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Sample records for preparation experimental design

  1. Design, Fabrication and Experimental Validation of a Novel Dry-Contact Sensor for Measuring Electroencephalography Signals without Skin Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, novel dry-contact sensors for measuring electro-encephalography (EEG signals without any skin preparation are designed, fabricated by an injection molding manufacturing process and experimentally validated. Conventional wet electrodes are commonly used to measure EEG signals; they provide excellent EEG signals subject to proper skin preparation and conductive gel application. However, a series of skin preparation procedures for applying the wet electrodes is always required and usually creates trouble for users. To overcome these drawbacks, novel dry-contact EEG sensors were proposed for potential operation in the presence or absence of hair and without any skin preparation or conductive gel usage. The dry EEG sensors were designed to contact the scalp surface with 17 spring contact probes. Each probe was designed to include a probe head, plunger, spring, and barrel. The 17 probes were inserted into a flexible substrate using a one-time forming process via an established injection molding procedure. With these 17 spring contact probes, the flexible substrate allows for high geometric conformity between the sensor and the irregular scalp surface to maintain low skin-sensor interface impedance. Additionally, the flexible substrate also initiates a sensor buffer effect, eliminating pain when force is applied. The proposed dry EEG sensor was reliable in measuring EEG signals without any skin preparation or conductive gel usage, as compared with the conventional wet electrodes.

  2. Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The design of long life, low weight nickel cadmium cells is studied. The status of a program to optimize nickel electrodes for the best performance is discussed. The pore size of the plaque, the mechanical strength and active material loading are considered in depth.

  3. Preparation of acrylic acid-modified chitin improved by an experimental design and its application in absorbing toxic organic compounds

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    Huang, Chao-Ming, E-mail: charming@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lung-Chuan, E-mail: lcchen@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hui-Chia, E-mail: yang.junkdna@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Li, Min-Hsing, E-mail: a1487561a@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ting-Chung, E-mail: tcpan@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acrylic acid-modified chitin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graft copolymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of toxic organic compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very high adsorption capacity. - Abstract: Chitin grafted poly (acrylic acid) (chi-g-PAA) is synthesized and characterized as an adsorbent of toxic organic compounds. Chi-g-PAA copolymers are prepared using of ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (Ce{sup 4+}) as the initiator. The highest grafting percentage of AA in chitin obtained using the traditional technique is 163.1%. A maximum grafting percentage of 230.6% is obtained using central composite design (CCD). Experimental results are consistent with theoretical calculations. The grafted copolymer is characterized by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy and solid state {sup 13}C NMR. A representative chi-g-AA copolymer is hydrolyzed to a type of sodium salt (chi-g-PANa) and used in the adsorption of malachite green (MG), methyl violet (MV), and paraquat (PQ) in aqueous. The monolayer adsorption capacities of these substances are 285.7, 357.1, and 322.6 mg/g-adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations show that the adsorption of MG, MV, and PQ are more favored at diluted solutions. The high adsorption capacity of chi-g-PANa for toxic matter indicates its potential in the treatment of wastewater and emergency treatment of PQ-poisoned patients.

  4. An experimental design approach to the preparation of pegylated polylactide-co-glicolide gentamicin loaded microparticles for local antibiotic delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorati, Rossella; DeTrizio, Antonella; Genta, Ida; Grisoli, Pietro; Merelli, Alessia [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Tomasi, Corrado [IENI CNR Lecco Unit, Via Promessi Sposi 29, 23900, Lecco (Italy); Conti, Bice, E-mail: bice.conti@unipv.it [Department of Drug Sciences, Viale Taramelli 12, University of Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    The present paper takes into account the DOE application to the preparation process of biodegradable microspheres for osteomyelitis local therapy. With this goal gentamicin loaded polylactide-co-glycolide-co-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) microspheres were prepared and investigated. Two preparation protocols (o/w and w/o/w) with different process conditions, and three PLGA-PEG block copolymers with different compositions of lactic and glycolic acids and PEG, were tested. A Design Of Experiment (DOE) screening design was applied as an approach to scale up manufacturing step. The results of DOE screening design confirmed that w/o/w technique, the presence of salt and the 15%w/v polymer concentration positively affected the EE% (72.1–97.5%), and span values of particle size distribution (1.03–1.23), while salt addition alone negatively affected the yield process. Process scale up resulted in a decrease of gentamicin EE% that can be attributed to the high volume of water used to remove PVA and NaCl residues. The results of in vitro gentamicin release study show prolonged gentamicin release up to three months from the microspheres prepared with salt addition in the dispersing phase; the behavior being consistent with their highly compact structure highlighted by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The prolonged release of gentamicin is maintained even after embedding the biodegradable microspheres into a thermosetting composite gel made of chitosan and acellular bovine bone matrix (Orthoss® granules), and the microbiologic evaluation demonstrated the efficacy of the gentamicin loaded microspheres on Escherichia coli. The collected results confirm the feasibility of the scale up of microsphere manufacturing process and the high potential of the microparticulate drug delivery system to be used for the local antibiotic delivery to bone. - Highlights: • To get a more effective therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteomyelitis. • To exploit the local

  5. Improvement of an encapsulation process for the preparation of pro- and prebiotics-loaded bioadhesive microparticles by using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszczak, D; Bourgeois, S; Bordes, C; Valour, J P; Mazoyer, M A; Orecchioni, A M; Nakache, E; Lantéri, P

    2011-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to design a new vaginal bioadhesive delivery system based on pectinate-hyaluronic acid microparticles for probiotics and prebiotics encapsulation. Probiotic strains and prebiotic were selected for their abilities to restore vaginal ecosystem. Microparticles were produced by emulsification/gelation method using calcium as cross-linking agent. In the first step, preliminary experiments were conducted to study the influence of the main formulation and process parameters on the size distribution of unloaded microparticles. Rheological measurements were also performed to investigate the bioadhesive properties of the gels used to obtain the final microparticles. Afterwards an experimental design was performed to determine the operating conditions suitable to obtain bioadhesive microparticles containing probiotics and prebiotics. Experimental design allowed us to define two important parameters during the microencapsulation process: the stirring rate during the emulsification step and the pectin concentration. The final microparticles had a mean diameter of 137μm and allowed a complete release of probiotic strains after 16h in a simulated vaginal fluid at +37°C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Systems biology: experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  7. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong, E-mail: shihtong@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lung-Chuan, E-mail: lcchen@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: etmediagoing@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ting-Chung, E-mail: tcpan@mail.ksu.edutw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); You, Bing-Xuan, E-mail: kp2681@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Yan, Qi-Feng, E-mail: rsrs0938@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5 mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  9. Teaching experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of poor design and published concerns over study quality stimulated the development of courses on experimental design intended to improve matters. This article describes some of the thinking behind these courses and how the topics can be presented in a variety of formats. The premises are that education in experimental design should be undertaken with an awareness of educational principles, of how adults learn, and of the particular topics in the subject that need emphasis. For those using laboratory animals, it should include ethical considerations, particularly severity issues, and accommodate learners not confident with mathematics. Basic principles, explanation of fully randomized, randomized block, and factorial designs, and discussion of how to size an experiment form the minimum set of topics. A problem-solving approach can help develop the skills of deciding what are correct experimental units and suitable controls in different experimental scenarios, identifying when an experiment has not been properly randomized or blinded, and selecting the most efficient design for particular experimental situations. Content, pace, and presentation should suit the audience and time available, and variety both within a presentation and in ways of interacting with those being taught is likely to be effective. Details are given of a three-day course based on these ideas, which has been rated informative, educational, and enjoyable, and can form a postgraduate module. It has oral presentations reinforced by group exercises and discussions based on realistic problems, and computer exercises which include some analysis. Other case studies consider a half-day format and a module for animal technicians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exploring the Opinions of Pre-Service Science Teachers in Their Experimental Designs Prepared Based on Various Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The students in working in laboratories in 21st century are preferred to take place as active participants in the experiments coming up with their own designs and projects by developing new ideas and problems rather than implementing the ones told and ordered by others during these experiments. The science teachers that would have the students…

  11. Teaching experimental design to biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolman, J F

    1999-12-01

    The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs.

  12. Designing an experimental HIV/HCV intervention to promote the safe re-use of drug preparation materials by injection drug users in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Rafaela R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs in San Juan, Puerto Rico are characterized by high rates of daily injecting, injection of shared drugs, re-use of injection syringes, and use of shooting galleries. They lack adequate access to new injection syringes and drug preparation equipment, and experience elevated rates of HIV and HCV infection. Between April and August, 2006, researchers and active IDUs collaborated in the development of an experimental HIV/HCV intervention aimed at identifying drug preparation items and practices that will enable IDUs to make drug solutions without potentially contaminated injection syringes contacting materials used to prepare drugs. The collaboration involved discussing and testing a variety of drug preparation items and practices in office and community settings. The process was repeated until concerns that had been raised were resolved, and a tentative set of intervention items and practices to be evaluated in a community field trial was identified. Throughout, a strong emphasis was placed on the capacity of an item or practice to address common problems confronted by IDUs (blunted needles, clogged syringes, injected particles in addition to the core aim of reducing contamination of preparation materials by blood in injection syringes. This report describes the final selection of items and practices: 1 A small water bottle that permits IDUs to add approximately .05 cc water drops directly to drug powder in cookers; 2 A preparation syringe (a type of ancillary equipment not used for injecting that permits IDUs to pull up a measurable amount of water to add to drug powder, an alternative to producing water drops; 3 A filtering device, the Sterifilt filter, attached to a preparation syringe, which eliminates the need for cotton or cigarette filters; 4 Use of a preparation syringe to distribute drug solution by backloading to injection syringe(s; 5 A small water bottle enabling IDUs to clean injection syringes by

  13. True Experimental Design.

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    Huck, Schuyler W.

    1991-01-01

    This poem, with stanzas in limerick form, refers humorously to the many threats to validity posed by problems in research design, including problems of sample selection, data collection, and data analysis. (SLD)

  14. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  15. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  16. Graphical Models for Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter M.; Hall, Courtney E.; Su, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental designs play a central role in estimating cause-effect relationships in education, psychology, and many other fields of the social and behavioral sciences. This paper presents and discusses the causal graphs of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. For quasi-experimental designs the authors demonstrate…

  17. Preparing design students for strategic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Schiønning Mortensen, Bo; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with how the visual approach from a design process can help inform companies about future opportunities at a strategic level. The paper follows an innovation project where design students worked with five companies at a 1-day workshop and with one company through a 2-week project...... can be used to facilitate discussions for companies facing strategic challenges. It also underlines the importance of rethinking design skills and communication when moving into strategic processes....

  18. Preparing design students for strategic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Schiønning Mortensen, Bo; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    the innovation project and reflects on which new knowledge, methods and techniques designers should be aware of when participating in multidisciplinary strategic processes and new educational initiatives. This paper shows how the design profession’s traditional visual tools and methods for concept development......This paper deals with how the visual approach from a design process can help inform companies about future opportunities at a strategic level. The paper follows an innovation project where design students worked with five companies at a 1-day workshop and with one company through a 2-week project...... can be used to facilitate discussions for companies facing strategic challenges. It also underlines the importance of rethinking design skills and communication when moving into strategic processes....

  19. Preparing design students for strategic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Schiønning Mortensen, Bo; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with how the visual approach from a design process can help inform companies about future opportunities at a strategic level. The paper follows an innovation project where design students worked with five companies at a 1-day workshop and with one company through a 2-week project...... the innovation project and reflects on which new knowledge, methods and techniques designers should be aware of when participating in multidisciplinary strategic processes and new educational initiatives. This paper shows how the design profession’s traditional visual tools and methods for concept development...... can be used to facilitate discussions for companies facing strategic challenges. It also underlines the importance of rethinking design skills and communication when moving into strategic processes....

  20. Rationale for designing cavity preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laswell, H R; Welk, D A

    1985-04-01

    Increased resistance to caries, increased dental awareness, superior diagnostic capabilities, better illumination, optical aids that significantly enhance vision, improved and standardized materials for restoration, and a deeper understanding of the caries process enable a far more conservative approach to tooth preparation. The dentist can concentrate on preserving as much sound tooth structure as possible with less attention being devoted to resistance and retention form that previously demanded in bulk restorations and massive channels and locks that are no longer appropriate. Although caries inhibitory effects have been shown with materials such as silicate cement, glass ionomers, and resins that leach fluoride, in general, dentists should not rely on restorative materials to inhibit the development of future decay. Characteristics of the carious lesion are unique for each tooth according to many factors centering around the plaque pattern for that tooth and not according to zones of natural susceptibility or immunity strictly dictated by morphology. Therefore, no single cavity preparation duplicated from a textbook is likely to be satisfactory for an individual tooth. Furthermore, novices learning the subject of cavity preparation often leave decalcified enamel when they attempt to replicate under clinical conditions that which they have learned in technique courses. This is the major invitation to future caries reappearing adjacent to restorations. Also, failure to duplicate the exact morphology of the tooth surface that has been replaced is likely to alter the pattern of plaque accumulation and create other caries prone areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. 9 CFR 103.1 - Preparation of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.1 Preparation of experimental biological products. Except as otherwise provided in this section, experimental...

  2. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment.

  3. Involving students in experimental design: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, A P; Silverthorn, D U; Stratton, D B

    1998-12-01

    Many faculty want to involve students more actively in laboratories and in experimental design. However, just "turning them loose in the lab" is time-consuming and can be frustrating for both students and faculty. We describe three different ways of providing structures for labs that require students to design their own experiments but guide the choices. One approach emphasizes invertebrate preparations and classic techniques that students can learn fairly easily. Students must read relevant primary literature and learn each technique in one week, and then design and carry out their own experiments in the next week. Another approach provides a "design framework" for the experiments so that all students are using the same technique and the same statistical comparisons, whereas their experimental questions differ widely. The third approach involves assigning the questions or problems but challenging students to design good protocols to answer these questions. In each case, there is a mixture of structure and freedom that works for the level of the students, the resources available, and our particular aims.

  4. Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…

  5. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  6. Porcelain veneers - preparation design: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preparation of tooth design for porcelain veneers. It follows the literature more than three decades back in the past. From the very beginning, porcelain veneers were placed to no/minimally prepared tooth substance, showing different problems in clinical use. Later, the technique of etching the porcelain and controlling the reduction of tooth structure, presented the great steps forward in porcelain veneers accepting. A special accent concerning the preparative design was placed on variations of incisal edge preparation - the problem, which is still present in current practice. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the extremely demanding protocols in making the porcelain veneers as well as their expanded clinical indications.

  7. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  8. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirum, Karen; Humburg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Higher education goals include helping students develop evidence based reasoning skills; therefore, scientific thinking skills such as those required to understand the design of a basic experiment are important. The Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) measures students' understanding of the criteria for good experimental design through their…

  9. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  10. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    : computer-aided design (Stage 1), which generates a list of feasible candidates, experimental planning (Stage 2), which generates a list of experiments and checks the available experimental set-ups, and experimental testing (Stage 3), which measures the necessary data and verifies the desirable attributes...

  11. Experimental design and priority PLS regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Rules, ideas and algorithms of the H-principle are used to analyse models that are derived from experimental design. Some of the basic ideas of experimental design are reviewed and related to the methodology of the H-principle. New methods of optimal response surfaces are developed....

  12. Light Experimental Supercruiser Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    RADIUS-200 TOGW Fifun 118. Arrow Point Design Ptnittmn* Carpet 193 4.3 VEHICLE PARAMETRIC TRADES (Continued) Sustained Load Factor--The third...0.06 ^s’ ^60^^ ^ ^**«» ^ >^^»M00 «^ /^ / —~ <. xf ’"»^C^ ^ -< >^ X*** Fifun 120. Arrow Su$t»lmd Lo§d factor Vtrwt

  13. Some Thoughts on Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Claudio D

    2017-01-01

    Perhaps even more important than the techniques themselves are the quality of the biological questions asked and the design of the experiments devised to answer them. This chapter summarizes some of the key issues and also touches on how the same principles affect scholarly use of the scientific literature and good peer-reviewing practices.

  14. Experimental Design: Review and Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    and early work in the subject was done by Wald (1943), Hotelling (1944), and Elfving (1952). The major contributions to the area, however, were made by...Kiefer (1958, 1959) and Kiefer and Wolfowitz (1959, 1960), who synthesized and greatly extended the previous work. Although the ideas of optimal...design theory is the general equivalence theorem (Kiefer and Wolfowitz 1960), which links D- and G-optimality. The theorem is phrased in terms of

  15. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives....

  16. Design of Uranium Solution Critical Experimental Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Da-yong; GUO; Zhi-jia; YAO; Cheng-zhi; SHI; Chen-lei

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, Department of reactor engineering design completes the design and mechanical analysis of Uranium solution critical experimental device. According to user’s requirements and nuclear safety regulations, design and analysis mainly involves two sets of core structure, uranium solution loop, water loop and experimental bench, etc. The core which includes a core vessel, reactor core support, safety rods, control rods, and so on, is used for containing uranium solution and fuel element and fulfilling the

  17. Nanostructured antireflective bilayers: Optical design and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrich, Ádám [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, Norbert [Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK), Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nyári, Mária; Albert, Emőke; Zámbó, Dániel [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Hórvölgyi, Zoltán, E-mail: zhorvolgyi@mail.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-01

    We show different methods for tailoring and fabrication of various cost-effective antireflective nanocoatings on transparent and non-transparent substrates. The main purpose was to prepare coatings with decreased reflectance in the full visible wavelength range using simple wet layer deposition techniques. Structure of coatings was designed by optical simulations applying simplified calculations. The refractive index of substrates was also considered for the calculations. The advantageous optical properties were achieved by bilayered structures combining compact and porous sol–gel derived oxide layers and nanoparticulate films. The bilayered structures enhance the flexibility of design by not only the selection of the layer thicknesses but also by different ways of adjusting the effective refractive index of the layers. Furthermore, chemical stability of the coatings was also investigated. The optical and structural properties of prepared films and bilayered coatings were studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The transmittance of coated glass substrates was above 97.5%, while the reflectance of coated silicon substrates was below 4% between 450 nm and 900 nm. - Highlights: • Designed antireflective bilayered coatings on glass and silicon. • Simple, colloid chemical approaches to preparation. • Favorable optical properties by combining compact and porous oxide layers. • Different ways for adjusting the effective refractive index. • Strong chemical resistance against acidic effects.

  18. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained...... in importance as the field has matured. As in other evolving disciplines, e.g. behavioural psychology, this maturation brings with it ever-greater scientific and methodological demands (Reiser 1939; Dorst 2008). In particular, the experimental paradigm holds distinct and significant challenges for the modern...... design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust...

  19. Censored Weibull Distributed Data in Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Støtvig, Jeanett Gunneklev

    2014-01-01

    Give an introduction to experimental design. Investigate how four methods handle Weibull distributed censored data, where the four methods are the quick and dirty method, the maximum likelihood method, single imputation and multiple imputation.

  20. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150{degrees}C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases.

  1. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design...... system engineering community, it is possible now to replace, at least, some of the experimental steps with efficient and validated model-based approaches. For example, the search space can be significantly reduced through computer-aided screenings of the active ingredient (AI), the solvent mixture......, the additives and/or their mixtures (formulations). Therefore, the experimental resources can focus on a few candidate product formulations to find the best product. The virtual PPD-lab allows various options for experimentations related to design and/or verification of the product. For example, the selection...

  2. New product development using experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1998-01-01

    New product development is one of the most powerful but difficult activities in business. It is also a very important factor affecting final product quality. There are many techniques available for new product development. Experimental design is now regarded as one of the most significant techniques. In this article, we will discuss how to use the technique of experimental design in developing a new product - an extrusion press. In order to provide a better understanding of this specific proc...

  3. Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

    2012-04-01

    Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites.

  4. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  5. Experimental dermatoplasty of skin defects with an absorbable bioplastic preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemisza, G; Ladányi, J; Mikó, I

    1979-01-01

    Experimental dermatoplasty was performed with fibrin sponge preparation in the rabbit, during the course of which the whole skin thickness was substituted. The fibrin sponge was fixed to the skin-edges with surgical adhesive. The gradually absorbed fibrin was replaced by the migrating epithelium such that epithelization developed gradually. In special cases this method can be recommended for clinical purposes.

  6. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  7. Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dette, Holger; Pepelyshev, Andrey; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-12-01

    Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences, ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy, with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, and construct and study properties of optimal designs for (i) estimating model parameters, (ii) estimating the threshold dose, and (iii) testing for the presence of hormesis. We also determine maximin optimal designs that maximize the minimum of the design efficiencies when we have multiple design criteria or there is model uncertainty where we have a few plausible models of interest. We apply these optimal design strategies to a teratology study and show that the proposed designs outperform the implemented design by a wide margin for many situations.

  8. Using experimental design to define boundary manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Erik; Högberg, Dan; Hanson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    When evaluating human-machine interaction it is central to consider anthropometric diversity to ensure intended accommodation levels. A well-known method is the use of boundary cases where manikins with extreme but likely measurement combinations are derived by mathematical treatment of anthropometric data. The supposition by that method is that the use of these manikins will facilitate accommodation of the expected part of the total, less extreme, population. In literature sources there are differences in how many and in what way these manikins should be defined. A similar field to the boundary case method is the use of experimental design in where relationships between affecting factors of a process is studied by a systematic approach. This paper examines the possibilities to adopt methodology used in experimental design to define a group of manikins. Different experimental designs were adopted to be used together with a confidence region and its axes. The result from the study shows that it is possible to adapt the methodology of experimental design when creating groups of manikins. The size of these groups of manikins depends heavily on the number of key measurements but also on the type of chosen experimental design.

  9. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, D Brynn

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature.

  10. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  11. [Application of Populus Nigra preparations at experimental parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiani, N V; Kuchukhidze, Dzh K; Chichua, Z Dzh; Kipiani, V A; Datunashvili, I V

    2007-09-01

    Severe oxidative stress, developed under experimental periodontitis is accompanied by disturbances in mitochondrial respiration in tissue cells of gingiva, membrane damage and release of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), leading to the worsening of inflammation process and gingival tissue necrosis. Reduction of free nitric oxide in gingival tissue appeared to be characteristic for experimental parodontitis: decreases local immunity, antimicrobial resistance, and tissue regeneration, disturbs blood supply and tissue trophism, which forwards important role in deepening of inflammation process and wasting of gingival tissue. Application of preparations derived from black poplar (Populus Nigra) gemma standardizes mitochondrial respiration, reduces presentation of inflammation, and considerably improves EPR-spectrum of gingival tissue. Though the complete normalization is not achieved--hazard of peroxidation still remains, the applied preparations, due to their strong anti- oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities is as an effective and rehabilitative means to tackle gingivitis and peiodontitis.

  12. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

  13. Design of 162 MHz RF Experimental Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Zhi-guo; CAO; Xue-long; GUO; Juan-juan; JI; Bin; FU; Xiao-liang; WEI; Jun-yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,a 162MHz RF experimental cavity is designed to study the multipacting multiplier effect of the medium and the metal electrode and its relationship with the plate surface characteristics,and to find out the method for inhibiting multipacting multiplier effects.The

  14. New product development using experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1998-01-01

    New product development is one of the most powerful but difficult activities in business. It is also a very important factor affecting final product quality. There are many techniques available for new product development. Experimental design is now regarded as one of the most significant techniques

  15. Fracture Resistance of Composite Veneers with Different Preparation Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovska, Katerina; Guguvcevski, Ljuben; Popovski, Risto; Dimova, Cena; Minovska, Ana; Mijoska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the fracture load of composite veneers using three different preparation designs. Material and methods: Fifteen extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three groups with different preparation design: 1) feather preparation, 2) bevel preparation, and 3) incisal overlap- palatal chamfer. Teeth were restored with composite veneers, and the specimens were loaded to failure. The localizatio...

  16. Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed for experimental verification. Finally, the correlation between the design and the walking patterns is described through simulation studies, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation examples and experimental results.

  17. Bioinspiration: applying mechanical design to experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Porter, Marianne E

    2011-07-01

    The production of bioinspired and biomimetic constructs has fostered much collaboration between biologists and engineers, although the extent of biological accuracy employed in the designs produced has not always been a priority. Even the exact definitions of "bioinspired" and "biomimetic" differ among biologists, engineers, and industrial designers, leading to confusion regarding the level of integration and replication of biological principles and physiology. By any name, biologically-inspired mechanical constructs have become an increasingly important research tool in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily manipulated to fill a desired parameter space of structural and functional repertoires. Innovative researchers with both biological and engineering backgrounds have found ways to use bioinspired models to explore the biomechanics of organisms from all kingdoms to answer a variety of different questions. Bringing together these biologists and engineers will hopefully result in an open discourse of techniques and fruitful collaborations for experimental and industrial endeavors.

  18. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  19. Optimal experimental design strategies for detecting hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Hormesis is a widely observed phenomenon in many branches of life sciences ranging from toxicology studies to agronomy with obvious public health and risk assessment implications. We address optimal experimental design strategies for determining the presence of hormesis in a controlled environment using the recently proposed Hunt-Bowman model. We propose alternative models that have an implicit hormetic threshold, discuss their advantages over current models, construct and study properties of...

  20. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  1. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  2. Leading Leadership Preparation: 21st Century Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    As political accountability and economic reality increasingly influence higher education, many leadership preparation programs are seeking cost effective instructional delivery systems that yield highly effective results. Simultaneously, large numbers of graduate students are seeking quality leadership preparation programs that provide both…

  3. 正交试验优选冬凌草甲素脂质体制备工艺%Orthogonal experimental design for preparation optimization of oridonin liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳青; 孙昌友; 李慧芳; 苏畅; 任德玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the preparation method of oridonin liposomes. Methods The liposomes were prepared by the ethanol injection method with cholesterin and soybean lecithin as carriers. The envelope efficiency of oridonin liposomes was taken as the observation index to optimize the preparation by orthogonal design. Results Oridonin : phospholipid was 1: 20, cholesterol: phosphatidylcholine was 5:1 , sonication time was 20 min, and temperature was 50 ℃. Conclusions The method is suitable for producing liposome using oridonin, and its form is integrated.%目的 优选冬凌草甲素脂质体的较优制备工艺.方法 以胆固醇、大豆磷脂为载体,采用乙醇注入法制备冬凌草甲素脂质体.采用包封率作为为评价指标,以正交实验设计选出制备脂质体的最佳处方.结果 通过正交设计优选出冬凌草甲素脂质体的制备工艺条件为:冬凌草甲素∶卵磷脂为1:20,胆固醇与卵磷脂质量比为5:1,超声时间为20 min,温度为50 ℃.结论该制备工艺得到的脂质体包封率较高,形态较好,方法可行.

  4. Statistics for proteomics: experimental design and 2-DE differential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chich, Jean-François; David, Olivier; Villers, Fanny; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Lutomski, Didier; Huet, Sylvie

    2007-04-15

    Proteomics relies on the separation of complex protein mixtures using bidimensional electrophoresis. This approach is largely used to detect the expression variations of proteins prepared from two or more samples. Recently, attention was drawn on the reliability of the results published in literature. Among the critical points identified were experimental design, differential analysis and the problem of missing data, all problems where statistics can be of help. Using examples and terms understandable by biologists, we describe how a collaboration between biologists and statisticians can improve reliability of results and confidence in conclusions.

  5. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  6. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  7. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This study shows that our

  8. Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

  9. The role of experimental typography in designing logotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Tadeja

    2014-01-01

    Designing logotypes is an important part of graphic design. Great logotypes are designed using custom made typefaces. Therefore, it is very important, especially for the typographic designer, to have practical experience and be up to date with all trends in the field of experimental typefaces design, also called experimental typography. In my thesis statement, I carefully examined the problems of experimental typography - which allows more creative and free typography designing for different ...

  10. PROJECT ENGINEERING DATA MANAGEMENT AT AUTOMATED PREPARATION OF DESIGN DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Guryanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and realized instrumental means for automated support of end-to-end design process for design documentation on a product at the programming level. The proposed decision is based on processing of the engineering project data that are contained in interdependent design documents: tactical technical characteristics of products, data on the valuable metals contained in them, the list of components applied in a product and others. Processing of engineering data is based on their conversion to the form provided by requirements of industry standards for design documentation preparation. The general graph of the design documentation developed on a product is provided. The description of the developed software product is given. Automated preparation process of interdependent design documents is shown on the example of preparation of purchased products list. Results of work can be used in case of research and development activities on creation of perspective samples of ADP equipment.

  11. Rapid porcelain veneers: smile design, preparation, and cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, D S

    2001-11-01

    A technique for replacing existing porcelain veneers has been presented. Technique for smile design, tooth preparation, and cementation were described. The objective was to meet the patient's aesthetic expectations while also meeting functional requirements.

  12. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors, design, preparation and SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Knak; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Olesen, Uffe Hogh;

    2013-01-01

    Existing pharmacological inhibitors for nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) are promising therapeutics for treating cancer. Using medicinal and computational chemistry methods, the structure-activity relationship for novel classes of NAMPT inhibitors is described and compounds optimized....... Compounds are designed inspired by the NAMPT inhibitor APO866 and cyanoguanidine inhibitor scaffolds. In comparison with recently published derivatives the new analogues exhibit an equally potent anti-proliferative activity in vitro and comparable activity in vivo. The best performing compounds from...

  13. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  14. Manifold Regularized Experimental Design for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Shum, Hubert P H; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-02

    Various machine learning and data mining tasks in classification require abundant data samples to be labeled for training. Conventional active learning methods aim at labeling the most informative samples for alleviating the labor of the user. Many previous studies in active learning select one sample after another in a greedy manner. However, this is not very effective because the classification models has to be retrained for each newly labeled sample. Moreover, many popular active learning approaches utilize the most uncertain samples by leveraging the classification hyperplane of the classifier, which is not appropriate since the classification hyperplane is inaccurate when the training data are small-sized. The problem of insufficient training data in real-world systems limits the potential applications of these approaches. This paper presents a novel method of active learning called manifold regularized experimental design (MRED), which can label multiple informative samples at one time for training. In addition, MRED gives an explicit geometric explanation for the selected samples to be labeled by the user. Different from existing active learning methods, our method avoids the intrinsic problems caused by insufficiently labeled samples in real-world applications. Various experiments on synthetic datasets, the Yale face database and the Corel image database have been carried out to show how MRED outperforms existing methods.

  15. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  16. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  17. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.

