.

  13. Comparison of three different instruments measuring central corneal thickness of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Pang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the difference in measurements of central corneal thickness(CCTusing A-scan,corneal specular microscopy and Pentacam in keratoconus. METHODS: Between July 2012 and October 2012, the CCT of 31 patients(55 eyeswere measured by A-scan, corneal specular microscopy and Pentacam. The results were analyzed by F-test and Pearson correlation. RESULTS: The values of CCT measured by A-scan(55 eyes, corneal specular microscopy(45 eyesand Pentacam(52 eyeswere 469.87±57.56, 479.00±42.39, and 487.02±44.64μm, respectively; F-test results showed there were no statistical significant differences between CCT measured by three different instruments(P>0.05. The correlation between the measurements was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The CCT values by these three instruments were positively related by linear correlation analysis, A-scan and Pentacam measurements(r1=0.758, Pr2=0.949, Pr3=0.685, PCONCLUSION: There is a high correlation between these three instruments. A-scan and Pentacam are more precise than corneal specular microscopy. Pentacam system can measure the CCT easily, accurately and without any invasion. It is more suitable for people with keratoconus to monitor the every point of cornea and for people to do more deep research.

  14. Preparation of stable silica surfaces for surface forces measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Kurihara, Kazue

    2017-09-01

    A surface forces apparatus (SFA) measures the forces between two surfaces as a function of the surface separation distance. It is regarded as an essential tool for studying the interactions between two surfaces. However, sample surfaces used for the conventional SFA measurements have been mostly limited to thin (ca. 2-3 μm) micas, which are coated with silver layers (ca. 50 nm) on their back, due to the requirement of the distance determination by transmission mode optical interferometry called FECO (fringes of equal chromatic order). The FECO method has the advantage of determining the absolute distance, so it should be important to increase the availability of samples other than mica, which is chemically nonreactive and also requires significant efforts for cleaving. Recently, silica sheets have been occasionally used in place of mica, which increases the possibility of surface modification. However, in this case, the silver layer side of the sheet is glued on a cylindrical quartz disc using epoxy resin, which is not stable in organic solvents and can be easily swollen or dissolved. The preparation of substrates more stable under severe conditions, such as in organic solvents, is necessary for extending application of the measurement. In this study, we report an easy method for preparing stable silica layers of ca. 2 μm in thickness deposited on gold layers (41 nm)/silica discs by sputtering, then annealed to enhance the stability. The obtained silica layers were stable and showed no swelling in organic solvents such as ethanol and toluene.

  15. Calibration standards and field instruments for the precision measurement of insolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. S.; Berdahl, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an absolute calibration standard for irradiance measurements. This field instrument, designated the Kendall Radiometer System Mark 3, is identical to the PACRAD (Primary Absolute Cavity Radiometer) except for a modification to ensure all weather operation. Two Mark 3 radiometers have been in operation at the JPL's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex for over two years and are continuing to provide data which are within plus or minus 1% of the absolute value. A calibration stability analysis is presented for the two instruments.

  16. A gas chromatographic instrument for measurement of hydrogen cyanide in the lower atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A gas-chromatographic (GC instrument was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN in the lower atmosphere. The main features of the instrument are (1 a cryogen-free cooler for sample dehumidification and enrichment, (2 a porous polymer PLOT column for analyte separation, (3 a flame thermionic detector (FTD for sensitive and selective detection, and (4 a dynamic dilution system for calibration. We deployed the instrument for a ∼4 month period from January–June, 2010 at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm 2 (THF2 in rural Durham, NH. A subset of measurements made during 3–31 March is presented here with a detailed description of the instrument features and performance characteristics. The temporal resolution of the measurements was ~20 min, with a 75 s sample capture time. The 1σ measurement precision was <10% and the instrument response linearity was excellent on a calibration scale of 0.10–0.75 ppbv (±5%. The estimated method detection limit (MDL and accuracy were 0.021 ppbv and 15%, respectively. From 3–31 March 2010, ambient HCN mixing ratios ranged from 0.15–1.0 ppbv (±15%, with a mean value of 0.36 ± 0.16 ppbv (1σ. The approximate mean background HCN mixing ratio of 0.20 ± 0.04 ppbv appeared to agree well with tropospheric column measurements reported previously. The GC-FTD HCN measurements were strongly correlated with acetonitrile (CH3CN measured concurrently with a proton transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, as anticipated given our understanding that the nitriles share a common primary biomass burning source to the global atmosphere. The nitriles were overall only weakly correlated with carbon monoxide (CO, which is reasonable considering the greater diversity of sources for CO. However, strong correlations with CO were observed on several nights under stable atmospheric conditions and suggest regional combustion-based sources for the nitriles. These results demonstrate that

  17. Time Resolution and Linearity Measurements for a Scintillating Fiber Detector Instrumented with VLPC's

    CERN Document Server

    Bross, A D; Costa, J; Johnson, M; Moreira, L; Thompson, J; Bross, Alan; Chaves, Ana Lucia; Costa, Jesse; Johnson, Marvin; Moreira, Lourival; Thompson, Joey

    1997-01-01

    The time resolution for a charged particle detection is reported for a typical scintillating fiber detector instrumented with Rockwell HISTE-IV Visible Light Photon Counters. The resolution measurements are shown to agree with a simple Monte Carlo model, and the model is used to make recomendations for improved performance. In addition, the gain linearity of a sample of VLPC devices was measured. The gain is shown to be linear for incident light intensities which produce up to approximately 600 photoelectrons per event.

  18. The construction of a normative instrument for the measurement of moral reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to construct a normative instrument for the measurement of different levels of moral reasoning. The sample comprised 426 undergraduate students in Industrial Psychology and Personnel Management from two Afrikaans speaking universities. A questionnaire was developed to measure different levels of moral reasoning on a normative scale. A factor analysis on 90 items yielded two factors. These factors were interpreted as principled moral reasoning and prescriptive mo...

  19. [content Validity In The Development And Adaptation Processes Of Measurement Instruments].

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to conduct a review of content validity, which is an important phase of processes of construction and adaptation of measurement instruments. Research of comprehensive literature was conducted by means of a review of national and international databases. Initially, a description of the conceptual basis and the measurement methods used in content validity was made, with emphasis on its application in the healthcare area. It was seen that controversy exists in the literature on...

  20. Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool for Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    1 Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool For Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements Joe Lacirignola1...bones and joints are repeatedly subjected to aggressive movements and high forces. The ability to measure these elements during training would be a...critical enabler for prevention of injury and development of more quantitative training procedures that focus on ambulatory mobility and agility. It

  1. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  2. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of observational science crosses all other subject areas and requires a new innovative paradigm: a collaboration of experts to create high quality, content-rich learning modules that will elevate the scientific literacy and technical competency of undergraduate and graduate students. This collaborative project will design, develop, and openly distribute a series of interactive, multimedia, online modules that can be effectively integrated into meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. The modules will address topics such as principles of instrumentation and measurement to the theory and practice of measuring a host of meteorological variables. The impact will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience. This project brings together the intellectual capital of the scientists and engineers of National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory as subject matter experts, the artistic talents and instructional design acumen of the COMET program, and the project leadership, vision, teaching expertise in instruments and observational science at Millersville University.

  3. Measuring pediatric hematology-oncology fellows' skills in humanism and professionalism: A novel assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Agrawal, Anurag K; Bhatia, Nita; Cronin, Angel; Jubran, Rima; Kent, Paul; Kersun, Leslie; Rao, Amulya Nageswara; Rose, Melissa; Savelli, Stephanie; Sharma, Mukta; Shereck, Evan; Twist, Clare J; Wang, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Educators in pediatric hematology-oncology lack rigorously developed instruments to assess fellows' skills in humanism and professionalism. We developed a novel 15-item self-assessment instrument to address this gap in fellowship training. Fellows (N = 122) were asked to assess their skills in five domains: balancing competing demands of fellowship, caring for the dying patient, confronting depression and burnout, responding to challenging relationships with patients, and practicing humanistic medicine. An expert focus group predefined threshold scores on the instrument that could be used as a cutoff to identify fellows who need support. Reliability and feasibility were assessed and concurrent validity was measured using three established instruments: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Flourishing Scale (FS), and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE). For 90 participating fellows (74%), the self-assessment proved feasible to administer and had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.81). It was moderately correlated with the FS and MBI (Pearson's r = 0.41 and 0.4, respectively) and weakly correlated with the JSPE (Pearson's r = 0.15). Twenty-eight fellows (31%) were identified as needing support. The self-assessment had a sensitivity of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31-69) and a specificity of 77% (95% CI: 65-87) for identifying fellows who scored poorly on at least one of the three established scales. We developed a novel assessment instrument for use in pediatric fellowship training. The new scale proved feasible and demonstrated internal consistency reliability. Its moderate correlation with other established instruments shows that the novel assessment instrument provides unique, nonredundant information as compared to existing scales. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measuring leprosy-related stigma - a pilot study to validate a toolkit of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Carin; Bandyopadhyay, Sudhakar; Gopal, Pala K; Van Brakel, Wim H

    2011-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the quality of life of leprosy-affected people. Instruments are needed to assess levels of stigma and to monitor and evaluate stigma reduction interventions. We conducted a validation study of such instruments in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, India. Four instruments were tested in a 'Community Based Rehabilitation' (CBR) setting, the Participation Scale, Internalised Scale of Mental Illness (ISMI) adapted for leprosy-affected persons, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) for leprosy-affected and non-affected persons and the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale. We evaluated the following components of validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility and reliability to distinguish between groups. Construct validity was tested by correlating instrument scores and by triangulating quantitative and qualitative findings. Reliability was evaluated by comparing levels of stigma among people affected by leprosy and community controls, and among affected people living in CBR project areas and those in non-CBR areas. For the Participation, ISMI and EMIC scores significant differences were observed between those affected by leprosy and those not affected (p = 0.0001), and between affected persons in the CBR and Control group (p < 0.05). The internal consistency of the instruments measured with Cronbach's α ranged from 0.83 to 0.96 and was very good for all instruments. Test-retest reproducibility coefficients were 0.80 for the Participation score, 0.70 for the EMIC score, 0.62 for the ISMI score and 0.50 for the GSE score. The construct validity of all instruments was confirmed. The Participation and EMIC Scales met all validity criteria, but test-retest reproducibility of the ISMI and GSE Scales needs further evaluation with a shorter test-retest interval and longer training and additional adaptations for the latter.

  5. Energy spectrum of secondary protons above the atmosphere measured by the instruments NINA and NINA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; de Pascale, M.; Furano, G.; Iannucci, A.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Bakaldin, A.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Korotkov, M.; Leonov, A.; Mikhailov, V.; Voronov, S.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Ambriola, M.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Adriani, O.; Papini, P.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Ricci, M.; Castellini, G.

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we report on the energy spectrum of protons of albedo origin measured by the instruments NINA and NINA-2 at different geomagnetic locations, and the behaviour of the proton flux as a function of altitude out of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The instrument NINA was used on board the satellite Resurs-01-N4 between 1998 and 1999, at an altitude of about 830 km. The NINA-2 apparatus, on board the satellite MITA, was put into orbit in July 2000, at an altitude of about 450 km. A detailed understanding of the fluxes of charged particles in near Earth orbit is important to reach an accurate theoretical description of the Earth’s magnetic field, but also as input for the calculation of the back-ground for scientific instruments aboard satellites, like the future AGILE and GLAST g

  6. Jules Horowitz Reactor Project- Fuel irradiation device, innovative instrumentation proposal for experimental phenomena real time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillot, Stephane; Cheymol, Guy [CEA, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The fuel irradiation devices used for the tests or rods allow reproducing at small scales the conditions of the studied nuclear reactors (as LWR type). During the irradiation phase, the tested fuel rod can be stressed due to thermal, mechanical, nuclear effects which can modify its geometry (dilatation, swelling effects). After the test, the return to normal conditions can have as consequence the disappearance of the phenomenon or give access to partial information (final deformation). Generally, to follow the phenomena related to the irradiation phase, the experimental rod contained in the test device is instrumented with thermocouples and LVDT. As complement of this instrumentation, new sensors using innovating technologies are studied (deformation sensor integrating optical fibres). Through the example of a fuel irradiation device foreseen for the JHR, this paper aims to describe the present development of an innovating instrumentation with the objective to measure, in real time and under flux, the fuel rod deformation phenomena during a ramp test.

  7. Beam-Profile Instrumentation for a Beam-Halo Measurement Overall Description, Operation, and Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    Gilpatrick, J D; Day, L; Kerstiens, D; Stettler, M; Valdiviez, R

    2001-01-01

    The halo experiment presently being conducted at the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has specific instruments that acquire horizontally and vertically projected particle-density beam distributions out to greater than 105:1 dynamic range. We measure the core of the distributions using traditional wire scanners, and the tails of the distribution using water-cooled graphite scraping devices. The wire scanner and halo scrapers are mounted on the same moving frame whose location is controlled with stepper motors. A sequence within the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software communicates with a National Instrument LabVIEW virtual instrument to control the movement and location of the scanner/scraper assembly. Secondary electrons from the wire scanner 33 μm carbon wire and protons impinging on the scraper are both detected with a lossy-integrator electronic circuit. Algorithms implemented within EPICS and in Research Systems Interactiv...