  18. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  19. Power Analysis Tutorial for Experimental Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Details ............................................................ D-1 Appendix E – JMP Monte Carlo Simulation Script...freedom for error. • In Design Expert, when constructing a design, you are asked for delta and sigma . The default model for power analysis is...Designed Experiments. Third Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. 12. Muthen, Linda, and Bengt Muthen. “How to Use a Monte Carlo Study to

  20. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part II: applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of experimental design to optimize some analytical chemistry techniques such as extraction, chromatography separation, capillary electrophoresis, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical methods.

  1. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  2. EBTS:DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIKIN,A.; ALESSI,J.; BEEBE,E.; KPONOU,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    2000-11-06

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap.

  3. Experimental techniques for design of impact-resistant material (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Some polymers are not only transparent and lightweight, but also impact and ballistic resistant. Designing and preparing such polymeric materials with a high impact‐resistant performance is of importance to e.g. aviation, military and windscreen applications.

  4. Experimental techniques for design of impact-resistant material (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Some polymers are not only transparent and lightweight, but also impact and ballistic resistant. Designing and preparing such polymeric materials with a high impact‐resistant performance is of importance to e.g. aviation, military and windscreen applications.

  5. Experimental Plans and Intensive Numerical Aided Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Gardan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with new methods to optimize design and subsequent phases, notably in SMEs specialized in manufacturing. SMEs use numerical simulation to verify that the design meets the expectations of the specification, following the current traditional process: CAD model, simulation of its behavior, changes in the CAD model... This process suffers from a number of drawbacks: no overall multi-criteria vision, use of CAD software, by nature "constructive, not considering the overall objectives (even with integration of the parameters or with considering the downstream phases. The research centre DINCCS led several projects, relying on industrial cases to consider more efficient approaches. It is proposed to reverse this process by making intensive simulations, based on trade knowledge, before design itself. In order to plan the great number of simulations, automatically designed plan of experiences are used. We discuss the application of this approach to intensive simulations. The stakes are crucial for SMEs, particularly manufacturing ones. Using numerical simulation (optimization intensively, before setting the CAD model, they can get unexpected gains (mass, better use of the means of manufacture.... The results show that the proposed approach is a very promising new way of computer aided design..

  6. Teaching Experimental Design to Elementary School Pupils in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    This research is a study about the possibility to promote experimental design skills to elementary school pupils. Experimental design and the experiment process are foundational elements in current approaches to Science Teaching, as they provide learners with profound understanding about knowledge construction and science inquiry. The research was…

  7. The Implications of "Contamination" for Experimental Design in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs that randomly assign entire clusters of individuals (e.g., schools and classrooms) to treatments are frequently advocated as a way of guarding against contamination of the estimated average causal effect of treatment. However, in the absence of contamination, experimental designs that randomly assign intact clusters to…

  8. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  9. A framework for efficient process development using optimal experimental designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, P. van de; Bijlsma, S.; Gout, E.; Voort Maarschalk, K. van der; Thissen, U.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a framework assuring efficient process development using fewer experiments than standard experimental designs. Methods: A novel optimality criterion for experimental designs (Iw criterion) is defined that leads to more efficient proc

  10. Research designs for experimental single-case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Spieß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes the most important designs for single case experimental studies, which are ABAB-design, multiple baseline design, alternating treatments design and changing criterion design. The logic of experimental control in single case studies is explained and it is described, how these different designs are able to provide internal validity and enable causal interpretations of intervention outcome. An important precondition of valid interpretation is objective and reliable data assessment. Data evaluation by visual inspection is explained and several methods of statistical data analysis are discussed. To establish generability across persons, situations, and settings, the importance of replication studies is highlighted.

  11. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  12. Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Lárraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramírez, V.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Paz, C.; Celis, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

  13. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part III. Game Design as a Collaborative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this three part series, four professors who teach graduate level courses on the design of instructional video games discuss their perspectives on preparing instructional designers to optimize game-based learning. Part I set the context for the series and one of four panelists discussed what he believes instructional designers should know about…

  14. Effect of preparation design on the fracture resistance of zirconia crown copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuer, Florian; Aggstaller, Hans; Edelhoff, Daniel; Gernet, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different preparation designs on the fracture resistance of single-crown zirconia frameworks. To this end, maxillary molar dies of CrCo alloy were fabricated with five different preparation designs: shoulderless, slight and pronounced deep chamfer, beveled and non-beveled shoulder. Ten zirconia copings with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm were fabricated for each type of preparation. After cementation by glass ionomer cement, they were loaded until fracture. There were significant differences in the breaking load of the experimental groups (ANOVA, p < 0.01). The shoulder preparation had a mean breaking load of 2286 N, the shoulderless preparation 2041 N, the beveled shoulder 1722 N, the pronounced deep chamfer 1752 N, and the slight chamfer 1624 N. Based on the results of this study, a shoulder preparation is highly recommended whenever possible. Moreover, for endodontically treated teeth that are structurally compromised or which have anatomically limited areas, the slight chamfer preparation is an optimal recommendation.

  15. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  16. Information measures in nonlinear experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niple, E.; Shaw, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some different approaches to the problem of designing experiments which estimate the parameters of nonlinear models are discussed. The assumption in these approaches that the information in a set of data can be represented by a scalar is criticized, and the nonscalar discrimination information is proposed as the proper measure to use. The two-step decay example in Box and Lucas (1959) is used to illustrate the main points of the discussion.

  17. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    1) • Box Correction for Repeated Measures (Box, 1954) – Adjusted F Table – F[(k-1)ε, (n-1)(k-1)ε] – Imhof (1962) Table for Small Sample Size (nɡ...1954) provided an adjusted F tabled value based on the value of ε as shown in the middle of this slide. Alternatively, the Imhof (1962) Table is...freedom from sample data in randomized block and split-plot designs. Journal of Educational Statistics, 1, 69-82. Imhof , J.P. (1962). Testing the

  18. Design and Experimental Implementation of Bipedal robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejith C; Sreeshma K

    2012-01-01

    Biped robots have better mobility than conventional wheeled robots, but they tend to tip over easily. To be able to walk stably in various environments, such as on rough terrain, up and down slopes, or in regions containing obstacles, it is necessary for the robot to adapt to the ground conditions with a foot motion, and maintain its stability with a torso motion. In this paper, we first formulate the design and walking pattern for a bipedal robot and then a kicking robot has been developed f...

  19. On experimentation across science, design and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2016-01-01

    . This is something, which is becoming increasingly relevant, as landscape architects and urban planners today have to address the challenges confronting urbanism due to the continued entanglement of urbanisation and anthropogenic processes. These are challenges where the act of destabilizing dichotomies (inside......The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes....../outside, natural/manmade, etc.) is one out of several reasons for not only continuing but also strengthening the landscape laboratories as testing grounds for future urban landscapes and green spaces in the Anthropocene....

  20. Evaluation of seat and non-seat post preparation design using conventional and computational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Design of root canal preparation especially in cervical-third area of the root, is one of many factors involved in the success of post-core restoration. Seat design that is used in Prosthodontics Installation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran, is in the contrary to minimal preparation design. The root fracture resistance of this design has not been proven yet. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the root fracture resistance of seat compare to non-seat design, with two different research methods: experimental laboratory and computer simulation with Finite Element Method (FEM. Method: The experimental laboratory investigation used 20 upper central incisors: 10 used seat design and 10 non-seats, with the cast posts cemented in the preparation. The specimens were tested by using Universal Testing Machine with compressive force until the root fracture. The FEM used 2D digital models: seat and non-seat design of maxillary central incisors using a finite element software. The distribution of internal stress caused by static loading 110N at 135° angle with longitudinal axis of the tooth was evaluated. Result: The results of the fracture strength test showed a significant difference (p = 0.05 between the non-seat group (852.27N ± 112.6N and the seat group (495.78N ± 82.90N. The FEM showed a lower stress concentration in non-seat compare to seat group. This study proved that non-seat distributes stress better than seat design. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the FEM confirmed the result of the laboratory method. Stress concentration will cause fracture, therefore root fracture resistance in the non-seat design was higher than the seat design.

  1. Minimally invasive dentistry: paradigm shifts in preparation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Brian P

    2009-01-01

    While the concept of minimally invasive dentistry has long been considered a rational, viable approach to restorative care, preparation design, material science, and long-term evidentiary support have only recently begun to provide the foundation necessary to support such treatment in the everyday practice. This article reviews the fundamental paradigm shift evidenced in contemporary prosthodontics as required to facilitate the emerging interest in delivering conservative restorative alternatives.

  2. 10 simple rules for best experimental design in ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadi, Farwa

    2016-01-01

    A quick set of rules on how best to execute an experimental design in ecology. From having a clear hypothesis to obtaining accurate statistics, this guide will help make sure authors are on the right track before publishing. The 10 simple rules are based on articles written to help readers and editors learn more about experimental design and how to avoid any unseeable pitfalls. These rules act as a checklist for authors to go through to make sure they have created the best experimental design...

  3. Preparation of experimental and numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komárek Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation of the experimental setup and the results of the CFD analysis for the investigation of the unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil at different flow conditions. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel located in the Centre of Hydraulic Research in Lutín. The tunnel is integrated into the closed horizontal loop of the hydraulic test rig. The transparent test section provides a full view of the flow around the hydrofoil. The hydrofoil incidence angle is fully adjustable. Two variants of hydrofoil of the same geometry have been designed. One variant is equipped with pressure tap holes for the measurement of the static pressure, and the other variant is covered with a grid of five PVDF films, fully integrated in the hydrofoil. The PVDF films enable to measure the impact forces exerted on the hydrofoil surface by the collapsing cavitation structures. The high-frequency pressure oscillations downstream of the hydrofoil trailing edge are measured using the PVDF hydrophone. The cavitating flow is visualized using two simultaneously operating high-speed cameras providing the top and side views of the flow. A preliminary CFD analysis using the ANSYS CFX package helped to determine the flow regimes for the experimental study. The obtained CFD results agree well with the preliminary measurements.

  4. Preparation of experimental and numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Martin; Sedlář, Milan; Vyroubal, Michal; Zima, Patrik; Müller, Miloš; Pálka, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the preparation of the experimental setup and the results of the CFD analysis for the investigation of the unsteady cavitating flow around a prismatic NACA 2412 hydrofoil at different flow conditions. The experimental research is carried out in the cavitation water tunnel located in the Centre of Hydraulic Research in Lutín. The tunnel is integrated into the closed horizontal loop of the hydraulic test rig. The transparent test section provides a full view of the flow around the hydrofoil. The hydrofoil incidence angle is fully adjustable. Two variants of hydrofoil of the same geometry have been designed. One variant is equipped with pressure tap holes for the measurement of the static pressure, and the other variant is covered with a grid of five PVDF films, fully integrated in the hydrofoil. The PVDF films enable to measure the impact forces exerted on the hydrofoil surface by the collapsing cavitation structures. The high-frequency pressure oscillations downstream of the hydrofoil trailing edge are measured using the PVDF hydrophone. The cavitating flow is visualized using two simultaneously operating high-speed cameras providing the top and side views of the flow. A preliminary CFD analysis using the ANSYS CFX package helped to determine the flow regimes for the experimental study. The obtained CFD results agree well with the preliminary measurements.

  5. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Mitov, Gergo; Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the f...

  6. Numerical taxonomy of maize landraces: comparison between experimental designs

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    [EN] Seventy three maize (Zea mays L.) landraces from Northwestern Spain were grown according to two different experimental design.The first one (design A) was a randomized complete blocks design with two replications per trial at two locations for two years. The second design (desing B) is simpler than the first one: the populations were grown at one location without replications for three years. Numerical taxonomy of these landraces was made according to results of the field trials u...

  7. Simultaneous optimal experimental design for in vitro binding parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C Steven; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous optimization of in vitro ligand binding studies using an optimal design software package that can incorporate multiple design variables through non-linear mixed effect models and provide a general optimized design regardless of the binding site capacity and relative binding rates for a two binding system. Experimental design optimization was employed with D- and ED-optimality using PopED 2.8 including commonly encountered factors during experimentation (residual error, between experiment variability and non-specific binding) for in vitro ligand binding experiments: association, dissociation, equilibrium and non-specific binding experiments. Moreover, a method for optimizing several design parameters (ligand concentrations, measurement times and total number of samples) was examined. With changes in relative binding site density and relative binding rates, different measurement times and ligand concentrations were needed to provide precise estimation of binding parameters. However, using optimized design variables, significant reductions in number of samples provided as good or better precision of the parameter estimates compared to the original extensive sampling design. Employing ED-optimality led to a general experimental design regardless of the relative binding site density and relative binding rates. Precision of the parameter estimates were as good as the extensive sampling design for most parameters and better for the poorly estimated parameters. Optimized designs for in vitro ligand binding studies provided robust parameter estimation while allowing more efficient and cost effective experimentation by reducing the measurement times and separate ligand concentrations required and in some cases, the total number of samples.

  8. Active Photonic Crystal Switches: Modeling, Design and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi; Kristensen, Philip Trøst;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed numerica......In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed...

  9. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the Interactions of Additives ... When a conventional starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) lead acid battery is ... Typical flooded nominal 8 Ah test cells were assembled in a reverse ratio ...

  10. The nonstandard algorithm for constructing efficient conjoint experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a research technique for measuring consumer preferences, and it is a method for simulating consumers' possible reactions to changes in current products or newly introduced products into an existing competitive market. One of the most critical steps in Conjoint analysis application is experimental designs construction. The purpose of an experimental design is to give a rough overall idea as to the shape of the experimental response surface, while only requiring a relatively small number of runs. These designs are expected to be orthogonal and balanced in an ideal case. In practice, though, it is hard to construct optimal designs and thus constructing of near optimal and efficient designs is carried out. There are several ways to quantify the relative efficiency of experimental designs. The choice of measure will determine which types of experimental designs are favored as well as the algorithms for choosing efficient designs. In this paper it is proposed the algorithm which combines one standard and one non-standard optimality criteria. The computational experiments were made, and results of comparison with algorithm implemented in commercial package SPSS confirm the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. .

  11. Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Memo No. 88-442 ~LECTE March 1988 31988 %,.. MvAY 1 98 0) PROCESS MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Emmanuel...Sachs and George Prueger Abstract A methodology is presented for the construction of process models by the combination of physically based mechanistic...253-8138. .% I " Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design" by Emanuel Sachs Assistant Professor and George

  12. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    an open-loop behavior , where no feedback is involved , and the observations from any experiment do not affect the design of other experiments...developing and refining models of physical systems. Yet experimental observations can be difficult, time- consuming , and expensive to acquire. In this...improve design and decision-making under uncertainty. Yet experimental observations can be difficult, time- consuming , and expensive to acquire. In this

  13. Experimental Design: Utilizing Microsoft Mathematics in Teaching and Learning Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviyanthi, Rina; Supriani, Yani

    2015-01-01

    The experimental design was conducted to investigate the use of Microsoft Mathematics, free software made by Microsoft Corporation, in teaching and learning Calculus. This paper reports results from experimental study details on implementation of Microsoft Mathematics in Calculus, students' achievement and the effects of the use of Microsoft…

  14. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  15. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  16. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  17. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Robertson, Chuck L.; Haygood, Christian S.; Herdliksa, Anna M.; Herdliska, Heather R.; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads. PMID:28904647

  18. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Shanks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  19. [Effect of Tri-V-Plus preparation on experimental echinococcal pathology in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanginian, A V; Kazarian, G S; Ovselian, L M

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Tri-V-Plus preparation in experimental rats with echinococcal pathology have been studied by monitoring the indices of free-radical oxidation of lipids, oxidative degradation of proteins, and variation of the content of nitric oxide during experimental echinococcosis and upon the introduction of Tri-V-Plus as a therapeutic agent.

  20. Preparing side charging of PCM storage: theoretical and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, A. H.; Hagos, F. Y.; Yohannes, K. G.; Nydal, O. J.; Kahsay, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    In Ethiopia, there is an abundant source of solar energy that is estimated to 5.3 kWh/m2/day. However, more than 90% of the society uses biomass as a main source of energy for cooking due to lack of technologies to convert this energy. Replacing these cooking activities by using renewable energy resources decreases pollution and reduces deforestation significantly. Using the solar energy in day time has no problem. For night time however, the system needs some kind of back-up system to make the daytime solar energy available. This back-up should have high-density energy storage and constant working temperature to perform a specific application. Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) is one way of storing thermal energy. In the current study, a latent heat storage that uses a PCM material is used to store the solar energy aimed at utilizing solar energy for cooking Injera, main staple bread in Ethiopia. The PCM is a mixture of 60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3 that are known as solar salts. The storage has a welded parallel aluminum fins with a gap of 40 mm in between to enhance the thermal conductivity during the charging-discharging process of the storage. The fins are extruded outside of the storage container to enable a side charging technique for the PCM. A prototype was developed with a solar salt of 17.5 kg and is tested for charging-discharging. The numerical simulation done on ANSYS and experimental results show an agreement and the system registered a 41.6% efficiency.

  1. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  2. Fundamentals of experimental design: lessons from beyond the textbook world

    Science.gov (United States)

    We often think of experimental designs as analogous to recipes in a cookbook. We look for something that we like and frequently return to those that have become our long-standing favorites. We can easily become complacent, favoring the tried-and-true designs (or recipes) over those that contain unkn...

  3. Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Peter De B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The topics of experimental design and modeling are important for inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. Many general chemistry and quantitative analysis courses introduce students to spreadsheet programs, such as MS Excel. Students in the laboratory sections of these courses use titrimetry as a quantitative measurement method. Unfortunately, the only model that students may be exposed to in introductory chemistry courses is the working curve that uses the linear model. A novel experiment based on a multiplex model has been devised for titrating several vinegar samples at a time. The multiplex titration can be applied to many other routine determinations. An experimental design model is fit to titrimetric measurements using the MS Excel LINEST function to estimate concentration from each sample. This experiment provides valuable lessons in error analysis, Class A glassware tolerances, experimental simulation, statistics, modeling, and experimental design.

  4. Experimental Study and Design of Balloon expandable Endovascular Stent Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-xuan; YI Hong; NI Zhong-hua

    2005-01-01

    The application background and experimental research overview of medical endovascular stent are presented. Based on the analytical comparison of the current research achievements, the life cycle of medical endovascular stent is pointed out and the characteristics of stent expansion in the life cycle are emphasized on.The experimental scheme of in vitro stent expansion based on the machine vision technology in LabVIEW is presented. The selection and usage of the chosen component devices and design of measurement program for experiment are expatiated. A special drug-loading stent was expanded on the assembled platform of selected equipments and experimental results were analyzed. The experimental scheme presented in the paper provides powerful experimental support for the optimization of stent design and computer simulation of stent expansion by the finite element analysis.

  5. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  6. Designing Online Resources in Preparation for Authentic Laboratory Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Rachel; Parisky, Alex; Leong, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Professional development for science teachers can be benefited through active learning in science laboratories. However, how online training materials can be used to complement traditional laboratory training is less understood. This paper explores the design of online training modules to teach molecular biology and user perception of those modules that were part of an intensive molecular biology "boot camp" targeting high school biology teachers in the State of Hawaii. The John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii had an opportunity to design and develop professional development that prepares science teachers with an introduction of skills, techniques, and applications for their students to conduct medical research in a laboratory setting. A group of 29 experienced teachers shared their opinions of the online materials and reported on how they used the online materials in their learning process or teaching.

  7. Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

    The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

  8. Characterizing the Experimental Procedure in Science Laboratories: A Preliminary Step towards Students Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cedric; Ney, Muriel; Sanchez, Eric; Wajeman, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have stressed students' lack of understanding of experiments in laboratories. Some researchers suggest that if students design all or parts of entire experiment, as part of an inquiry-based approach, it would overcome certain difficulties. It requires that a procedure be written for experimental design. The aim of this paper is to…

  9. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  10. Useful experimental designs and rank order statistics in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zendler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental educational research is of great impact because it illuminates cause-and-effect relationships by accumulating empirical evidence. The present article does not propose new methods but brings three useful experimental designs as well as appropriate statistical procedures (rank order statistics to the attention of the reader to conduct educational experiments, even with small samples. By means of their systematic use combined with the process-product paradigm of experimental educational research, the influence of essential variables (teacher, context, and process variables in schools, universities, and other educational institutions can be investigated. The statistical procedures described in this article guarantee that small samples (e.g. a school class can be successfully used, and that product variables (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, transfer are only required to meet the criteria of an ordinal scale. The experimental designs and statistical procedures are exemplified by hypothetical data and detailed calculations.

  11. Reliability of single sample experimental designs: comfortable effort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W S; Morris, R J; DeGroot, T; Murry, T

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the intrasubject variability across multiple recording sessions-most often disregarded in reporting group mean data or unavailable because of single sample experimental designs. Intrasubject variability was assessed within and across several experimental sessions from measures of speaking fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, and reading rate. Three age groups of men and women--young, middle-aged, and elderly--repeated the vowel /a/, read a standard passage, and spoke extemporaneously during each experimental session. Statistical analyses were performed to assess each speaker's variability from his or her own mean, and that which consistently varied for any one speaking sample type, both within or across days. Results indicated that intrasubject variability was minimal, with approximately 4% of the data exhibiting significant variation across experimental sessions.

  12. Computer-Generated Experimental Designs for Irregular-Shaped Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Nam K.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2005-09-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of computer-generated designs on irregularly-shaped, constrained regions. Overviews of the Fedorov exchange algorithm (FEA) and other exchange algorithms for the construction of D-optimal designs are given. A faster implementation of the FEA is presented, which is referred to as fast-FEA (denoted FFEA). The FFEA was applied to construct D-optimal designs for several published examples with constrained experimental regions. Designs resulting from the FFEA are more D-efficient than published designs, and provide benchmarks for future comparisons of design construction algorithms. The construction of G-optimal designs for constrained regions is also discussed and illustrated with a published example.

  13. Experimental Design and Power Calculation for RNA-seq Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijin; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Power calculation is a critical component of RNA-seq experimental design. The flexibility of RNA-seq experiment and the wide dynamic range of transcription it measures make it an attractive technology for whole transcriptome analysis. These features, in addition to the high dimensionality of RNA-seq data, bring complexity in experimental design, making an analytical power calculation no longer realistic. In this chapter we review the major factors that influence the statistical power of detecting differential expression, and give examples of power assessment using the R package PROPER.

  14. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  15. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2017-08-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  16. Optimal Bayesian experimental design for contaminant transport parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsilifis, Panagiotis; Hajali, Paris

    2015-01-01

    Experimental design is crucial for inference where limitations in the data collection procedure are present due to cost or other restrictions. Optimal experimental designs determine parameters that in some appropriate sense make the data the most informative possible. In a Bayesian setting this is translated to updating to the best possible posterior. Information theoretic arguments have led to the formation of the expected information gain as a design criterion. This can be evaluated mainly by Monte Carlo sampling and maximized by using stochastic approximation methods, both known for being computationally expensive tasks. We propose an alternative framework where a lower bound of the expected information gain is used as the design criterion. In addition to alleviating the computational burden, this also addresses issues concerning estimation bias. The problem of permeability inference in a large contaminated area is used to demonstrate the validity of our approach where we employ the massively parallel vers...

  17. The analysis of cytotoxicity of an experimental preparation used for the reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasiewicz, Marta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Gibas, Mirosław; Pawlak, Justyna; Więckiewicz, Włodzimierz; Mertas, Anna; Król, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The problem of effective treatment of dentin hypersensitivity is still valid and not fully resolved. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential toxicity against body tissues of an experimental preparation which is supposed to reduce dentin hypersensitivity and to compare it to a commercial formulation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) by means of measuring the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases (the MTT assay). The study used an original protective formulation which is supposed to eliminate hypersensitivity of dentin. A commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) was used as the comparative material. Cytotoxic activity of the tested preparations (experimental and commercial) on murine lymphocyte cells CCL-1™ (NCTC clone 929) was determined in indirect contact with the use of the MTT test that measured the activity of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme. A comparison of the results obtained in the MTT assay for the commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) and the experimental formulation indicates that an experimental formulation has considerably lower cytotoxicity before polymerization, when compared to the commercial formulation, regardless of its dilution. However, after the polymerization of the commercial formulation was completed, its parameters improved significantly, especially for higher dilution values (1 : 10 and 1 : 15). Results for the experimental formulation are higher, particularly for the dilution value of 1 : 5. The overall summary of the results obtained from the MTT assay for the commercial preparation Seal & Protect (Dentsply) and the experimental formulation indicates that the experimental formulation had a significantly lower cytotoxicity before polymerization in comparison with the commercial formulation, regardless of dilution. Estimating the biocompatibility of a given material is not simple, and measurement methods are rapidly evolving, as more and more is known about the interaction between dental materials and

  18. Optimization of preservatives in a topical formulation using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahali, Y; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Mielcarek, C; Bensouda, Y

    2009-12-01

    Optimizing the preservative regime for a preparation requires the antimicrobial effectiveness of several preservative combinations to be determined. In this study, three preservatives were tested: benzoic acid, sorbic acid and benzylic alcohol. Their preservative effects were evaluated using the antimicrobial preservative efficacy test (challenge-test) of the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A D-optimal mixture design was used to provide a maximum of information from a limited number of experiments. The results of this study were analysed with the help of the Design Expert software and enabled us to formulate emulsions satisfying both requirements A and B of the EP.

  19. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  20. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  1. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  2. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  3. Model selection in systems biology depends on experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D W; Barnes, Chris P; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-06-01

    Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis.

  4. Applications of Chemiluminescence in the Teaching of Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Tomasz; Slupska, Roksana; Baj, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a single-session laboratory experiment devoted to teaching the principles of factorial experimental design. Students undertook the rational optimization of a luminol oxidation reaction, using a two-level experiment that aimed to create a long-lasting bright emission. During the session students used only simple glassware and…

  5. Statistiscal Experimental Design for Quantitative Atomic Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aert, S.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical experimental design is applied to set up quantitative atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments. In such experiments, observations of the atomic structure of the object under study are always subject to spontaneous fluctuations. As a result of these fluctuations, the

  6. Using experimental designs to understand the development of peer relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orobio De Castro, Bram; Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of peer relations. A description is emerging of how peer relations develop. Surprisingly, though, we know less about why peer relations develop as they do. Experimental designs provide opportunities to learn about causal pr

  7. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  8. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghattas, Omar

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  9. Design and Experimental Research on a New Pipe Rupture Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-liang; XU Bing; YANG Hua-yong; ZHANG Yi-ding

    2006-01-01

    A new pipe rupture valve for hydraulic elevator is designed.Mathematical models established for the hydraulic elevator system are used in numefical simulations on the Simulink environment of Matlab kits.The effects of different viscous damping diameters.inlet pressures of pipe rupture valve.and elevator loads on the hydraulic elevator system's dynamic performance are analyzed.Expefimenml research is also carried out using a hydraulic elevator experiment rig.The numerical simulations accord with experimental results in general.Dynamic performance indexes are assessed by the EN812 standard.The results show that the newly designed pipe rupture valve meets the designing requirement for hydraulic elevators.

  10. Application of Box-Behnken design to prepare gentamicin-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki Dizaj, Solmaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Zarrintan, Mohammad-Hossein; Adibkia, Khosro

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and optimize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles as carriers for gentamicin sulfate. A chemical precipitation method was used to prepare the gentamicin sulfate-loaded CaCO3 nanoparticles. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure, with the molar ratio of CaCl2: Na2CO3 (X1), the concentration of drug (X2), and the speed of homogenization (X3) as the independent variables. The particle size and entrapment efficiency were considered as response variables. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used, along with the counter plots, to relate the dependent and independent variables. The results indicated that the speed of homogenization was the main variable contributing to particle size and entrapment efficiency. The combined effect of all three independent variables was also evaluated. Using the response optimization design, the optimized Xl-X3 levels were predicted. An optimized formulation was then prepared according to these levels, resulting in a particle size of 80.23 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 30.80%. It was concluded that the chemical precipitation technique, together with the Box-Behnken experimental design methodology, could be successfully used to optimize the formulation of drug-incorporated calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

  11. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  12. Cervical end preparation design on collarless metal ceramic crown to the decrease of bacterial colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Machmud

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical end preparation design is an important procedure in fixed partial denture. If the cervical end preparation design is inadequate, dental plaque will easily be formed and this may indicate the beginning of periodontal disease. Purpose: This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cervical end preparation design on collarless metal ceramic crown towards the decrease of bacterium colony number. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental study applying pre and post test on a control group involving 48 subjects with shoulder, bevel shoulder, and deep chamfer cervical end preparation. The bacterium colonies were examined on the 1st, 7th, and 21st days after the insertion of collarless metal ceramic crown. Results: The study showed that bacterium colony increased significantly in deep chamfer and bevel shoulder preparation design between the treatment group and the control group (p<0.05. In shoulder preparation there was not significant different between the treatment group and the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Compared to the bevel shoulder and deep chamfer, shoulder design is the best design for collarless metal ceramic crown restoration.Latar belakang: Desain preparasi tepi servikal merupakan suatu tahap yang sangat menentukan dalam pembuatan gigi tiruan cekat. Apabila desain preparasi tepi servikal tidak adekuat dapat menyebabkan pembentukan plak gigi pada daerah tersebut. Keadaan ini merupakan tahap awal terjadinya penyakit periodontal. Tujuan: Untuk menganalisis pengaruh desain preparasi tepi servikal yang dibuat pada mahkota collarless metal ceramic untuk mengurangi jumlah bakterium koloni. Metode: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental semu dengan metode pre and post test dan kelompok kontrol terhadap 48 subyek penelitian. Dilakukan preparasi gigi dan pembuatan akhiran preparasi tepi servikal shoulder, bevel shoulder, dan deep chamfer pada subyek penelitian. Pemeriksaan koloni bakteri dilakukan pada hari ke-1

  13. Design, preparation and application of nucleic acid delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Gene delivery vectors must deliver their cargoes into the cytosol or the nucleus, where DNA or siRNA functions in vivo. Therefore it is crucial for the rational design of the nucleic acid delivery carriers. Compared with viral vectors, non-viral vectors have overcome some fatal defections in gene therapy. Whereas the most important issue for the non-viral vectors is the low transfection efficiency, which hinders the progress of non-viral carriers. Sparked by the structures of the virus and understanding of the process of virus infection, various biomimic structures of non-viral carriers were designed and prepared to improve the transfection issues in vitro and in vivo. However, less impressive results are achieved. In this review, we will investigate the evolution of the virus-mimicking carriers of nucleic acids for gene therapy, especially in cancer therapy; explore and discuss the relationship between the structures, materials and functions of the carriers, to provide guidance for establishing safe and highly efficient non-viral carriers for gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural Concrete Prepared with Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregate: From Investigation to Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Corinaldesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of mechanical behaviour and elastic properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC is presented. RACs were prepared by using a coarse aggregate fraction made of recycled concrete coming from a recycling plant in which rubble from concrete structure demolition is collected and suitably treated. Several concrete mixtures were prepared by using either the only virgin aggregates (as reference or 30% coarse recycled aggregate replacing gravel and by using two different kinds of cement. Different water-to-cement ratios were adopted ranging from 0.40 to 0.60. Concrete workability was always in the range 190–200 mm. Concrete compressive strength, elastic modulus, and drying shrinkage were evaluated. Results obtained showed that structural concrete up to C32/40 strength class can be manufactured with RAC. Moreover, results obtained from experimentation were discussed in order to obtain useful information for RAC structure design, particularly in terms of elastic modulus and drying shrinkage prediction.

  15. Convergence in parameters and predictions using computational experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, David R; White, Jacob K; Tidor, Bruce

    2013-08-06

    Typically, biological models fitted to experimental data suffer from significant parameter uncertainty, which can lead to inaccurate or uncertain predictions. One school of thought holds that accurate estimation of the true parameters of a biological system is inherently problematic. Recent work, however, suggests that optimal experimental design techniques can select sets of experiments whose members probe complementary aspects of a biochemical network that together can account for its full behaviour. Here, we implemented an experimental design approach for selecting sets of experiments that constrain parameter uncertainty. We demonstrated with a model of the epidermal growth factor-nerve growth factor pathway that, after synthetically performing a handful of optimal experiments, the uncertainty in all 48 parameters converged below 10 per cent. Furthermore, the fitted parameters converged to their true values with a small error consistent with the residual uncertainty. When untested experimental conditions were simulated with the fitted models, the predicted species concentrations converged to their true values with errors that were consistent with the residual uncertainty. This paper suggests that accurate parameter estimation is achievable with complementary experiments specifically designed for the task, and that the resulting parametrized models are capable of accurate predictions.

  16. Lab-Scale Fiber Spinning Experimental Design Cost Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Moreland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many statistical experimental designs are too costlyor require too much raw material to be feasible forlab-scale fiber spinning experiments. In this study afour-factor response surface design is presented tostudy the fiber spinning process in detail at the labscale. The time, cost, and amount of raw materialrequired to execute the proposed design are comparedto the typical completely randomized 24 factorialdesign used in fiber spinning experiments and also toa standard four-factor response surface design.Sample fiber data as well as analysis from a typicalstatistical software package is provided to furtherdemonstrate the differences between each design. Bydesignating some treatment factors in the design ashard-to-change, split-plotting is used to reduce thetime, cost, and amount of raw material required tocomplete the experiment. The proposed split-plotdesign is faster and less expensive than a typicalfactorial design and has the advantage of fitting amore complex second-order model to the system.When compared to a standard response surfacedesign, the proposed split-plot design provides thesame second-order modeling capabilities but reducesthe cost of the experiment by 53%, the total time by36%, and the amount of polymer required by 24%.Thus, a split-plot response surface design based onhard-to-change factors is recommended in lab-scalespinning.

  17. Experimental design for parameter estimation of gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Steiert

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims for building quantitative models to address unresolved issues in molecular biology. In order to describe the behavior of biological cells adequately, gene regulatory networks (GRNs are intensively investigated. As the validity of models built for GRNs depends crucially on the kinetic rates, various methods have been developed to estimate these parameters from experimental data. For this purpose, it is favorable to choose the experimental conditions yielding maximal information. However, existing experimental design principles often rely on unfulfilled mathematical assumptions or become computationally demanding with growing model complexity. To solve this problem, we combined advanced methods for parameter and uncertainty estimation with experimental design considerations. As a showcase, we optimized three simulated GRNs in one of the challenges from the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM. This article presents our approach, which was awarded the best performing procedure at the DREAM6 Estimation of Model Parameters challenge. For fast and reliable parameter estimation, local deterministic optimization of the likelihood was applied. We analyzed identifiability and precision of the estimates by calculating the profile likelihood. Furthermore, the profiles provided a way to uncover a selection of most informative experiments, from which the optimal one was chosen using additional criteria at every step of the design process. In conclusion, we provide a strategy for optimal experimental design and show its successful application on three highly nonlinear dynamic models. Although presented in the context of the GRNs to be inferred for the DREAM6 challenge, the approach is generic and applicable to most types of quantitative models in systems biology and other disciplines.

  18. Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

  19. Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, D M [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  20. HPLC analysis of oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria tomentosa: sample preparation and analysis optimisation by factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Gustavo; Franco, Luzia; Oliveira, Brás Heleno de

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa ("cat's claw") is widely used for the treatment of some infectious and inflammatory diseases. Oxindole alkaloids are regarded as the most important components responsible for the biological activities attributed to the plant. Their analysis require efficient sample preparation and suitable reference standards but few are commercially available. To develop and validate a HPLC analytical method for oxindole alkaloids in Uncaria tomentosa with emphasis on sample preparation. Factorial experimental designs were used for the optimisation of both sample preparation and chromatographic separation. The optimised sample preparation involved extraction with aqueous ethanol, and the granulometry of the powdered plant material significantly influenced extraction yields. Mitraphylline was used as a calibration reference for the determination of total alkaloids. The method was fully validated and showed good selectivity, linearity (r²  ≥ 0.9996), accuracy (≥ 96%) and precision (RSD < 2.4%). Detection and quantification limits for mitraphylline were 0.8 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The optimised chromatographic method, using organic buffer in the mobile phase, provided baseline separation of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids in the samples. Calibration using mitraphylline provided more accurate estimates of total alkaloid content when compared to other available reference alkaloids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  2. Experimental design unified concepts, practical applications, and computer implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Bowerman, Bruce L

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and innovative book that gives a complete presentation of the design and analysis of experiments in approximately one half the space of competing books. With only the modest prerequisite of a basic (non-calculus) statistics course, this text is appropriate for the widest possible audience. Two procedures are generally used to analyze experimental design data-analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Because ANOVA is more intuitive, this book devotes most of its first three chapters to showing how to use ANOVA to analyze balanced (equal sample size) experiment

  3. Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  4. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  5. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  6. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  7. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF VITAMIN E ADJUVANTED OIL EMULSIFIED INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS EXPERIMENTAL VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ALI, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND M. ASHRAF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to prepare oil emulsified (OE infectious bronchitis (IB experimental vaccines. The vaccines were prepared using the vaccinal strain H-120 Infectious Bonchitis virus (IBV. The virus was cultivated in 9-day old embryonated eggs via allantoic cavity route. Allantoic-amniotic fluid (AAF was collected and inactivated with formalin @ 0.12%. Water in oil emulsion was prepared by adding one part of AAF to four parts of mineral oil containing water phase (Tween 80 and oil phase (Span 80 surfactants. Hydrophile lypohile balance (HLB of the emulsion was maintained at 7.0. Two oil emulsified experimental vaccines were prepared. Vaccine-I was prepared without vitamin E and Vaccine-II with vitamin E (300 mg/ml. A total of 120 day-old broiler breeder chickens were divided into 4 groups, A, B, C, and D, each having 30 birds. At the age of 21 days, experimental Vaccine-I, experimental vaccine-II and commercial IB killed (H-120 vaccine were inoculated @ 0.5 ml in the birds of groups A, B and C, respectively. Group D was maintained as nonvaccinated control. Efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated on the basis of humoral immune response (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres against IB in the four groups. The seven weeks cumulative mean antibody titres (CMT of each group were calculated. The highest CMT was observed in group B (130, followed by group C (69, group A (58 and group D (17. Statistical analysis showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres in group B (vaccine- II were significantly higher than those of groups A, B and C (P< 0.05.

  8. Contract design and insurance fraud: An experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Frauke; Schiller, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of insurance contract design on the behavior of filing fraudulent claims in an experimental setup. We test how fraud behavior varies for insurance contracts with full coverage, a straight deductible or variable premiums (bonus-malus contract). In our experiment, filing fraudulent claims is a dominant strategy for selfish participants, with no psychological costs of committing fraud. While some people always commit fraud, a substantial share of people only oc...

  9. Experimental framework for autonomous fast ships's control design

    OpenAIRE

    Recas Piorno, Joaquín; Esteban San Román, Segundo; Girón Sierra, José María; Cruz García, Jesús Manuel de la

    2005-01-01

    The research on seakeeping control of fast ships requires difficult experiments for modeling and control design. To alleviate the ship motion certain active appendages are added, such moving flaps, T-foil and fins. The motion of appendages must be optimized to counteract each encountered wave. During our first research steps, a scaled down ship, with scaled appendages, has been used in a towing tank facility. The scaled ship is towed at fixed speeds of experimental interest, for instance at t...

  10. Gradient-based stochastic optimization methods in Bayesian experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Optimal experimental design (OED) seeks experiments expected to yield the most useful data for some purpose. In practical circumstances where experiments are time-consuming or resource-intensive, OED can yield enormous savings. We pursue OED for nonlinear systems from a Bayesian perspective, with the goal of choosing experiments that are optimal for parameter inference. Our objective in this context is the expected information gain in model parameters, which in general can only be estimated u...

  11. Parameter Estimation and Experimental Design in Groundwater Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ne-zheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments on parameter estimation and experimental design in the field of groundwater modeling. Special considerations are given when the structure of the identified parameter is complex and unknown. A new methodology for constructing useful groundwater models is described, which is based on the quantitative relationships among the complexity of model structure, the identifiability of parameter, the sufficiency of data, and the reliability of model application.

  12. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Issaid, Chaouki Ben

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  13. Statistical analysis of sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals using Taguchi experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, Sima [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halladj, Rouein, E-mail: halladj@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Mahdi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals. ► Using Taguchi experimental design (L9) for optimizing the experimental procedure. ► The significant effects of all the ultrasonic parameters on the response. - Abstract: SAPO-34 nanocrystals with high crystallinity were synthesized by means of sonochemical method. An L9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was implemented to investigate the effects of sonication conditions on the preparation of SAPO-34 with respect to crystallinity of the final product phase. The experimental data establish the favorable phase crystallinity which is improved by increasing the ultrasonic power and the sonication temperature. In the case of ultrasonic irradiation time, however, an initial increases in crystallinity from 5 min to 15 min is followed by a decrease in crystallinity for longer sonication time.

  14. Theoretical and experimental performance analysis for cold trap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanath, M.G., E-mail: hemanath@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Meikandamurthy, C.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Padmakumar, G.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-10-15

    Cold trap is a purification unit used in sodium system of FBR's for maintaining the oxygen/hydrogen level in sodium within acceptable limits. It works on the principle of crystallization and precipitation of oxides/hydrides of sodium in a wire mesh, when the temperature of sodium is reduced below the saturation temperature. The cold traps presently used have lower effectiveness and get plugged prematurely. The plugged cold traps are cleaned and then put back into service. Frequent cleaning of cold trap results in the long down time of the sodium system. New design of cold trap has been conceived to overcome the above problems. The mathematical modeling for the new design was carried out and validated with experimentally tested results for its effectiveness. This paper shares the experience gained on the new design of cold trap for FBR's.

  15. Design and experimental study of a novel giant magnetostrictive actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guangming; Zhang, Peilin; He, Zhongbo; Li, Dongwei; Huang, Yingjie; Xie, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Giant magnetostrictive actuator has been widely used in precise driving occasions for its excellent performance. However, in driving a switching valve, especially the ball-valve in an electronic controlled injector, the actuator can't exhibit its good performance for limits in output displacement and responding speed. A novel giant magnetostrictive actuator, which can reach its maximum displacement for being exerted with no bias magnetic field, is designed in this paper. Simultaneously, elongating of the giant magetostrictive material is converted to shortening of the actuator's axial dimension with the help of an output rod in "T" type. Furthermore, to save responding time, the driving voltage with high opening voltage while low holding voltage is designed. Responding time and output displacement are studied experimentally with the help of a measuring system. From measured results, designed driving voltage can improve the responding speed of actuator displacement quite effectively. And, giant magnetostrictive actuator can output various steady-state displacements to reach more driving effects.

  16. Comparison of Chamfer and Deep Chamfer Preparation Designs on the Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Core Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Jalalian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. One of the major problems of all-ceramic restorations is their probable fracture under occlusal force. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer and deep chamfer on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic restorations, CERCON. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was carried out with single-blind experimental technique. One stainless steel die with 50’ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm deep was prepared using a milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dies were prepared. The same die was retrieved and 50' chamfer was converted into a deep chamfer design (1 mm. Again ten epoxy resin dies were prepared from the deep chamfer die. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 µm cement space were fabricated on the epoxy resin dies (10 chamfer and 10 deep chamfer samples. The zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dies and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine and the samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure. Results. The mean values of fracture resistance for deep chamfer and chamfer samples were 1426.10±182.60 and 991.75±112.00 N, respectively. Student’s t-test revealed statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion. The results indicated a relationship between the marginal design of zirconia cores and their fracture resistance. A deep chamfer margin improved the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations, which might be attributed to greater thickness and rounded internal angles in deep chamfer margins.

  17. Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Knuth, K. H.

    2011-03-01

    The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. This algorithm is inspired by Skilling's nested sampling algorithm used in inference and borrows the concept of a rising threshold while a set of experiment samples are maintained. We demonstrate that this algorithm not only selects highly relevant experiments, but also is more efficient than brute force search. Such entropic search techniques promise to greatly benefit autonomous experimental design.

  18. Technological issues and experimental design of gene association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, Johanna K; Taverna, Darin M

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the genome are genotyped in individuals who are phenotypically well characterized, -currently represent the most popular strategy for identifying gene regions associated with common -diseases and related quantitative traits. Improvements in technology and throughput capability, development of powerful statistical tools, and more widespread acceptance of pooling-based genotyping approaches have led to greater utilization of GWAS in human genetics research. However, important considerations for optimal experimental design, including selection of the most appropriate genotyping platform, can enhance the utility of the approach even further. This chapter reviews experimental and technological issues that may affect the success of GWAS findings and proposes strategies for developing the most comprehensive, logical, and cost-effective approaches for genotyping given the population of interest.

  19. Entropy-Based Search Algorithm for Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Malakar, N K

    2010-01-01

    The scientific method relies on the iterated processes of inference and inquiry. The inference phase consists of selecting the most probable models based on the available data; whereas the inquiry phase consists of using what is known about the models to select the most relevant experiment. Optimizing inquiry involves searching the parameterized space of experiments to select the experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. In the case where it is important to learn about each of the model parameters, the relevance of an experiment is quantified by Shannon entropy of the distribution of experimental outcomes predicted by a probable set of models. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, we must search this high-dimensional entropy space. Brute force search methods will be slow and computationally expensive. We present an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment for efficient experimental design. ...

  20. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  1. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  2. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  3. Experimental evaluation of eco-friendly flocculants prepared from date palm rachis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramzi Khiari; Sonia Dridi-Dhaouadi; Chadlia Aguir; Mohamed Farouk Mhenni

    2010-01-01

    Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa) is an anionic water soluble polyelectrolyte widely used in many industrial sectors including food,textiles,papers,adhesives,paints,pharmaceuticals,cosmetics and mineral processing.CMCNa was produced by chemical modification of cellulose,and represents many advantages:natural,renewable,non-toxic and biodegradable.In this study,different kinds of CMCNa,prepared from an agricultural waste date palm rachis,were tested as eco-friendly flocculants for drinking water treatment and their performances as flocculants in turbidity removal enhancement were assessed.The prepared materials were characterized by the degree of substitution (DS) and polymerisation (DP).The study of the effect of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance,using the prepared materials combined with aluminium sulphate (as coagulant),showed that the best conditions for turbidity treatment were given for pH 8,coagulant dose 20 mg/L,flocculant concentration of 100 mg/L and stirring velocity (during the flocculation step) of 30 r/min.Under the optimum conditions,the turbidity removal using CMCNa,prepared from raw material,was about 95%.A comparison study between the flocculation performance of a commercial anionic flocculant (A100 PWG:polyacrylamide) and that of the prepared CMCNa showed that the performance of the waste-based flocculant with a DS of 1.17 and a DP of 480 was 10% better than that achieved by the commercial one.

  4. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  5. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  6. Designing artificial enzymes from scratch: Experimental study and mesoscale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Pavel V.; Zaborina, Olga E.; Klimova, Tamara P.; Lozinsky, Vladimir I.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; Khokhlov, Alexey R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new concept for designing biomimetic analogs of enzymatic proteins; these analogs are based on the synthetic protein-like copolymers. α-Chymotrypsin is used as a prototype of the artificial catalyst. Our experimental study shows that in the course of free radical copolymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers the target globular nanostructures of a "core-shell" morphology appear in a selective solvent. Using a mesoscale computer simulation, we show that the protein-like globules can have a large number of catalytic centers located at the hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell interface.

  7. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  8. On the proper study design applicable to experimental balneology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    The simple message of this paper is that it is the high time to reevaluate the strategies and optimize the efforts for investigation of thermal (spa) waters. Several articles trying to clear mode of action of medicinal waters have been published up to now. Almost all studies apply the unproven hypothesis, namely the inorganic ingredients are in close connection with healing effects of bathing. Change of paradigm would be highly necessary in this field taking into consideration the presence of several biologically active organic substances in these waters. A successful design for experimental mechanistic studies is approved.

  9. Experimental design methodology: the scientific tool for performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1990-09-01

    With the rapid growth of the signal and image processing technology in the last several decades has arisen the need for means of evaluating and comparing the numerous algorithms and systems that are created or are being developed. Performance evaluation, in the past, has been mostly ad hoc and incohesive. In this paper we present a systematic step by step approach for the scientific evaluation of signal and image processing algorithms and systems. This approach is based on the methodology of Experimental Design. We illustrate this method by means of an example from the field of automatic object recognition.

  10. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  11. Comparing Simulated Emission from Molecular Clouds Using Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Yeremi, Miayan; Offner, Stella; Loeppky, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new approach to comparing simulated observations that enables us to determine the significance of the underlying physical effects. We utilize the methodology of experimental design, a subfield of statistical analysis, to establish a framework for comparing simulated position-position-velocity data cubes to each other. We propose three similarity metrics based on methods described in the literature: principal component analysis, the spectral correlation function, and the Cramer multi-variate two sample similarity statistic. Using these metrics, we intercompare a suite of mock observational data of molecular clouds generated from magnetohydrodynamic simulations with varying physical conditions. Using this framework, we show that all three metrics are sensitive to changing Mach number and temperature in the simulation sets, but cannot detect changes in magnetic field strength and initial velocity spectrum. We highlight the shortcomings of one-factor-at-a-time designs commonly used in astrophysics an...

  12. Parameters optimization for enzymatic assays using experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. M. Burkert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for maximization enzymatic activity were determined using experimental design and inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 16045. The effects of substrate concentration (sucrose and inulin, pH and temperature on inulinase activity were verified using four factorial design and surface response analysis. Using sucrose as substrate. It has bean shown that the effects sucrose on enzymatic activity is not statistically significant and the best condition for the highest activity (110 U/mL was achieved with temperature between 60°C and 68°C and pH between 4.5 and 5.0. Using inulin as substrate it was verified that temperature is the only variable statistically significant and the maximum activity was 7.3 U/mL at temperature between 50°C and 51°C.

  13. Bayesian experimental design for models with intractable likelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for designing experiments for efficiently estimating the parameters of models with computationally intractable likelihoods. The approach combines a commonly used methodology for robust experimental design, based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to ensure that no likelihood evaluations are required. The utility function considered for precise parameter estimation is based upon the precision of the ABC posterior distribution, which we form efficiently via the ABC rejection algorithm based on pre-computed model simulations. Our focus is on stochastic models and, in particular, we investigate the methodology for Markov process models of epidemics and macroparasite population evolution. The macroparasite example involves a multivariate process and we assess the loss of information from not observing all variables.

  14. Librarians and Graphic Design: Preparation, Roles, and Desired Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Diana K.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians often become de facto graphic designers for their libraries, taking responsibility for designing signage, handouts, brochures, web pages, and many other promotional, instructional, and wayfinding documents. However, the majority of librarians with graphic design responsibilities are not trained as graphic designers. This exploratory…

  15. Librarians and Graphic Design: Preparation, Roles, and Desired Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Diana K.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians often become de facto graphic designers for their libraries, taking responsibility for designing signage, handouts, brochures, web pages, and many other promotional, instructional, and wayfinding documents. However, the majority of librarians with graphic design responsibilities are not trained as graphic designers. This exploratory…

  16. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  17. Logical Experimental Design and Execution in the Biomedical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Daniel J; Marino, Michael J

    2017-03-17

    Lack of reproducibility has been highlighted as a significant problem in biomedical research. The present unit is devoted to describing ways to help ensure that research findings can be replicated by others, with a focus on the design and execution of laboratory experiments. Essential components for this include clearly defining the question being asked, using available information or information from pilot studies to aid in the design the experiment, and choosing manipulations under a logical framework based on Mill's "methods of knowing" to build confidence in putative causal links. Final experimental design requires systematic attention to detail, including the choice of controls, sample selection, blinding to avoid bias, and the use of power analysis to determine the sample size. Execution of the experiment is done with care to ensure that the independent variables are controlled and the measurements of the dependent variables are accurate. While there are always differences among laboratories with respect to technical expertise, equipment, and suppliers, execution of the steps itemized in this unit will ensure well-designed and well-executed experiments to answer any question in biomedical research. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Prediction uncertainty and optimal experimental design for learning dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letham, Benjamin; Letham, Portia A.; Rudin, Cynthia; Browne, Edward P.

    2016-06-01

    Dynamical systems are frequently used to model biological systems. When these models are fit to data, it is necessary to ascertain the uncertainty in the model fit. Here, we present prediction deviation, a metric of uncertainty that determines the extent to which observed data have constrained the model's predictions. This is accomplished by solving an optimization problem that searches for a pair of models that each provides a good fit for the observed data, yet has maximally different predictions. We develop a method for estimating a priori the impact that additional experiments would have on the prediction deviation, allowing the experimenter to design a set of experiments that would most reduce uncertainty. We use prediction deviation to assess uncertainty in a model of interferon-alpha inhibition of viral infection, and to select a sequence of experiments that reduces this uncertainty. Finally, we prove a theoretical result which shows that prediction deviation provides bounds on the trajectories of the underlying true model. These results show that prediction deviation is a meaningful metric of uncertainty that can be used for optimal experimental design.

  20. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  1. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  2. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  3. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-08

    In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

  4. Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Cotton, James A; Zardoya, Rafael; Wilkinson, Mark; Massingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Taxon and character sampling are central to phylogenetic experimental design; yet, we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman's method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of which taxon additions would increase information about a particular weakly supported branch of the caecilian phylogeny by the greatest amount. We have now gathered mitogenomic and rag1 sequences (some newly determined for this study) from additional caecilian species and studied how information (both expected and observed) and bootstrap support vary as each new taxon is individually added to our previous data set. This provides the first empirical test of specific predictions made using Goldman's method for phylogenetic experimental design. Our results empirically validate the top 3 (more intuitive) taxon addition predictions made in our previous study, but only information results validate unambiguously the 4th (less intuitive) prediction. This highlights a complex relationship between information and support, reflecting that each measures different things: Information is related to the ability to estimate branch length accurately and support to the ability to estimate the tree topology accurately. Thus, an increase in information may be correlated with but does not necessitate an increase in support. Our results also provide the first empirical validation of the widely held intuition that additional taxa that join the tree proximal to poorly supported internal branches are more informative and enhance support more than additional taxa that join the tree more distally. Our work supports the view that adding more data for a single (well

  5. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃–55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. RESULTS The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. CONCLUSION The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26949485

  6. Experimental design schemes for learning Boolean network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atias, Nir; Gershenzon, Michal; Labazin, Katia; Sharan, Roded

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A holy grail of biological research is a working model of the cell. Current modeling frameworks, especially in the protein–protein interaction domain, are mostly topological in nature, calling for stronger and more expressive network models. One promising alternative is logic-based or Boolean network modeling, which was successfully applied to model signaling regulatory circuits in human. Learning such models requires observing the system under a sufficient number of different conditions. To date, the amount of measured data is the main bottleneck in learning informative Boolean models, underscoring the need for efficient experimental design strategies. Results: We developed novel design approaches that greedily select an experiment to be performed so as to maximize the difference or the entropy in the results it induces with respect to current best-fit models. Unique to our maximum difference approach is the ability to account for all (possibly exponential number of) Boolean models displaying high fit to the available data. We applied both approaches to simulated and real data from the EFGR and IL1 signaling systems in human. We demonstrate the utility of the developed strategies in substantially improving on a random selection approach. Our design schemes highlight the redundancy in these datasets, leading up to 11-fold savings in the number of experiments to be performed. Availability and implementation: Source code will be made available upon acceptance of the manuscript. Contact: roded@post.tau.ac.il PMID:25161232

  7. Comparing simulated emission from molecular clouds using experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremi, Miayan; Flynn, Mallory; Loeppky, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Departments of Physics and Statistics, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Offner, Stella [Yale University Astronomy Department, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We propose a new approach to comparing simulated observations that enables us to determine the significance of the underlying physical effects. We utilize the methodology of experimental design, a subfield of statistical analysis, to establish a framework for comparing simulated position-position-velocity data cubes to each other. We propose three similarity metrics based on methods described in the literature: principal component analysis, the spectral correlation function, and the Cramer multi-variate two-sample similarity statistic. Using these metrics, we intercompare a suite of mock observational data of molecular clouds generated from magnetohydrodynamic simulations with varying physical conditions. Using this framework, we show that all three metrics are sensitive to changing Mach number and temperature in the simulation sets, but cannot detect changes in magnetic field strength and initial velocity spectrum. We highlight the shortcomings of one-factor-at-a-time designs commonly used in astrophysics and propose fractional factorial designs as a means to rigorously examine the effects of changing physical properties while minimizing the investment of computational resources.

  8. Design and Preparation of RF System for the Lower Hybrid Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive Research on VEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ho; Jeong, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Byung Je [Kwang Woon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Gab; Lee, Hyun Young; Hwang, Yong Seok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Continuous current drive is one of the key issues for tokamak to be a commercial fusion reactor. As a part of new and efficient current drive concept research by using a Lower Hybrid Fast Wave (LHFW), the experimental study is planned on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) and a RF system is being developed in collaboration with Kwang Woon University (KWU), Korea Accelerator Plasma Research Association (KAPRA) and Seoul National University (SNU). The LHFW RF system includes UHF band klystron, inter-digital antenna, RF diagnostics and power transmission sub components such as circulator, DC breaker, vacuum feed-thru. The design and preparation status of the RF system will be presented in the meeting in detail. A RF system has been designed and prepared for the experimental study of efficient current drive by using Lower Hybrid Fast Wave. Overall LHFW RF system including diagnostics is designed to deliver about 10 kW in UHF band. And the key hardware components including klystron and antenna are being prepared and designed through the collaboration with KWU, KAPRA and SNU.

  9. An experimental assessment of toxic potential of nanoparticle preparation of heavy metals in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul Sureshrao

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals have attracted enormous scientific and technological interest. Biologically produced nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals are elaborately described in traditional texts and being widely prescribed. The underlying interactions of nano preparations within the physiological fluids are key feature to understand their biological impact. In this perspective, we performed an experimental assessment of the toxicity potential of a marketed metallic preparation named Vasant Kusumakar Ras (VKR), wherein different heavy metals in composite form are reduced to nanoparticle size to produce the desired effect in diabetes and its complications. VKR (50mg/kg) was administered to Albino Wistar rats rendered diabetic using streptozotocin (90mg/kg) in 2 days old neonates. Anti-hyperglycemic effect was observed with VKR along with increased levels of plasma insulin. Renal variables including total proteins and albumin along with glomerular filtration rate were found to improve biochemically. The results were supplemented by effects on different inflammatory and growth factors like TNF-α, nitric oxide, TGF-β and VEGF. However, the results observed in kidney histopathology were not in accordance with the biochemical parameters. Inflammation observed in kidney was confirmed by immunostaining metallothionein, which was due to the accumulation of heavy metals. Furthermore, mercury accumulation in kidney further confirmed by autometallography, which activated mononuclear phagocyte system, which generated an immune response. This was further supported by increase in the extent of apoptosis in kidney tissues. In conclusion, nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals can be toxic to kidney if it is not regulated with respect to its surface chemistry and dosage.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  11. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-05-12

    Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

  12. Design and construction of the IEA Grimethorpe experimental facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.H.; Wright, S.J.; Kaden, M.

    1979-06-01

    In December 1975 the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, entered into an agreement to build a large pressurized fluidized bed combustion experimental facility. The function of the facility would be to extend the range of fluidization and combustion characteristics investigated from those of the relatively small rigs then in operation across the whole range of conditions potentially applicable to combined cycle power generation systems. The ranges of conditions to be investigated in the facility are pressures 6 to 12 bar, fluidizing velocity 0.6 to 3.0 m/s and bed temperatures 750 to 950/sup 0/C. The ultimate aim is to seek an optimum condition and establish a data base from which a demonstration plant could be designed and built.

  13. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  14. An experimental design method leading to chemical Turing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2009-05-08

    Chemical reaction-diffusion patterns often serve as prototypes for pattern formation in living systems, but only two isothermal single-phase reaction systems have produced sustained stationary reaction-diffusion patterns so far. We designed an experimental method to search for additional systems on the basis of three steps: (i) generate spatial bistability by operating autoactivated reactions in open spatial reactors; (ii) use an independent negative-feedback species to produce spatiotemporal oscillations; and (iii) induce a space-scale separation of the activatory and inhibitory processes with a low-mobility complexing agent. We successfully applied this method to a hydrogen-ion autoactivated reaction, the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, and noticeably produced stationary hexagonal arrays of spots and parallel stripes of pH patterns attributed to a Turing bifurcation. This method could be extended to biochemical reactions.