  8. Selection of Instruments for Measuring Process Parameters of a Sodium Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Koo; Park, Jae Chang; Kim, Tae Joon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Mo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is constructing a sodium test facility called STELLA-1 (Sodium integrated effect TEst Loop for safety simuLation and Assessment) in which the major components for an SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) such as heat exchangers are to be experimented. STELLA-1 includes pipes, heat exchangers, pumps, electrical heaters, tanks, and other supporting instruments and valves. These components should be in operation with the liquid sodium used as the heat transport fluid in the SFR. Based on a general review and preliminary considerations on some instrumentation methods and requirements for sodium facilities in the previous literatures, this paper describes the selected instruments, which were investigated, designed, and engineered for measuring the process variables of STELLA-1 in which the high temperature liquid sodium is flowing

  9. An instrument for measuring pharmacist and physician attitudes towards collaboration: preliminary psychometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an instrument for measuring attitudes toward pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships for administration to practicing pharmacists and physicians, as well as to students in pharmacy and medical schools. Based on a review of literature, a preliminary version of an instrument was developed (30 items), and through a pilot study of face validity and content validity with 12 pharmacists and 10 physicians, 18 items were chosen for quantitative analyses. We asked 88 respondents (61 pharmacists, 27 physicians) to judge the relevance, clarity, and representativeness of each item to the concept of pharmacist-physician collaborative relationships. Sixteen items with a relevancy endorsement greater than 85% and significant item-total score correlations were retained. The following underlying constructs emerged from factor analysis: "collaboration and team work," "accountability," "overlapping responsibility," and "authority". These factors supported the multidimensionality and construct validity of the instrument. No gender difference was observed; however, pharmacists scored higher than physicians on the total score of the instrument. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha was .81 for pharmacists, .92 for physicians, and .87 for the combined sample. Encouraged by these preliminary findings, we plan to undertake further research to examine the instrument's psychometric properties including criterion-related and predictive validities with larger and more representative samples of pharmacists, physicians, and students in pharmacy and medical schools.

  10. [Development of chlorophyll concentration nondestructive measurement instrument based on spectral analysis technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Bo; Xu, Yu-Po; Zhang, Chao-Hang; Zhang, Guang-Jun; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2009-10-01

    A portable nondestructive measuring instrument for plant chlorophyll was developed, which can perform real-time, quick and nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll. The instrument is mainly composed of four parts, including leaves clamp, driving circuit of light source, photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit and micro-control system. A new scheme of light source driving was proposed, which can not only achieve constant current, but also control the current by digital signal. The driving current can be changed depending on different light source and measurement situation by actual operation, which resolves the matching problem of output intensity of light source and input range of photoelectric detector. In addition, an integrative leaves clamp was designed, which simplified the optical structure, enhanced the stability of apparatus, decreased the loss of incident light and improved the signal-to-noise ratio and precision. The photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit achieve the conversion between optical signal and electrical signal, and make the electrical signal meet the requirement of AD conversion, and the photo detector is S1133-14 of Hamamatsu Company, with a high detection precision. The micro-control system mainly achieves control function, dealing with data, data storage and so on. As the most important component, microprocessor MSP430F149 of TI Company has many advantages, such as high processing speed, low power, high stability and so on. And it has an in-built 12 bit AD converter, so the data-acquisition circuit is simpler. MSP430F149 is suitable for portable instrument. In the calibration experiment of the instrument, the standard value was measured by chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, multiple linear calibration models were built, and the instrument performance was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between chlorophyll prediction value and standard value is 0.97, and the root mean square error of prediction is about 1

  11. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI: design, execution, and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI. The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing, and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent

  12. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  13. Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service*†

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health...

  14. Amorphous semiconductor sample preparation for transmission EXAFS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, M.C.; Glover, C.J.; Tan, H.H. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Electronic Materials Engineering] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A novel methodology has been developed for the preparation of amorphous semiconductor samples for use in transmission extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Epitaxial heterostructures were fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (group III-Vs) or molecular beam epitaxy (group IVs). An epitaxial layer of {approximately} 2 {micro}m thickness was separated from the underlying substrate by selective chemical etching of an intermediate sacrificial layer. Ion implantation was utilized to amorphize the epitaxial layer either before or after selective chemical etching. The resulting samples were both stoichiometric and homogeneous in contrast to those produced by conventional techniques. The fabrication of amorphous GaAs, InP, In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As and Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x} samples is described. Furthermore, EXAFS measurements comparing both fluorescence and transmission detection, and crystalline and amorphized GaAs, are shown.

  15. SIDRA instrument for measurements of particle fluxes at satellite altitudes. Laboratory prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Prieto, M.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Sanchez, S.; Timakova, T. G.; Spassky, A. V.; Dubina, V. N.; Parra, P.

    2013-01-01

    The design concept and first set of results are presented for electronic modules of a laboratory prototype of the small-size satellite instrument SIDRA intended for measurements of charged particle fluxes in outer space. The working prototype consists of a detector assembly based on high-purity silicon and fast scintillation detectors, modules of analogue and digital processing, and a secondary power supply module. The first results are discussed of a Monte-Carlo simulation of the instrument with the use of the GEANT4 toolkit and of measurements of the main parameters of charge-sensitive pre-amplifiers, shapers, and peak detectors. Results of calibration measurements with the use of radioactive sources and beams of accelerated charged particles are presented.

  16. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E, E-mail: dietrich-hofmann@t-online.d [Senior Network Manager NEMO SpectroNet, Technologie- und Innovationspark Jena GmbH, Wildenbruchstrasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  17. Using the Rasch measurement model to design a report writing assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Wayne R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the Rasch measurement model was used to develop an assessment instrument designed to measure student ability to write law enforcement incident and investigative reports. The ability to write reports is a requirement of all law enforcement recruits in the state of Michigan and is a part of the state's mandatory basic training curriculum, which is promulgated by the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards (MCOLES). Recently, MCOLES conducted research to modernize its training and testing in the area of report writing. A structured validation process was used, which included: a) an examination of the job tasks of a patrol officer, b) input from content experts, c) a review of the professional research, and d) the creation of an instrument to measure student competency. The Rasch model addressed several measurement principles that were central to construct validity, which were particularly useful for assessing student performances. Based on the results of the report writing validation project, the state established a legitimate connectivity between the report writing standard and the essential job functions of a patrol officer in Michigan. The project also produced an authentic instrument for measuring minimum levels of report writing competency, which generated results that are valid for inferences of student ability. Ultimately, the state of Michigan must ensure the safety of its citizens by licensing only those patrol officers who possess a minimum level of core competency. Maintaining the validity and reliability of both the training and testing processes can ensure that the system for producing such candidates functions as intended.

  18. Do we understand what the mercury speciation instruments are actually measuring? Results of RAMIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Huang, Jiaoyan; Miller, Matthieu B; Peterson, Christianna; Jaffe, Daniel A; Ambrose, Jesse; Finley, Brandon D; Lyman, Seth N; Call, Kevin; Talbot, Robert; Feddersen, Dara; Mao, Huiting; Lindberg, Steven E

    2013-07-02

    From August 22 to September 16, 2012, atmospheric mercury (Hg) was measured from a common manifold in the field during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison eXperiment. Data were collected using Tekran systems, laser induced fluorescence, and evolving new methods. The latter included the University of Washington-Detector for Oxidized Mercury, the University of Houston Mercury instrument, and a filter-based system under development by the University of Nevada-Reno. Good transmission of total Hg was found for the manifold. However, despite application of standard protocols and rigorous quality control, systematic differences in operationally defined forms of Hg were measured by the sampling systems. Concentrations of reactive Hg (RM) measured with new methods were at times 2-to-3-fold higher than that measured by Tekran system. The low RM recovery by the latter can be attributed to lack of collection as the system is currently configured. Concentrations measured by all instruments were influenced by their sampling location in-the-manifold and the instrument analytical configuration. On the basis of collective assessment of the data, we hypothesize that reactions forming RM were occurring in the manifold. Results provide a new framework for improved understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of Hg.

  19. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  20. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  1. Application of the Hand-instrument of Measurement of Tyre Gap and Diameter in Cement Rotary Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article is concerned with the cement rotary kiln, the hand-instrument of measurements of tyre gap and the outer diameter. The accuracy of measurements of tyre gap and diameter is less than ±1mm. The hand- instrument wins two patents in China. It has been applied to the measurement for 16 sets of cement rotary kiln in China.

  2. Development of an instrument to measure medical students’ perceptions of the assessment environment: initial validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assessment environment, synonymous with climate or atmosphere, is multifaceted. Although there are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the educational environment, there is no validated instrument for measuring the assessment environment in medical programs. This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students’ perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Method: The Assessment Environment Questionnaire (AEQ, a 40-item, four-point (1=Strongly Disagree to 4=Strongly Agree Likert scale instrument designed by the authors, was administered to medical undergraduates from the authors’ institution. The response rate was 626/794 (78.84%. To establish construct validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component analysis and varimax rotation was conducted. To examine the internal consistency reliability of the instrument, Cronbach's α was computed. Mean scores for the entire AEQ and for each factor/subscale were calculated. Mean AEQ scores of students from different academic years and sex were examined. Results: Six hundred and eleven completed questionnaires were analysed. EFA extracted four factors: feedback mechanism (seven items, learning and performance (five items, information on assessment (five items, and assessment system/procedure (three items, which together explained 56.72% of the variance. Based on the four extracted factors/subscales, the AEQ was reduced to 20 items. Cronbach's α for the 20-item AEQ was 0.89, whereas Cronbach's α for the four factors/subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Mean score for the AEQ was 2.68/4.00. The factor/subscale of ‘feedback mechanism’ recorded the lowest mean (2.39/4.00, whereas the factor/subscale of ‘assessment system/procedure’ scored the highest mean (2.92/4.00. Significant differences were found among the AEQ scores of students from different

  3. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is the development of ground-based hyperspectral systems capable of collecting continuous and long-term hyperspectral measurements of the Earth-surface. The development of such instruments includes the optical design, the development of the data acquisition (Auto3S) and processing software as well as the definition of the calibration procedures. In particular an in-field calibration methodologie based on the comparison between field spectra and data modeled using Radiative Transfer (RT) approach has been proposed to regularly upgrade instrument calibration coefficients. Two different automatic spectrometric systems have been developed: the HyperSpectral Irradiometer (HSI) [Meroni et al., 2011] and the Multiplexer Radiometer Irradiometer (MRI) [Cogliati, 2011]. Both instruments are able to continuously measure: sun incoming irradiance (ETOT) and irradiance (ES, HSI)/radiance (LS, MRI) upwelling from the investigated surface. Both instruments employ two Ocean Optics HR4000 spectrometers sharing the same optical signal that allow to simultaneously collect "fine" (1 nm Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) spectra in the 400-1000 nm rangeand "ultra-fine" (0.1 nm FWHM) spectra within the 700-800 nm. The collected optical data allow to estimate biochemical/structural properties of vegetation (e.g. NDVI) as well as its photosynthetic efficiency through the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the analysis of sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence in the O2-A Fraunhofer line (F@760). The automatic instruments were operated in coordination with eddy covariance flux tower measurements of carbon exchange in the framework of several field campaigns: HSI was employed in a subalpine pasture (2009-ongoing) (www.phenoalp.eu) while MRI was employed in 2009 in the Sen3Exp field survey promoted by the European Space Agency as consolidation study to the future mission Sentinel-3. Results show that the proposed instruments succeeded in collecting continuous

  4. Agreement among three instruments for measuring functional health status and quality of life in pediatric orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Sheng, Minya; Hara, Reiko; Otsuka, Norman Y; Bowen, Richard E; Scaduto, Anthony A; Kay, Robert M; Chan, Linda S

    2007-03-01

    The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), and Pediatric Evaluation and Disability Inventory (PEDI) are the 3 instruments commonly used to measure function and quality of life in pediatric orthopaedics. This study compared answers to specific questions on the CHQ, PODCI, and PEDI given by the parents of 66 children with cerebral palsy, who completed all 3 questionnaires. Both Spanish- and English-speaking subjects were included. No overlapping questions were found between the CHQ and PEDI. Of the 8 questions that overlapped between the CHQ and PODCI, 2 questions (general health and change in health) had weighted kappa greater than 0.70, with responses within +/-1 point for more than 95% of respondents. These 2 questions had almost exactly the same wording on both questionnaires. The other 6 questions had fair to poor agreement between questionnaires (kappa, 0.10-0.55). All 5 questions that were addressed by both the PODCI and PEDI also had poor agreement (kappa < 0.40). There was little correspondence between the preconceived match quality and the actual matching results (r=0.41; P=0.16). These results suggest that differences in wording have a significant and unpredictable effect on parents' responses; this should be considered when selecting from among different instruments. Of the instruments used in this study, the CHQ is the easiest to administer and is a good general quality of life measure; however, the PODCI or PEDI may be preferred if information about more specific functional activities is desired.

  5. Final Report: Wireless Instrument for Automated Measurement of Clean Cookstove Usage and Black Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukac, Martin [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramanathan, Nithya [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Graham, Eric [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from traditional cooking fires and other sources are significant anthropogenic drivers of radiative forcing. Clean cookstoves present a more energy-efficient and cleaner-burning vehicle for cooking than traditional wood-burning stoves, yet many existing cookstoves reduce emissions by only modest amounts. Further research into cookstove use, fuel types, and verification of emissions is needed as adoption rates for such stoves remain low. Accelerated innovation requires techniques for measuring and verifying such cookstove performance. The overarching goal of the proposed program was to develop a low-cost, wireless instrument to provide a high-resolution profile of the cookstove BC emissions and usage in the field. We proposed transferring the complexity of analysis away from the sampling hardware at the measurement site and to software at a centrally located server to easily analyze data from thousands of sampling instruments. We were able to build a low-cost field-based instrument that produces repeatable, low-cost estimates of cookstove usage, fuel estimates, and emission values with low variability. Emission values from our instrument were consistent with published ranges of emissions for similar stove and fuel types.

  6. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmann, V; Gillan, J; Perkins, N R; Skidmore, A L; Godden, S; Leslie, K E

    2010-08-01

    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed. The aims of this study were to evaluate both optical and digital Brix refractometer instruments for the measurement of Ig concentration of colostrum as compared with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay laboratory assessment and to determine the correlation between Ig measurements taken from fresh and frozen colostrum samples for both Brix refractometer instruments. This research was completed using 288 colostrum samples from 3 different farms. It was concluded that the optical and digital Brix refractometers were highly correlated for both fresh and frozen samples (r=0.98 and r=0.97, respectively). Correlation between both refractometer instruments for fresh and frozen samples and the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay were determined to be very similar, with a correlation coefficient between 0.71 and 0.74. Both instruments exhibited excellent test characteristics, indicating an appropriate cut-off point of 22% Brix score for the identification of good quality colostrum.

  7. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  8. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  9. Evaluation study of the suitability of instrumentation to measure ambient NH3 concentrations under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Marsailidh

    2017-04-01

    The uncertainties in emissions of ammonia (NH3) in Europe are large, partially due to the difficulty in monitoring of ambient concentrations due to its sticky nature. In the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) the current recommended guidelines to measure NH3 are by coated annular denuders with offline analysis. This method, however, is no longer used in most European countries and each one has taken a different strategy to monitor atmospheric ammonia due to the increase of commercial NH3 monitoring instrumentation available over the last 20 years. In June 2014, a 3 year project funded under the European Metrology Research Programme, "Metrology for Ammonia in Ambient Air" (MetNH3), started with the aim to develop metrological traceability for the measurement of NH3 in air from primary gas mixtures and instrumental standards to field application. This study presents the results from the field intercomparison (15 instruments) which was held in South East Scotland in August 2016 over an intensively managed grassland. The study compared active sampling methods to a meteorological traceable method which was developed during the project with the aim to produce a series of guidelines for ambient NH3 measurements. Preliminary results highlight both the importance of inlets and management of relative humidity in the measurement of ambient NH3 and of the requirement to carry out frequent intercomparison of NH3 instrumentation. Overall, it would be recommended from this study that a WMO-GAW world centre for NH3 would be established and support integration of standards into both routine and research measurements.

  10. Measurement of the earth radiation balance as an instrument design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, H W

    1977-02-01

    The net radiation balance of the earth is important globally for synoptic scale models and long-term climatic trends. It is important at the mesoscale level because it is a strong driving force on local meteorological phenomena. Both synoptic and mesoscale measurements are possible only from earth orbiting spacecraft, and serious efforts have been made to implement them. They have not achieved sufficient accuracy, precision, and stability to be really meaningful meteorologically. Measuring a small difference between two large numbers-the input to the earth and the earth radiation to space-is quite difficult and compounded by the spectral differences between the two. The instrumental considerations to achieving improvements in net radiation balance are discussed. The ratio of input to outflow, like albedo, is a dimensionless number which is amenable to measurement without recourse to calibrated instruments. If the solar constant is indeed reasonably constant, this ratio, which is more easily measured than an absolute value of either quantity, will be acceptable. Instrument stability, both spectral and absolute, as well as calibration methods and accuracy will be discussed with specific emphasis on estimating how and to what degree they can be improved.

  11. Measurement of Perceived Stress Among Pregnant Women: A Comparison of Two Different Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solivan, Amber E; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Assess the amount of agreement between the classification of stress from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Assessment of Stress portion of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) among pregnant women. A secondary data analysis on a cross-sectional study of 301 pregnant women from the New Orleans and Baton Rouge areas who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina was conducted. Women with complete data (219) were analyzed. Women scoring in the third tertile of each instrument were compared. The kappa statistic was used to assess agreement between instruments. Additional comparisons were made with three instruments that measure other important psychosocial constructs that could be related to stress: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Assessments of Support (partner and other support) and Self-Esteem from the PPP. No significant difference was found between the two tests. The PSS and the PPP were both statistically significantly correlated to each other (ρ = 0.71, p < 0.01). Thirty-five women were classified discordantly resulting in a Kappa Coefficient of 0.61 (95% CI 0.50-0.72, p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between these two instruments in correlation with the EDS (PPP, r = 0.76; PSS, r = 0.72; p < 0.01 for each), partner support (PPP, r = -0.47; PSS r = -0.46; p < 0.01 for each), other support (PPP, r = -0.31; PSS r = -0.32; p < 0.01 for each) and self-esteem (PPP, r = -0.41; PSS, r = -0.52; p < 0.01 for each), respectively. Given the similarities between the PSS and PPP, researchers are encouraged to choose and administer one instrument to participants, or to use the instruments in combination as an external reliability check.

  12. Neutron Measurement Instrumentation Development at KIT for the European ITER TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Raj, P.; Reimann, Th.; Szalkai, D.; Tian, K. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Angelone, M. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R., I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gehre, D. [Technical University of Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Fusion power reactors will rely on the internal production of the fuel tritium from lithium in the tritium breeding blanket. Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be installed in ITER with the aim to investigate the nuclear performance of different breeding blanket designs. Currently there is no fully qualified nuclear instrumentation available for the measurement of neutron fluxes and tritium production rates which would be able to withstand the harsh environment conditions in the TBM such as high temperature (>400 deg. C) and, depending on the operation scenario, intense radiation levels. As partner of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data and Measurement Techniques in the framework of several F4E specific grants and contracts, KIT and ENEA have jointly studied the possibility to develop and test detectors suitable to operate in ITER-TBMs. Here we present an overview of ongoing work on three types of neutron flux monitors under development for the TBMs with focus on the KIT activities. A neutron activation system (NAS) with pneumatic sample transport could provide absolute neutron flux measurements in selected positions. A test system for investigating activation materials with short half-lives was constructed at the DT neutron generator laboratory of Technical University of Dresden to investigate the neutronics aspects. Several irradiations have been performed with focus on the simultaneous measurement of the extracted activated probes. An engineering assessment of a TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase has been done which considered issues of design requirements and integration. Last but not least, a mechanical test bench is under construction at KIT which will address issues of driving the activation probes, solutions for loading the system etc. experimentally. Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are widely applied in fission reactor monitoring, and the commercially available SPNDs are sensitive to thermal neutrons. We are investigating novel materials for

  13. Measuring Plasma Flows in Transition Region Loops Using the MOSES Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Roy; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Bonham, Nick; Courrier, Hans

    2017-08-01

    While traditional slit spectrographs have been extremely valuable for observing coronal loops, the narrow slit of these instruments does not allow the properties and dynamic evolution of coronal loops to be measured simultaneously across their entire structure. The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a rocket-borne slitless spectrograph capable of measuring doppler shifts simultaneously over a wide field of view. On August 27, 2015, we observed AR 12403 in Ne VII (46.5 nm) at T ~ 500,000 K. We present time dependent measurements of downflow velocities for loop footpoints, with physical interpretation based on 1D modeling.

  14. Repeated Microsphere Delivery for Serial Measurement of Regional Blood Perfusion in the Chronically Instrumented, Conscious Canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Okabe, Kazunori; Akiyama, Ichiro; Coull, Brent; Godleski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For chronic, repeated hemodynamic studies in conscious dogs, we designed and tested a chronically instrumented canine, microsphere delivery model. The goals of this study were to investigate the accuracy of repeated estimations of blood perfusion using fluorescent-labeled microspheres and to develop and validate a chronic preparation that permits consecutive estimations in the same conscious animal over an extended protocol. METHODS Via thoracotomy, 9 dogs were instrumented with left atrial appendage and aortic vascular access catheters connected to subcutaneous vascular access ports (VAPs). Four animals received 7 serial injections of 1.6 million 15μm microspheres (total: 11.2 million), and five animals received 8 serial injections of 2.25 million microspheres (total: 18 million) over the course of 11 or 18 weeks. RESULTS All catheters have remained bidirectionally patent during protocol for 14.9±0.8 (Mean±SEM) weeks. Sphere accumulation did not significantly alter global myocardial (p=0.69, p=0.25), renal (p=0.92, p=0.12), hepatic (p=0.84, p=0.32), or splenic (p=0.33, p=0.70) blood perfusion in either set of animals. CONCLUSIONS Catheters remained bidirectionally patent for months, did not interfere with the hemodynamic responses of the preparation, and allowed repeat percutaneous injection of microspheres and withdrawal of reference arterial blood from within conscious canines. Eight serial injections totaling 18 million microspheres over 18 weeks did not alter regional myocardial, hepatic, renal, or splenic blood flow. This dependable, chronic, percutaneous arterial access preparation provides a means for examining acute and long-term effects of pathophysiological, pharmaceutical, and environmental influences on regional arterial blood perfusion in conscious, large animals. PMID:17632127

  15. Role of a self-report measure in athlete preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a common and cost-effective method of athlete monitoring. It is purported that ASRM be used to detect athletes at risk of overtraining, injury, or illness, allowing intervention through training modification. However, it is not known whether ASRM are actually being used for or are achieving these objectives in the applied sport setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand how ASRM are being used in elite sports and their role in athletic preparation. Semistructured interviews were conducted one-on-one with athletes, coaches, and sports science and medicine staff (n = 30) at a national sporting institute. Interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes. Twelve day-to-day and 7 longer-term practices were identified which contributed to a 4-step process of ASRM use (record data, review data, contextualize, and act). In addition to the purported uses, ASRM facilitated information disclosure and communication among athletes and staff and between staff, and improved the understanding and management of athlete preparation. These roles of ASRM are best achieved through engagement of athletes, coaches, and support staff in the systematic cyclic process.

  16. Training of Specialists in Information and Measurement Instrumentation in the Competence Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvesko Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refocusing the assessment of the results of educational process from “qualifications” to the concepts of “competence” and “competency” is important in the context for the theoretical and methodological analysis of training in the sphere of information and measurement instrumentation and technologies. The purpose of this paper is to study of the training of today’s experts in the field of Information and Measurement Technologies and Instrumentation in the competence discourse. Based on the application of the analysis and interdisciplinary approach methods, the authors concluded the integrative nature of competency-based approach in educational process. The research has revealed the key social competencies and their characteristics.

  17. Data enhancement and analysis through mathematical deconvolution of signals from scientific measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G. M.; Rayborn, G. H.; Ioup, J. W.; Ioup, G. E.; Upchurch, B. T.; Howard, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical deconvolution of digitized analog signals from scientific measuring instruments is shown to be a means of extracting important information which is otherwise hidden due to time-constant and other broadening or distortion effects caused by the experiment. Three different approaches to deconvolution and their subsequent application to recorded data from three analytical instruments are considered. To demonstrate the efficacy of deconvolution, the use of these approaches to solve the convolution integral for the gas chromatograph, magnetic mass spectrometer, and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are described. Other possible applications of these types of numerical treatment of data to yield superior results from analog signals of the physical parameters normally measured in aerospace simulation facilities are suggested and briefly discussed.

  18. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  19. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the COFFEE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma; Swanson, Andrew; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura; Hanisco, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. We will present results from flights performed over the Central Valley of California, including boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. These results will be presented in conjunction with formaldehyde. Targets in the Central Valley consist of an oil field, agricultural areas, and highways, each of which can emit HCHO primarily and generate HCHO through secondary production. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  20. Scanning instrumentation for measuring magnetic field trapping in high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.; Helton, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Computerized scanning instrumentation measures and displays trapped magnetic fields across the surface of high Tc superconductors at 77 K. Data are acquired in the form of a raster scan image utilizing stepping motor stages for positioning and a cryogenic Hall probe for magnetic field readout. Flat areas up to 45 mm in diameter are scanned with 0.5-mm resolution and displayed as false color images.

  1. Measuring Empowerment Among People With Psychotic Disorders: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Castelein, S; Gaag, van der, V.; Bruggeman, R; van Busschbach, J.T.; Wiersma, D

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study compared three instruments that are used to measure empowerment of people with psychotic disorders. The study evaluated internal consistency, discriminant and convergent validity, sensitivity to symptom levels, and clinical usefulness. Methods: Fifty patients in the Netherlands were administered the Empowerment Scale (ES), the Personal Empowerment Scale ( PES), and the Mental Health Confidence Scale (MHCS). Results: The MHCS had good internal consistency, whereas the lev...

  2. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    shown that the range of typical leadership behaviors may vary depending on the organizational level of the leader (Den Hartog et al., 1997...Den Hartog et al., 1997). Accordingly, this effort was designed to develop a full range leadership model measurement instrument that targets low- to...302 (1997). Den Hartog , Deanne N., Jaap J. Van Muijen, and Paul L. Koopman. “Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the

  3. Instruments and Methods for Measuring the Flow of Water Around Ships and Ship Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-03-01

    Showing Arrangement of Orifices Figure 2 - Cylindrical Pitot Tube tubes convenient for observation, or, in the mercury manometer , to bring the water...investigate the wake of models at high* er speeds, it became necessary to have an instrument with a greater range of measurement. A 13-tube mercury ... manometer was designed for this purpose. This iU Figure 9 - Spherical Pltot Tube and Manometer Mounted on Model Th« position of the sphere relative

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2004-10-31

    In this quarter, we have finished construction of the first field deployable multi-wavelength PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now testing the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with a turbine power generator. We are collecting data on PM emissions from the engine under different load conditions and fuel/air mixing ratios.