  15. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  16. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  17. A retrospective mathematical analysis of controlled release design and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Sam N; Kay, Jennifer E; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A; Little, Steven R

    2012-11-01

    The development and performance evaluation of new biodegradable polymer controlled release formulations relies on successful interpretation and evaluation of in vitro release data. However, depending upon the extent of empirical characterization, release data may be open to more than one qualitative interpretation. In this work, a predictive model for release from degradable polymer matrices was applied to a number of published release data in order to extend the characterization of release behavior. Where possible, the model was also used to interpolate and extrapolate upon collected released data to clarify the overall duration of release and also kinetics of release between widely spaced data points. In each case examined, mathematical predictions of release coincide well with experimental results, offering a more definitive description of each formulation's performance than was previously available. This information may prove particularly helpful in the design of future studies, such as when calculating proper dosing levels or determining experimental end points in order to more comprehensively evaluate a controlled release system's performance.

  18. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  19. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  20. Experimental design of mixture applied to study PVP hydrogels properties crosslinked by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Mara Tania S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: maratalcantara@uol.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taqueda, Maria Elena S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogels are three dimensional hydrophilic crosslinked polymeric networks that have capacity to swell by absorbing water or biological fluids without dissolve. Hydrogels have been widely used in different application fields from agriculture, industry and in biomedicine. The properties of a hydrogel are extremely important in selecting which materials are suitable for a specific application. So mixtures can offer hydrogels with different properties to different applications. The PVP hydrogels were prepared by gamma radiation of an aqueous polymer solution and crosslinked by gamma ray, an effective and simple method for hydrogel formation that offers some advantages over the other techniques. In this work, a mixture experimental design was used to study the relationship between polymer cross-linking and swelling properties of PVP hydrogels with PEG as plasticizer and agar as gellifier. The gel fraction was measured for every mixture specified for the experiment D-optimal designs. (author)

  1. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  2. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  3. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  4. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Like many rapidly growing industries, advances in video game technology are far outpacing research on its design and effectiveness. Relatively little is understood about how to apply what we know about teaching and learning to optimize game-based learning. For the most part, instructional designers know little about game development and video game…

  5. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As noted in part I of this article (published in "TechTrends 54"(3)), advances in technology continue to outpace research on the design and effectiveness of instructional (digital video) games. In general, instructional designers know little about game development, commercial video game developers know little about training, education and…

  6. Design and Preparation of Nanoparticle Dimers for SERS Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    into the Synthesis, Design and Processing of Narrow Band Gap Organic Semiconducting Polymers for Solar Cell Fabrication, Unam National Institute of...Technology, Unam , Korea, November 2010. Insight into the Synthesis, Design and Processing of Narrow Band Gap Organic Semiconducting Polymers for Solar

  7. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  8. Large-scale experimental design for decentralized SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alex; Dellaert, Frank

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of large scale decentralized SLAM under a variety of experimental conditions to illustrate design trade-offs relevant to multi-robot mapping in challenging environments. As a part of work through the MAST CTA, the focus of these robot teams is on the use of small-scale robots with limited sensing, communication and computational resources. To evaluate mapping algorithms with large numbers (50+) of robots, we developed a simulation incorporating sensing of unlabeled landmarks, line-of-sight blocking obstacles, and communication modeling. Scenarios are randomly generated with variable models for sensing, communication, and robot behavior. The underlying Decentralized Data Fusion (DDF) algorithm in these experiments enables robots to construct a map of their surroundings by fusing local sensor measurements with condensed map information from neighboring robots. Each robot maintains a cache of previously collected condensed maps from neighboring robots, and actively distributes these maps throughout the network to ensure resilience to communication and node failures. We bound the size of the robot neighborhoods to control the growth of the size of neighborhood maps. We present the results of experiments conducted in these simulated scenarios under varying measurement models and conditions while measuring mapping performance. We discuss the trade-offs between mapping performance and scenario design, including robot teams separating and joining, multi-robot data association, exploration bounding, and neighborhood sizes.

  9. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  10. Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii in northern traditional (country) foods prepared with meat from experimentally infected seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lorry B; Measures, Lena; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2009-08-01

    Serological and clinical evidence of human toxoplasmosis in the Canadian Arctic indicates a food safety risk associated with the consumption of wild game meat. Such meat often is eaten raw or partially cooked in locally prepared traditional (country) foods, but no data have been collected to describe survival of Toxoplasma gondii forms in these foods. The muscle of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts was used to prepare three country foods: igunaq, a fermented product; nikku, a dried product; and sausage, a salted and spiced product. Igunaq and nikku were stored at 4 degrees C and bioassayed in cats at 49, 95, and 140 days postpreparation (DPP) and 41, 84, and 132 DPP, respectively. Raw and cooked sausages were stored at -20 degrees C and bioassayed at 50, 92, and 141 DPP. The source seal meat was infective for cats, but none of the foods prepared with this meat were infective for cats. Some cooked sausages did not reach internal temperatures considered lethal for T. gondii. Data from studies in domestic animals suggested that the negative results in this experiment were due to temperature and duration of storage. Because of the possibility that T. gondii of arctic origin might be more freeze tolerant than the swine-origin isolate used in this experiment, additional studies are necessary to clarify the risks of toxoplasmosis associated with consumption of arctic country foods.

  11. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  12. Comparison of load-fatigue performance of posterior ceramic onlay restorations under different preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kois, Dean E; Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the load-fatigue performance of posterior ceramic onlay restorations relative to two variables: preparation design (with or without buccal veneers); and the existing amount of tooth structure (non-worn tooth, worn tooth). Sixty extracted third molars were divided into five groups. One group received a mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) gold onlay restoration (control). The other four experimental groups were prepared for ceramic onlay restorations. Two of the groups additionally received 2-mm occlusal reduction to simulate occlusal wear. All restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling prior to fatigue testing. A fatigue load of 150 N was applied on the occlusal surface at a frequency of 1.2 hz, at an angle of 135 degrees to the long axis of the tooth. Specimen failure was defined as the occurrence of crack propagation in the luting cement layer. This was monitored by the strain gauge on the specimen. All specimens restored on worn tooth had significantly lower fatigue failure cycle counts than those of non-worn tooth. The fracture mode analysis revealed that ceramic fracture tended to be demonstrated only in the group of worn tooth groups. The addition of a buccal veneer component had no significant effect on the load-fatigue performance of posterior ceramic onlay restorations, but the existing amount of tooth structure did have a significant effect on the load-fatigue performance of posterior ceramic onlay restorations. Catastrophic failures (ceramic fracture) occurred only in the group of worn tooth.

  13. Statistical vs. stochastic experimental design: an experimental comparison on the example of protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselment, Bernd; Schoemig, Veronika; Kesten, Christopher; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of experimental problems is a challenging task in both engineering and science. In principle, two different design of experiments (DOE) strategies exist: statistical and stochastic methods. Both aim to efficiently and precisely identify optimal solutions inside the problem-specific search space. Here, we evaluate and compare both strategies on the same experimental problem, the optimization of the refolding conditions of the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus with 26 variables under study. Protein refolding is one of the main bottlenecks in the process development for recombinant proteins. Despite intensive effort, the prediction of refolding from sequence information alone is still not applicable today. Instead, suitable refolding conditions are typically derived empirically in large screening experiments. Thus, protein refolding should constitute a good performance test for DOE strategies. We compared an iterative stochastic optimization applying a genetic algorithm and a standard statistical design consisting of a D-optimal screening step followed by an optimization via response surface methodology. Our results revealed that only the stochastic optimization was able to identify optimal refolding conditions (~1.400 U g(-1) refolded activity), which were 3.4-fold higher than the standard. Additionally, the stochastic optimization proved quite robust, as three independent optimizations performed similar. In contrast, the statistical DOE resulted in a suboptimal solution and failed to identify comparable activities. Interactions between process variables proved to be pivotal for this optimization. Hence, the linear screening model was not able to identify the most important process variables correctly. Thereby, this study highlighted the limits of the classic two-step statistical DOE.

  14. Preparing for Distance Learning: Designing An Online Student Orientation Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane D. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the analysis undertaken to design a 1-credit-hour online orientation course for students new to online learning. An instructional design team, as a part of an advanced instructional design course, worked with a university-based client. The client identified specific problem areas encountered by novice students of online courses and the team designed a comprehensive program to meet those needs. Analysis of the data revealed surprising differences in expectations between instructors of online courses and their students of what an orientation to online learning should include. The team also conducted a task analysis to aid in further identifying the skills, knowledge and attitudes required by students for success in online courses. Findings indicated that there is a need for online learners to understand the time commitment required of an online course and possess or develop strong time management skills. Because of small sample size, results cannot be generalized beyond the respondents. The authors found a mismatch in the perception of instructor technical skills versus student technical skill. Based on their findings, the paper provides recommendations on the appropriate design, development and implementation of an orientation to online learning.

  15. Results of Numerical Modeling and Experimental Activities in Preparation of the Maxus-5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, Edmondo; Castagnolo, Dario; Albano, Floriana; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes numerical and experimental research activities carried out at MARS center for the preparation of an experiment on the Marangoni migration of a dissolving drop, composed by a liquid binary mixture having a miscibility gap. The paper integrates the results already presented in the previous congress, the emphasis is set on the determination of the parameters to be used for the MAXUS 5 sounding rocket mission, which is scheduled for spring 2003. Level set technique has been used for the calculation of the non-steady thermo-solutal capillary flow evolution in a bounded medium.Migration velocities and volume variation are calculated for different Marangoni numbers. The results of the numerical simulations provide the determination of drop radii and temperature gradients to be used during 12 minutes of low gravity, as provided by a MAXUS rocket. Experimental results provide accurate information on the refraction index gradient variation, due to the improvement of the interpretation of the fringe pattern. These results have allowed us to determine the optical parameters that optimize the Wollaston interferometer features. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement.

  16. Experimental Preparation and Numerical Simulation of High Thermal Conductive Cu/CNTs Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsan Ali Samer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of high performance electronics devices accompanied by overheating problem, heat dissipater nanocomposites material having ultra-high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion was proposed. In this work, a nanocomposite material made of copper (Cu reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs up to 10 vol. % was prepared and their thermal behaviour was measured experimentally and evaluated using numerical simulation. In order to numerically predict the thermal behaviour of Cu/CNTs composites, three different prediction methods were performed. The results showed that rules of mixture method records the highest thermal conductivity for all predicted composites. In contrast, the prediction model which takes into account the influence of the interface thermal resistance between CNTs and copper particles, has shown the lowest thermal conductivity which considered as the closest results to the experimental measurement. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities showed remarkable increase after adding 5 vol.% CNTs and higher than the thermal conductivities predicted via Nan models, indicating that the improved fabrication technique of powder injection molding that has been used to produced Cu/CNTs nanocomposites has overcome the challenges assumed in the mathematical models.

  17. Design, preparation, and application of ordered porous polymer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingquan, E-mail: qqliu@hnust.edu.cn; Tang, Zhe; Ou, Baoli; Liu, Lihua; Zhou, Zhihua, E-mail: zhou7381@126.com; Shen, Shaohua; Duan, Yinxiang

    2014-04-01

    Ordered porous polymer (OPP) materials have extensively application prospects in the field of separation and purification, biomembrane, solid supports for sensors catalysts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, photonic band gap materials owing to ordered pore arrays, uniform and tunable pore size, high specific surface area, great adsorption capacity, and light weight. The present paper reviewed the preparation techniques of OPP materials like breath figures, hard template, and soft template. Finally, the applications of OPP materials in the field of separation, sensors, and biomedicine are introduced, respectively. - Highlights: • Breath figures involve polymer casting under moist ambience. • Hard template employs monodisperse colloidal spheres as a template. • Soft template utilizes the etched block in copolymers as template.

  18. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  19. Optimal experimental design with the sigma point method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkendorf, R; Kremling, A; Mangold, M

    2009-01-01

    Using mathematical models for a quantitative description of dynamical systems requires the identification of uncertain parameters by minimising the difference between simulation and measurement. Owing to the measurement noise also, the estimated parameters possess an uncertainty expressed by their variances. To obtain highly predictive models, very precise parameters are needed. The optimal experimental design (OED) as a numerical optimisation method is used to reduce the parameter uncertainty by minimising the parameter variances iteratively. A frequently applied method to define a cost function for OED is based on the inverse of the Fisher information matrix. The application of this traditional method has at least two shortcomings for models that are nonlinear in their parameters: (i) it gives only a lower bound of the parameter variances and (ii) the bias of the estimator is neglected. Here, the authors show that by applying the sigma point (SP) method a better approximation of characteristic values of the parameter statistics can be obtained, which has a direct benefit on OED. An additional advantage of the SP method is that it can also be used to investigate the influence of the parameter uncertainties on the simulation results. The SP method is demonstrated for the example of a widely used biological model.

  20. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  1. Sparsely Sampling the Sky: A Bayesian Experimental Design Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Paykari, P

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of galaxy surveys will observe millions of galaxies over large volumes of the universe. These surveys are expensive both in time and cost, raising questions regarding the optimal investment of this time and money. In this work we investigate criteria for selecting amongst observing strategies for constraining the galaxy power spectrum and a set of cosmological parameters. Depending on the parameters of interest, it may be more efficient to observe a larger, but sparsely sampled, area of sky instead of a smaller contiguous area. In this work, by making use of the principles of Bayesian Experimental Design, we will investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the sparse sampling of the sky and discuss the circumstances in which a sparse survey is indeed the most efficient strategy. For the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we find that by sparsely observing the same area in a smaller amount of time, we only increase the errors on the parameters by a maximum of 0.45%. Conversely, investing the sam...

  2. Correction of algocenosis by the preparation of komplezim in experimental ponds of fish-farm Nyvka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim", which is recommended for the prevention of mass reproduction of blue-green algae through algocoenosis correction, water cleaning and sanitary regime restoration, for the biological balance and self-purification of natural and farmed fish ponds of all sizes exposed to artificial or natural pollution. Methodology. The studies were carried out during 30 days in a 0.01 hectare pond with a depth of 1.0–1.5 m. The doses of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim" in the form of a solution were applied over the water surface of the experimental pond. The conventional techniques of hydrochemistry and hydrobiology were used to perform hydroecological studies. Findings. The study results showed that after the exposure of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim", pH level of water and oxidation rates were within the acceptable limits. Permanganate and dichromate oxidation decreased in the same manner in the middle and end of the experiment compared to initial values. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfate levels were lower compared to control values. This effect can be explained by the fact that bacteria from the “Komplezim” composition in aquatic medium started intensive metabolizing the products of organic decomposition enriched in calcium, magnesium and sulfates. The consequence of the application of "Komplezim" was an increase in the concentration of organic chlorides simultaneously with nitrites. The obtained results indicate that bacteria strains included in the “Komplezim” composition inhibit the processes of cyanobacteria reproduction by algocenosis correction and contributes to the optimization of hydrochemical conditions for pond fish rearing. Originality. The effect of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim" on the reproduction of blue-green algae and hydro-chemical composition of the water has been investigated for the first time. Practical value. Application of the

  3. Tissue response to experimental dental cements prepared from a modified powder glass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Juliana Maria Capelozza; Bertolini, Marcio José; Padovani, Gislaine Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Brancini; Zaghete, Maria Aparecida; de Oliveira Júnior, Osmir Batista; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2012-01-01

    The present work seeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of experimental glass ionomer cements (GIC) prepared from niobium-calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass powder and two commercial GICs. The GICs were implanted into the subcutaneous connective tissue of sixty rats. The rats were sacrificed during four varying time periods: 7, 15, 30, and 60 days and histopathological examinations were then performed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate any significant differences between the materials. Additionally, multiple comparisons of the mean rank were also carried out using the Dunn test (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed that one GIC was superior to the other. The tissue response for all of the GICs tested was similar in all the periods examined.

  4. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Experimental design and data handling in food microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, E A

    1993-02-01

    A discussion on the problems associated with designing experiments in Food Microbiology research is presented. After defining what is meant by Design of an Experiment, a series of questions are raised that, once answered, will help in properly designing the experiment. It is emphasized the chain research-design-model-analysis-design and the danger in blindly using well-known designs and canned programs.

  6. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadidi N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Hadidi1, Farzad Kobarfard2, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh3, Reza Aboofazeli11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.Keywords: phospholipid-PEG, D-optimal design, loading efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, carbon nanotubes

  7. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.;

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L...... experimental design.]it comparison with conventional methodology, the modelling approach enabled a nearly 4-fold decrease in the number of experiments while the microwell experimentation enabled a 45-fold decrease in material requirements and a significant increase in experimental throughput. The approach......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments...

  8. Fungal mediated silver nanoparticle synthesis using robust experimental design and its application in cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhal, Sulbha Girish; Kulkarni, S. D.; Latpate, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    Among the different methods employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the biological method is most favorable and quite well established. In microorganisms, use of fungi in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has a greater advantage over other microbial mediators. In this study, intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus terrerus (Thom) MTCC632 was carried out. We observed that synthesis of silver nanoparticles depended on factors such as temperature, amount of biomass and concentration of silver ions in the reaction mixture. Hence, optimization of biosynthesis using these parameters was carried out using statistical tool `robust experimental design'. Size and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were determined using X-ray diffraction technique, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Nano-embedded cotton fabric was further prepared and studied for its antibacterial properties.

  9. Experimental Design and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Application of Metagenomics in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted the widespread application of metagenomics for the investigation of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and unknown biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. This review discusses the rigorous experimental design and sample preparation in the context of applying metagenomics in environmental sciences and biotechnology. Moreover, this review summarizes the principles, methodologies, and state-of-the-art bioinformatics procedures, tools and database resources for metagenomics applications and discusses two popular strategies (analysis of unassembled reads versus assembled contigs/draft genomes) for quantitative or qualitative insights of microbial community structure and functions. Overall, this review aims to facilitate more extensive application of metagenomics in the investigation of uncultured microorganisms, novel enzymes, microbe-environment interactions, and biohazards in biotechnological applications where microbial communities are engineered for bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation.

  10. Preparation of Peracetic Acid from Acetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide: Experimentation and Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪冰; 张婷; 周玉杰; 刘德华

    2008-01-01

    Based on the kinetic equations and equilibrium constants, some mathematic models were developed for calculating peracetic acid (PAA) concentration, equilibrium conversion rate of hydrogen peroxide, etc. The effects of several parameters on PAA synthesis were investigated by experimentation and modeling. The equilibrium constants determined from the forward and reverse rate constants at 293, 303,313 and 323 K were 2.91, 2.81, 2.72 and 2.63, respectively. The models could predict the values of equilibrium concentration of PAA with average relative deviation of less than 10%. Both of the experimental and model-calculated results demonstrated that temperature and catalyst loading were the most important factors affecting the rate of PAA synthesis, but high temperature led to the decrease of equilibrium concentration of PAA. According to the model, the reaction could achieve equilibrium within 24 h when operated at 303 K with 1%~1.5%(ω) sulfuric acid as catalyst. Additionally, when using anhydrous acetic acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide to prepare PAA, the volumetric ratio of the two solutions should be in the range of 1.2~1.5 in order to obtain the highest equilibrium concentration of PAA. This study can serve as a step towards the further optimization of PAA synthesis and some other related investigations.

  11. Topical application of glycyrrhizin preparation ameliorates experimentally induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohiro Kudo; Shinichi Okamura; Yajing Zhang; Takashige Masuo; Masatomo Mori

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy of glycyrrhizin preparation (GL-p) in the treatment of a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate. Rats with colitis were intrarectally administered GL-p or saline. The extent of colitis was evaluated based on body weight gain,colon wet weight,and macroscopic damage score. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed mucosa were measured by cytokine antibody array analysis. The effect of GL-p on myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the inflamed mucosa and purified enzyme was assayed. RESULTS: GL-p treatment significantly ameliorated the extent of colitis compared to sham treatment with saline. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that GL-p treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,including interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,tumor necrosis factor-α,cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2,and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the inflamed mucosa. Furthermore,GL-p inhibited the oxidative activity of mucosal and purified MPO. CONCLUSION: GL-p enema has a therapeutic effect on experimental colitis in rats and may be useful in the treatment of UC.

  12. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  13. Optimization of model parameters and experimental designs with the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox (v1.0) exemplified by sedimentation in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J.; Schuerch, M.; Slawig, T.

    2015-03-01

    The geosciences are a highly suitable field of application for optimizing model parameters and experimental designs especially because many data are collected. In this paper, the weighted least squares estimator for optimizing model parameters is presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs is described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account the potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches have been combined with two methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open-source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and application is described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two existing models for sediment concentration in seawater and sediment accretion on salt marshes of different complexity served as an application example. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches were compared based on these models. Thanks to optimized experimental designs, the parameters of these models could be determined very accurately with significantly fewer measurements compared to unoptimized experimental designs. The chosen optimization approach played a minor role for the accuracy; therefore, the approach with the least computational effort is recommended.

  14. Designing and preparation of cytisine alkaloid surface-imprinted material and its molecular recognition characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Baojiao, E-mail: gaobaojiao@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Bi, Concon [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Fan, Li [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • An elaborate molecular design was well done for molecule surface-imprinting. • The new method of “pre-graft polymerizing and post-imprinting” was used. • Cytisine molecule surface-imprinted material was prepared. • Cytisine surface-imprinting depends on electrostatic interaction between host–guest. • The imprinted material has special recognition selectivity for template cytisine. - Abstract: Based on molecular design, a cytisine surface-imprinted material was prepared using the new surface-imprinting technique of “pre-graft polymerizing and post-imprinting”. The graft-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles was first performed with a surface-initiating system, preparing the grafted particles PGMA/SiO{sub 2}. Subsequently, a polymer reaction, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted PGMA, was conducted with sodium 2,4-diaminobenzene sulfonate (SAS) as reagent, resulting in the functional grafted particles SAS-PGMA/SiO{sub 2}. The adsorption of cytisine on SAS-PGMA/SiO{sub 2} particles reached saturation via strong electrostatic interaction between the sulfonate groups of SAS-PGMA/SiO{sub 2} particles and the protonated N atoms in cytisine molecule. Finally, cytisine surface-imprinting was successfully carried out with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker, obtaining cytisine surface-imprinted material MIP-SASP/SiO{sub 2}. The binding and recognition characteristics of MIP-SASP/SiO{sub 2} towards cytisine were investigated in depth. The experimental results show that there is strong electrostatic interaction between particles and cytisine molecules, and on this basis, cytisine surface-imprinting can be smoothly performed. The surface-imprinted MIP-SASP/SiO{sub 2} has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for cytisine, and the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SASP/SiO{sub 2} particles for cytisine relative to matrine and oxymatrine, which

  15. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  16. City Connects: Building an Argument for Effects on Student Achievement with a Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary; Raczek, Anastasia; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St. John, Terrence; An, Chen; Akbayin, Bercem; Dearing, Eric; Foley, Claire

    2015-01-01

    While randomized experimental designs are the gold standard in education research concerned with causal inference, non-experimental designs are ubiquitous. For researchers who work with non-experimental data and are no less concerned for causal inference, the major problem is potential omitted variable bias. In this presentation, the authors…

  17. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. 437.85 Section 437.85 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  18. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  19. The influence of the cavity preparation design on marginal accuracy of laboratory-processed resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Soares, Carlos José

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different cavity preparation designs on marginal accuracy of laboratory-processed resin composite restored teeth. Eighty mandibular human third molars were selected. There were two experimental factors, occlusal isthmus width (narrow vs wide) and cuspal coverage (inlay, one-cusp onlay, two-cusp onlay, and all-cusp onlay), resulting on eight groups (N = 10). Indirect composite restorations (SR Adoro, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were manufactured and positioned over each respective preparation. Marginal accuracy evaluation was accomplished using a stereomicroscope at three points on buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal regions with 40x magnification. The results showed significant differences (P = 0.00) with wide inlay showing the best overall marginal accuracy and narrow inlay the worst one. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences when considering the factor occlusal isthmus width (P = 0.00). In general, preparations with wide occlusal isthmus presented better results than narrow ones, except for wide all-cusp onlays; however, the test failed to show differences when considering the cuspal coverage (P = 0.42) or the interaction between both factors (P = 0.30). The effect of occlusal width extension on marginal accuracy of indirect composite resin restorations is significant, with lower values of gaps width in wide preparations, but since in a clinical situation this would mean greater removal of sound tooth structure, less-aggressive preparations combined with other restorative procedures seem to be more feasible.

  20. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. Caroline; Dohmen, Willem M. C.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    2015-01-01

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and th

  1. Designing and preparation of cytisine alkaloid surface-imprinted material and its molecular recognition characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Bi, Concon; Fan, Li

    2015-03-01

    Based on molecular design, a cytisine surface-imprinted material was prepared using the new surface-imprinting technique of "pre-graft polymerizing and post-imprinting". The graft-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles was first performed with a surface-initiating system, preparing the grafted particles PGMA/SiO2. Subsequently, a polymer reaction, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted PGMA, was conducted with sodium 2,4-diaminobenzene sulfonate (SAS) as reagent, resulting in the functional grafted particles SAS-PGMA/SiO2. The adsorption of cytisine on SAS-PGMA/SiO2 particles reached saturation via strong electrostatic interaction between the sulfonate groups of SAS-PGMA/SiO2 particles and the protonated N atoms in cytisine molecule. Finally, cytisine surface-imprinting was successfully carried out with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker, obtaining cytisine surface-imprinted material MIP-SASP/SiO2. The binding and recognition characteristics of MIP-SASP/SiO2 towards cytisine were investigated in depth. The experimental results show that there is strong electrostatic interaction between particles and cytisine molecules, and on this basis, cytisine surface-imprinting can be smoothly performed. The surface-imprinted MIP-SASP/SiO2 has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for cytisine, and the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SASP/SiO2 particles for cytisine relative to matrine and oxymatrine, which were used as two contrast alkaloids, are 9.5 and 6.5, respectively.

  2. A CLIC Damping Wiggler Prototype at ANKA: Commissioning and Preparations for a Beam Dynamics Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, Axel; Casalbuoni, Sara; Ferracin, Paolo; Garcia Fajardo, Laura; Gerstl, Stefan; Gethmann, Julian; Grau, Andreas; Huttel, Erhard; Khrushchev, Sergey; Mezentsev, Nikolai; Müller, Anke-Susanne; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Saez de Jauregui, David; Schmickler, Hermann; Schoerling, Daniel; Shkaruba, Vitaliy; Smale, Nigel; Tsukanov, Valery; Zisopoulos, Panagiotis; Zolotarev, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    In a collaboration between CERN, BINP and KIT a prototype of a superconducting damping wiggler for the CLIC damping rings has been installed at the ANKA synchrotron light source. On the one hand, the foreseen experimental program aims at validating the technical design of the wiggler, particularly the conduction cooling concept applied in its cryostat design, in a long-term study. On the other hand, the wiggler's influence on the beam dynamics particularly in the presence of collective effects is planned to be investigated. ANKA's low-alpha short-bunch operation mode will serve as a model system for these studies on collective effects. To simulate these effects and to make verifiable predictions an accurate model of the ANKA storage ring in low-alpha mode, including the insertion devices is under parallel development. This contribution reports on the first operational experience with the CLIC damping wiggler prototype in the ANKA storage ring and steps towards the planned advanced experimental program with th...

  3. Formulation and optimization of microemulsion-based organogels containing propranolol hydrochloride using experimental design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hadidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:Lecithin organogels are formed spontaneously by adding a given amount of water to lecithin/organic solvent mixture. The aim of this research was to develop and optimize a semisolid preparation with appropriate release profile. "nMethods: Lecithin organogels containing Propranolol hydrochloride (PR were formulated, based on phase diagram studies, using soybean lecithin (Epikuron 200, isopropyl myristate (IPM and propranolol hydrochloride (PR solutions ( 10, 20, 30, 50 % w/w or water at various lecithin/ IPM weight ratios. The flux and the viscosity of the prepared formulations were determined and further chosen as two responses for optimization, using experimental design and optimization methods (i.e. Modified Simplex and Central Composite Designs, respectively. Results of modified simplex runs (i.e. lecithin: 30-50%, PR: 20-40% and water: 3-4% were also used as constraints for constructing central composite design space. The numerical and graphical optimizations were then run and the "sweet spot" corresponding to the most desirable formulation region compromising both responses were achieved. "nResults: Phase diagrams showed a narrow area of existence of non-birefringent, transparent, viscoelastic region, which was extended as %PR incorporated into the system was increased. It was observed that as the lecithin concentration increased from 30 to 60 % w/w, drug incorporation capacity and viscosity increased while the flux of PR from organogels decreased remarkably. Also it was found through optimization that among the organogels investigated, those formulations containing 31.5-37.5 % w/w lecithin, 30.5-34.5 % w/w PR solutions and 3-3.35 % w/w water possessed the highest flux. "nMajor conclusion: Data confirmed that the choice of lecithin/IPM weight ratio and the amount of drug incorporated may be crucial in determining the performance of an organogel.

  4. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porojan Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior before following their clinical use. Experiments were conducted on a complete molar crown preparation. Experiments show different modes of fracture for the tested samples. Digital images from the fractured pieces of the crowns were used to verify the fragments in all cases final fracture occurred by splitting into two and often more parts. The graphically representation of the displacement depending on the load highlights a series of peaks that can be correlated with cracks occurred in crowns. The development of well-designed mechanical experiments could be useful to help to predict clinical survival of these new all-ceramic restorative techniques and materials. Because failure is often accompanied by complete cracking of the crowns, preliminary research should represents a compulsory goal.

  5. MetLab: An In Silico Experimental Design, Simulation and Analysis Tool for Viral Metagenomics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martin; Karlsson-Lindsjö, Oskar E; Gourlé, Hadrien; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Hayer, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomics, the sequence characterization of all genomes within a sample, is widely used as a virus discovery tool as well as a tool to study viral diversity of animals. Metagenomics can be considered to have three main steps; sample collection and preparation, sequencing and finally bioinformatics. Bioinformatic analysis of metagenomic datasets is in itself a complex process, involving few standardized methodologies, thereby hampering comparison of metagenomics studies between research groups. In this publication the new bioinformatics framework MetLab is presented, aimed at providing scientists with an integrated tool for experimental design and analysis of viral metagenomes. MetLab provides support in designing the metagenomics experiment by estimating the sequencing depth needed for the complete coverage of a species. This is achieved by applying a methodology to calculate the probability of coverage using an adaptation of Stevens' theorem. It also provides scientists with several pipelines aimed at simplifying the analysis of viral metagenomes, including; quality control, assembly and taxonomic binning. We also implement a tool for simulating metagenomics datasets from several sequencing platforms. The overall aim is to provide virologists with an easy to use tool for designing, simulating and analyzing viral metagenomes. The results presented here include a benchmark towards other existing software, with emphasis on detection of viruses as well as speed of applications. This is packaged, as comprehensive software, readily available for Linux and OSX users at https://github.com/norling/metlab.