  5. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in women with breast cancer: a proposal for measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Flávia Nascimento de; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    2013-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) aims at standardization, but its applicability requires consistent instruments. In Brazil, invasive therapeutic approaches are frequent, leading to functional alterations. The current study thus aimed to identify and discuss instruments capable of measuring ICF core set codes for breast cancer. The review included ICF studies in women with breast cancer diagnosis and studies with the objective of translating and validating instruments for the Brazilian population, and consistent with the codes. Review studies, systematic or not, were excluded. Eight instruments were selected, and the WHOQOL-Bref was the most comprehensive. The use of various instruments showed 19 coinciding codes, and the instruments as a whole covered 58 of the total of 81 codes. The use of multiple instruments is time-consuming, so new studies are needed to propose parsimonious tools capable of measuring functioning in women treated for breast cancer.

  6. Instrumented measurement of balance and postural control in individuals with lower limb amputation: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M; Sullivan, S John; Nitz, Jennifer C

    2012-09-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks and outcome measures utilized in studies investigating static and dynamic balance using instrumented measurement devices in individuals with a LLA. A systematic search was conducted on multiple databases using keyword or subject headings appropriate to the respective database. Articles investigating static or dynamic balance in adults with LLA by means of instrumented measures were considered for the review. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. The static balance ability of individuals with an LLA has been investigated thoroughly, but their dynamic balance attributes remain relatively unexplored. Although the individual studies do provide valuable information on balance ability in the LLA, the heterogeneity in study designs and measures did not allow an overall analysis of the tasks and the outcome measures used. On the basis of these findings, this review provides an insight into the measurement of balance in amputees to inform novice researchers and clinicians working with individuals with an LLA.

  7. Self Validation of Radiance Measurements from the CERES (TRMM)Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Priestley, Kory J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight continuous months of earth-nadir-viewing radiance measurements from the 3-channel Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM,) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometric measurement instrument, have been analyzed. While previous remote sensing satellites, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) covered all subsets of the broadband radiance spectrum (total, longwave and shortwave.) CERES has two subset channels (window and shortwave) which do not give continuous frequency coverage over the total band. Previous experience with ERBE indicated the need for us to model the equivalent daytime longwave radiance using a window channel regression, which will allow us to validate the performance of the instrument using a three-channel inter-comparison. Limiting our consideration to the fixed azimuth plane, cross-track, scanning mode (FAPS), each nadir-viewing measurement was averaged into three subjective categories called daytime, nighttime, and twilight. Daytime was defined as any measurement taken when the solar zenith angle (SZA) was less than 90 ; nighttime was taken to be any measurement where the SZA was greater than 117 ; and twilight was everything else. Our analysis indicates that there are only two distinct categories of nadir-view data; daytime, and non-daytime (i.e., the union of the nighttime and twilight sets); and that the CERES longwave radiance is predictable to an accuracy of 1%, based on the SZA, and window channel measurements.

  8. Optoelectronic instrumentation enhancement using data mining feedback for a 3D measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fuentes, Wendy; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Gonzalez-Navarro, Félix F.; Rivas-López, Moisés; Hernandez-Balbuena, Daniel; Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Tyrsa, Vera; Lindner, Lars

    2016-12-01

    3D measurement by a cyber-physical system based on optoelectronic scanning instrumentation has been enhanced by outliers and regression data mining feedback. The prototype has applications in (1) industrial manufacturing systems that include: robotic machinery, embedded vision, and motion control, (2) health care systems for measurement scanning, and (3) infrastructure by providing structural health monitoring. This paper presents new research performed in data processing of a 3D measurement vision sensing database. Outliers from multivariate data have been detected and removal to improve artificial intelligence regression algorithm results. Physical measurement error regression data has been used for 3D measurements error correction. Concluding, that the joint of physical phenomena, measurement and computation is an effectiveness action for feedback loops in the control of industrial, medical and civil tasks.

  9. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Buurman, B. M.; van Munster, B.C.; Korevaar, J. C.; de Haan, R. J.; de Rooij, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 to January 2010. Articles were included if they (1) focused on acute hospitalization for medical illness in older patients; (2) described the instrument used to measure func...

  10. The Second Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments — CINDI-2 — Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apituley, Arnoud; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Kreher, Karin; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas; Friess, Udo; Participants, Cindi-2

    2017-04-01

    For the validation of space borne observations of NO2 and other trace gases from hyperspectral imagers, ground based instruments based on the MAXDOAS technique are an excellent choice, since they rely on similar retrieval techniques as the observations from orbit. In both cases, retrievals take into account the light path of scattered sunlight though the entire atmosphere. Since MAXDOAS instruments are relatively low cost and can be operated autonomously almost anywhere, they are credible candidates to form a world-wide ground based reference network for satellite observations. To ensure proper traceability of the MAXDOAS observations, a thorough intercomparison is mandatory. The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) site in centre of The Netherlands was the stage of the Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI) in June-July 2009 and again for the second campaign, CINDI-2, in 2016. Cabauw was chosen because the flat terrain offered a free view of large parts of the horizon, needed to accommodate the viewing geometry of the MAXDOAS observations. The location is under influence of both clean as well as polluted airmasses. This gives a wide range of possible trace gas concentrations and mixtures. Furthermore, at CESAR a wide range of observations are routinely carried out that fulfil the requirement to provide the background necessary for unraveling the differences between the observations from different MAXDOAS instruments that can be quite diverse in design and data treatment. These observations include parameters needed to understand the light paths, i.e. in-situ aerosol observations of optical and microphysical properties, as well as vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties by (Raman) lidar. In addition, vertical profiles of NO2 could be measured during CINDI-2 using the unique NO2 sonde, and a NO2 lidar system. With the imminent launch of Sentinel-5 Precursor/TROPOMI, with a nadir pixelsize of 3.5 × 3

  11. The impact of the use of different types of gloves and bare hands for preparation of clean surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Silva; Cruz, Áurea Silveira; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-10-10

    to determine if there are differences on the safety of the preparation of clean surgical instruments using different types of gloves and bare hands and evaluate the microbiological load of these preparations without gloves. laboratory procedure with a pragmatic approach, in which the samples were handled with different types of gloves and bare hands. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were carried out by means of the agar diffusion method. Further samples were subjected to microbiological analysis after being handled without gloves. none of the samples showed cytotoxic effect. All microbiological cultures showed growth of microorganisms, but no microorganism has been recovered after autoclaving. there were no differences in the cytotoxic responses regarding the use of different types of gloves and bare hands in the handling of clean surgical instruments, which could entail iatrogenic risk. It is noteworthy that the use of gloves involves increase in the costs of process and waste generation, and the potential allergenic risk to latex. determinar se existe diferenças na segurança do preparo de instrumentais cirúrgicos relacionada ao uso de distintos tipos de luvas e das mãos nuas no preparo, e avaliar a carga microbiológica destes preparados sem luvas. experimento laboratorial com abordagem pragmática, onde amostras foram manipuladas com diferentes tipos de luvas e com as mãos nuas, elaborado teste de citotoxicidade por meio da difusão em ágar. Outras Amostras sofreram análise microbiológica após serem manipuladas sem luvas. nenhuma das amostras apresentou efeito citotóxico. Todas as culturas microbiológicas apresentaram crescimento de microrganismos, embora nenhum microrganismo tenha sido recuperado após a autoclavação. não houve diferenças nas respostas citotóxicas relacionadas ao uso de diferentes tipos de luvas e das mãos nuas na manipulação do instrumental cirúrgico limpo que sinalizasse risco de iatrogenia. Ressalta-se que o uso de luvas

  12. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  13. Development of an instrument to measure professional attitudes in nursing students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisar, Filiz; Karadağ, Ayise; Kan, Adnan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop an instrument to determine the professional attitude of nursing students. The data were collected through a scale developed by the authors with the statements on attitude, including 8 sub-groups and 28 items. This was a Likert-type scale, ranging from 5 to 1. The sampling of the investigation comprised 1339 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Turkey. Eight factors were defined depending on the reliability and validity study of the professionalism instrument for nursing students. These factors accounted for 65.5% of the total variance. The correlation of the sub-factors in the scale ranged from 0.71 to 0.84. Cronbach alpha value was 0.90 and Cronbach alpha coefficient for sub-factors was between 0.71 and 0.84. Item test correlations calculated for the validity and the homogeneity of the instrument's items were between 0.30 and 0.63. In conclusion, it was found that the instrument was a valid and reliable assessment tool that can be used to measure professional attitudes of nursing students. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction and Validation of a Measurement Instrument for Attitudes towards Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; León-del-Barco, Benito

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork. PMID:28676775

  15. Instrumental Develovement of 50 Meters Free Style Swimming Speed Measurement Based on Microcontroller Arduino Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruzaman; Rusdiana, A.; Gilang, M. R.; Martini, T.

    2017-03-01

    This study is purposed to make a software and hardware instrument in controlling the velocity of 50 meters free style swimming speed measurement based on microcontroller Arduino Uno. The writer uses 6 participants of advanced 2015 college students of sport education. The materials he uses are electronical series of microcontroller Arduino Uno base, laser sensors shone on light dependent resistor, laser receiver functions as a detector of laser cutting block, cables as connector transfering the data. This device consist of 4 installable censors in every 10 meters with the result of swimming speed showed on the monitors using visual basic 6.0 software. This instrument automatically works when the buzzer is pushed and also runs the timer on the application. For the procedure, the writer asks the participants to swim in free style along 50 meters. When the athlete swims, they will cut the laser of every censors so that it gives a signal to stop the running timer on the monitoring application. The output result the writer gets from this used instrument is to know how fast a swimmer swim in maximum speed, to know the time and distance of acceleration and decelaration that happens. The result of validity instrument shows 0,605 (high), while the reliability is 0,833 (very high).

  16. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghuis, Sarah S; Strating, Mathilde M H; Bal, Roland A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2011-11-16

    In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a) framework development; b) instrument development; and c) field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112). Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation.Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  17. An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, James; Scanlon, Grainne; Nolan, John M; O'Dwyer, Veronica; Beatty, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Of the antioxidants found in the human retina, only the macular carotenoid quantities can be estimated noninvasively (albeit in a collective fashion), thus facilitating study of their role in that tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate concordance between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) values recorded on a commercially available instrument, the MPS 9000, with those of an already validated heterochromatic flicker photometry instrument. Also, we assessed and compared test-retest variability for each instrument. Macular pigment optical density at 0.5 retinal eccentricity was measured using two different heterochromatic flicker photometers, the MPS 9000 and the Macular Densitometer(TM), in 39 healthy subjects. Test-retest variability was evaluated separately for each instrument by taking three readings over a 1-week period in 25 subjects. There was a moderate positive correlation for MPOD at 0.5° of retinal eccentricity between the MPS 9000 and the Macular Densitometer described by the linear equation y = 0.763x + 0.172 (r = 0.68, p MPS 9000 (t = -4.103, p MPS 9000 and from 0.11 to 0.12 [mean (±SD): 0.12 (0.01)] for the Macular Densitometer. The results demonstrate that the MPS 9000 consistently yields MPOD readings, which are lower than that found with the Macular Densitometer, and exhibits substantial test-retest variability. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  18. Construction and Validation of a Measurement Instrument for Attitudes towards Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Mendo-Lázaro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork.

  19. Measurement and quantification of fluorescent changes in ocular tissue using a novel confocal instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschoen, Kim K.; Girkin, John M.; Daly, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    Our sight is a major contributor to our quality of life. The treatment of diseases like macular degeneration and glaucoma, however, presents a challenge as the delivery of medication to ocular tissue is not well understood. The instrument described here will help quantify targeted delivery by non-invasively and simultaneously measuring light reflected from and fluorescence excited in the eye, used as position marker and to track compounds respectively. The measurement concept has been proven by monitoring the diffusion of fluorescein and a pharmaceutical compound for treating open angle glaucoma in vitro in a cuvette and in ex vivo porcine eyes. To obtain a baseline of natural fluorescence we measured the change in corneal and crystalline lens autofluorescence in volunteers over a week. We furthermore present data on 3D ocular autofluorescence. Our results demonstrate the capability to measure the location and concentration of the compound of interest with high axial and temporal resolution of 178 μm and 0.6 s respectively. The current detection limit is 2 nM for fluorescein, and compounds with a quantum yield as low as 0.01 were measured to concentrations below 1 μM. The instrument has many applications in assessing the diffusion of fluorescent compounds through the eye and skin in vitro and in vivo, measuring autofluorescence of ocular tissues and reducing the number of animals needed for research. The instrument has the capability of being used both in the clinical and home care environment opening up the possibility of measuring controlled drug release in a patient friendly manner.

  20. Construct distinctiveness and variance composition of multi-dimensional instruments: Three short-form masculinity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2015-07-01

    Focusing on a set of 3 multidimensional measures of conceptually related but different aspects of masculinity, we use factor analytic techniques to address 2 issues: (a) whether psychological constructs that are theoretically distinct but require fairly subtle discriminations by survey respondents can be accurately captured by self-report measures, and (b) how to better understand sources of variance in subscale and total scores developed from such measures. The specific measures investigated were the: (a) Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF); (b) Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46); and (c) Gender Role Conflict Scale-Short Form (GRCS-SF). Data (N = 444) were from community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. EFA results demonstrated the discriminant validity of the 20 subscales comprising the 3 instruments, thus indicating that relatively subtle distinctions between norms, conformity, and conflict can be captured with self-report measures. CFA was used to compare 2 different methods of modeling a broad/general factor for each of the 3 instruments. For the CMNI-46 and MRNI-SF, a bifactor model fit the data significantly better than did a hierarchical factor model. In contrast, the hierarchical model fit better for the GRCS-SF. The discussion addresses implications of these specific findings for use of the measures in research studies, as well as broader implications for measurement development and assessment in other research domains of counseling psychology which also rely on multidimensional self-report instruments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cabanillas; Manuel Monterde; Antonio Pallarés; Susana Aranda; Raquel Montes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after inst...