  6. The Influence of Material Type, Preparation Design, and Tooth Substrate on Fracture Resistance of Molar Onlays

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khalifah, Shahed Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Tooth colored all ceramic restorations have been the treatment preference of many patients for esthetics and biocompatibility. This study aimed to test the fracture resistance of posterior ceramic onlays milled with computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machines.The effects of material type, preparation design, and tooth substrate were evaluated using a full-block design. Ninety teeth were tested. Three different CAD/CAM ceramic onlay material types were included: a...

  7. Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ARL-MR-0896 ●AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture...SUBTITLE Design of a Combined Ballistic Simulator and Primer Force Experimental Fixture 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Contents List of Figures iv Acknowledgments v 1. Introduction 1 2. Background 1 3. Technical Approach 4 3.1 Hardware Design 4 3.2 Experimental Setup

  8. A mixture design approach to optimizing low cholesterol mayonnaise formulation prepared with wheat germ protein isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbari, Mahshid; Aalami, Mehran; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Aghdaei, Seid Soheil Amiri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the mixture proportion of low cholesterol mayonnaise containing wheat germ protein isolate (WGPI) and xanthan gum (XG), as emulsifying agents in mayonnaise preparation. The mayonnaise prepared with different combinations of WGPI, egg yolk (0–9 % of each component) and XG (0–0.5 %). The optimized mixture proportions of low cholesterol mayonnaise were determined by applying the optimal mixture design method to acquire the mayonnaise with proper stability, t...

  9. Design Automation Systems for Production Preparation : Applied on the Rotary Draw Bending Process

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Intensive competition on the global market puts great pressure on manufacturing companies to develop and produce products that meet requirements from customers and investors. One key factor in meeting these requirements is the efficiency of the product development and the production preparation process. Design automation is a powerful tool to increase efficiency in these two processes. The benefits of automating the production preparation process are shortened led-time, improved product perfo...

  10. Efficient Experimental Design Strategies in Toxicology and Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in bioassay often uses linear or nonlinear logistic regression models, and relative potency is often the focus when two or more compounds are to be compared.  Estimation in these settings is typically based on likelihood methods.  Here, we focus on the 3-parameter model representation given in Finney (1978 in which the relative potency is a model parameter.  Using key matrix results and the general equivalence theorem of Kiefer & Wolfowitz (1960, this paper establishes key design properties of the optimal design for relative potency using this model.  We also highlight aspects of subset designs for the relative potency parameter and extend geometric designs to efficient design settings of bioassay.  These latter designs are thus useful for both parameter estimation and checking for goodness-of-fit.  A typical yet insightful example is provided from the field of toxicology to illustrate our findings.

  11. Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

    Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous

  12. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    added (7 mL), heating temperature (84.12°C) and heating time (15 min). When these optimal ... conditions constitute one of the major obstacles for ... a two levels factorial design;. • a design of ... balance (Sartorius Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany),.

  13. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  14. Experimental validation of micro endmill design for hard milling application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Hoogstrate, A.M.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Langen, H.H.; Munnig Schmidt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In experimental investigations of micro milling of hardened tool steel SAE H11, with a hardness of 56 HRC, with commercially available micro square endmills of Ø 0.5mm, it was observed that the endmills suffered from severe tool wear/failure. Because of these problems, the quality of the m

  15. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  16. Gunnar Aagaard Andersen: Commercial Design and Experimental Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen

    2016-01-01

    in Copenhagen and the magazine Mobilia. These enterprises were pioneers within both the commercial–industrial creative field and experimental art from the 1950s. The industrial process, from idea and experiment to production,as well as the expanded field of visual art, was demonstrated in concrete painting...

  17. Preparation of poly(MePEGCA-co-HDCA) nanoparticles with confined impinging jets reactor: experimental and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince, Federica; Bolognesi, Sara; Marchisio, Daniele L; Stella, Barbara; Dosio, Franco; Barresi, Antonello A; Cattel, Luigi

    2011-06-01

    In this work, the biodegradable copolymer poly(methoxypolyethyleneglycolcyanoacrylate-co-hexadecylcyanoacrylate) is used to prepare nanoparticles via solvent displacement in a confined impinging jets reactor (CIJR). For comparison, nanoparticles constituted by the homopolymer counterpart are also investigated. The CIJR is a small passive mixer in which very fast turbulent mixing of the solvent (i.e., acetone and tetrahydrofuran) and of the antisolvent (i.e., water) solutions occurs under controlled conditions. The effect of the initial copolymer concentration, solvent type, antisolvent-to-solvent ratio, and mixing rate inside the mixer on the final nanoparticle size distribution, surface properties, and morphology is investigated from the experimental point of view. The effect of some of these parameters is studied by means of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, capable of quantifying the mixing conditions inside the CIJR. Results show that the CIJR can be profitably used for producing nanoparticles with controlled characteristics, that there is a clear correlation between the mixing rate calculated by CFD and the mean nanoparticle size, and therefore that CFD can be used to design, optimize, and scale-up these processes.

  18. Experimental design for research on shock-turbulence interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, S. W.

    1969-01-01

    Report investigates the production of acoustic waves in the interaction of a supersonic shock and a turbulence environment. The five stages of the investigation are apparatus design, development of instrumentation, preliminary experiment, turbulence generator selection, and main experiments.

  19. Sources of Experimental Variation in 2-D Maps: The Importance of Experimental Design in Gel-Based Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Valcu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The success of proteomic studies employing 2-D maps largely depends on the way surveys and experiments have been organized and performed. Planning gel-based proteomic experiments involves the selection of equipment, methodology, treatments, types and number of samples, experimental layout, and methods for data analysis. A good experimental design will maximize the output of the experiment while taking into account the biological and technical resources available. In this chapter we provide guidelines to assist proteomics researchers in all these choices and help them to design quantitative 2-DE experiments.

  20. Physics Design of Water Moderator Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Niu

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the experimental demand of ADS research,we need to design a suitable criticality assembly.The key problem of the design work is the core design,we design a criticality assembly with the water moderator according to available nuclear material(Fig.1).The theoretical calculation have been

  1. Preparation of Mica and Silicon Substrates for DNA Origami Analysis and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillers, Michelle A.; Shute, Rebecca; Farchone, Adam; Linder, Keenan P.; Doerfler, Rose; Gavin, Corey; Goss, Valerie; Lieberman, Marya

    2015-01-01

    The designed nature and controlled, one-pot synthesis of DNA origami provides exciting opportunities in many fields, particularly nanoelectronics. Many of these applications require interaction with and adhesion of DNA nanostructures to a substrate. Due to its atomically flat and easily cleaned nature, mica has been the substrate of choice for DNA origami experiments. However, the practical applications of mica are relatively limited compared to those of semiconductor substrates. For this reason, a straightforward, stable, and repeatable process for DNA origami adhesion on derivatized silicon oxide is presented here. To promote the adhesion of DNA nanostructures to silicon oxide surface, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is deposited from an aqueous solution that is compatible with many photoresists. The substrate must be cleaned of all organic and metal contaminants using Radio Corporation of America (RCA) cleaning processes and the native oxide layer must be etched to ensure a flat, functionalizable surface. Cleanrooms are equipped with facilities for silicon cleaning, however many components of DNA origami buffers and solutions are often not allowed in them due to contamination concerns. This manuscript describes the set-up and protocol for in-lab, small-scale silicon cleaning for researchers who do not have access to a cleanroom or would like to incorporate processes that could cause contamination of a cleanroom CMOS clean bench. Additionally, variables for regulating coverage are discussed and how to recognize and avoid common sample preparation problems is described. PMID:26274888

  2. Preparation of Mica and Silicon Substrates for DNA Origami Analysis and Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillers, Michelle A; Shute, Rebecca; Farchone, Adam; Linder, Keenan P; Doerfler, Rose; Gavin, Corey; Goss, Valerie; Lieberman, Marya

    2015-07-23

    The designed nature and controlled, one-pot synthesis of DNA origami provides exciting opportunities in many fields, particularly nanoelectronics. Many of these applications require interaction with and adhesion of DNA nanostructures to a substrate. Due to its atomically flat and easily cleaned nature, mica has been the substrate of choice for DNA origami experiments. However, the practical applications of mica are relatively limited compared to those of semiconductor substrates. For this reason, a straightforward, stable, and repeatable process for DNA origami adhesion on derivatized silicon oxide is presented here. To promote the adhesion of DNA nanostructures to silicon oxide surface, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is deposited from an aqueous solution that is compatible with many photoresists. The substrate must be cleaned of all organic and metal contaminants using Radio Corporation of America (RCA) cleaning processes and the native oxide layer must be etched to ensure a flat, functionalizable surface. Cleanrooms are equipped with facilities for silicon cleaning, however many components of DNA origami buffers and solutions are often not allowed in them due to contamination concerns. This manuscript describes the set-up and protocol for in-lab, small-scale silicon cleaning for researchers who do not have access to a cleanroom or would like to incorporate processes that could cause contamination of a cleanroom CMOS clean bench. Additionally, variables for regulating coverage are discussed and how to recognize and avoid common sample preparation problems is described.

  3. Design of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility as of March 1981: a technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    The Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor, which has been built as an extension to the National Coal Board Power Station, which is adjacent to Grimethorpe Colliery, Yorkshire, England, is described in this report. The Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, have agreed to share equally between them the costs of building and operating the plant. Control of the project was vested in an Executive Committee consisting of one representative of each Government with all decisions requiring unanimity. The actual operation of the project was vested in an Operating Agent, NCB (IEA Services) Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the National Coal Board. The Implementing Agreement envisages a seven year project to be executed in four stages: (1) Procurement of Design Study with accompanying tender documents. (2) Tendering for construction of the Plant; study of appraisal of tenders. (3) Construction and acceptance of the Plant. (4) Operation of the Plant. The project is now towards the end of Stage 3. Construction has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the plant for the start of the operational phase in Autumn 1981. Because of the confidentiality of much of the design information, for the purposes of this report technical descriptions have been confined to that of a general appraisal.

  4. Experimental design in formulation of diazepam nanoemulsions: physicochemical and pharmacokinetic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Sanela M; Radulović, Tamara S; Cekić, Nebojša D; Ranđelović, Danijela V; Savić, Miroslav M; Krajišnik, Danina R; Milić, Jela R; Savić, Snežana D

    2013-11-01

    With the aid of experimental design, we developed and characterized nanoemulsions for parenteral drug delivery. Formulations containing a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides and soybean oil as oil phase, lecithin (soybean/egg) and polysorbate 80 as emulsifiers, and 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) as aqueous phase were prepared by cold high-pressure homogenization. To study the effects of the oil content, lecithin type, and the presence of diazepam as a model drug and their interactions on physicochemical characteristics of nanoemulsions, a three factor two-level full factorial design was applied. The nanoemulsions were evaluated concerning droplet size and size distribution, surface charge, viscosity, morphology, drug-excipient interactions, and physical stability. The characterization revealed the small spherical droplets in the range 195 -220 nm with polydispersity index below 0.15 and zeta potential between -30 and - 60 mV. Interactions among the investigated factors, rather than factors alone, were shown to more profoundly affect nanoemulsion characteristics. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of selected diazepam nanoemulsions with different oil content (20%, 30%, and 40%, w/w) demonstrated fast and intense initial distribution into rat brain of diazepam from nanoemulsions with 20% and 30% (w/w) oil content, suggesting their applicability in urgent situations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Nanowire piezo-phototronic photodetector: theory and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zongyin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-03-15

    The piezo-phototronic effect is about the use of the inner crystal piezoelectric potential to tune/control charge carrier generation, separation, transport and/or recombination in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, a theoretical model for describing the characteristics of a metal-nanowire-metal structured piezo-phototronic photodetector is constructed. Numerical simulations fit well to the experimental results of a CdS and ZnO nanowire based visible and UV detector, respectively.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tobias J. R.; Laws, Michael; Kang, Lei; Fan, Yichao; Ramadas, Sivaram N.; Dixon, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)≃15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart. PMID:27571075

  7. Experimental Characterisation of Moreno Cross Slot Couplers for Blass Matrix Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jery Varghese

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental characterisation of Moreno cross-slot coupler which is the basic building block of multiple beam forming network (Blass matrix. The lack of exact theory of such coupler requires extensive experimental evaluation. A novel test jig has been designed, fabricated and tested for this purpose. The experimental results for different scattering parameters are presented.

  8. Using Propensity Scores in Quasi-Experimental Designs to Equate Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Forrest C.; Henson, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Education research rarely lends itself to large scale experimental research and true randomization, leaving the researcher to quasi-experimental designs. The problem with quasi-experimental research is that underlying factors may impact group selection and lead to potentially biased results. One way to minimize the impact of non-randomization is…

  9. "Using Power Tables to Compute Statistical Power in Multilevel Experimental Designs"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    Power computations for one-level experimental designs that assume simple random samples are greatly facilitated by power tables such as those presented in Cohen's book about statistical power analysis. However, in education and the social sciences experimental designs have naturally nested structures and multilevel models are needed to compute the…

  10. Design and Experimental Verification of Deployable/Inflatable Ultra-Lightweight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Because launch cost of a space structural system is often proportional to the launch volume and mass and there is no significant gravity in space, NASA's space exploration programs and various science missions have stimulated extensive use of ultra-lightweight deployable/inflatable structures. These structures are named here as Highly Flexible Structures (HFSs) because they are designed to undergo large displacements, rotations, and/or buckling without plastic deformation under normal operation conditions. Except recent applications to space structural systems, HFSs have been used in many mechanical systems, civil structures, aerospace vehicles, home appliances, and medical devices to satisfy space limitations, provide special mechanisms, and/or reduce structural weight. The extensive use of HFSs in today's structural engineering reveals the need of a design and analysis software and a database system with design guidelines for practicing engineers to perform computer-aided design and rapid prototyping of HFSs. Also to prepare engineering students for future structural engineering requires a new and easy-to- understand method of presenting the complex mathematics of the modeling and analysis of HFSs. However, because of the high flexibility of HFSs, many unique challenging problems in the modeling, design and analysis of HFSs need to be studied. The current state of research on HFSs needs advances in the following areas: (1) modeling of large rotations using appropriate strain measures, (2) modeling of cross-section warpings of structures, (3) how to account for both large rotations and cross- section warpings in 2D (two-dimensional) and 1D structural theories, (4) modeling of thickness thinning of membranes due to inflation pressure, pretension, and temperature change, (5) prediction of inflated shapes and wrinkles of inflatable structures, (6) development of efficient numerical methods for nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, and (7) filling the gap between

  11. A Short Guide to Experimental Design and Analysis for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    study of women’s ratings of men based on masculinity , Frederick and Haselton had participants performing octuple duty – providing ratings of...et al. (2012) CK-12 Middle School Math Grade 6. Vol. 1, CK-12 Foundation Mitchell, M. L. and Jolley, J. M. (2010) Research Design Explained. 7th ed

  12. Design and experimental evaluation of cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Nunen, E. van; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Road throughput can be increased by driving at small inter-vehicle time gaps. The amplification of velocity disturbances in upstream direction, however, poses limitations to the minimum feasible time gap. String-stable behavior is thus considered an essential requirement for the design of automatic

  13. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  14. Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

  15. The Inquiry Flame: Scaffolding for Scientific Inquiry through Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Richard; Parker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In the lesson presented in this article, students learn to organize their thinking and design their own inquiry experiments through careful observation of an object, situation, or event. They then conduct these experiments and report their findings in a lab report, poster, trifold board, slide, or video that follows the typical format of the…

  16. HEAO C-1 gamma-ray spectrometer. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Willett, J. B.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment to be launched on the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO C) will perform a complete sky search for narrow gamma-ray line emission to the level of about 00001 photons/sq cm -sec for steady point sources. The design of this experiment and its performance based on testing and calibration to date are discussed.

  17. Design and experimental evaluation of cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Nunen, E. van; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Road throughput can be increased by driving at small inter-vehicle time gaps. The amplification of velocity disturbances in upstream direction, however, poses limitations to the minimum feasible time gap. String-stable behavior is thus considered an essential requirement for the design of automatic

  18. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. Materials and Methods: A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central

  19. Preparing Graduates for Work in the Creative Industries: A Collaborative Learning Approach for Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Morag; Littlejohn, Allison; Allan, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of collaborative learning strategies in higher education is growing as educators seek better ways to prepare students for the workplace. In design education, teamwork and creativity are particularly valued; successful collaborative learning depends on knowledge sharing between students, and there is increasing recognition that…

  20. The Influence of SLA Training in Curricular Design among Teachers in Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Greg; Bikowski, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on how language teachers in preparation integrate key concepts from second language acquisition (SLA) theory into CALL curricular design. The need for language teachers who have had SLA coursework to receive orientation to student-centered learning in a CALL context has been identified previously (Kessler, 2010). This research…

  1. Tour Guide Robots: An Integrated Research and Design Platform to Prepare Engineering and Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamarthi, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting research and design questions occur at the intersections of traditional disciplines, yet most coursework and research programs for undergraduate engineering students are focused on one discipline. This leads to underutilization of the potential in better preparing students through multidisciplinary projects. Identifying this…

  2. The Influence of SLA Training in Curricular Design among Teachers in Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Greg; Bikowski, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on how language teachers in preparation integrate key concepts from second language acquisition (SLA) theory into CALL curricular design. The need for language teachers who have had SLA coursework to receive orientation to student-centered learning in a CALL context has been identified previously (Kessler, 2010). This research…

  3. Preparing Graduates for Work in the Creative Industries: A Collaborative Learning Approach for Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Morag; Littlejohn, Allison; Allan, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of collaborative learning strategies in higher education is growing as educators seek better ways to prepare students for the workplace. In design education, teamwork and creativity are particularly valued; successful collaborative learning depends on knowledge sharing between students, and there is increasing recognition that…

  4. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. Materials and Methods: A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central inc

  5. Tour Guide Robots: An Integrated Research and Design Platform to Prepare Engineering and Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamarthi, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting research and design questions occur at the intersections of traditional disciplines, yet most coursework and research programs for undergraduate engineering students are focused on one discipline. This leads to underutilization of the potential in better preparing students through multidisciplinary projects. Identifying this…

  6. Preparation of a Designed Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Microvascular Network by Stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller-Ravoo, Sigrid; Zant, Erwin; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Designed flexible and elastic network structures are prepared by stereolithography using a photo-crosslinkable resin based on a poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) macromer with a molecular weight of 3150 g/mol. Physical properties and the compatibility with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (H

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS BY INCORPORATING NIF FACILITY IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, D C; Whitman, P K; Koniges, A E; Anderson, R W; Wang, P; Gunney, B T; Parham, T G; Koerner, J G; Dixit, S N; . Suratwala, T I; Blue, B E; Hansen, J F; Tobin, M T; Robey, H F; Spaeth, M L; MacGowan, B J

    2005-08-31

    For experimental campaigns on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to be successful, they must obtain useful data without causing unacceptable impact on the facility. Of particular concern is excessive damage to optics and diagnostic components. There are 192 fused silica main debris shields (MDS) exposed to the potentially hostile target chamber environment on each shot. Damage in these optics results either from the interaction of laser light with contamination and pre-existing imperfections on the optic surface or from the impact of shrapnel fragments. Mitigation of this second damage source is possible by identifying shrapnel sources and shielding optics from them. It was recently demonstrated that the addition of 1.1-mm thick borosilicate disposable debris shields (DDS) block the majority of debris and shrapnel fragments from reaching the relatively expensive MDS's. However, DDS's cannot stop large, faster moving fragments. We have experimentally demonstrated one shrapnel mitigation technique showing that it is possible to direct fast moving fragments by changing the source orientation, in this case a Ta pinhole array. Another mitigation method is to change the source material to one that produces smaller fragments. Simulations and validating experiments are necessary to determine which fragments can penetrate or break 1-3 mm thick DDS's. Three-dimensional modeling of complex target-diagnostic configurations is necessary to predict the size, velocity, and spatial distribution of shrapnel fragments. The tools we are developing will be used to set the allowed level of debris and shrapnel generation for all NIF experimental campaigns.

  8. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms.

  9. Design and experimental validation of a compact collimated Knudsen source

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Steinar H W; Mutsaers, Peter H A; Vredenbregt, Edgar J D

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design and performance of a collimated Knudsen source which has the benefit of a simple design over recirculating sources. Measurements of the flux, transverse velocity distribution and brightness at different temperatures were conducted to evaluate the performance. The scaling of the flux and brightness with the source temperature follow the theoretical predictions. The transverse velocity distribution in the transparent operation regime also agrees with the simulated data. The source was found able to produce a flux of $10^{14}$ s$^{-1}$ at a temperature of 433 K. Furthermore the transverse reduced brightness of an ion beam with equal properties as the atomic beam reads $1.7 \\times 10^2$ A/(m${}^2$ sr eV) which is sufficient for our goal: the creation of an ultra-cold ion beam by ionization of a laser-cooled and compressed atomic rubidium beam.

  10. Design and experimental demonstration of optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Chris; Wu, Marcelo; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and initial characterization of a paddle nanocavity consisting of a suspended sub-picogram nanomechanical resonator optomechanically coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical and mechanical properties of the paddle nanocavity can be systematically designed and optimized, and key characteristics including mechanical frequency easily tailored. Measurements under ambient conditions of a silicon paddle nanocavity demonstrate an optical mode with quality factor $Q_o$ ~ 6000 near 1550 nm, and optomechanical coupling to several mechanical resonances with frequencies $\\omega_m/2\\pi$ ~ 12-64 MHz, effective masses $m_\\text{eff}$ ~ 350-650 fg, and mechanical quality factors $Q_m$ ~ 44-327. Paddle nanocavities are promising for optomechanical sensing and nonlinear optomechanics experiments.

  11. Design and experimental demonstration of optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a paddle nanocavity consisting of a suspended sub-picogram nanomechanical resonator optomechanically coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical and mechanical properties of the paddle nanocavity can be systematically designed and optimized, and the key characteristics including mechanical frequency can be easily tailored. Measurements under ambient conditions of a silicon paddle nanocavity demonstrate an optical mode with a quality factor Q o ˜ 6000 near 1550 nm and optomechanical coupling to several mechanical resonances with frequencies ω m / 2 π ˜ 12 - 64 MHz, effective masses m eff ˜ 350 - 650 fg, and mechanical quality factors Q m ˜ 44 - 327 . Paddle nanocavities are promising for optomechanical sensing and nonlinear optomechanics experiments.

  12. Design and preparation of matrine surface-imprinted material and studies on its molecule recognition selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qingjuan; Gao, Baojiao; Zhang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    A matrine molecule surface-imprinted material was designed and prepared using an effective surface-imprinting technique developed by our group, and its molecular recognition performance and mechanism were investigated in depth. Monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was first graft-polymerized on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles in surface-initiated graft polymerization manner, obtaining the grafted particles PGMA/SiO(2) with high grafting degree. Subsequently, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted macromolecules PGMA with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was carried out, resulting in the functional grafted particle SA-PGMA/SiO(2), on whose surfaces salicylic acid as functional group was chemically bonded. By right of the mutual strong secondary bond forces, electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles produced strong adsorption for matrine. Finally, with this strong adsorption, matrine molecule surface imprinting was carried out on the surfaces of SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether as cross-linking agent, resulting in the matrine molecule surface-imprinted material MIP-SAP/SiO(2). The binding characteristic of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) toward matrine was investigated in depth with both batch and column methods and using oxymatrine and cytisine as two contrast alkaloids. The experimental results show that MIP-SAP/SiO(2) has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for matrine. Relative to oxymatrine and cytisine, the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) for matrine are 5.66 and 11.17, respectively.

  13. High-power CMUTs: design and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, F Yalçin; Olçum, Selim; Oğuz, H Kağan; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Köymen, Hayrettin; Atalar, Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have great potential to compete with piezoelectric transducers in high-power applications. As the output pressures increase, nonlinearity of CMUT must be reconsidered and optimization is required to reduce harmonic distortions. In this paper, we describe a design approach in which uncollapsed CMUT array elements are sized so as to operate at the maximum radiation impedance and have gap heights such that the generated electrostatic force can sustain a plate displacement with full swing at the given drive amplitude. The proposed design enables high output pressures and low harmonic distortions at the output. An equivalent circuit model of the array is used that accurately simulates the uncollapsed mode of operation. The model facilities the design of CMUT parameters for high-pressure output, without the intensive need for computationally involved FEM tools. The optimized design requires a relatively thick plate compared with a conventional CMUT plate. Thus, we used a silicon wafer as the CMUT plate. The fabrication process involves an anodic bonding process for bonding the silicon plate with the glass substrate. To eliminate the bias voltage, which may cause charging problems, the CMUT array is driven with large continuous wave signals at half of the resonant frequency. The fabricated arrays are tested in an oil tank by applying a 125-V peak 5-cycle burst sinusoidal signal at 1.44 MHz. The applied voltage is increased until the plate is about to touch the bottom electrode to get the maximum peak displacement. The observed pressure is about 1.8 MPa with -28 dBc second harmonic at the surface of the array.

  14. Experimental design and construction of an enhanced solar battery charger

    OpenAIRE

    Faithpraise, Fina; Bassey, Donatus; Charles, Mfon; Osahon, Okoro; Udoh, Monday; Chatwin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    A Solar Battery Charger circuit is designed, built and tested. It acts as a control circuit to monitor and regulate the process of charging several batteries ranging from 4 volts to 12 volts, using a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel as the input source for the battery charging process. The circuit is economical and can be easily constructed from discrete electronic components. The circuit operation is based on matching the solar panel terminal load voltage to the input terminal of the charging c...

  15. Experimental preparation of Werner state via spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y S; Li, C F; Guo, G C; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2002-01-01

    We present an experiment of preparing Werner state via spontaneous parametric down-conversion and controlled decoherence of photons in this paper. In this experiment two independent BBO (beta-barium borate) crystals are used to produce down-conversion light beams, which are mixed to prepare Werner state.

  16. Optimal experimental designs for dose–response studies with continuous endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Holland-Letz, Tim; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In most areas of clinical and preclinical research, the required sample size determines the costs and effort for any project, and thus, optimizing sample size is of primary importance. An experimental design of dose–response studies is determined by the number and choice of dose levels as well as the allocation of sample size to each level. The experimental design of toxicological studies tends to be motivated by convention. Statistical optimal design theory, however, allows the setting of ex...

  17. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  18. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  19. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of senior Brazilian dental students about mouth preparation and removable partial denture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Arcelino Farias; Duarte, Antônio Ricardo Calazans; Shiratori, Fábio Kenji; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Pedro Henrique; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia Marisa; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of senior dental students about mouth preparation and removable partial denture (RPD) design. Two hundred sixty-six senior students from eleven dental schools in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, comprised the sample. The subjects examined two partially edentulous casts mounted on a semiadjustable articulator, answered a questionnaire regarding the treatment plan, and drew the RPD design. The casts consisted of Kennedy Class III, modification 1 maxillary arch and Class II mandibular arch. Ninety percent of the students believed that mouth preparation should be performed although no one was able to name all necessary procedures. For the maxillary arch, 12 percent of the denture designs were completely appropriate, 51 percent were partially appropriate, and 37 percent were inappropriate. For the mandibular arch, the results were 3 percent, 40 percent, and 57 percent, respectively.

  1. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  2. The ISR Asymmetrical Capacitor Thruster: Experimental Results and Improved Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Francis X.; Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    A variety of Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters has been built and tested at the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The thrust produced for various voltages has been measured, along with the current flowing, both between the plates and to ground through the air (or other gas). VHF radiation due to Trichel pulses has been measured and correlated over short time scales to the current flowing through the capacitor. A series of designs were tested, which were increasingly efficient. Sharp features on the leading capacitor surface (e.g., a disk) were found to increase the thrust. Surprisingly, combining that with sharp wires on the trailing edge of the device produced the largest thrust. Tests were performed for both polarizations of the applied voltage, and for grounding one or the other capacitor plate. In general (but not always) it was found that the direction of the thrust depended on the asymmetry of the capacitor rather than on the polarization of the voltage. While no force was measured in a vacuum, some suggested design changes are given for operation in reduced pressures.

  3. Physics Design of Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About Criticality Safety in Spent Fuel Dissolver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to meet the experimental demand of criticality safety research in the spent fuel dissolver, we need to design a suitable criticality assembly. The key problem of the design work is the core design because there are many limits for it such as the number of fuel rods loaded, fissile materials existed in the solution, reactivity control, core size and etc.

  4. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  5. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  6. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  7. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  8. A passive exoskeleton with artificial tendons: design and experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wietse; van der Kooij, Herman; Hekman, Edsko

    2011-01-01

    We developed a passive exoskeleton that was designed to minimize joint work during walking. The exoskeleton makes use of passive structures, called artificial tendons, acting in parallel with the leg. Artificial tendons are elastic elements that are able to store and redistribute energy over the human leg joints. The elastic characteristics of the tendons have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human leg joints. In simulation the maximal reduction was 40 percent. The performance of the exoskeleton was evaluated in an experiment in which nine subjects participated. Energy expenditure and muscle activation were measured during three conditions: Normal walking, walking with the exoskeleton without artificial tendons, and walking with the exoskeleton with the artificial tendons. Normal walking was the most energy efficient. While walking with the exoskeleton, the artificial tendons only resulted in a negligibly small decrease in energy expenditure.

  9. Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test

    CERN Document Server

    Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

    2012-01-01

    This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

  10. Design,fabrication and experimental research for an electrohydrodynamic micropump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presented a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) micropump based on MEMS technology. The working mechanisms and classification of EHD micropump were introduced. The fabrication process of EHD micropump was presented with the material selection,optimal design of microelectrode and assembly process. Static pressure experiments and flow experiments were carried out using different fluid and the channel depth. The results indicated that the micropump could achieve a maximum static pressure head of 268 Pa at an applied voltage of 90 V. The maximum flow rate of the micropump-driven fluid could reach 106 μL/min. This paper analyzed the future of combining micropump with heat pipe to deal with heat dissipation of high power electronic chips. The maximum heat dissipation capacity of 87 W/cm2 can be realized by vaporizing the micropump-driven liquid on vaporizing section of the heat pipe.

  11. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  12. Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, A. C. C.; Giruzzi, G.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C.; Luce, T. C.; Snipes, J. A.; Stober, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    The development of operating scenarios is one of the key issues in the research for ITER which aims to achieve a fusion gain (Q) of ˜10, while producing 500 MW of fusion power for ≥300 s. The ITER Research plan proposes a success oriented schedule starting in hydrogen and helium, to be followed by a nuclear operation phase with a rapid development towards Q ˜ 10 in deuterium/tritium. The Integrated Operation Scenarios Topical Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity initiates joint activities among worldwide institutions and experiments to prepare ITER operation. Plasma formation studies report robust plasma breakdown in devices with metal walls over a wide range of conditions, while other experiments use an inclined EC launch angle at plasma formation to mimic the conditions in ITER. Simulations of the plasma burn-through predict that at least 4 MW of Electron Cyclotron heating (EC) assist would be required in ITER. For H-modes at q95 ˜ 3, many experiments have demonstrated operation with scaled parameters for the ITER baseline scenario at ne/nGW ˜ 0.85. Most experiments, however, obtain stable discharges at H98(y,2) ˜ 1.0 only for βN = 2.0-2.2. For the rampup in ITER, early X-point formation is recommended, allowing auxiliary heating to reduce the flux consumption. A range of plasma inductance (li(3)) can be obtained from 0.65 to 1.0, with the lowest values obtained in H-mode operation. For the rampdown, the plasma should stay diverted maintaining H-mode together with a reduction of the elongation from 1.85 to 1.4. Simulations show that the proposed rampup and rampdown schemes developed since 2007 are compatible with the present ITER design for the poloidal field coils. At 13-15 MA and densities down to ne/nGW ˜ 0.5, long pulse operation (>1000 s) in ITER is possible at Q ˜ 5, useful to provide neutron fluence for Test Blanket Module assessments. ITER scenario preparation in hydrogen and helium requires high input power (>50 MW). H

  13. Rationale for designing cavity preparations in light of current knowledge and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, D A; Laswell, H R

    1976-04-01

    No restorative material presently available is as good as supported tooth structure and it is unlikely that a usable dental restorative material with the physical properties of enamel will ever be developed. The purpose of cavity preparation is to remove carious material and preserve sound tooth structure. Any additional removal of tooth structure is necessary for the convenience of the operator or because of limitations of the restorative materials. Presently available esthetic restorative systems for nonfunctional areas and selected anterior functional areas allow for designing cavity preparations where the only two considerations are removal of caries (and unsupported enamel) and placement of retentive features. The problem of cavity design for restoration of functional surfaces is not answered easily, but there is reasonable hope that in the near future an esthetic restorative material will be available that has the strength and other necessary properties to serve in functional areas. There should be no specific "ideal" design for cavity preparation. Each defect should be custom designed to remove the caries or defect and perform the additional steps necessitated by the limitations of the operator or restorative material. As advocated by Black in one of his later publications, it is necessary to make mouth-by-mouth and tooth-by-tooth judgements concerning the most desirable outline form to be obtained.

  14. Full Factorial Experimental Design Analysis of Reactive Dye Removal by Carbon Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Özbay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of Remazol Yellow dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of sunflower seed cake. It was found that the carbon content of biomass increases up to 65.12% after activation and carbonization processes. The maximum percentage dye removal was obtained as 82.12% with 0.4 g/50 mL adsorbent dosage at 313 K. The Langmuir model showed the best fit with equilibrium isotherm data. The interactions were evaluated with respect to both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The adsorption process was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. To optimize the operating conditions, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration were investigated by full factorial experimental design method; adsorbent dosage was found as the most significant factor with lower than 95% confidence level. The obtained results are very promising since (i the utilization of sunflower seed cake activated carbon (SSCAC played a critical role in the adsorption of dye; (ii sunflower seed cake was an intriguing, low-cost, and easily available material. It can be an alternative adsorbent precursor for more expensive adsorbents used for Remazol Yellow (RY removal.

  15. Fracture toughness of zirconia ceramic crowns made by feather-edge tooth preparation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fracture toughness determines functional crown strenght and prevents damages on ceramics during mastication. There is a lack of relevant literature data about fracture toughness of crowns made by feather-edge preparation. Mechanical testing of ceramic samples is supposed to show if feather-edge tooth preparation is a successful method for making ceramic crowns without any risk of reduction of their mechanical properties. This research was done to establish effects of feather-edge tooth preparation on fracture toughness of single zirconia ceramic crowns. Methods. The research was performed as an experimental study. Sixty (60 ceramic crowns were made on non-carious extracted human premolars. Thirty (30 crowns were made on the basis of feather-edge preparation (experimental group I. The group II included 30 crowns made on 1 mm rounded shoulder. Crowns fabrication was executed on a copy mill production system “Zirkonzahn” (Zirkonzahn GMBH, Gais, Germany. The spherical compression test was used to determine fracture toughness, using 6 mm diameter ceramic ball. Fracture load for damaging ceramic crown was recorded on a universal testing machine - Zwick, type 1464, with the speed of 0.05 mm/min. Results. The results of this research introduced significant differences between fracture toughness of ceramic samples in every examined group. However, fracture toughness of crowns from both group was above 2 000 N, what was double beyond a recommended value. The mean value of fracture toughness in the feather-edge group was 2 090 N, and in shoulder group it was 2 214 N. Conclusion. This research showed a high fracture toughness of zirconia crowns made on feather-edge preparation. The examined crowns showed a fracture resistance at a sufficient distance in relation to the minimum values of functional loads. Further research of functional loads of these crown is necessary, as well as research of marginal adaptation of cemented crowns and

  16. Using experimental designs for modelling of intermittent air filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the optimal operating conditions and evaluation of their robustness are critical issues for industrial processes.A standard procedure,for modelling a laboratory-scale wire-to-cylinder electrostatic precipitator and for guiding the research of the set point,is presented.The procedure consists of formulating a set of recommendations regarding the choice of parameter values for electrostatic precipitation.The experiments were carried out on a laboratory cylindrical precipitator,built by one of the authors,with samples of wood particles.The parameters considered are the applied high voltage U,the air flow F,and the quantity of dust in air m.Several"one-factor-at-a-time"followed by factorial composite design experiments were performed,based on the following three-step strategy:1)Identify the domain of variation of the variables;2)Determine the mathematical model of the process outcome:3)Validation of the mathematical model and optimisation of the process.

  17. New experimental model design for VAPEX process experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, J.A.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The vast resources of heavy oil and bitumen deposits in Venezuela and Canada have become targets for finding less costly and more effective hydrocarbon recovery methods. Solvent extraction of heavy deposits is an attractive option that is gaining much attention as an in-situ recovery method. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is analogous to the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process for the recovery of heavy oil and tar sand reservoirs. However, in VAPEX, vaporized solvents are used instead of high temperature steam and the viscosity of the oil is reduced in situ. VAPEX is particularly suited for formations that are thin and where heat losses are unavoidable. It is also well suited in the presence of overlying gas caps; bottom water aquifers; low thermal conductivity; high water saturation; clay swelling; and, formation damage. Most modelling studies use rectangular shaped models, but these have limitations at high reservoir pressures. This study presents a new design of physical models that overcomes these limitations. The annular space between two cylindrical pipes is used for developing slice-type and sand-filled models. This newly developed model is more compatible with higher pressures. This paper compares results of VAPEX experiments using the cylindrical models and the rectangular models. The stabilized drainage rates from the newly developed cylindrical models are in very good agreement with those from the rectangular models. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Conceptual design of a First Wall mock-up experiment in preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket technologies in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeile, C., E-mail: christian.zeile@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Abou-Sena, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B.E.; Kang, Q.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lamberti, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Maione, I.A.; Rey, J.; Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experiment in preparation for the qualification of Breeding Blanket technologies in HELOKA facility is proposed. • Experimental capabilities, instrumentation of the mock-up and experimental program are presented. • Design and manufacturing of the mock-up is described. • Design of modular attachment system to obtain different stress levels and distributions on the mock-up is discussed. - Abstract: An experimental program based on a First Wall mock-up is presented as preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket mock-ups at high heat flux in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility. Two objectives of the experimental program have been defined: testing of the experimental setup and a first validation of FE models. The design and manufacturing of mock-up representing about 1/3 of the heated zone of an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) First Wall is discussed. A modular attachment system concept has been developed for the fixation of the mock-up in order to be able to generate different stress distributions and levels on the plate, which is confirmed by thermo-mechanical analyses. The HELOKA facility is able to provide a TBM relevant helium cooling system and to generate the required surface heat flux by an electron beam gun. An installed IR camera can be used to measure the temperature distribution on the surface.

  19. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.

    2016-09-01

    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  20. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  1. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  2. Preparation of designed poly(D,L-lactide)/nanosized hydroxyapatite composite structures by stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A; Ambrosio, L; Grijpma, D W

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of scaffolds to facilitate the replacement of damaged tissues and organs by means of tissue engineering has been much investigated. The key properties of the biomaterials used to prepare such scaffolds include biodegradability, biocompatibility and a well-defined three-dimensional 3-Dpore network structure. In this study a poly(D,L-lactide)/nanosized hydroxyapatite (PDLLA/nano-Hap) composite resin was prepared and used to fabricate composite films and computer designed porous scaffolds by micro-stereolithography, mixing varying quantities of nano-Hap powder and a liquid photoinitiator into a photo-crosslinkable PDLLA-diacrylate resin. The influence of nano-Hap on the rheological and photochemical properties of the resins was investigated, the materials being characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties after post-preparation curing. In the cured composites stiffness was observed to increase with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. A computer designed construct with a pore network based on the Schwarz architecture was fabricated by stereolithography using PDLLA/nano-Hap composite resins.

  3. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    2000-01-01

    to be prepared for repair and maintenance. Both of these components are insulation systems for flat roofs and low slope roofs; components where repair or replacement is very expensive if the roofing material fails in its function. The principle of both roofing insulation systems is that the insulation can...... in a different way for each component.Further development of building envelope components that through their design are prepared for repair and maintenance so that expensive repair and replacement may be avoided. Examples of components in need of such a design process could be internal insulation systems where......The dissertation consist of five parts:The purpose of the first part is to give the reader an introduction to the subjects of deterioration mechanisms, loss of function for building envelope components and prediction of service life for building envelope components.The purpose of the second part...

  4. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  5. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  6. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldes, Emily L; Ackermann, D Michael; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L; Bhadra, Narendra

    2011-03-15

    Nerve cuff electrodes are a principle tool of basic and applied electro-neurophysiology studies and are championed for their ability to achieve good nerve recruitment with low thresholds. We describe the design and method of fabrication for a novel circumpolar peripheral nerve electrode for acute experimental use. This cylindrical cuff-style electrode provides approximately 270° of radial electrode contact with a nerve for each of an arbitrary number of contacts, has a profile that allows for simple placement and removal in an acute nerve preparation, and is designed for adjustment of the cylindrical diameter to ensure a close fit on the nerve. For each electrode, the electrical contacts were cut from 25 μm platinum foil as an array so as to maintain their positions relative to each other within the cuff. Lead wires were welded to each intended contact. The structure was then molded in silicone elastomer, after which the individual contacts were electrically isolated. The final electrode was curved into a cylindrical shape with an inner diameter corresponding to that of the intended target nerve. The positions of these contacts were well maintained during the molding and shaping process and failure rates during fabrication due to contact displacements were very low. Established electrochemical measurements were made on one electrode to confirm expected behavior for a platinum electrode and to measure the electrode impedance to applied voltages at different frequencies. These electrodes have been successfully used for nerve stimulation, recording, and conduction block in a number of different acute animal experiments by several investigators.

  7. Fatigue and fracture resistance of zirconia crowns prepared with different finish line designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finish line design on the fatigue, fracture resistance, and failure type of veneered zirconia restorations. A CAD/CAM system (Cercon) was used to prepare zirconia frameworks (0.5 mm thick) for a maxillary central incisor. Three finish line designs were evaluated: a complete narrow chamfer, a narrow chamfer with a lingual ledge, and a complete ledge. The prepared frameworks were veneered using a press-on ceramic (Ceram Press) and were cemented on the corresponding prepared teeth using a resin cement (Panavia F2.0). The cemented specimens were thermocycled, subjected to dynamic fatigue, and finally loaded till fracture. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to assess fracture type. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α= 0.05). The finish line design did not have any significant statistical influence on the fracture resistance (F = 1.9, p= 0.346) or on the failure type of the tested specimens. Adjusted R squared value (R = 0.049) indicated a weak correlation between finish line design and fracture load of the tested specimens. All specimens failed due to cracking and fracture of the veneer ceramic. Meanwhile, the framework remained entirely intact. Three narrow chamfer finish line specimens demonstrated adhesive fracture of the veneer ceramic during dynamic fatigue testing, related to overextension of the veneer ceramic during the layering procedure. Within the limitations of this study, the finish line design did not influence the fatigue or the fracture resistance of veneered zirconia crowns. Selection of any of the finish line designs should be based on the clinical condition of the restored tooth. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  9. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  10. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  11. Analytical and experimental study of freeform object design and simultaneous manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaofang; Yan, Jingbin

    2003-04-01

    Applications of Virtual Reality (VR) technology in many fields have gained great success. In the product development field, VR is a good tool to provide interactive and friendly human-machine interface. Freeform Object Design and Simultaneous Manufacturing (FODSM) uses VR to establish an interactive design environment and enable simultaneous manufacturing. It aims at improving design efficiency, creativity, ease of use, and also aims at integrating design and manufacturing in order to obtain the designed object by the designer independently and simultaneously. For the current stage, key technologies to implement FODSM include the algorithm of swept volume calculation and the following Boolean operation, mechanism to provide natural and intuitive feedback. This paper uses an analytical and experimental method to implement the novel design and manufacturing technology. Key issues are analyzed and tested. Experimental details are demonstrated.

  12. Desert Life, Experimental Edition Prepared for Testing in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Betty; And Others

    This unit and teacher's guide were prepared for use with primary grade children. The activities include the construction of a desert terrarium, the study of cacti, and the use of animal sort cards. A special section is devoted to the way parents can help with the unit. A detailed list of needed materials is provided in the guide. This work was…

  13. Overview of experimental preparation for the ITER-Like Wall at JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brezinsek, S.; Fundamenski, W.; Eich, T.; Coad, J. P.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Krieger, K.; McCormick, K.; Lehnen, M.; Loarer, T.; de la Luna, E.; Maddison, G.; Matthews, G. F.; Mertens, P.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Riccardo, V.; Rubel, M.; Stamp, M. F.; Tsalas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments in JET with carbon-based plasma-facing components have been carried out in preparation of the ITER-Like Wall with beryllium main chamber and full tungsten divertor. The preparatory work was twofold: (i) development of techniques, which ensure safe operation with the new wall and (ii) pro

  14. Risk assessment and experimental design in the development of a prolonged release drug delivery system with paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Sonia; Turdean, Luana; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a drug product based on a risk assessment-based approach, within the quality by design paradigm. A prolonged release system was proposed for paliperidone (Pal) delivery, containing Kollidon(®) SR as an insoluble matrix agent and hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer. The experimental part was preceded by the identification of potential sources of variability through Ishikawa diagrams, and failure mode and effects analysis was used to deliver the critical process parameters that were further optimized by design of experiments. A D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of Kollidon SR ratio (X1), the type of hydrophilic polymer (X2), and the percentage of hydrophilic polymer (X3) on the percentages of dissolved Pal over 24 h (Y1-Y9). Effects expressed as regression coefficients and response surfaces were generated, along with a design space for the preparation of a target formulation in an experimental area with low error risk. The optimal formulation contained 27.62% Kollidon SR and 8.73% HPMC and achieved the prolonged release of Pal, with low burst effect, at ratios that were very close to the ones predicted by the model. Thus, the parameters with the highest impact on the final product quality were studied, and safe ranges were established for their variations. Finally, a risk mitigation and control strategy was proposed to assure the quality of the system, by constant process monitoring.

  15. Risk assessment and experimental design in the development of a prolonged release drug delivery system with paliperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Sonia; Turdean, Luana; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a drug product based on a risk assessment-based approach, within the quality by design paradigm. A prolonged release system was proposed for paliperidone (Pal) delivery, containing Kollidon® SR as an insoluble matrix agent and hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer. The experimental part was preceded by the identification of potential sources of variability through Ishikawa diagrams, and failure mode and effects analysis was used to deliver the critical process parameters that were further optimized by design of experiments. A D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of Kollidon SR ratio (X1), the type of hydrophilic polymer (X2), and the percentage of hydrophilic polymer (X3) on the percentages of dissolved Pal over 24 h (Y1–Y9). Effects expressed as regression coefficients and response surfaces were generated, along with a design space for the preparation of a target formulation in an experimental area with low error risk. The optimal formulation contained 27.62% Kollidon SR and 8.73% HPMC and achieved the prolonged release of Pal, with low burst effect, at ratios that were very close to the ones predicted by the model. Thus, the parameters with the highest impact on the final product quality were studied, and safe ranges were established for their variations. Finally, a risk mitigation and control strategy was proposed to assure the quality of the system, by constant process monitoring.

  16. Optimum Experimental Design applied to MEMS accelerometer calibration for 9-parameter auto-calibration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Su, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Optimum Experimental Design (OED) is an information gathering technique used to estimate parameters, which aims to minimize the variance of parameter estimation and prediction. In this paper, we further investigate an OED for MEMS accelerometer calibration of the 9-parameter auto-calibration model. Based on a linearized 9-parameter accelerometer model, we show the proposed OED is both G-optimal and rotatable, which are the desired properties for the calibration of wearable sensors for which only simple calibration devices are available. The experimental design is carried out with a newly developed wearable health monitoring device and desired experimental results have been achieved.

  17. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior. The e...

  18. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  19. Mobilities Design – towards an experimental field of research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    and physical form. The exchange value with design is twofold; first this means getting closer to the ‘material’ which is needed if mobilities research can claim to have understood contemporary mobilities, second it means that the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world becomes...

  20. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  1. A Sino-Finnish Initiative for Experimental Teaching Practices Using the Design Factory Pedagogical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary…

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Computer Simulation for Teaching Ecological Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Richard; Goodenough, Anne E.; Davies, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Designing manipulative ecological experiments is a complex and time-consuming process that is problematic to teach in traditional undergraduate classes. This study investigates the effectiveness of using a computer simulation--the Virtual Rocky Shore (VRS)--to facilitate rapid, student-centred learning of experimental design. We gave a series of…

  4. Scaffolding a Complex Task of Experimental Design in Chemistry with a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Isabelle; d'Ham, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    When solving a scientific problem through experimentation, students may have the responsibility to design the experiment. When students work in a conventional condition, with paper and pencil, the designed procedures stay at a very general level. There is a need for additional scaffolds to help the students perform this complex task. We propose a…

  5. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological…

  6. Using a Discussion about Scientific Controversy to Teach Central Concepts in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kimberley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Students may need explicit training in informal statistical reasoning in order to design experiments or use formal statistical tests effectively. By using scientific scandals and media misinterpretation, we can explore the need for good experimental design in an informal way. This article describes the use of a paper that reviews the measles mumps…

  7. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  8. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  9. Experimental improvements in sample preparation for the track registration technique from dry and solution media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    This paper describes the sample preparation studies carried out to determine gross alpha activities in waste materials by means of alpha-particle track counting using CR-39 detector. Sample preparation for the track registration technique using evaporation or electroplating methods (also known as conventional 'dry methods') has a number of drawbacks. The distribution of tracks in different areas of the detector surface is non-uniform, so accurate quantitative determinations depend on tedious and time-consuming counting of tracks under an optical microscope. In this paper, we propose the use of tensioactives in sample preparation to achieve uniform track distribution over the entire detector surface, which enables track density to be evaluated by scanning a small representative area. Under our counting conditions, uniform distribution was achieved with 0.2 ml of Teg from a planchetted source. Furthermore, track registration techniques using solution media (also known as the 'wet methods') and conventional 'dry methods' were analysed and compared with the proposed method. The reproducibility of the procedure described in the study was tested by analysing gross alpha activity in two low-level nuclear waste samples at two different laboratories.

  10. Report: Optimization study of the preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule based on hybrid-level orthogonal array design via SPSS modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Chun; Liu, Mingshi; Jin, Yuanbao; Yang, Dongsheng

    2014-11-01

    To optimize the preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule using complex coacervation of chitosan cross-linked with gelatin based on hybrid-level orthogonal array design via SPSS modeling. Eight relatively significant factors were firstly investigated and selected as calculative factors for the orthogonal array design from the total of ten factors effecting the preparation of argan oil microcapsule by utilizing the single factor variable method. The modeling of hybrid-level orthogonal array design was built in these eight factors with the relevant levels (9, 9, 9, 9, 7, 6, 2 and 2 respectively). The preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule were investigated and optimized according to the results of hybrid-level orthogonal array design. The priorities order and relevant optimum levels of preparation factors standard to base on the percentage of microcapsule with the diameter of 30~40 μm via SPSS. Experimental data showed that the optimum factors were controlling the chitosan/gelatin ratio, the systemic concentration and the core/shell ratio at 1:2, 1.5% and 1:7 respectively, presetting complex coacervation pH at 6.4, setting cross-linking time and complex coacervation at 75 min and 30 min, using the glucose-delta lactone as the type of cross-linking agent, and selecting chitosan with the molecular weight of 2000~3000.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  12. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  13. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose–Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-01

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose–response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose–response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose–response curve, and data scarcity. The design...

  14. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  15. Preparation of polymer-modified electrodes: A literature and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayanta, P.S.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-05-01

    A literature review is presented on the field of polymer modified electrodes which can be electrochemically generated. It is suggested that a possible application of these polymer modified electrodes is as a regeneratable catalysis packing material for use in couter-current exchange columns. Secondly, there is a presentation of experimental results dealing with possible electrode modification using difluoro- and dimethyl- phenols and fluorinated derivatives of styrene, benzoquinone and hydroquinone. It appears that dimethylphenol shows the most potential of the monomers experimentally tested in providing a stable polymer modified electrode surface. 170 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  17. Design, preparation, surface recognition properties, and characteristics of icariin molecularly imprinted polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Jia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icariin molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared by precipitation polymerization. Prior to the polymerization, computer simulation was performed to sketchily choose the suitable functional monomer and the corresponding polymerization solvent. The optimized synthesis parameters, including the functional monomer acrylamide, the mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (V:V = 3:1 as the polymerization solvent, and the reaction molar ratio (1:6:80 of template molecule, functional monomer and cross-linker, were respectively obtained by single factor analysis and orthogonal design methods. The results of the adsorption experiments showed that the resultant MIPs exhibited good adsorption and recognition abilities to icariin. Scatchard analysis illustrated that the homogeneous binding sites only for icariin molecules were formed in the prepared MIPs.

  18. Determination of hydroxy acids in cosmetics by chemometric experimental design and cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hui; Feng, Chia Hsien; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2012-10-01

    A CD-modified CE method was established for quantitative determination of seven hydroxy acids in cosmetic products. This method involved chemometric experimental design aspects, including fractional factorial design and central composite design. Chemometric experimental design was used to enhance the method's separation capability and to explore the interactions between parameters. Compared to the traditional investigation that uses multiple parameters, the method that used chemometric experimental design was less time-consuming and lower in cost. In this study, the influences of three experimental variables (phosphate concentration, surfactant concentration, and methanol percentage) on the experimental response were investigated by applying a chromatographic resolution statistic function. The optimized conditions were as follows: a running buffer of 150 mM phosphate solution (pH 7) containing 0.5 mM CTAB, 3 mM γ-CD, and 25% methanol; 20 s sample injection at 0.5 psi; a separation voltage of -15 kV; temperature was set at 25°C; and UV detection at 200 nm. The seven hydroxy acids were well separated in less than 10 min. The LOD (S/N = 3) was 625 nM for both salicylic acid and mandelic acid. The correlation coefficient of the regression curve was greater than 0.998. The RSD and relative error values were all less than 9.21%. After optimization and validation, this simple and rapid analysis method was considered to be established and was successfully applied to several commercial cosmetic products.

  19. Adaptive combinatorial design to explore large experimental spaces: approach and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, L V; Shasha, D E; Palenchar, P M; Kouranov, A Y; Cruikshank, A A; Chou, M F; Coruzzi, G M

    2004-12-01

    Systems biology requires mathematical tools not only to analyse large genomic datasets, but also to explore large experimental spaces in a systematic yet economical way. We demonstrate that two-factor combinatorial design (CD), shown to be useful in software testing, can be used to design a small set of experiments that would allow biologists to explore larger experimental spaces. Further, the results of an initial set of experiments can be used to seed further 'Adaptive' CD experimental designs. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate the usefulness of this Adaptive CD approach by analysing data from the effects of six binary inputs on the regulation of genes in the N-assimilation pathway of Arabidopsis. This CD approach identified the more important regulatory signals previously discovered by traditional experiments using far fewer experiments, and also identified examples of input interactions previously unknown. Tests using simulated data show that Adaptive CD suffers from fewer false positives than traditional experimental designs in determining decisive inputs, and succeeds far more often than traditional or random experimental designs in determining when genes are regulated by input interactions. We conclude that Adaptive CD offers an economical framework for discovering dominant inputs and interactions that affect different aspects of genomic outputs and organismal responses.

  20. Experimental investigation on fuel properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payl, Ashish Naha; Mashud, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In recent time's world's energy demands are satisfied by coal, natural gas as well as petroleum though the prices of these are escalating. If this continues, global recession is unavoidable and diminution of world reserve accelerates undoubtedly. Recently, Biodiesel is found to be more sustainable, non-toxic and energy efficient alternative which is also biodegradable. The use of biofuels in compression ignition engines is now a contemplation attention in place of petrochemicals. In view of this, cottonseed oil is quite a favorable candidate as an alternative fuel. The present study covers the various aspects of biodiesels fuel prepared from cottonseed oil. In this work Biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil through transesterification process with methanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters, kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, calorific value, boiling point etc. were evaluated and discussed in the light of Conventional Diesel Fuel. The properties of biodiesel produced from cotton seed oil are quite close to that of diesel except from flash point. And so the methyl esters of cottonseed oil can be used in existing diesel engines without any modifications.

  1. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Song, Hui; Cogan, Uri; Azaizeh, Hassan; Bomzon, Arieh

    2005-08-22

    In a previous study, we identified Pistacia lentiscus was worthy for further laboratory evaluation because an aqueous extract of the plant suppressed iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates without affecting mitochondrial respiration in cultured HepG2 and PC12 cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aqueous extract prepared from the dried leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in a rat model of hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. We assessed the impact of daily dosing on biochemical and morphological indices and the extent of oxidative stress in the livers of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. In healthy rats, long-term administration of the extract induced hepatic fibrosis and an inflammatory response, mild cholestasis and depletion of reduced glutathione associated with an increase in its oxidized form. In thioacetamide-treated rats, long-term administration of extract aggravated the inflammatory and fibrotic and glutathione depleting responses without affecting the extent of lipid peroxidation. Although our previous in vitro study established that extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus had antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes these extracts also contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. The results of this study suggest complementing in vitro experiments with those involving animals are essential steps in establishing the safety of medicinal plants. Furthermore, these data confirm that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals.

  2. Experimental cell transplantation therapy in rat myocardial infarction model including nude rat preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wangde; Kloner, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    As a novel potential therapeutic strategy for cardiac disease, cell transplantation therapy has been extensively investigated in experimental studies and clinical trials. Although encouraging results have been demonstrated, a number of critical questions still remain to be answered. For example, what kind of stem cell and how many cells should be used; what is the best time for cell transplantation after acute myocardial infarction; which delivery approach is better, intravenous injection or direct intramyocardial injection? Transplantation of cells derived from human tissues into experimental animals may elicit an immune rejection. Immunodeficient nude rats provide a useful myocardial infarction model for cell transplantation therapy studies. We introduce our detailed methods of direct intramyocardial injection of immature heart cells and stem cells into the myocardial infarction region of rats and nude rats. Careful maintenance under aseptic conditions and proper surgical technique are essential to improve the survival of immunodeficient rats after surgery.

  3. Preparation design and considerations for direct posterior composite inlay/onlay restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligor, Jason

    2008-08-01

    In order to ensure a functional, aesthetic, and long-lasting porcelain result, clinicians need to anticipate the strengths and limits of the restorative material, as well as the specific requisites of the presented case. As flaws in preparation design can have significant and detrimental effects on the final result, clinical comprehension of the dimensions and limitations during this step is of utmost importance. This article discusses a case presentation in which porcelain restorations were placed for two adjacent teeth. Although the clinician anticipated placing inlay or onlay restorations, the degree of decay and the location of hairline fractures would necessitate prophylactic removal of a weakened or undermined cusp.

  4. Experimental Modelling of the Breakdown Voltage of Air Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZOUGA, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies were devoted to the electric discharge of air, and some mathematical models were proposed for the critical breakdown voltage. As this latter depends on several parameters, it is difficult to find a formula, theoretical or experimental, which considers many factors. The aim of this paper is to model the critical breakdown voltage in a "Sphere-Sphere� electrodes system by using the methodology of experimental designs. Several factors were considered, such as geometrical factors (inter-electrodes interval, diameter of the electrodes and climatic factors (temperature, humidity. Two factorial centred faces experimental designs (CCF were carried out, a first one for the geometrical factors and a second one for the climatic factors. The obtained results made it possible to propose mathematical models and to study the interactions between the various factors.

  5. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  6. Experimental Study on Preparation Efficiency of Microstructured-Fibre Based Heralded Single-Photon Source at 1.5 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Si-Tuo; ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Qiang; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study on the microstructured-fibre (MSF) based heralded single photon source (HSPS) at 1.5 μm.The preparation efficiency is measured to be 8.7% under room temperature.The analysis of the experimental results shows that the preparation efficiency can be improved up to 22.9% by the Raman noise suppression with fibre cooling under the experimental setup parameters.Further efficiency improvement could be achieved by improving the collection efficiency and reducing dark counts of single photon detectors (SPDs).The experimental results and analysis show great potential applications of the MSF in high efficient HSPSs.