  2. An instrument to measure engagement in life: factor analysis and associations with sociodemographic, health and cognition measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that active engagement with life may protect against cognitive decline. However, existing instruments for measuring life engagement have covered limited domains. To present a new instrument to measure engagement with life; the RIASEC Activities List draws on activities categorised according to interest categories previously developed by Holland: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional (RIASEC). Participants in a longitudinal, community-based survey were drawn from 3 age groups: 2,404 participants aged 20-24; 2,530 aged 40-44, and 2,551 aged 60-64 years. They provided information on which of 54 selected activities they had performed in the 6 months prior to their survey interview. Other information obtained from participants included measures of sociodemographic characteristics, personality attributes and mental and physical health. Two measures of cognition were also examined. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women in each of the 3 age groups. Confirmatory factor analyses identified six scales of activity types corresponding to Holland's six interest categories. The number of activities of any type undertaken in the past 6 months was significantly associated with cognitive measures, better physical health, and better mental health although these findings varied for men and women across the 3 age groups. Further, for both men and women in all age groups, performing activities of any type was associated with having higher extraversion and mastery scores, and lower levels of neuroticism. Associations were also found between performing specific types of activities and cognitive measures. This instrument has the potential to identify more clearly types of activities that may offer cognitive benefits and warrants further testing in longitudinal studies.

  3. Measuring social exclusion in routine public health surveys: construction of a multidimensional instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addi P L van Bergen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Social exclusion is considered a major factor in the causation and maintenance of health inequalities, but its measurement in health research is still in its infancy. In the Netherlands the Institute for Social Research (SCP developed an instrument to measure the multidimensional concept of social exclusion in social and economic policy research. Here, we present a method to construct a similar measure of social exclusion using available data from public health surveys. METHODS: Analyses were performed on data from the health questionnaires that were completed by 20,877 adults in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. From each of the four questionnaires we selected the items that corresponded to those of the SCP-instrument. These were entered into a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. The measurement properties of the resulting indices and dimension scales were assessed and compared to the SCP-instrument. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the indices and most of the dimension scales were adequate and the internal structure of the indices was as expected. Both generalisabiliy and construct validity were good: in all datasets strong associations were found between the index and a number of known risk factors of social exclusion. A limitation of content validity was that the dimension "lack of normative integration" could not be measured, because no relevant items were available. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a measure for social exclusion can be constructed with available health questionnaires. This provides opportunities for application in public health surveillance systems in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the world.

  4. Design and Testing of an Assessment Instrument to Measure Understanding of Protein Structure and Enzyme Inhibition in a New Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Sachel M.; Heyen, Bruce J.; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Assessment instruments designed to measure student conceptual understanding and skills proficiency related to biochemistry are important to transform undergraduate biochemistry education. The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment instrument to measure student understanding of protein structure and enzyme inhibition in a new context,…

  5. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  6. Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volten, H.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Haaima, M.; Lolkema, D.E.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Hoff, G.R.; Potma, C.J.M.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Pul, van W.A.J.; Swart, D.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present two Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments built at RIVM: the RIVM DOAS and the miniDOAS. Both instruments provide virtually interference-free measurements of NH3 concentrations in the atmosphere, since they measure over an open path, without suffering from inlet

  7. Cryogenic instrumentation for fast current measurement in a silicon single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    2009-08-01

    We present a realization of high bandwidth instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures and for dilution refrigerator operation that possesses advantages over methods using radio frequency single electron transistor or transimpedance amplifiers. The ability for the low temperature electronics to carry out faster measurements than with room temperature electronics is investigated by the use of a phosphorous-doped single electron transistor. A single shot technique is successfully implemented and used to observe the real-time decay of a quantum state. A discussion on various measurement strategies is presented and the consequences on electron heating and noise are analyzed.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of signal deconvolution using a measured instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartouni, E. P.; Beeman, B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Moore, A. S.; Munro, D. H.; Phillips, T.; Sayre, D. B.

    2016-11-01

    A common analysis procedure minimizes the ln-likelihood that a set of experimental observables matches a parameterized model of the observation. The model includes a description of the underlying physical process as well as the instrument response function (IRF). In the case investigated here, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers, the IRF is constructed from measurements and models. IRF measurements have a finite precision that can make significant contributions to determine the uncertainty estimate of the physical model's parameters. We apply a Bayesian analysis to properly account for IRF uncertainties in calculating the ln-likelihood function used to find the optimum physical parameters.

  9. A CAD-based inspection planning strategy for video measuring instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-sheng; SHI Yan-qiong; XIA Rui-xue; CHEN Lin

    2012-01-01

    A CAD-based inspection planning strategy for video measuring instrument is proposed to improve manufacturing effec- tiveness. The system consists of a video probe that enables itself to inspect a work piece based on a CAD model. The measurement software includes CAIP module and MDP module. The CAIP module is developed based on a CAD development platform whose kernel is the Open CASCADE. The entire system was tested, and relevant examples show that the system can accomplish automatic inspection planning task for common parts efficiently.

  10. Instrumentation for measuring direct and diffuse insolation in testing thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, K A

    1976-01-01

    The efficiencies of thermal collectors are traditionally expressed with respect to the total (direct beam plus diffuse) insolation at the collector plane. Evaluation of the performance of concentrating collectors, however, requires, in addition, a knowledge of the insolation which is within the angular field of view of the collector. The use of pyranometers to measure the total insolation as well as the insolation within specified angular fields of view, together with a normal incidence pyrheliometer to measure the direct beam component, is described. The instrument calibration procedure is discussed, and several data are presented.

  11. Histopathological Study of Periapical Inflammation Following Preparation of the Root Canal with Conventional and Profile Rotary Instrumentation in Teeth of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bidar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Various factors are involved in causing inflammation following root canal treatment. Controlling these factors may relieve the related pain. One of these factors is extrusion of debris beyond the apex. Although debris extrusion happens in all instrumentation techniques, researchers have declared that in coronal flaring technique,there is minimum debris extrusion.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inflammation of periapical area following root canal therapy, using conventional and profile rotary instrumentation in cats' teeth, from a histopathological point of view.Materials and Methods: This experimental study conducted on thirty Persian one year old cats. Three groups of samples were chosen and treated with different methods. First group were prepared by step-back instrumentation technique using stainless steel Ktypefiles. Second group were prepared by crown down technique using Ni-Ti files.Third group were prepared using profile GT rotary system at 150-rpm speed. Animals were subjected to vital perfusion at 8, 24 & 48 hour intervals after instrumentation. The canine teeth were separated from the jaw along with some of the supporting structures.Then decalcification and laboratory processing were carried out and samples were evaluated histologically. Collected data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: The results showed that in vital teeth with no evidence of periapical pathosis,the inflammation following various instrumentation methods was not statistically different.Conclusion: In vital teeth, the periapical inflammation following various methods of instrumentation is not statistically different.

  12. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  13. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  14. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  15. Measuring spirituality in South Africa: Validation of instruments developed in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Freda; de Klerk, Jeremias J

    2014-06-01

    Spirituality is receiving increased attention in the context of the workplace. Research consistently shows that spirituality is significantly correlated with mental health and well-being. Most of the research on spirituality, particularly in the context of the workplace, is conducted with instruments developed in the USA. However, the inter-cultural measurement of constructs remains a concern, because instruments developed in one culture are not necessarily transferable to another culture. In the current study, the transferability of two spiritual measures developed in the USA, namely the Human Spirituality Scale (HSS) and the Organizational Spirituality Values Scale (OSVS) are considered for a sample from South Africa. The results confirm the construct validity of the HSS and the OSVS, but indicate that the factor structures of the HSS and the OSVS should be analysed and reconfirmed when used, particularly in a South African sample. The study provides evidence that the HSS and the OSVS cannot be transferred indiscriminately to a South African sample. This insight contributes to the quality of future research studies in South Africa, not only on the important aspect of spirituality, but also when applying instruments developed elsewhere in the world.

  16. An instrument to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on large vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Alaor Faria; de O Nascimento, Francisco Assis; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira; dos Santos, Icaro

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. During radiofrequency hepatic ablation, the tumor is heated by means of radiofrequency energy. The heating causes necrosis of the malignant tumor. Thus, if the procedure is successful it can cure the patient. Studies have shown that recurrences occur after the treatment and these recurrences frequently take place next to the hepatic artery and portal vein. The recurrences occur due to the high convective loss on these vessels. This work proposed, developed and tested an instrument for the measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient (h) in large vessels. Moreover, this work developed a mechanical simulator and validated an equation developed by Consiglieri et al, which analytically determines the value of h. The instrument was tested using a mechanical simulator that reproduces the flow conditions and the geometry of large vessels in the liver. A flow velocity of 0.2 m/s was simulated in order to mock the typical flow at the portal vein. The average value of h using the experimental apparatus was 2130+/-40 W.m(-2).K(-1) (mean+/-SD). The results showed that the error of the proposed method is approximately 22%. This work showed that the instrument can be used for measuring h in vitro and that the Consiglieri's equation can be used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient on large vessels.

  17. Development and deployment of an instrument for measurement of atmospheric peroxy radical by chemical amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoQian; QI Bin; ZENG LiMin; TANG XiaoYan

    2009-01-01

    An instrument for measurement of peroxy radical by chemical amplification (PERCA) has been developed at Peking University (PKU) and deployed in several field campaigns.PKU PERCA measures peroxy radical via amplification of NO2 by peroxy radical in the presence of NO and CO through a chain reaction.The amount of amplified NO2 is detected by a NO2-luminal chemiluminescence detector.The chain length (CL) of 75±20 (1 σ) was determined routinely during field campaigns using a HO2 source from photolysis of water vapor at 185 nm in alr.The detection limit for peroxy radical measurement was (1-5)×10-12 (volume ratio) with integration time of 1 min,mainly relying on the variation of the ambient O3 and NO2.The systematic uncertainty in the measurement of peroxy radical was estimated to be ±60%.The effect of water vapor on PKU PERCA was observed and determined in the laboratory.The measurements of peroxy radical during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2006 (PRIDE-PRD2006) campaign are presented to show the performance of the PERCA instrument and the behavior of the observed peroxy radical is discussed briefly.

  18. An instrumentation amplifier as a front-end for a four-electrode bioimpedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, T; Krizaj, D

    2007-08-01

    The performance of a monolithic instrumentation amplifier used as an interface for a four-electrode bioimpedance measurement is examined with a commercially available impedance meter based on an auto-balancing bridge. The errors due to particularities in the input stage of the impedance meter, when used without a front-end, were several orders of magnitude higher than the measured quantity. The analysis was performed on an electrical circuit model of the skin and electrodes over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The achieved accuracy with balanced electrode impedances for the frequencies up to 100 kHz can be below 0.2% for impedance magnitude and 0.1 degrees for impedance phase, which is within the specified basic accuracy range of the LCR-meter used for the measurements. At frequencies above 100 kHz the errors are increasing and are higher than the LCR-meter's basic accuracy. This study indicates that use of an instrumentation amplifier as a front-end with the particular LCR-meter can significantly improve the measurement accuracy of the four-electrode bioimpedance measurement at low frequencies.

  19. ELABORATING A MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT FOR THE FLOW EXPERIENCE DURING ONLINE INFORMATION SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraivan Luiza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow is a construct imported in marketing research from social sciences in order to examine consumer behavior in the online medium. The construct describes a state of deep involvement in a challenging activity, most frequently characterized by high levels of enjoyment, control and concentration. Researchers found that the degree to which online experience is challenging can be defined, measured, and related well to important marketing variables. As shown by our extensive literature review, flow measurements include antecedents, dimensions and consequences of flow. The present paper represents a detailed description of the construct`s operationalization in the context of online information search. In this respect, our main goal is to produce a basic instrument to evaluate the flow experience of online search, in order to capitalize on the premises of an interactive, complex informational medium – the World Wide Web – and on the consequence of an exploratory informational behavior of users. The instrument is conceived to offer a primal possibility to collect data. The composition, source and significance of the 11 scales used to measure the multiple factors of the flow experience during online search are detailed in this study with the aim to ensure the compliance with scientific rigors and to facilitate correct reports of data related to the reliability and validity of measurements. For further research, we propose factor analysis to test the resulted instrument and to ensure that the measures employed are psychometrically sound. Factor analysis refers to a wide range of statistic techniques used to represent a set of variables in concordance with a reduced number of hypothetical variables called factors. Factorial analysis is used to solve two types of problems: reducing the number of variables to increase data processing speed and identifying hidden patterns in the existent data relations. However, we expect our scales to perform

  20. Recent Beam Measurements and New Instrumentation at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannibale, F.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Chin, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Jaegerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.; Julian, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Low, R.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC; Weber, J.; Zolotorev, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-11

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  1. The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

  2. Light Isotope Abundances in Solar Energetic Particles Measured by the NINA-2 Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. V.; Bakaldin, A.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Korotkov, M.; Leonov, A.; Mikhaylova, J.; Voronov, S.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M.; Furano, G.; Iannucci, A.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Adriani, O.; Papini, P.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Ricci, M.; Castellini, G.

    2003-07-01

    The instrument NINA-2 flew on board the satellite MITA between July 2000 and August 2001, in circular polar orbit. This paper reports about a set of Solar Energetic Particle events measured by the NINA-2 instrument. The detector has mass resolution of about 0.15 amu for light nuclei and gives the possibility to observe hydrogen and helium isotop es in the energy range 10-50 MeV/n. Data of 3 He and 4 He were used to determine the 3 He/4 He ratio. For each event the deuterium-to-proton ratio was also estimated. This ratio, averaged over all events, is less than 3×10-5 .

  3. The Difficult Patient Stress Scale: a new instrument to measure interpersonal stress in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, N

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Difficult Patient Stress Scale, an instrument designed to investigate the stress that nurses experience when they are involved in interpersonal conflict with patients. The DPSS is based on the theoretical conceptualization of stress proposed by DeLongis, Lazarus and Folkman and on the personality theory of Individual Psychology. The DPSS utilises visual analog scales to measure nurses' responses to hypothetical scenarios that present typical, difficult nurse-patient situations. The DPSS has been tested over a period of two years with 228 nurses and the results to date indicate that it is valid, reliable and suitable for use in the clinical environment. It is proposed that it may provide a useful instrument for exploring the impact and frequency of interpersonal stressors in nursing and may assist in the development of educational programs to better equip nurses to deal with interpersonal nurse-patient conflict.

  4. An instrument to measure passenger satisfaction of a public transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Leite Dias de Mattos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an instrument, based on fuzzy logic, to measure the satisfaction with the public transport. It is based on previous studies, expert opinion and results of two surveys conducted among the data samples of the studied population: a university community. Qualitative techniques (questionaries and interviews were used for validating content, while the construct validation uses quantitative techniques (Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis. An experiment is also performed to define some properties of fuzzy controllers: membership function and method of defuzzification. The final instrument consists of twenty items in four dimensions, namely: service, stops/terminals, vehicle and safety. It is considered valid and reliable by the present study. It can be used as a tool to understand the satisfaction of the passengers of public transport system investigated. It can also provide subsidies for managers to improve their work quality.

  5. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  6. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended.

  7. Measurements of the gas emission from Holuhraun volcanic fissure eruption on Iceland, using Scanning DOAS instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Bo; Pfeffer, Melissa; Arellano, Santiago; Bergsson, Baldur; Conde, Vladimir; Barsotti, Sara; Stefansdottir, Gerdur; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Bergsson, Bergur; Weber, Konradin

    2016-04-01

    On 31 August 2014 a volcanic fissure eruption started at Holuhraun on Iceland. The eruption lasted for 6 months and was by far the strongest source of sulfur dioxide in Europe over the last 230 years, with sustained emission rates exceeding 100 000 ton/day. This gas emission severely affected people within Iceland. Under the scope of the EU-project FUTUREVOLC, a project with 3.5 years duration, aiming at making Iceland a supersite for volcanological research as a European contribution to GEO, a version of the Scanning DOAS instrument that is adapted to high latitudes with low UV radiation and severe meteorological conditions was developed. Since the first day of the eruption several of these novel instruments were monitoring the SO2 emission from the eruption. A lot of work was needed to sustain this operation during the winter at a very remote site and under severe field conditions. At the same time the very high concentrations in the gas plume, in combination with bad meteorological conditions has required the development of novel methods to derive reliable flux estimates. A simple approach to make a first order correction for atmospheric scattering has been applied, as well as filtering of the dataset to remove the data most affected by scattering. Substantial work has also been made to obtain realistic information on plume height and wind speed. The data from these instruments are the only sustained ground-based measurements of this important gas emission event. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumental issues and evaluation procedures and present the latest version of the emission estimates made from our measurements.

  8. Validating The ISO 9000 Construct of Measurement Instrument Through Application of RASCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaizah Saad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches conducted on the issues related to ISO 9001 quality management system. Among the issue is the impact of the ISO 9001 quality management system implementation on the performance of the organization. However the findings from the research appeared as inconclusive. Few literature suggest that the inconclusive result may due to the level of ISO 9000 implementation therefore further research is required. Generally the data collected for these types of researches are through mailed questionnaires and analyzed it using SPSS and SEM. In line with that this study also developed questionnaires correspond to a 5 point Likert to assess the implementation of ISO 9000 in the organization. As a result 231 items are identified within five dimensions. The five dimensions are derived from ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 quality management standards requirement and guidelines. Among the dimensions are management responsibility, resource management, product realization, measurement improvement and innovation and organizational performance. The questionnaires are sent to 78 automotive based companies located in the Northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. 19 questionnaires were returned and used as pilot test to validate and calibrate the instrument. The responds from the organization are tabulated and run in WinSteps software for the purpose of validating and calibrating the instrument by implementing the Rasch ‘quality control’ and reduction of items. Not all the outfit items are removed from the instruments, Rasch Model did provide room for the researcher to make decision either to remove or not those outfit items. In this study those outfit items need to be corrected in order to ensure that the instrument is reliable and fit to measure the performance of the organization. As a result 68 items are removed from the questionnaires.Keyword: rasch model, ISO 9001, quality control and items reduction.

  9. Fluxes of atmospheric methane using novel instruments, field measurements, and inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Gregory Winn

    The atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) -- the most significant non-CO2 anthropogenic long-lived greenhouse gas -- stabilized between 1999 and 2006 and then began to rise again. Explanations for this behavior differ but studies agree that more measurements and better modeling are needed to reliably explain the model-data discrepancies and predict future change. This dissertation focuses on measurements of CH4 and inverse modeling of atmospheric CH4 fluxes using field measurements at a variety of spatial scales. We first present a new fast-response instrument to measure the isotopic composition of CH4 in ambient air. The instrument was used to characterize mass fluxes and isofluxes (a isotopically-weighted mass flux) from a well-studied research fen in New Hampshire. Eddycovariance and automatic chamber techniques produced consistent estimates of both the CH4 fluxes and their isotopic composition at sub-hourly resolution. We then characterize fluxes of CH4 from aircraft engines using measurements made with the same instrument during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), a study that aimed to determine the atmospheric impacts of alternative fuel use in the growing aviation industry. Emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from different synthetic fuels were statistically indistinguishable from those of the widely used JP-8 jet fuel. We then present airborne observations of the long-lived greenhouse gas suite -- CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO -- during two aircraft campaigns, HIPPO and CalNex, made using a similar instrument built specifically for the NCAR HIAPER GV aircraft. These measurements are compared to data from other onboard sensors and show excellent agreement. We discuss the details of the end-to-end calibration procedures and the data quality-assurance and qualitycontrol (QA/QC). Lastly, we quantify a top-down estimate of California's CH4 emission inventory using the CalNex CH4 observations. Observed CH4 enhancements above background concentrations are

  10. Trace Gas Measurements from the GeoTASO and GCAS Airborne Instruments: An Instrument and Algorithm Test-Bed for Air Quality Observations from Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Janz, S. J.; Leitch, J. W.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Chance, K.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Good, W. S.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C.; Pickering, K. E.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Szykman, J.; Valin, L.; Zoogman, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) and the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) instruments are pushbroom sensors capable of making remote sensing measurements of air quality and ocean color. Originally developed as test-bed instruments for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey, these instruments are now also part of risk reduction for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions, and will provide validation capabilities after the satellite instruments are in orbit. GeoTASO and GCAS flew on two different aircraft in their first intensive air quality field campaigns during the DISCOVER-AQ missions over Texas in 2013 and Colorado in 2014. GeoTASO was also deployed in 2016 during the KORUS-AQ field campaign to make measurements of trace gases and aerosols over Korea. GeoTASO and GCAS collect spectra of backscattered solar radiation in the UV and visible that can be used to derive 2-D maps of trace gas columns below the aircraft at spatial resolutions on the order of 250 x 500 m. We present spatially resolved maps of trace gas retrievals of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide over urban areas and power plants from flights during the field campaigns, and comparisons with data from ground-based spectrometers, in situ monitoring instruments, and satellites.

  11. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  12. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for measurement of ultrasonic velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Kushnick, Peter W.

    1991-10-01

    A new instrument based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) concept has been developed to accurately measure the ultrasonic wave velocity in liquids and changes in ultrasonic wave velocity in solids and liquids. An analysis of the system shows that it is immune to many of the frequency-dependent effects that plague other techniques. Measurements of the sound velocity in ultrapure water are used to confirm the analysis. The results are in excellent agreement with values from the literature, and establish that the CFPPLL provides a reliable, accurate way to measure velocities, as well as for monitoring small changes in velocity without the sensitivity to frequency-dependent phase shifts common to other measurement systems. The estimated sensitivity to phase changes is better than a few parts in 10 to the 7th.

  13. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Loss and Tune Measurements (3/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  14. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Position and Intensity Measurements (1/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  15. Vertical force and torque analysis during mechanical preparation of extracted teeth using hand ProTaper instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavičić, Snježana; Anić, Ivica; Braut, Alen; Miletić, Ivana; Borčić, Josipa

    2011-08-01

    The purpose was to measure and analyse the vertical force and torque developed in the wider and narrower root canals during hand ProTaper instrumentation. Twenty human incisors were divided in two groups. Upper incisors were experimental model for the wide, while the lower incisors for the narrow root canals. Measurements of the force and torque were done by a device constructed for this purpose. Differences between the groups were statistically analysed by Mann-Whitney U-test with the significance level set to Ptorque in the upper incisors ranged 0.53-12.03 Nmm, while in the lower incisor ranged 0.94-10.0 Nmm. Vertical force and torque were higher in the root canals of smaller diameter. The increase in the contact surface results in increase of the vertical force and torque as well in both narrower and wider root canals.

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  17. Development and deployment of an instrument for measurement of atmospheric peroxy radical by chemical amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An instrument for measurement of peroxy radical by chemical amplification (PERCA) has been devel- oped at Peking University (PKU) and deployed in several field campaigns. PKU PERCA measures per- oxy radical via amplification of NO2 by peroxy radical in the presence of NO and CO through a chain reaction. The amount of amplified NO2 is detected by a NO2-luminal chemiluminescence detector. The chain length (CL) of 75±20 (1σ ) was determined routinely during field campaigns using a HO2 source from photolysis of water vapor at 185 nm in air. The detection limit for peroxy radical measurement was (1-5)×10?12 (volume ratio) with integration time of 1 min, mainly relying on the variation of the ambient O3 and NO2. The systematic uncertainty in the measurement of peroxy radical was estimated to be ±60%. The effect of water vapor on PKU PERCA was observed and determined in the laboratory. The meas- urements of peroxy radical during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2006 (PRIDE-PRD2006) campaign are presented to show the performance of the PERCA instrument and the behavior of the observed peroxy radical is discussed briefly.

  18. The FIELDS Instrument Suite on MMS: Scientific Objectives, Measurements, and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; LeContel, O.; Vaith, H.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Rau, D.; Needell, J.; King, B.; Granoff, M.; Chutter, M.; Dors, I.; Olsson, G.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Eriksson, A.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S.; Anderson, B.; Baumjohann, W.; Steller, M.; Bromund, K.; Le, Guan; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Tucker, S.; Westfall, J.; Fischer, D.; Plaschke, F.; Porter, J.; Lappalainen, K.

    2016-03-01

    The FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission provides comprehensive measurements of the full vector magnetic and electric fields in the reconnection regions investigated by MMS, including the dayside magnetopause and the night-side magnetotail acceleration regions out to 25 Re. Six sensors on each of the four MMS spacecraft provide overlapping measurements of these fields with sensitive cross-calibrations both before and after launch. The FIELDS magnetic sensors consist of redundant flux-gate magnetometers (AFG and DFG) over the frequency range from DC to 64 Hz, a search coil magnetometer (SCM) providing AC measurements over the full whistler mode spectrum expected to be seen on MMS, and an Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) that calibrates offsets for the magnetometers. The FIELDS three-axis electric field measurements are provided by two sets of biased double-probe sensors (SDP and ADP) operating in a highly symmetric spacecraft environment to reduce significantly electrostatic errors. These sensors are complemented with the EDI electric measurements that are free from all local spacecraft perturbations. Cross-calibrated vector electric field measurements are thus produced from DC to 100 kHz, well beyond the upper hybrid resonance whose frequency provides an accurate determination of the local electron density. Due to its very large geometric factor, EDI also provides very high time resolution (˜1 ms) ambient electron flux measurements at a few selected energies near 1 keV. This paper provides an overview of the FIELDS suite, its science objectives and measurement requirements, and its performance as verified in calibration and cross-calibration procedures that result in anticipated errors less than 0.1 nT in B and 0.5 mV/m in E. Summaries of data products that result from FIELDS are also described, as well as algorithms for cross-calibration. Details of the design and performance characteristics of AFG/DFG, SCM, ADP, SDP, and EDI

  19. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27 September 2007. ISMTII 2007 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE, Technical Committee of Intelligent Measurement with Nanoscale), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and Tohoku University. The conference was also supported by Center for Precision Metrology of UNC Charlotte and Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology. A total of 220 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2007, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nano-metrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The guest editors recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2007 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. The first two papers were presented in ISMTII 2007 as keynote papers. Takamasu et al from The University of Tokyo report uncertainty estimation for coordinate metrology, in which methods of estimating uncertainties using the coordinate measuring system after calibration are formulated. Haitjema, from Mitutoyo Research Center Europe, treats the most often used interferometric measurement techniques (displacement interferometry and surface interferometry) and their major sources of errors. Among

  20. The Thirty Gigahertz Instrument Receiver for the QUIJOTE Experiment: Preliminary Polarization Measurements and Systematic-Error Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Francisco J; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo

    2015-08-05

    This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process.