  7. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  8. Experimental infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: efficacy of a vaccine prepared from nonhemolytic strains of Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, G W; McDonald, T J; Kopecky, K E

    1982-06-01

    Calves vaccinated with a bacterin prepared from 4 nonhemolytic strains of Moraxella bovis were challenge exposed with a virulent hemolytic strain of M bovis. Ten calves were given 2 vaccinal inoculations 21 days apart. Twenty-one days after the last vaccinal inoculation, the eyes of the 10 vaccinated and the eyes of the 12 non-vaccinated calves were exposed to a hemolytic heterologous strain of M bovis. The percentage of eyes with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis was lower, the lesions were less severe, and the duration of infection was shorter in vaccinated calves than in nonvaccinated calves. Seemingly, the resistance induced by nonhemolytic strains of M bovis was at least comparable with the induced by hemolytic virulent strains of that organism. The nature of the immune response in vaccinated calves is discussed.

  9. Experimental study on fire extinguishing with a newly prepared multi-component compressed air foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiShi; LIAO YaoJian; LIN Lin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-component compressed air foam system (MCAFS) was developed with newly prepared multi-component foaming agents. Extinguishing of wood crib and oil pool fires was performed under different conditions, such as foam concentration, mixing chamber forepart structure and working pressure. It was found that the foam concentration had sufficient effects on fire extinguishing efficiency, and an optimized concentration value exists. For instance, for diesel oil pool fires, this value is about 2.2% while it is about 4.0% for wood crib fires. The results also show that the system with a coaxial mixing chamber has greater efficiency than a T-shape. The effects of working pressure on fire extin-guishing are evident in experiments, i.e., the higher the working pressure is, the more readily the fire is extinguished.

  10. A mixture design approach to optimizing low cholesterol mayonnaise formulation prepared with wheat germ protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Mahshid; Aalami, Mehran; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Aghdaei, Seid Soheil Amiri

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the mixture proportion of low cholesterol mayonnaise containing wheat germ protein isolate (WGPI) and xanthan gum (XG), as emulsifying agents in mayonnaise preparation. The mayonnaise prepared with different combinations of WGPI, egg yolk (0-9 % of each component) and XG (0-0.5 %). The optimized mixture proportions of low cholesterol mayonnaise were determined by applying the optimal mixture design method to acquire the mayonnaise with proper stability, texture, rheological properties and sensory scores. Optimum values of WGPI, XG and egg yolk in the mixture were found to be 7.87 %, 0.2 % and 0.93 %, respectively (of 9 % egg yolk). The WGPI, due to unique functional properties, had the greatest effect on properties of mayonnaise samples. Moreover, combination of XG and WGPI, improved the stability, heat stability, viscosity, consistency coefficient and textural properties of product. However, the overall acceptance was maximum in a mixture contained high amount of WGPI and XG and low amount of egg yolk. The results of this research showed the feasibility of preparation a low cholesterol mayonnaise by application a desirable combination of WGPI, XG, and egg yolk, with comparable properties those of the conventional mayonnaise.

  11. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  12. 42 CFR 137.360 - Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared by the Self-Governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design documents prepared by the Self-Governance Tribe? 137.360 Section 137.360 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of the Secretary in Establishing and... documents prepared by the Self-Governance Tribe? The Secretary shall have at least one opportunity...

  13. Assessment of immune response in cattle against experimentally prepared trivalent (O, A, and Asia-1 FMD vaccine in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mashfiqur Rahman Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted to investigate the effects of age, sex and breed on the induction of immune response against experimentally prepared inactivated trivalent (type O, A, and Asia-1 FMD vaccine. Twenty six cattle were divided into four test groups (Group A, B, C, and D; 5 cattle in each group and one control group (n=6 based on breed (local and cross, age (≤12 months and >12 months, and sex (male and female. Test cattle were vaccinated with the experimentally prepared trivalent FMD vaccine. Pre- and post vaccinated sera from the vaccinated cattle were collected upto 63 days, and the sera were tested using liquid phase blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (LPBE that was specific for FMD serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Antibody titers of all the pre-vaccinated serum samples were found to be under protection level. The females were found to be more protected (90%; n=9/10 as compared to males (70%; n=7/10. The titers obtained were statistically analyzed using t–test to observe the effects of age, breed and sex. It was observed that the mean values of antibody titer in cattle aging >12 months against O, A, and Asia-1 serotypes were significant (P12 months showed better immune response towards trivalent FMD vaccine.

  14. A new experimental design method to optimize formulations focusing on a lubricant for hydrophilic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Shin, Sangmun; Khoa Viet Truong, Nguyen; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2012-09-01

    A robust experimental design method was developed with the well-established response surface methodology and time series modeling to facilitate the formulation development process with magnesium stearate incorporated into hydrophilic matrix tablets. Two directional analyses and a time-oriented model were utilized to optimize the experimental responses. Evaluations of tablet gelation and drug release were conducted with two factors x₁ and x₂: one was a formulation factor (the amount of magnesium stearate) and the other was a processing factor (mixing time), respectively. Moreover, different batch sizes (100 and 500 tablet batches) were also evaluated to investigate an effect of batch size. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 13 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings of magnesium stearate for gelation were 0.46 g, 2.76 min (mixing time) for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The optimal settings for drug release were 0.33 g, 7.99 min for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The exact ratio and mixing time of magnesium stearate could be formulated according to the resulting hydrophilic matrix tablet properties. The newly designed experimental method provided very useful information for characterizing significant factors and hence to obtain optimum formulations allowing for a systematic and reliable experimental design method.

  15. Perspectives on Prediction Variance and Bias in Developing, Assessing, and Comparing Experimental Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2010-12-01

    The vast majority of response surface methods used in practice to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs focus on variance properties of designs. Because response surface models only approximate the true unknown relationships, models are subject to bias errors as well as variance errors. Beginning with the seminal paper of Box and Draper (1959) and over the subsequent 50 years, methods that consider bias and mean-squared-error (variance and bias) properties of designs have been presented in the literature. However, these methods are not widely implemented in software and are not routinely used to develop, assess, and compare experimental designs in practice. Methods for developing, assessing, and comparing response surface designs that account for variance properties are reviewed. Brief synopses of publications that consider bias or mean-squared-error properties are provided. The difficulties and approaches for addressing bias properties of designs are summarized. Perspectives on experimental design methods that account for bias and/or variance properties and on future needs are presented.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESPONSE SURFACE MODELING OF PI/PES-ZEOLITE 4A MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE FOR CO2 SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. KUSWORO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of preparation of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending-zeolite mixed matrix membrane through the manipulation of membrane production variables such as polymer concentration, blending composition and zeolite loading. Combination of central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the main effect and interaction effects of these variables on membrane separation performance. The quadratic models between each response and the independent parameters were developed and the response surface models were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The separation performance of mixed matrix membrane had been tested using pure gases such as CO2 and CH4. The results showed that zeolite loading was the most significant variable that influenced the CO2/CH4 selectivity among three variables and the experimental results were in good agreement with those predicted by the proposed regression models. The gas separation performance of the membrane was relatively higher as compare to polymeric membrane. Therefore, combination of central composite design and response surface methodology can be used to prepare optimal condition for mixed matrix membrane fabrication. The incorporation of 20 wt% zeolite 4A into 25 wt% of PI/PES matrix had resulted in a high separation performance of membrane material.

  17. The influence of cavity preparation design on fracture strength and mode of fracture of laboratory-processed composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Julio; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2007-10-01

    Removal of large amounts of sound tooth structure may result in a weakened restored tooth. Nevertheless, removal of tooth structure for cuspal coverage has been recommended to protect teeth restored with laboratory-processed composite resin (LPCR) from fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different cavity preparation designs on fracture strength and modes of fracture of teeth restored with LPCR. Ninety anatomically similar human third mandibular molars were selected. There were 2 experimental factors, occlusal isthmus width (narrow versus wide) and cuspal coverage (inlay, 1-cusp onlay, 2-cusp onlay, and all-cusp onlay), and 1 control group that received no treatment, resulting in 9 groups (n=10). Indirect composite resin (SR Adoro) restorations were manufactured and adhesively cemented with Adper Single Bond 2 and Rely-X ARC. A compressive loading test (0.5 mm/min) was performed. The modes of fracture were classified according to 4 categories. One-way and 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-HSD test were used to statistically analyze the fracture load data (alpha =.05). The statistical analysis failed to show significant differences among restored groups but showed differences between these groups and the control group (P = .001). Two-way ANOVA failed to show any difference when considering the occlusal isthmus width alone (P = .98), cuspal coverage (P = .273), or the interaction between these factors (P = .972). Several teeth had fractures affecting a great amount of both restoration and tooth structure. This in vitro study showed restored teeth having similar fracture strength and fracture modes, suggesting that with the tested preparation designs, there is no advantage of cuspal coverage to protect LPCR restored teeth from fracture.

  18. Optimal Design and Experimental characterisation of short optical pulse compression using CDPF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yujun, Qian; Quist, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present optimal design and experimental characterisation ofoptical pulse compression using a comblike dispersion-profiled fibre(CDPF). A pulse train at 10GHz with puslewidth of 1ps and side-lobesuppression of 30dB can be obtained.......We present optimal design and experimental characterisation ofoptical pulse compression using a comblike dispersion-profiled fibre(CDPF). A pulse train at 10GHz with puslewidth of 1ps and side-lobesuppression of 30dB can be obtained....

  19. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  20. Recent developments in optimal experimental designs for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hung; Kao; M’hamed; Temkit; Weng; Kee; Wong

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)is one of the leading brain mapping technologies for studying brain activity in response to mental stimuli.For neuroimaging studies utilizing this pioneering technology,there is a great demand of high-quality experimental designs that help to collect informative data to make precise and valid inference about brain functions.This paper provides a survey on recent developments in experimental designs for fMRI studies.We briefly introduce some analytical and computational tools for obtaining good designs based on a specified design selection criterion.Research results about some commonly considered designs such as blocked designs,and m-sequences are also discussed.Moreover,we present a recently proposed new type of fMRI designs that can be constructed using a certain type of Hadamard matrices.Under certain assumptions,these designs can be shown to be statistically optimal.Some future research directions in design of fMRI experiments are also discussed.

  1. Design and Preparation of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Porous Controllable Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Liulan; ZHANG Huicun; ZHAO Li; HU Qingxi; FANG Minglun

    2009-01-01

    A novel method of designing and preparing bone tissue engineering scaffolds with controllable porous structure of both macro channels and micro pores was proposed. The CAD soft-ware UG NX3.0 was used to design the macro channels' shape, size and distribution. By integrating rapid prototyping and traditional porogen technique, the macro channels and micro pores were formed respectively. The size, shape and quantity of micro pores were controlled by porogen particulates. The sintered β-TCP porous scaffolds possessed connective macro channels of approximately 500 μm and micro pores of 200-400 μm. The porosity and connectivity of micro pores became higher with the in-crease of porogen ratio, while the mechanical properties weakened. The average porosity and com-pressive strength of β-TCP scaffolds prepared with porogen ratio of 60wt% were 78.12% and 0.2983 Mpa,respectively. The cells' adhesion ratio of scaffolds was 67.43%. The ALP activity, OCN content and cells micro morphology indicated that cells grew and proliferated well on the scaffolds.

  2. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  3. Risk assessment and experimental design in the development of a prolonged release drug delivery system with paliperidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurian S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonia Iurian, Luana Turdean, Ioan Tomuta Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract: This study focuses on the development of a drug product based on a risk assessment-based approach, within the quality by design paradigm. A prolonged release system was proposed for paliperidone (Pal delivery, containing Kollidon® SR as an insoluble matrix agent and hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer. The experimental part was preceded by the identification of potential sources of variability through Ishikawa diagrams, and failure mode and effects analysis was used to deliver the critical process parameters that were further optimized by design of experiments. A D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of Kollidon SR ratio (X1, the type of hydrophilic polymer (X2, and the percentage of hydrophilic polymer (X3 on the percentages of dissolved Pal over 24 h (Y1–Y9. Effects expressed as regression coefficients and response surfaces were generated, along with a design space for the preparation of a target formulation in an experimental area with low error risk. The optimal formulation contained 27.62% Kollidon SR and 8.73% HPMC and achieved the prolonged release of Pal, with low burst effect, at ratios that were very close to the ones predicted by the model. Thus, the parameters with the highest impact on the final product quality were studied, and safe ranges were established for their variations. Finally, a risk mitigation and control strategy was proposed to assure the quality of the system, by constant process monitoring. Keywords: pharmaceutical development, quality by design, failure mode effects analysis, Ishikawa diagram, fish-bone diagram, hydrophilic matrix

  4. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real‐time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real‐ time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study.By neglecting the high‐order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input‐ output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  5. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  6. Single-Case Experimental Design: Current Standards and Applications in Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Ledford, Jennifer R; Gast, David L

    Occupational therapy is a field with a long-standing history of recommending and implementing interventions designed to improve the quality of life of clients with disabilities. Often, the interventions are individualized to meet the needs of this diverse group of clients in dynamic settings. Identifying effective and efficient interventions for such a diverse group of clients and settings requires a flexible research approach. Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) allow practitioners and researchers to answer experimental questions within the context of rigorous research designs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the similarities between the mission of occupational therapy and SCEDs. Recommendations for designing single-case studies with the framework provided by the Single-Case Reporting Guideline in Behavioral Interventions are provided. In addition, common problems and proposed solutions, along with implications for practitioners and researchers, are provided. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Design and preparation of film for microsphere based optical super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Du, Chunlei; Qiu, Qi; Yin, Shaoyun; Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a novel thin film was proposed for optical super-resolution imaging, which contains a layer of closely-arranged barium titanate glass microsphere with diameter about 30-100μm embedded in a transparent polydimethylsiloxane soft mold. Then the imaging mechanism was analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and spectrum analysis method. Finally, the thin film was prepared and used to image the sample with sub-wavelength feature to confirm the capability of super-resolution imaging. The experimental result shows that an irresolvable Blu-ray DVD disk with feature size of 300nm can be resolved by placing a thin-film on its surface and then look through it with a conventional microscope. The thin film presented here is flexible, lightweight, easy to carry and can be used in the nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, and biomedical imaging areas.

  8. Design and Experimental Validation of a Simple Controller for a Multi-Segment Magnetic Crawler Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    X., "Development of a wall climbing robot for ship rust removal," Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 4610-4615 (2009). [6] Leon...Design and experimental validation of a simple controller for a multi-segment magnetic crawler robot Leah Kelley*a, Saam Ostovari**b, Aaron B...magnetic crawler robot has been designed for ship hull inspection. In its simplest version, passive linkages that provide two degrees of relative

  9. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO MODELING OF THE AIR-TIGHTNESS OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents experimental designs that can be used in modeling of the air-tightness of buildings as second-order functions using response surface method and corresponding experiment designs. The factors supposed to be significant for a model of building air-tightness—and thus those used in experiment designs—are the heat transfer coefficient for external walls, the heat transfer coefficient of the windows, and the position of the housing units with respect to the building envelope. We c...

  10. Experimental Design of a UCAV-Based High-Energy Laser Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON by Antonios Lionis December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Keith R. Cohn Co-Advisor: Eugene Paulo...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF A UCAV-BASED HIGH- ENERGY LASER WEAPON 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  11. Using R in experimental design with BIBD: An application in health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Teresa A.; Francisco, Carla; Oliveira, Amílcar; Ferreira, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Considering the implementation of an Experimental Design, in any field, the experimenter must pay particular attention and look for the best strategies in the following steps: planning the design selection, conduct the experiments, collect observed data, proceed to analysis and interpretation of results. The focus is on providing both - a deep understanding of the problem under research and a powerful experimental process at a reduced cost. Mainly thanks to the possibility of allowing to separate variation sources, the importance of Experimental Design in Health Sciences is strongly recommended since long time. Particular attention has been devoted to Block Designs and more precisely to Balanced Incomplete Block Designs - in this case the relevance states from the fact that these designs allow testing simultaneously a number of treatments bigger than the block size. Our example refers to a possible study of inter reliability of the Parkinson disease, taking into account the UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale) in order to test if there are significant differences between the specialists who evaluate the patients performances. Statistical studies on this disease were described for example in Richards et al (1994), where the authors investigate the inter-rater Reliability of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Examination. We consider a simulation of a practical situation in which the patients were observed by different specialists and the UPDRS on assessing the impact of Parkinson's disease in patients was observed. Assigning treatments to the subjects following a particular BIBD(9,24,8,3,2) structure, we illustrate that BIB Designs can be used as a powerful tool to solve emerging problems in this area. Once a structure with repeated blocks allows to have some block contrasts with minimum variance, see Oliveira et al. (2006), the design with cardinality 12 was selected for the example. R software was used for computations.

  12. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  13. Design characteristics and requirements of irradiation holes for research reactor experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, C. S.; Seo, C. G

    2003-07-01

    In order to be helpful for the design of a new research reactor with high performance, are summarized the applications of research reactors in various fields and the design characteristics of experimental facility such as vertical irradiation holes and beam tubes. Basic requirements of such experimental facilities are also described. Research reactor has been widely utilized in various fields such as industry, engineering, medicine, life science, environment etc., and now the application fields are gradually being expanded together with the development of technology. Looking into the research reactors which are recently constructed or in plan, it seems that to develop a multi-purpose research reactor with intensive neutron beam research capability has become tendency. In the layout of the experimental facilities, the number and configuration of irradiation and beam holes should be optimized to meet required test conditions such as neutron flux at the early design stage. But, basically high neutron flux is required to perform experiments efficiently. In this aspect, neutron flux is regarded as one of important parameters to judge the degree of research reactor performance. One of main information for a new research reactor design is utilization demands and requirements of experimental holes. So basic requirements which should be considered in a new research reactor design were summarized from the survey of experimental facilities characteristics of various research reactors with around 20 MW thermal power and the experiences of HANARO utilization. Also is suggested an example of the requirements of experimental holes such as size, number and neutron flux, which are thought as minimum, in a new research reactor for exporting to developing countries such as Vietnam.

  14. [Morphological characterization of experimental parodontitis during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminoshvili, Sh M; Gvamichava, T A; Mdinaradze, N L

    2007-06-01

    Examination of new methods of treatment of parodontitis is stipulated by the significant increase in the number of patients with parodontitis. Experiments were conducted on white outbred male rats weighing 150-200 gr, which were divided into three groups. The first group was a reference one (n=20). The second group includes induced parodontitis (n=15) and the third group includes induced parodontitis with the treatment of uno de gato (n=19). We simulated parodontitis in the following way: on the lower nippers in the field of a neck we attached a ligature causing mechanical damage. We used a intramuscular injection of Nembutal as a means of narcotization (0.1 ml-10 g per mass). The present work is dedicated to morphological studies of the structures of damaged parodontium during its treatment with a phyto-preparation uno de gato. The undertaken treatment has demonstrated partial restoration of the mucous tunic of the gum. Newly formed capillaries were found in the connective tissue. The fibroblasts are mostly mature and collagen-producing. Thus, the study has demonstrated that there is a certain tendency of the tissue restoration and the treatment has produced the best therapeutic results.

  15. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J Carolina; Dohmen, Willem M C; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Frijlink, Henderik W; Woerdenbag, Herman J

    2015-05-15

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert® Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and the plasticizer glycerol (Visser et al., 2015). Trometamol and disodium EDTA were added to stabilize the solution. To optimize this formulation a quality target product profile was established in which critical quality attributes (CQAs) such as mechanical properties and disintegration time were defined and quantified. As critical process parameters (CPP) that were evaluated for their effect on the CQAs the percentage of hypromellose and the percentage of glycerol as well as the drying time were chosen. Response surface methodology (RMS) was used to evaluate the effects of the CPPs on the CQAs of the final product. The main factor affecting tensile strength and Young's modulus was the percentage of glycerol. Elongation at break was mainly influenced by the drying temperature. Disintegration time was found to be sensitive to the percentage of hypromellose. From the results a design space could be created. As long as the formulation and process variables remain within this design space, a product is obtained with desired characteristics and that meets all set quality requirements.

  16. Experimental studies of superhard materials carbon nitride CNx prepared by ion-beam synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 许华平; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 吴兴龙; 朱宏; P.L.FHemment

    1996-01-01

    Formation of superhard materials carbon nitride CNt by using ion-beam synthesis method is reported.100-keV high-dose N+ ions were implanted into carbon thin films at different temperatures.The samples were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),Fourier transformation-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR),Raman spectroscopy,cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM),Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS).X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Vickers microhardness measurement.The results show that the buried carbon nitride CN> layer has been successfully formed by using 100-keV high-dose N+ ions implantation into carbon thin film.Implantation of reactive ions into silicon (IRIS) computer program has been used to simulate the formation of the buried β-C3N4 layer as N+ ions are implanted into carbon.A good agreement between experimental measurements and IRIS simulation is found.

  17. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  18. Optimal design and experimental measurement of the subharmonic characterizations of encapsulated microbubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Yujin; WAN Mingxi; WANG Suping; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Guolu

    2006-01-01

    Based on a theoretical motion equation of encapsulated microbubbles within an ultrasound field, the subharmonic characterizations of microbubbles are optimally designed and analyzed by a computer aided design system. The effects of size, shell elasticity and acoustic pressure on subharmonic response of microbubbles are calculated theoretically to obtain the optimal parameters for nondestructive subharmonic imaging. In addition, microbubbles with different shell elasticity are prepared, and their subharmonic responses are measured in vitro.The results of theoretical calculation and acoustic measurement show that good subharmonic enhancement can be obtained by using the encapsulated microbubbles with the mean size of 3μm, which were prepared from the surfactant solution with the proper ratio of shell material.It is also shown that the best operating acoustic pressure is 200 to 400 kPa for nondestructive subharmonic imaging based on such kind of microbubbles.

  19. The all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture. Part 1. Ceramic inlay preparation design: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M C; Thompson, K M; Swain, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of cavity design is a controversial and underrated factor in the clinical success of ceramic inlays and inlay supported prosthesis. Many articles and studies have been conducted into the advantages and disadvantages of isolated aspects of preparation design, but lacking is a review of the most relevant papers which bring together a consensus on all the critical features. Hence, a review and analysis of cavity depth, width, preparation taper and internal line angles is warranted in our attempts to formulate preparation guidelines that will lead to clinically successful, all-ceramic inlay restorations and ceramic inlay supported prosthesis.

  20. Influence of cavity preparation design on fracture resistance of posterior Leucite-reinforced ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos Jose; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Julio

    2006-06-01

    Controversy exists concerning the preferred cavity design for posterior ceramic restorations to improve their resistance to fracture under occlusal load. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance to fracture of leucite-reinforced ceramic restorations placed on molars with different cavity preparation designs. Ninety noncarious molars were selected, stored in 0.2% thymol solution, and divided into 9 groups (n = 10): IT, intact teeth; CsI, conservative inlay; ExI, extensive inlay; CsO/mb, conservative onlay with mesio-buccal cusp coverage; ExO/mb, entensive onlay with mesio-buccal cusp coverage; CsO/b, conservative onlay with buccal cusp coverage; ExO/b, entensive onlay with buccal cusp coverage; CsO/t, conservative onlay with total cusp coverage; ExO/t, extensive onlay with total cusp coverage. Teeth were restored with a Leucite-reinforced ceramic (Cergogold). The fracture resistance (N) was assessed under compressive load in a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed with 1-way and 2-way analyses of variance, followed by the Tukey HSD test (alpha = .05). Fracture modes were recorded, based on the degree of tooth structure and restoration damage. One-way analysis showed that intact teeth had the highest fracture resistance values. Two-way analyses showed no significant differences for the isthmus extention factor, but showed a significant difference for the preparation design type of fracture (P = .03), and also for the interaction between both factors (P = .013). The fracture mode observed in all groups tended to involve only restorations. Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that cuspal coverage does not increase fracture resistance of the posterior tooth-restoration complex restored with leucite-reinforced ceramics.

  1. Considerations for Altering Preparation Designs of Porcelain Inlay/Onlay Restorations for Nonvital Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, Foudda; Eid, Rita; El Ghoul, Wiam; Chidiac, Jose Johann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare all ceramic inlay/onlay survival rates in vital and nonvital teeth having the same cavity design. Filling the pulp chamber with ceramic materials or not was also discussed. Ceramic class II inlays/onlays were made on 11 premolars and 30 molars: 14 vital, 27 endodontically treated. The same tooth preparation design was performed on vital and nonvital teeth: In nonvital teeth the pulp chambers were covered by a glass ionomer cement until the pulpal floor depths were between 2 and 2.5 mm, more likely similar to the vital teeth preparations. In vital teeth, glass ionomer was used as a liner to achieve pulpal floor depths between 2 and 2.5 mm when needed. The restorations were assessed (at baseline, 6 months, 1 and 2 years) according to three criteria: marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, and fracture of teeth/restorations, consistent with United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Eight teeth (19%) showed minor marginal discolorations, while three molars (7%) had loss of marginal integrity. These margins were adjusted using rubber polishing cups and were then judged clinically acceptable. From these three molars, one was vital and two were endodontically treated. No fracture of teeth or restorations was observed. Chi square and exact probability tests were used. There was no statistical difference between vital and nonvital teeth (p = 0.719 chi-squared and Fisher) or between premolars and molars (p = 0.564 chi-squared; 1.000, Fisher). Within the limitations of this study there was no difference for the same inlay/onlay cavity design between vital and nonvital teeth. In nonvital teeth, it seems that filling the pulp chamber with a ceramic core material is not important. Long-term observation periods are needed to reinforce the clinical behavior outcome. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Comparison of the Effects of Three Preparation Designs: Shoulder, Chamfer and Deep Chamfer in the Palatal Surface on Resistance against Breakage of Porcelain Laminate Veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallalian E.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Porcelain laminate veneer is one of the most important restorations in dentistry because of stable esthetic and low destructive technique. But the main reason of failure in this treatment is porcelain fracture. Therefore, tooth preparation has an important role in fracture resistance of porcelain laminate veneer. Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the effect of tree preparation designs, shoulder and chamfer and heavy chamfer, on fracture strength of porcelain laminate veneer. Materials and Method: This experimental and in-vitro study was performed on 30 upper central teeth without fracture, carries or any problem. The teeth were divided into three-10 teeth groups. Then, the preparation design was performed perfectly. In the palatal surfaces of the first group we used deep chamfer preparation design and the shoulder and the chamfer designs were performed for the second and third groups, respectively. Then the samples were put in instron machine with the angle of 30 degrees. The force rate which led to break in those samples was determined. The data were analysed usig t-test.Result: Resistance against breakage in the deep chamfer, shoulder and chamfer groups were 283.40 ± 17, 231.50 ± 25.61 and 254 ± 21.71 Newton, repectvely. No significant difference was found among the groups .Conclusion: The higher fracture resistance was observed in deep Chamfer/palatal over lap technique, so we prefer to use this kind of preparation for palatal extension of Porcelain Laminate Veneers.

  3. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  4. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  5. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  6. Optimal experimental design for non-linear models theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsos, Christos P

    2013-01-01

    This book tackles the Optimal Non-Linear Experimental Design problem from an applications perspective. At the same time it offers extensive mathematical background material that avoids technicalities, making it accessible to non-mathematicians: Biologists, Medical Statisticians, Sociologists, Engineers, Chemists and Physicists will find new approaches to conducting their experiments. The book is recommended for Graduate Students and Researchers.

  7. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  8. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  9. Characterizing Variability in Smestad and Gratzel's Nanocrystalline Solar Cells: A Collaborative Learning Experience in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Leininger, Thomas; Fairchild, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative learning experience in experimental design that closely approximates what practicing statisticians and researchers in applied science experience during consulting. Statistics majors worked with a teaching assistant from the chemistry department to conduct a series of experiments characterizing the variation…

  10. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  11. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  12. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  13. Using Superstitions & Sayings To Teach Experimental Design in Beginning and Advanced Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Rippel, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a collaborative learning exercise intended to teach the unfamiliar terminology of experimental design both in biology classes and biochemistry laboratories. The exercise promotes discussion and debate, develops communication skills, and emphasizes peer review. The effectiveness of the exercise is supported by student surveys. (SOE)

  14. OPTIMIZING THE PRECISION OF TOXICITY THRESHOLD ESTIMATION USING A TWO-STAGE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important consideration for risk assessment is the existence of a threshold, i.e., the highest toxicant dose where the response is not distinguishable from background. We have developed methodology for finding an experimental design that optimizes the precision of threshold mo...

  15. Trade-offs in experimental designs for estimating post-release mortality in containment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W.; Barbour, Andrew B; Wilson, Kyle L

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) facilitate accounting for unintended deaths from fishery activities and contribute to development of fishery regulations and harvest quotas. The most popular method for estimating PRM employs containers for comparing control and treatment fish, yet guidance for experimental design of PRM studies with containers is lacking. We used simulations to evaluate trade-offs in the number of containers (replicates) employed versus the number of fish-per container when estimating tagging mortality. We also investigated effects of control fish survival and how among container variation in survival affects the ability to detect additive mortality. Simulations revealed that high experimental effort was required when: (1) additive treatment mortality was small, (2) control fish mortality was non-negligible, and (3) among container variability in control fish mortality exceeded 10% of the mean. We provided programming code to allow investigators to compare alternative designs for their individual scenarios and expose trade-offs among experimental design options. Results from our simulations and simulation code will help investigators develop efficient PRM experimental designs for precise mortality assessment.

  16. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  17. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  18. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we c

  19. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  20. An experimental design for total container impact response modeling at extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, V. P.; Wyskida, R. M.; Johannes, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental design (a drop test) was developed to test the effects of confinement upon cushions. The drop test produced consistent corner void cushion data from which mathematical models were developed. A mathematical relationship between temperature and drop height was found.

  1. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not…

  2. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  3. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  4. An Experimental Two-Way Video Teletraining System: Design, Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Henry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the design, development, and evaluation of an experimental two-way video teletraining (VTT) system by the Navy that consisted of two classrooms linked by a land line to enable two-way audio/video communication. Trends in communication and computer technology for training are described, and a cost analysis is included. (12 references)…

  5. An interactive visualization tool and data model for experimental design in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shray; Quo, Chang Feng; Merrill, Alfred H; Wang, May D

    2008-01-01

    Experimental design is important, but is often under-supported, in systems biology research. To improve experimental design, we extend the visualization of complex sphingolipid pathways to study biosynthetic origin in SphinGOMAP. We use the ganglio-series sphingolipid dataset as a test bed and the Java Universal Network / Graph Framework (JUNG) visualization toolkit. The result is an interactive visualization tool and data model for experimental design in lipid systems biology research. We improve the current SphinGOMAP in terms of interactive visualization by allowing (i) choice of four different network layouts, (ii) dynamic addition / deletion of on-screen molecules and (iii) mouse-over to reveal detailed molecule data. Future work will focus on integrating various lipid-relevant data systematically i.e. SphinGOMAP biosynthetic data, Lipid Bank molecular data (Japan) and Lipid MAPS metabolic pathway data (USA). We aim to build a comprehensive and interactive communication platform to improve experimental design for scientists globally in high-throughput lipid systems biology research.