  1. The clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments for measuring chronic ankle instability: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asman Sara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of outcomes from the patient's perspective becomes more recognized in health care. Also in patients with chronic ankle instability, the degree of present impairments, disabilities and participation problems should be documented from the perspective of the patient. The decision about which patient-assessed instrument is most appropriate for clinical practice should be based upon systematic reviews. Only rating scales constructed for patients with acute ligament injuries were systematically reviewed in the past. The aim of this study was to review systematically the clinimetric qualities of patient-assessed instruments designed for patients with chronic ankle instability. Methods A computerized literature search of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register was performed to identify eligible instruments. Two reviewers independently evaluated the clinimetric qualities of the selected instruments using a criteria list. The inter-observer reliability of both the selection procedure and the clinimetric evaluation was calculated using modified kappa coefficients. Results The inter-observer reliability of the selection procedure was excellent (k = .86. Four instruments met the eligibility criteria: the Ankle Joint Functional Assessment Tool (AJFAT, the Functional Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS, the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI and the Functional Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM. The inter-observer reliability of the quality assessment was substantial to excellent (k between .64 and .88. Test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the FAOS, the FADI and the FAAM but not for the AJFAT. The FAOS and the FAAM met the criteria for content validity and construct validity. For none of the studied instruments, the internal consistency was sufficiently demonstrated. The presence of floor- and ceiling effects was assessed for the FAOS but ceiling effects were present for all

  2. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  3. The development of an instrument to measure factors that influence self-perceived dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlug, Mariska G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2011-05-01

    Preserving dignity can be considered as a goal of palliative care. To provide dignity-conserving care, it is relevant to identify the factors that influence a patient's self-perceived dignity. This study aims to develop an instrument to measure factors affecting self-perceived dignity that has good content validity and is appropriate for use in practice. Data were collected in the Advance Directives Cohort Study. In 2008, the cohort received a questionnaire with 31 items that might influence one's self-perceived dignity. For a subsample of people with poor health (n = 292), we analyzed which items could be removed because of the mean scores for presence of the item and its influence on dignity. The 31 items fell into four domains: evaluation of self in relation to others, functional status, mental state, and care and situational aspects. Mean scores for presence and influence on dignity showed large differences and were not correlated. Six items were scarcely present and did not substantially affect self-perceived dignity. Because three of these were expected to influence dignity in other settings, only three items could be removed and two items could be combined into one. After calculating correlations between conceptually similar items, one extra item could be removed. Reducing the instrument to 26 items and dichotomizing the answer option for presence increases its feasibility for use in practice. The instrument offers an important step to better understanding the phenomenon of self-perceived dignity by gaining information directly from patients.

  4. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has been expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  5. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaghuis Sarah S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a framework development; b instrument development; and c field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112. Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  6. Development of an instrument to measure deliberate practice in professional nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathish, Melissa; Aebersold, Michelle; Fogg, Louis; Potempa, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the development of the Deliberate Practice in Nursing Questionnaire (DPNQ) and the reliability and validity characteristics of the instrument. A cross-sectional, descriptive study assessed the DPNQ in a sample of critical care registered nurses (RN). It was conducted at one large Midwestern teaching hospital. A medical intensive care unit (ICU), a surgical ICU, and a trauma/burn ICU participated. Instrument construction involved item development based on a literature review, an existing deliberate practice questionnaire and existing parameters of deliberate practice in nursing. Content reliability and validity were established by expert panel review and survey testing. Probit analysis of survey data was used to develop a composite score for the DPNQ. Expert panel review revealed an inter-rater agreement (80% reliability) of .92-.96 and a content validity index of 0.94. The final DPNQ consists of 24 items with six subcategories and a composite score of 96. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the DPNQ in this study was .660 (standardized, .703). The instrument was further validated with the Nurse Competence Scale. Deliberate practice was significantly, positively correlated with competence (rs=.366, p=001). Findings from the expert panel provided guidance for development and revision of the DPNQ. Survey testing of the instrument revealed a promising measure of deliberate practice with good reliability and validity characteristics. Identification of a relationship between deliberate practice and competence confirms existing evidence in other domains, providing further validation. Understanding deliberate practice provides a unique way to examine nursing expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  8. Mindfulness: A systematic review of instruments to measure an emergent patientreported outcome (PRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehwan; Reilly-Spong, Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mindfulness has emerged as an important health concept based on evidence that mindfulness interventions reduce symptoms and improve health-related quality of life. The objectives of this study were to systematically assess and compare the properties of instruments to measure self-reported mindfulness. Methods Ovid Medline®, CINAHL®, and PsycINFO® were searched through May 2012, and articles were selected if their primary purpose was development or evaluation of the measurement properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness) of a self-report mindfulness scale. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the selected studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Discrepancies were discussed with a third reviewer, and scored by consensus. Finally, a level of evidence approach was used to synthesize results and study quality. Results Our search strategy identified a total of 2,588 articles. Forty-six articles, reporting 79 unique studies, met inclusion criteria. Ten instruments quantifying mindfulness as a unidimensional scale (n=5) or as a set of 2 to 5 subscales (n=5) were reviewed. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was evaluated by the most studies (n=27), and had positive overall quality ratings for most of the psychometric properties reviewed. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) received the highest possible rating (“consistent findings in multiple studies of good methodological quality”) for two properties, internal consistency and construct validation by hypothesis testing. However, none of the instruments had sufficient evidence of content validity. Comprehensiveness of construct coverage had not been assessed; qualitative methods to confirm understanding and relevance were absent. In addition, estimates of test-retest reliability, responsiveness, or measurement error to guide users in protocol development or

  9. The principle of measuring unusual change of underground mass by optical astrometric instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiancheng

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we estimate the deflection angle of the plumb line on a ground site, and give a relation between the angle, abnormal mass and site distance (depth and horizontal distance. Then we derive the abnormality of underground material density using the plumb lines measured at different sites, and study the earthquake gestation, development and occurrence. Using the deflection angles of plumb lines observed at two sites, we give a method to calculate the mass and the center of gravity of underground materials. We also estimate the abnormal masses of latent seismic zones with different energy, using thermodynamic relations, and introduce a new optical astrometric instrument we had developed.

  10. Development and testing of a survey instrument to measure benefits of a nursing information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrbo, Amany A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Hudak, Christine A; Anthony, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Information systems (IS) benefits for nurses are outcomes related to the tangible products or improvements that nurses realize from using IS. This study examined the development and psychometric testing of a measure of nurses' benefits from IS. A random sample of 570 nurses working in hospitals, providing direct patient care, and using IS completed the study questionnaire. The internal consistency reliability of the results was .97. Exploratory factor analysis, using principal components extraction and varimax rotation, revealed items loaded on four factors (saving time and efficiency, quality of care, charting, and professional practice) that were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Continued refinement of the instrument is needed with more diverse samples of nurses.

  11. Multisensor Data Fusion for High Quality Data Analysis and Processing in Measurement and Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo Huang; Yu-bin Lan; W.C.Hoffmann; R.E.Lacey

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion(MDF)is an emerging technology to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection.Applications of MDF cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas.With the rapid evolution of computers and the proliferation of micro-mechanical/electrical systems sensors,the utilization of MDF is being popularized in research and applications.This paper focuses on application of MDF for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation.A practical,general data fusion scheme was established on the basis of feature extraction and merge of data from multiple sensors.This scheme integrates artificial neural networks for high performance pattern recognition.A number of successful applications in areas of NDI(Non-Destructive Inspection)corrosion detection,food quality and safety characterization,and precision agriculture are described and discussed in order to motivate new applications in these or other areas.This paper gives an overall picture of using the MDF method to increase the accuracy of data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation in different areas of applications.

  12. Combined wind measurements by two different lidar instruments in the Arctic middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hildebrand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During a joint campaign in January 2009 the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR lidar and the sodium lidar at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E in Northern Norway were operated simultaneously for more than 40 h, collecting data for wind measurements in the middle atmosphere from 30 up to 110 km altitude. At the upper (lower altitude range where the RMR (sodium lidar can operate, both lidars probe the same sounding volume, allowing to compare the derived wind speeds. We present the first simultaneous common volume wind measurements in the middle atmosphere using two different lidar instruments. The comparison of winds derived by RMR and sodium lidar is excellent for long integration times of 10 h as well as shorter ones of 1 h. Combination of data from both lidars allows identifying wavy structures between 30 and 110 km altitude, whose amplitudes increase with height. We have also performed lidar measurements of the same wind component using two independent branches of the RMR lidar and found a good agreement of the results but also identified inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind at about 55 km altitude of up to 20 ms−1. Such small scale inhomogeneities in the horizontal wind field are an essential challenge when comparing data from different instruments.

  13. Validation of an instrument to measure older adults' expectations regarding movement (ERM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Dahodwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many individuals with Parkinson's disease are not diagnosed and treated. Attitudes about aging and related help-seeking may affect the timely diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Our objectives were to develop measures of older adults' expectations regarding movement with aging, specifically related to parkinsonism, and their beliefs about seeking healthcare for the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism. METHODS: We established content and face validity from interviews with experts, review of the literature, and pre-testing with key informants. Two 9-item instruments resulted: Expectations Regarding Movement (ERM and Healthcare Seeking Beliefs for parkinsonism (HSB. These instruments were administered to 210 older adults at senior centers to investigate internal consistency and construct validity. RESULTS: 192 (91% of the older adults completed more than 90% of the survey. The mean age was 76; 17 (9% reported parkinsonism. Both scales demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.90. Factor analysis supported construct validity of the ERM and HSB scores. Older age, lower education, worse self-reported health and African American race each were associated with lower ERM scores, but not HSB scores. CONCLUSION: The ERM, a brief measure of expectations regarding movement with aging, shows reliability and validity. This scale may be useful in identifying older adults at increased risk for under-identification of Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to measure healthcare seeking for parkinsonism.

  14. New off-line aircraft instrumentation for non-methane hydrocarbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Joelle; Borbon, Agnès; Jambert, Corinne; Perros, Pascal E

    2008-11-01

    New off-line instrumentation was developed to implement measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) on (French) research aircraft. NMHC are collected on multisorbent tubes by AMOVOC (Airborne Measurements Of Volatile Organic Compounds), a new automatic sampler. AMOVOC is a versatile and portable sampler targeting a wide range of NMHC at high frequency (sampling time of 10 min). Multisorbent tubes are analyzed on the ground by short-path thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The development and optimization of both NMHC sampling and analysis are reported here. On the one hand, the paper points out technical choices that were made according to aircraft constraints and avoiding sample loss or contamination. On the other hand, it describes analytical optimization, tube storage stability, and moisture removal. The method shows high selectivity, sensitivity (limit of detection less than 10 ppt) and precision (less than 24%). Finally, NMHC data collected on French aircraft during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign are reported for the first time. The results highlight instrumentation validity and protocol efficiency for NMHC measurements in the lower and upper troposphere.

  15. Service quality in banking: developing and testing measurement instrument with Latvian sample data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Titko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of managing service quality in banking that can positively affect customer satisfaction. The goal of the given study is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality perceived by Latvian banks’ retail customers and to determine the most important contributors to customer satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, randomly selected customers of Latvian banks were surveyed, using the authors’ developed questionnaire. The proposed instrument was tested for reliability and validity, using techniques of confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five service quality dimensions (factors that allowed constructing customer satisfaction factor model EPICA: E – expenses, P – product, I – image, C – competence and emotional intellect, A – access. The subsequent correlation analysis revealed that the strongest relationship is between customer satisfaction and C factor. The results of the current research are crucially important for Latvian banks’ executives because the majority of previous studies in the related field offered measurement scales adequate for measuring service quality in other industries. Besides, the proposed questionnaire is exclusively developed for Latvia and considers Latvian banking sector specifics.

  16. Designing a minimum-functionality neutron and gamma measurement instrument with a focus on authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Richard B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During the design and construction of the Next-Generation Attribute-Measurement System, which included a largely commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), nondestructive assay (NDA) system, we realized that commercial NDA equipment tends to include numerous features that are not required for an attribute-measurement system. Authentication of the hardware, firmware, and software in these instruments is still required, even for those features not used in this application. However, such a process adds to the complexity, cost, and time required for authentication. To avoid these added authenticat ion difficulties, we began to design NDA systems capable of performing neutron multiplicity and gamma-ray spectrometry measurements by using simplified hardware and software that avoids unused features and complexity. This paper discusses one possible approach to this design: A hardware-centric system that attempts to perform signal analysis as much as possible in the hardware. Simpler processors and minimal firmware are used because computational requirements are kept to a bare minimum. By hard-coding the majority of the device's operational parameters, we could cull large sections of flexible, configurable hardware and software found in COTS instruments, thus yielding a functional core that is more straightforward to authenticate.

  17. Formaldehyde (HCHO) column measurements from airborne instruments: Comparison with airborne in-situ measurements, model, and satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeong-Ahn; Park, Rokjin; Nowlan, Caroline; González Abad, Gonzalo; Chance, Kelly; Janz, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Trace gas measurements from airborne instruments are useful to evaluate and improve a retrieval algorithm developed for the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS). We used radiances measured from two airborne 2D array sensors, the GeoCAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) and the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) for DISCOVER-AQ Texas in 2013 and for KORUS-AQ in 2016 to retrieve formaldehyde (HCHO) columns and to evaluate the GEMS retrieval algorithm. In addition, we used simulated aerosol concentrations constrained by airborne LIDAR observations for AMF calculation to convert slant columns to vertical columns. We compared retrieved HCHO columns with vertical columns obtained from in-situ airborne HCHO measurements. Optical properties and distributions of aerosols are found to be important factors, affecting HCHO retrievals. Finally, additional comparisons of retrieved results with model simulations and low-orbiting satellites provides quantitative information for improving bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic carbon emissions.

  18. The development of NEdSERV: quantitative instrumentation to measure service quality in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P

    1999-07-01

    The political climate of health care provision and education for health care in the latter years of the 20th century is evolving from the uncertainty of newly created markets to a more clearly focused culture of collaboration, dissemination of good practice, with an increased emphasis on quality provision and its measurement. The need for provider units to prove and improve efficiency and effectiveness through evidence-based quality strategies in order to stay firmly in the market place has never been more necessary. The measurement of customer expectations and perceptions of delivered service quality is widely utilized as a basis for customer retention and business growth in both commercial and non-profit organizations. This paper describes the methodological development of NEdSERV--quantitative instrumentation designed to measure and respond to ongoing stakeholder expectations and perceptions of delivered service quality within nurse education.

  19. An instrument design to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments: Case study of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sammarraie, Munadil Khaleel Faaeq; Faieq, Alaa K.; Al-Qasa, Khaled

    2016-08-01

    Electronic Government (eG) has become a vital tool to serve the beneficiaries; therefore, it has received the attention of many Information System (IS) researchers. Due to the importance of the sustainability of IS, this paper identifies the emergence of a clear gape to measure the sustainability of IS in risky circumstances, such as wars, conflicts and violence; nowadays, the risky issue is increasing remarkably. This paper expands previous studies whose focus was on investigating the sustainability of electronic services unsecured countries in the world. Consequently, a need for a specific tool to measure the sustainability of technology among the users in risky conditions has become urgent. Based on the findings, it can be confirmed that this instrument is reliable to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments.

  20. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for measurement of ultrasonic velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, William T; Cantrell, John H; Kushnick, Peter W

    1991-10-01

    A new instrument based on a constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) concept has been developed to accurately measure the ultrasonicwavevelocity in liquids and changes in ultrasonicwavevelocity in solids and liquids. An analysis of the system shows that it is immune to many of the frequency-dependent effects that plague other techniques including the constant phase shifts of reflectors placed in the path of the ultrasonicwave.Measurements of the sound velocity in ultrapure water are used to confirm the analysis. The results are in excellent agreement with values from the literature, and establish that the CFPPLL provides a reliable, accurate way to measurevelocities, as well as for monitoring small changes in velocity without the sensitivity to frequency-dependent phase shifts common to other measurement systems. The estimated sensitivity to phase changes is better than a few parts in 10{sup 7}.

  1. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodonta

  2. Non-contact measurements of water jet spreading width with a laser instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funami, Yuki; Hasuya, Ryo; Tanabe, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Jet spreading width is one of the important characteristics of water jets discharging into the air. Many researchers have dealt with measuring this width, and contact measuring methods on the water jet surface were employed in a lot of the cases. In order to avoid undesirable effects caused by the contact on the jet surface, we introduce non-contact measuring methods with a laser instrument to the measurements of jet spreading width. In measurements, a transmitter emits sheet-like laser beam to a receiver. The water jet between the transmitter and the receiver interrupts the laser beam and makes a shadow. The minimum and maximum values of the shadow width are measured. In addition, pictures of the water jet are taken with a scale, and the shadow width is measured from the pictures. The experiments on various needle strokes were performed. Three kinds of width consistent with the jet structure were obtained. In the results, it can be concluded that our non-contact measuring methods are feasible. The data of jet spreading widths and jet taper were obtained and are useful for future applications.

  3. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  4. An Instrument for Autonomous Measurement of the CO2 System in Seawater via Moored Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W. R.; Sayles, F. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Recent study of the oceanic uptake of CO2 and its consequences for chemical balances in seawater have made clear the need for continuous, autonomous measurements of the CO2 system. RATS (the Robotic Analyzer for the TCO2 system in Seawater) has been developed to fill that need for mooring-based measurements. The instrument combines conductimetric measurement of TCO2 with spectrophotometric pH measurement for calculation of CO2 speciation. The TCO2/ pH pair of analyses permits precise calculation of both pCO2 (for air-sea exchange studies) and the saturation state of seawater with respect to carbonate minerals (for studies of the effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms). Operating under battery power, RATS can perform a total of 800 analyses at intervals of 1.5-hours or more for deployments of up to 8 months. Field tests have shown that TCO2 can be measured over a 6-week interval with precision and accuracy of +/- 3.5 micromol/kg. The recently rebuilt pH system has been shown in the laboratory to have precision of +/- 0.001 pH units and accuracy of +/- 0.005 or better; this performance was sustained over a 2-month test period. The new pH system and TCO2 will be tested in the field in the fall of 2011; tests will include detailed comparison of RATS with discrete, laboratory-based measurements of the CO2 system. RATS is a low-power, mooring-based instrument that meets the needs for the study of CO2 cycling in the surface ocean.

  5. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  6. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  7. Developing a Validated Instrument to Measure Preservice Teachers' ICT Competencies: Meeting the Demands of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Aesaert, Koen; Pynoo, Bram; van Braak, Johan; Fraeyman, Norbert; Erstad, Ola

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to measure preservice teachers' ICT competencies in education. The questionnaire items of this instrument are based on an existing comprehensive framework and were created with input from experts in the field. The data were collected from a sample of 931 final-year preservice…

  8. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  9. The Ethical Issues Rating Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Ethical Orientation of College Students toward Various Business Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 213 college business students supported the existence of 5 constructs for the Ethical Issues Rating Scale, an instrument measuring respondents' assessment of the importance of various ethical issues. Suggestions about refining the instrument and using it are discussed. (SLD)

  10. Drying of concrete. Part I: A comparison of instruments for measuring the relative humidity in concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Christensen, Søren Lolk

    1998-01-01

    , and it is performed by use of saturated salt solutions in the laboratory. Further, the five different instruments are placed in the same concrete, and the instruments readings are followed during drying of the concrete for 43 days. The laboratory tests and the measurements in the concrete show that most...

  11. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  12. Developing a Validated Instrument to Measure Preservice Teachers' ICT Competencies: Meeting the Demands of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, Jo; Aesaert, Koen; Pynoo, Bram; van Braak, Johan; Fraeyman, Norbert; Erstad, Ola

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to measure preservice teachers' ICT competencies in education. The questionnaire items of this instrument are based on an existing comprehensive framework and were created with input from experts in the field. The data were collected from a sample of 931 final-year preservice…

  13. Measuring primary teachers' attitudes toward teaching science: development of the dimensions of attitude toward science (DAS) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderen-Smeets, van Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliëtte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is

  14. Measuring Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Science: Development of the Dimensions of Attitude toward Science (DAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a valid and reliable instrument which measures the attitude of in-service and pre-service primary teachers toward teaching science, called the Dimensions of Attitude Toward Science (DAS) Instrument. Attention to the attitudes of primary teachers toward teaching science is of fundamental importance to the…

  15. A Compact, Low Resource Instrument to Measure Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide From Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, Scot; Davis, Michael; Varner, Ruth; Basu, Sourish; Bruhwiler, Lori; Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathy; Roming, Pete; Soto, Alejandro; Tapley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Methane is the second most important radiatively active trace gas forcing anthropogenic climate change. Methane has ˜28 times more warming potential than carbon dioxide on a 100-year time horizon, and the background atmospheric concentration of methane has increased by more than 150% compared to pre-industrial levels. The increase in methane abundance is driven by a combination of direct human activity, such as fossil fuel extraction and agriculture, and natural feedback processes that respond to human-induced climate change, such as increased wetland production. Accurate accounting of the exchange between the atmosphere and the natural and anthropogenic methane reservoirs is necessary to predict how methane concentration will increase going forward, how that increase will modulate the natural methane cycle, and how effective policy decisions might be at mitigating methane-induced climate change. Monitoring and quantifying methane source intensity and spatial-temporal variability has proven challenging; there are unresolved and scientifically significant discrepancies between flux estimates based on limited surface measurements (the so-called "bottom-up" method) and the values derived from limited, remotely-sensed estimates from orbit and modeling (the so-called "top-down" method). A major source of the discrepancy between bottom-up and top-down estimates is likely a result of insufficient accuracy and resolution of space-based instrumentation. Methane releases, especially anthropogenic sources, are often at kilometer-scale (or less), whereas past remote sensing instruments have at least an order of magnitude greater footprint areas. Natural sources may be larger in areal extent, but the enhancement over background levels can be just a few percent, which demands high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratios from monitoring instrumentation. In response to the need for higher performance space-based methane monitoring, we have developed a novel, compact, low

  16. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  17. Torsional and cyclic fatigue resistances of glide path preparation instruments: G-file and PathFile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sang Yup; Ha, Jung-Hong; Kwak, Sang-Won; Abed, Rashid El; Byeon, Kyeongmin; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare cyclic fatigue and torsional resistances of glide path creating instruments with different tapers and tip sizes. Two sizes (G1 and G2) from G-File system and three sizes (PathFile #1, #2, and #3) from PathFile system were used for torsional resistance and cyclic fatigue resistance tests (n = 10). The torsional resistance was evaluated at 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm from the file tip by plotting the torsional load changes until fracture by rotational loading of 2 rpm. The cyclic fatigue resistance was compared by measuring the number of cycles to failure. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc comparison. The length of the fractured file fragment was also measured. All fractured fragments were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although G-2 file showed a lower torsional strength than PathFile #3 at 2- and 3-mm levels (p  0.05). The smaller files of each brand had a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than the bigger ones (p files (p < 0.05). While G-1 had a similar fatigue resistance as PathFile #3, G-2 showed the lowest and PathFile #1 showed the highest resistances among the tested groups (p < 0.05). The SEM examination showed typical appearances of cyclic fatigue and torsional fractures, regardless of the tested levels. Clinicians may consider the instruments' sizes for each clinical case in order to get efficient glide path with minimal risk of fracture.

  18. Laser Absorption spectrometer instrument for tomographic 2D-measurement of climate gas emission from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    One of the most intricate effects in climate modelling is the role of permafrost thawing during the global warming process. Soil that has formerly never totally lost its ice cover now emits climate gases due to melting processes[1]. For a better prediction of climate development and possible feedback mechanisms, insights into physical procedures (like e.g. gas emission from underground reservoirs) are required[2]. Therefore, a long-term quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations (and further on fluxes) is necessary and the related structures that are responsible for emission need to be identified. In particular the spatial heterogeneity of soils caused by soil internal structures (e.g. soil composition changes or surface cracks) or by surface modifications (e.g. by plant growth) generate considerable complexities and difficulties for local measurements, for example with soil chambers. For such situations, which often cannot be avoided, a spatially resolved 2D-measurement to identify and quantify the gas emission from the structured soil would be needed, to better understand the influence of the soil sub-structures on the emission behavior. Thus we designed a spatially scanning laser absorption spectrometer setup to determine a 2D-gas concentration map in the soil-air boundary layer. The setup is designed to cover the surfaces in the range of square meters in a horizontal plane above the soil to be investigated. Existing field instruments for gas concentration or flux measurements are based on point-wise measurements, so structure identification is very tedious or even impossible. For this reason, we have developed a tomographic in-situ instrument based on TDLAS ('tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy') that delivers absolute gas concentration distributions of areas with 0.8m × 0.8m size, without any need for reference measurements with a calibration gas. It is a simple and robust device based on a combination of scanning mirrors and reflecting foils, so

  19. Diode laser based photoacoustic gas measuring instruments intended for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Anna; Mohácsi, Árpád; Novák, Péter; Aladzic, Daniela; Turzó, Kinga; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Erős, Gábor; Boros, Mihály; Nagy, Katalin; Szabó, Gábor

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of breath and gases emanated from skin can be used for early and non-invasive diagnosis of various kinds of diseases. Two portable, compact, photoacoustic spectroscopy based trace gas sensors were developed for the detection of methane emanated from skin and ammonia emanated from oral cavity. The light sources were distributed feedback diode lasers emitting at the absorption lines of ammonia and methane, at 1.53 μm and 1.65 μm, respectively. Photoacoustic method ensures high selectivity, therefore cross-sensitivity was negligible even with large amount of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the gas sample. In case of ammonia a preconcentration unit was used to achieve lower minimum detectable concentration. Gas sample from the oral cavity was drawn through a glass tube to the preconcentration unit that chemically bonded ammonia and released it when heated. The minimum detectable concentration of ammonia was 10 ppb for 15 s gas sampling time (gas sample of 250 cm3). For methane minimum detectable concentration of 0.25 ppm was found with 12 s integration time, and it was proved to be adequate for the detection of methane emanated from human skin and from mice. Instruments measuring methane and ammonia are currently installed at two medical research laboratories at University of Szeged and tested as instruments for non-invasive clinical trials. The aim of the measurements is to determine correlations between diseases or metabolic processes and emanated gases.

  20. The Role of Clinical and Instrumented Outcome Measures in Balance Control of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in balance control between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy control subjects using clinical scales and instrumented measures of balance and determine relationships between balance measures, fatigue, and disability levels in individuals with MS with and without a history of falls. Method. Twelve individuals with MS and twelve healthy controls were evaluated using the Berg Balance and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scales, Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, and Limits of Stability Tests as well as Fatigue Severity Scale and Barthel Index. Results. Mildly affected individuals with MS had significant balance performance deficits and poor balance confidence levels (P<0.05. MS group had higher sway velocities and diminished stability limits (P<0.05, significant sensory impairments, high fatigue and disability levels (P<0.05. Sway velocity was a significant predictor of balance performance and the ability to move towards stability limits for the MS group. For the MS-fallers group, those with lower disability levels had faster movement velocities and better balance performance. Conclusion. Implementation of both clinical and instrumented tests of balance is important for the planning and evaluation of treatment outcomes in balance rehabilitation of people with MS.