  6. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  7. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  8. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  9. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally in humans using a cost-effective outpatient design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Shawna L; Henrich, Cindy L; Matthews, Nell I; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Dawson, Amanda M; Horvath, Thomas D; Owen, Suzanne N; Boysen, Gunnar; Moran, Jeffery H; Mock, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    To date, marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency has been successfully induced experimentally by the use of labor-intensive inpatient designs requiring rigorous dietary control. We sought to determine if marginal biotin deficiency could be induced in humans in a less expensive outpatient design incorporating a self-selected, mixed general diet. We sought to examine the efficacy of three outpatient study designs: two based on oral avidin dosing and one based on a diet high in undenatured egg white for a period of 28 d. In study design 1, participants (n = 4; 3 women) received avidin in capsules with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake of a typical self-selected diet. In study design 2, participants (n = 2; 2 women) received double the amount of avidin capsules (14 times the estimated dietary biotin intake). In study design 3, participants (n = 5; 3 women) consumed egg-white beverages containing avidin with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake. Established indices of biotin status [lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity; urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine), and biotin; and plasma concentration of 3HIA-carnitine] indicated that study designs 1 and 2 were not effective in inducing marginal biotin deficiency, but study design 3 was as effective as previous inpatient study designs that induced deficiency by egg-white beverage. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally by using a cost-effective outpatient design by avidin delivery in egg-white beverages. This design should be useful to the broader nutritional research community.

  10. Experimental modeling of high-voltage corona discharge using design of experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezzouga M; Tilmatine A; Gouri R; Medics K; Dascalescu L

    2007-01-01

    Many studies,both experimental and numerical,were devoted to the electric current of corona discharge and some mathematical models were proposed to express it.As it depends on several parameters,it is difficult to find a theoretical or an experimental formula,which considers all the factors.So we opted for the methodology of experimental designs,also called Tagushi's methodology,which represents a powerful tool generally employed when the process has many factors to consider.The objective of this paper is to model current using this experimental methodology.The factors considered were geometrical factors (interelectrode interval,surface of the grounded plane electrode,curvature radius of the point electrode),climatic factors (temperature and relative humidity),and applied high voltage.Results of experiments made it possible to obtain mathematical models and to analyse the interactions between all factors.

  11. Efficient experimental design and analysis strategies for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles José A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq has emerged as a powerful approach for the detection of differential gene expression with both high-throughput and high resolution capabilities possible depending upon the experimental design chosen. Multiplex experimental designs are now readily available, these can be utilised to increase the numbers of samples or replicates profiled at the cost of decreased sequencing depth generated per sample. These strategies impact on the power of the approach to accurately identify differential expression. This study presents a detailed analysis of the power to detect differential expression in a range of scenarios including simulated null and differential expression distributions with varying numbers of biological or technical replicates, sequencing depths and analysis methods. Results Differential and non-differential expression datasets were simulated using a combination of negative binomial and exponential distributions derived from real RNA-Seq data. These datasets were used to evaluate the performance of three commonly used differential expression analysis algorithms and to quantify the changes in power with respect to true and false positive rates when simulating variations in sequencing depth, biological replication and multiplex experimental design choices. Conclusions This work quantitatively explores comparisons between contemporary analysis tools and experimental design choices for the detection of differential expression using RNA-Seq. We found that the DESeq algorithm performs more conservatively than edgeR and NBPSeq. With regard to testing of various experimental designs, this work strongly suggests that greater power is gained through the use of biological replicates relative to library (technical replicates and sequencing depth. Strikingly, sequencing depth could be reduced as low as 15% without substantial impacts on false positive or true positive rates.

  12. Designing specific protein-protein interactions using computation, experimental library screening, or integrated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Scott; Keating, Amy E

    2012-07-01

    Given the importance of protein-protein interactions for nearly all biological processes, the design of protein affinity reagents for use in research, diagnosis or therapy is an important endeavor. Engineered proteins would ideally have high specificities for their intended targets, but achieving interaction specificity by design can be challenging. There are two major approaches to protein design or redesign. Most commonly, proteins and peptides are engineered using experimental library screening and/or in vitro evolution. An alternative approach involves using protein structure and computational modeling to rationally choose sequences predicted to have desirable properties. Computational design has successfully produced novel proteins with enhanced stability, desired interactions and enzymatic function. Here we review the strengths and limitations of experimental library screening and computational structure-based design, giving examples where these methods have been applied to designing protein interaction specificity. We highlight recent studies that demonstrate strategies for combining computational modeling with library screening. The computational methods provide focused libraries predicted to be enriched in sequences with the properties of interest. Such integrated approaches represent a promising way to increase the efficiency of protein design and to engineer complex functionality such as interaction specificity.

  13. The Effect of Preparation Design on the Fracture Resistance of Zir-Conia Crown Copings (Computer Associated Design/Computer Associated Machine, CAD/CAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Atashkar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the major problems of all ceramic restorations is their probable fracture against the occlusal force. The aim of the present in-vitro study is was to compare the effect of two marginal designs (chamfer & shoulder on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings, CERCON (CAD/CAM.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study was done with single blind experimental technique. One stainless steel dye with 50’ chamfer finish line design (0.8 mm depth was prepared using milling machine. Ten epoxy resin dyes were made, The same dye was retrieved and 50' chamfer was converted into shoulder (1 mm.again ten epoxy resin dyes were made from shoulder dyes. Zirconia cores with 0.4 mm thickness and 35 µm cement Space fabricated on the20 epoxy resin dyes (10 samples chamfer and 10 samples shoulder in a dental laboratory. Then the zirconia cores were cemented on the epoxy resin dyes and underwent a fracture test with a universal testing machine (GOTECH AI-700LAC, Arson, USA and samples were investigated from the point of view of the origin of the failure.RESULT: The mean value of fracture resistance for shoulder margins were 788.90±99.56 N and for the chamfer margins were 991.75±112.00 N. The student’s T-test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (P=0.001.CONCLUSION: The result of this study indicates that marginal design of the zirconia cores effects on their fracture resistance. A chamfer margin could improve the biomechanical performance of posterior single zirconia crown restorations. This may be because of strong unity and round internal angle in chamfer margin.

  14. Optimization of the preparation of pectin from Aloe using a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lijing; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Xingyuan; Chen, Weijie; Li, Yingchang; Liu, Chang; Sun, Jing; Yu, Xiaolei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jing; Wang, Lijie

    2014-05-25

    The extraction condition of pectin from Aloe vera barbadensis Mill was optimized by a Box-Behnken design. The effect of parameters of extraction water proportion (EWP), extraction pH (EpH), extraction temperature (ETe), extraction time (ETi), alcohol precipitation pH (APpH)and alcohol precipitation temperature (APTe) on the extraction yield of pectin was investigated by a software of Design Export 8.0.5b. The maximum extraction yield was obtained with the EWP of 20:1, EpH of 1.5, ETe of 90°C, ETi of 120min, APpH of 3.0 and APTe of 50°C, which was consistent with the experimental value. We also found out that the pectin content decreased gradually during storage and sucrose concentration had a significant impact on the viscosity of pectin.

  15. Bayesian experimental design for the active nitridation of graphite by atomic nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Terejanu, Gabriel; Miki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optimal data collection to efficiently learn the model parameters of a graphite nitridation experiment is studied in the context of Bayesian analysis using both synthetic and real experimental data. The paper emphasizes that the optimal design can be obtained as a result of an information theoretic sensitivity analysis. Thus, the preferred design is where the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables is the highest possible. In this paper, the statistical dependence between random variables is quantified by mutual information and estimated using a k-nearest neighbor based approximation. It is shown, that by monitoring the inference process via measures such as entropy or Kullback-Leibler divergence, one can determine when to stop the data collection process. The methodology is applied to select the most informative designs on both a simulated data set and on an experimental data set, previously published in the literature. It is also shown that the sequential Bayesian ...

  16. Thermoelastic Femoral Stress Imaging for Experimental Evaluation of Hip Prosthesis Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Koji; Inomoto, Masayoshi; Ma, Wenxiao; Miyakawa, Syunpei; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    An experimental system using the thermoelastic stress analysis method and a synthetic femur was utilized to perform reliable and convenient mechanical biocompatibility evaluation of hip prosthesis design. Unlike the conventional technique, the unique advantage of the thermoelastic stress analysis method is its ability to image whole-surface stress (Δ(σ1+σ2)) distribution in specimens. The mechanical properties of synthetic femurs agreed well with those of cadaveric femurs with little variability between specimens. We applied this experimental system for stress distribution visualization of the intact femur, and the femurs implanted with an artificial joint. The surface stress distribution of the femurs sensitively reflected the prosthesis design and the contact condition between the stem and the bone. By analyzing the relationship between the stress distribution and the clinical results of the artificial joint, this technique can be used in mechanical biocompatibility evaluation and pre-clinical performance prediction of new artificial joint design.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Results of Substrate Effects on Microstrip Power Divider Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Mansoor Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substrate materials on the design of microstrip power divider are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Three dielectric substrate materials, Duroid 3003, G10/FR4 epoxy Glass, and Duroid 3010, are chosen to be studied. A three-way two-stage power divider is designed at S-band frequency of 2.25 GHz and etched on each studied substrate separately. The substrate effects on the characteristics and performance of the microsrip circuits are studied taking into consideration the large difference in dielectric constant and the dissipation factor. The circuit designs presented here are analyzed using the Genesys CAD program and implemented and tested experimentally. The simulated and measured results are compared and discussed, and they indicate that significant changes in the characteristics of the microstrip power divider are observed.

  18. Comment: Spurious Correlation and Other Observations on Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the paper "Experimental Design for Engineering Dimensional Analysis" by Albrecht et al. (2013, Technometrics). That paper provides and overview of engineering dimensional analysis (DA) for use in developing DA models. The paper proposes methods for generating model-robust experimental designs to supporting fitting DA models. The specific approach is to develop a design that maximizes the efficiency of a specified empirical model (EM) in the original independent variables, subject to a minimum efficiency for a DA model expressed in terms of dimensionless groups (DGs). This discussion article raises several issues and makes recommendations regarding the proposed approach. Also, the concept of spurious correlation is raised and discussed. Spurious correlation results from the response DG being calculated using several independent variables that are also used to calculate predictor DGs in the DA model.

  19. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior....... The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design...... of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior...

  20. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  1. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  2. Highly Efficient Design-of-Experiments Methods for Combining CFD Analysis and Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Haller, Harold S.

    2009-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of "highly efficient" Design-of-Experiments (DOE) methods for combining sets of CFD generated analysis data with smaller sets of Experimental test data in order to accurately predict performance results where experimental test data were not obtained. The study examines the impact of micro-ramp flow control on the shock wave boundary layer (SWBL) interaction where a complete paired set of data exist from both CFD analysis and Experimental measurements By combining the complete set of CFD analysis data composed of fifteen (15) cases with a smaller subset of experimental test data containing four/five (4/5) cases, compound data sets (CFD/EXP) were generated which allows the prediction of the complete set of Experimental results No statistical difference were found to exist between the combined (CFD/EXP) generated data sets and the complete Experimental data set composed of fifteen (15) cases. The same optimal micro-ramp configuration was obtained using the (CFD/EXP) generated data as obtained with the complete set of Experimental data, and the DOE response surfaces generated by the two data sets were also not statistically different.

  3. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  4. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  5. Design and Preparation of a Unique Segregated Double Network with Excellent Thermal Conductive Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Lei, Chuxin; Huang, Rui; Yang, Weixing; Chai, Songgang; Geng, Chengzhen; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    It is still a challenge to fabricate polymer-based composites with excellent thermal conductive property because of the well-known difficulties such as insufficient conductive pathways and inefficient filler-filler contact. To address this issue, a synergistic segregated double network by using two fillers with different dimensions has been designed and prepared by taking graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polystyrene for example. In this structure, GNPs form the segregated network to largely increase the filler-filler contact areas while MWCNT are embedded within the network to improve the network-density. The segregated network and the randomly dispersed hybrid network by using GNPs and MWCNT together were also prepared for comparison. It was found that the thermal conductivity of segregated double network can achieve almost 1.8-fold as high as that of the randomly dispersed hybrid network, and 2.2-fold as that of the segregated network. Meanwhile, much higher synergistic efficiency (f) of 2 can be obtained, even greater than that of other synergistic systems reported previously. The excellent thermal conductive property and higher f are ascribed to the unique effect of segregated double network: (1) extensive GNPs-GNPs contact areas via overlapped interconnections within segregated GNPs network; (2) efficient synergistic effect between MWCNT network and GNPs network based on bridge effect as well as increasing the network-density.

  6. The Design of Reflective Tasks for the Preparation of Student Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Viafara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of student-teachers to face the beginning in their profession requires from us, teacher educators, enriching discussions to share what we know and to build more solid grounds in our area. On the following pages, I describe how, in the specific context of a public university, I have designed and implemented a set of tasks within a reflective framework to support student- teachersʼ learning in their practicum. In this regard, a detailed explanation of how journal writing, conferences, focused reflection on tasks and responses to observation notes is included. Likewise, the experience of a student teacher working with tasks to solve a difficulty in the practicum, contributes to illustrate how reflective exercises support her development.

  7. Novel Starch-PVA Polymer for Microparticle Preparation and Optimization Using Factorial Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Helen; De, Amit Kumar; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our present work was to optimize the ratio of a very novel polymer, starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), for controlled delivery of Ornidazole. Polymer-coated drug microparticles were prepared by emulsion method. Microscopic study, scanning electron microscopic study, and atomic force microscopic study revealed that the microparticles were within 10 micrometers of size with smooth spherical shape. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed absence of drug polymer interaction. A statistical 3(2) full factorial design was used to study the effect of different concentration of starch and PVA on the drug release profile. The three-dimensional plots gave us an idea about the contribution of each factor on the release kinetics. Hence this novel polymer of starch and polyvinyl alcohol can be utilized for control release of the drug from a targeted delivery device.

  8. Design and preparation of Zn-based materials possessing both high damping and good mechanical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new idea of design and manufacture of metal-based materials possessing both high damping and good mechanical properties was proposed. The key of the idea is the combination of fining restriction-damping structures, using all mechanisms and taking advantages of different materials. Based upon this idea a foam ZA27 was prepared by the technology of prefabricated salt-mass centrifugal seeping foundry, its tensile strength and compressive strength are 83~119 MPa and 100~189 MPa, respectively. The damping properties of the foam ZA27 increase remarkably after the carpenter pastern or rosin (the damping-increased materials) was immerged into it, which approaches to the level of viscous-elastic polymer materials (Q-1≥20×10-3).

  9. Design and Fabrication of Edge Filter Using Absorbed ZnS Single Layer Prepared by Flash Evaporation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habubi, Nadir F.; Mishjil, Khudheir A.; Rashid, Hayfa G.; Mansour, H. L.

    Long-wave pass edge filter of high transmittance and wide bandpass have been designed and fabricated using on a single weakly absorbed ZnS thin film material of thickness of about 300 nm which was prepared by using the flash evaporation technique. The design was based on characteristic matrix theory, taking into account the effect of dispersion phenomena for all spectral wavelength.

  10. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  11. Aspects of experimental design for plant metabolomics experiments and guidelines for growth of plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Yves; Rolin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Experiments involve the deliberate variation of one or more factors in order to provoke responses, the identification of which then provides the first step towards functional knowledge. Because environmental, biological, and/or technical noise is unavoidable, biological experiments usually need to be designed. Thus, once the major sources of experimental noise have been identified, individual samples can be grouped, randomised, and/or pooled. Like other 'omics approaches, metabolomics is characterised by the numbers of analytes largely exceeding sample number. While this unprecedented singularity in biology dramatically increases false discovery, experimental error can nevertheless be decreased in plant metabolomics experiments. For this, each step from plant cultivation to data acquisition needs to be evaluated in order to identify the major sources of error and then an appropriate design can be produced, as with any other experimental approach. The choice of technology, the time at which tissues are harvested, and the way metabolism is quenched also need to be taken into consideration, as they decide which metabolites can be studied. A further recommendation is to document data and metadata in a machine readable way. The latter should also describe every aspect of the experiment. This should provide valuable hints for future experimental design and ultimately give metabolomic data a second life. To facilitate the identification of critical steps, a list of items to be considered before embarking on time-consuming and costly metabolomic experiments is proposed.

  12. Incorporating experimental design and error into coalescent/mutation models of population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Bjarne; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2007-08-01

    Coalescent theory provides a powerful framework for estimating the evolutionary, demographic, and genetic parameters of a population from a small sample of individuals. Current coalescent models have largely focused on population genetic factors (e.g., mutation, population growth, and migration) rather than on the effects of experimental design and error. This study develops a new coalescent/mutation model that accounts for unobserved polymorphisms due to missing data, sequence errors, and multiple reads for diploid individuals. The importance of accommodating these effects of experimental design and error is illustrated with evolutionary simulations and a real data set from a population of the California sea hare. In particular, a failure to account for sequence errors can lead to overestimated mutation rates, inflated coalescent times, and inappropriate conclusions about the population. This current model can now serve as a starting point for the development of newer models with additional experimental and population genetic factors. It is currently implemented as a maximum-likelihood method, but this model may also serve as the basis for the development of Bayesian approaches that incorporate experimental design and error.

  13. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  14. Optimization of rheological parameter for micro-bubble drilling fluids by multiple regression experimental design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑力会; 王金凤; 李潇鹏; 张燕; 李都

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize plastic viscosity of 18 mPa·s circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid formula,orthogonal and uniform experimental design methods were applied,and the plastic viscosities of 36 and 24 groups of agent were tested,respectively.It is found that these two experimental design methods show drawbacks,that is,the amount of agent is difficult to determine,and the results are not fully optimized.Therefore,multiple regression experimental method was used to design experimental formula.By randomly selecting arbitrary agent with the amount within the recommended range,17 groups of drilling fluid formula were designed,and the plastic viscosity of each experiment formula was measured.Set plastic viscosity as the objective function,through multiple regressions,then quadratic regression model is obtained,whose correlation coefficient meets the requirement.Set target values of plastic viscosity to be 18,20 and 22 mPa·s,respectively,with the trial method,5 drilling fluid formulas are obtained with accuracy of 0.000 3,0.000 1 and 0.000 3.Arbitrarily select target value of each of the two groups under the formula for experimental verification of drilling fluid,then the measurement errors between theoretical and tested plastic viscosity are less than 5%,confirming that regression model can be applied to optimizing the circulating of plastic-foam drilling fluid viscosity.In accordance with the precision of different formulations of drilling fluid for other constraints,the methods result in the optimization of the circulating micro-bubble drilling fluid parameters.

  15. Optimal experimental designs for estimating Henry's law constants via the method of phase ratio variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Krieger, Abba; Blanford, William J

    2016-10-14

    When measuring Henry's law constants (kH) using the phase ratio variation (PRV) method via headspace gas chromatography (GC), the value of kH of the compound under investigation is calculated from the ratio of the slope to the intercept of a linear regression of the inverse GC response versus the ratio of gas to liquid volumes of a series of vials drawn from the same parent solution. Thus, an experimenter collects measurements consisting of the independent variable (the gas/liquid volume ratio) and dependent variable (the GC(-1) peak area). A review of the literature found that the common design is a simple uniform spacing of liquid volumes. We present an optimal experimental design which estimates kH with minimum error and provides multiple means for building confidence intervals for such estimates. We illustrate performance improvements of our design with an example measuring the kH for Naphthalene in aqueous solution as well as simulations on previous studies. Our designs are most applicable after a trial run defines the linear GC response and the linear phase ratio to the GC(-1) region (where the PRV method is suitable) after which a practitioner can collect measurements in bulk. The designs can be easily computed using our open source software optDesignSlopeInt, an R package on CRAN.

  16. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  17. Application of the central composite design to optimize the preparation of novel micelles of harmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei YY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yan Bei,1,* Xiao-Feng Zhou,2,3,* Ben-Gang You,1 Zhi-Qiang Yuan,1 Wei-Liang Chen,1 Peng Xia,1 Yang Liu,1 Yong Jin,4 Xiao-Juan Hu,1 Qiao-Ling Zhu,1 Chun-Ge Zhang,1 Xue-Nong Zhang,1 Liang Zhang5 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Changshu Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changshu, People’s Republic of China; 4Invasive Technology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Biopharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to the paperAbstract: Lactose–palmitoyl–trimethyl–chitosan (Lac-TPCS, a novel amphipathic self-assembled polymer, was synthesized for administration of insoluble drugs to reduce their adverse effects. The central composite design was used to study the preparation technique of harmine (HM-loaded self-assembled micelles based on Lac-TPCS (Lac-TPCS/HM. Three preparation methods and single factors were screened, including solvent type, HM amount, hydration volume, and temperature. The optimal preparation technique was identified after investigating the influence of two independent factors, namely, HM amount and hydration volume, on four indexes, ie, encapsulation efficiency (EE, drug-loading amount (LD, particle size, and polydispersity index (PDI. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination of 0.916 to 0.994, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the predicted prescription. The maximum predicted values of the optimal prescription were 91.62%, 14.20%, 183.3 nm, and 0.214 for EE, LD, size, and PDI, respectively, when HM amount was 1.8 mg and hydration volume was 9.6 mL. HM-loaded micelles were successfully characterized by

  18. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  19. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  20. Modified combustion synthesis of Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Optimization using Taguchi experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzbeigi, Reza, E-mail: norouzbeigi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi Farahani, Shahrzad [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Abstarct: Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were prepared by modified combustion of DTPA as a new fuel. Three factors such as fuel to oxidizer ratio (F/O), added fuel type and added to the main fuel ratio were evaluated under Taguchi L{sub 8} experimental design and analysis. Urea and EDTA were selected as added fuels and sterile gauze was used as a template for the first time. The crystal sizes were optimized as the responses of the experiments. Optimum condition for production of smaller crystals was determined as using EDTA as added fuel and added/main fuels molar ratio of 0.75. The structural and morphological properties of the products were characterized using, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). FESEM and TEM micrographs showed agglomerated spherical and cubic nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity in the range of 13–23 nm. - Highlights: • Highly pure Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by modified combustion of Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid as a new fuel. • Sterile gauze was used as template for the first time. • Nickel ferrite powders with average particle size of 60 nm have been successfully synthesized.

  1. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinu Babu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

  2. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Rotor-gas bearings are attracting increasing interest because of their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation. However, hydrostatic rotor-gas bearings show reduced damping characteristics, which makes it challenging to operate the rotating machine at and about the resonance...... directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed...

  3. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    the bottom-up, mode-free approach, the authors used the robotic construction kit, LocoKit. This construction kit allows researchers to construct legged robots, without having a mathematical model beforehand. The authors used no specific mathematical model to design the robot, but instead used intuition...... and took inspiration from biology. The results were afterwards compared with results gained from biology, to see if the robot has some of the key elements the authors were looking for. Findings – With the use of LocoKit as the experimental platform, combined with known experimental measurement methods from...

  4. Intuitive web-based experimental design for high-throughput biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  5. Bi-functionally Graded Electrode Supported SOFC Modeling and Computational Thermal Fluid Analysis for Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Xue, X.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive 3D CFD model is developed for a bi-electrode supported cell (BSC) SOFC. The model includes complicated transport phenomena of mass/heat transfer, charge (electron and ion) migration, and electrochemical reaction. The uniqueness of the modeling study is that functionally graded porous electrode property is taken into account, including not only linear but nonlinear porosity distributions. Extensive numerical analysis is performed to elucidate the effects of both porous microstructure distributions and operating condition on cell performance. Results indicate that cell performance is strongly dependent on both operating conditions and porous microstructure distributions of electrodes. Using the proposed fuel/gas feeding design, the uniform hydrogen distribution within porous anode is achieved; the oxygen distribution within the cathode is dependent on porous microstructure distributions as well as pressure loss conditions. Simulation results show that fairly uniform temperature distribution can be obtained with the proposed fuel/gas feeding design. The modeling results can be employed to guide experimental design of BSC test and provide pre-experimental analysis, as a result, to circumvent high cost associated with try-and-error experimental design and setup.

  6. RNA-seq Data: Challenges in and Recommendations for Experimental Design and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alexander G; Thomas, Sean; Wyman, Stacia K; Holloway, Alisha K

    2014-10-01

    RNA-seq is widely used to determine differential expression of genes or transcripts as well as identify novel transcripts, identify allele-specific expression, and precisely measure translation of transcripts. Thoughtful experimental design and choice of analysis tools are critical to ensure high-quality data and interpretable results. Important considerations for experimental design include number of replicates, whether to collect paired-end or single-end reads, sequence length, and sequencing depth. Common analysis steps in all RNA-seq experiments include quality control, read alignment, assigning reads to genes or transcripts, and estimating gene or transcript abundance. Our aims are two-fold: to make recommendations for common components of experimental design and assess tool capabilities for each of these steps. We also test tools designed to detect differential expression, since this is the most widespread application of RNA-seq. We hope that these analyses will help guide those who are new to RNA-seq and will generate discussion about remaining needs for tool improvement and development.

  7. Engineering at SLAC: Designing and constructing experimental devices for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, Austin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Thanks to the versatility of the beam lines at SSRL, research there is varied and benefits multiple fields. Each experiment requires a particular set of experiment equipment, which in turns requires its own particular assembly. As such, new engineering challenges arise from each new experiment. My role as an engineering intern has been to help solve these challenges, by designing and assembling experimental devices. My first project was to design a heated sample holder, which will be used to investigate the effect of temperature on a sample's x-ray diffraction pattern. My second project was to help set up an imaging test, which involved designing a cooled grating holder and assembling multiple positioning stages. My third project was designing a 3D-printed pencil holder for the SSRL workstations.

  8. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  9. Design of passive directional acoustic devices using Topology Optimization - from method to experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a topology optimization based method for designing acoustic focusing devices, capable of tailoring the sound emission pattern of one or several sources, across a chosen frequency band. The method is demonstrated numerically considering devices optimized for directional sound...... emission in two dimensions and is experimentally validated using three dimensional prints of the optimized designs. The emitted fields exhibit a level difference of at least 15 dB on axis relative to the off-axis directions, over frequency bands of approximately an octave. It is demonstrated to be possible...... to outperform the latter in terms of directivity and maximum side-lobe level over nearly an octave band. A set of frequencies are considered simultaneously in the design formulation and performance robustness toward uniform spatial production errors in the designed devices is assured by including perturbations...

  10. Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung-Deok, E-mail: sdhong1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Un; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, San56-1, Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO{sub 3} decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications of 900 Degree-Sign C in temperature and 1.0 MPa in pressure. The components for the sulfuric acid loop were specially designed using a combination of materials with good corrosion resistance; a ceramic and Hastelloy-C276. The design feature of the loop was tested for performance in a 10 h sulfuric acid experiment and optimized using Aspen+ code simulation.

  11. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However...

  12. Methodologic issues, theoretical considerations, and design criteria for experimental animal and cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, D F

    1997-12-01

    This article provides background information that is important when evaluating the relevance to humans of particular animal or in vitro experiments designed to assess the relations between fatty acids and cancer. Considerations in designing carcinogenesis studies to assess the relation between dietary fatty acids and human cancer include selection of the animal model and design of the experimental diets. Animal carcinogenesis models are generally best for evaluating the early phases of cancer development: the initiation and promotion of cancer. Transplantation protocols have been developed for evaluating the effect of diet on the growth and metastasis of partially or fully transformed cells. The variables that are important in such models are the origin and biology of the cell line, the animal host used for the implantation, the site of transplantation, whether the primary tumor is excised after a period of time to allow for metastasis, and when the diets are fed relative to the different phases of tumor growth and metastasis. Studies in cultured cells have been particularly useful for assessing the mechanisms by which fatty acids affect cancer. Considerations in designing studies with cultured cells include selection of the cell line, cell culture conditions, selection of biological endpoints that are relevant to human cancer, and in vivo confirmation of the mechanisms observed in vitro. Design considerations for each of these experimental approaches are discussed and the contributions of each approach are summarized.

  13. An experimental investigation of two 15 percent-scale wind tunnel fan-blade designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, David B.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental 3-D investigation of two fan-blade designs was conducted. The fan blades tested were 15 percent-scale models of blades to be used in the fan drive of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. NACA 65- and modified NACA 65-series sections incorporated increased thickness on the upper surface, between the leading edge and the one-half-chord position. Twist and taper were the same for both blade designs. The fan blades with modified 65-series sections were found to have an increased stall margin when they were compared with the unmodified blades.

  14. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  15. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  16. Comparison of a Conventional Heat Exchangers with a New Designed Heat Exchanger Experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Koyun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the air-water heat exchanger designed have been experimentally compared to conventional heat exchangers with and without fin. The same parameters for the three heat exchangers (pump flow, heating power, etc... have been used. In the experiments, speed-flow adjustment has been made to supply heat transfer at an optimum. As a result, during the circulation of water in pipe of the air-water heat exchanger, the corrosion fouling factor has not been formed. In addition, the efficiency of the new designed heat exchanger has been found between fin and finless heat exchanger efficiencies. The results have been shown in the diagrams.

  17. Design, Analysis, Prototyping, and Experimental Evaluation of an Efficient Double Coil Magnetorheological Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A double coil magnetorheological (MR valve with an outer annular resistance gap was designed and prototyped. The finite element modeling and analysis of double coil MR valve were carried out using ANSYS/Emag software, and the optimal magnetic field distribution and magnetic flux density of the double coil MR valve were achieved. The mechanism of the pressure drop was studied by building a mathematical model of pressure drop in the double coil MR valve. The proposed double coil MR valve was prototyped and its performance was experimentally evaluated. The new MR valve design has improved the efficiency of double coil MR valve significantly.

  18. Designation and Implementation of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology Virtual Experimental Platform Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, JinYue; Tang, Yin

    This paper explicitly discusses the designation and implementation thought and method of Microcomputer Principle and Interface Technology virtual experimental platform website construction. The instructional design of this platform mainly follows with the students-oriented constructivism learning theory, and the overall structure is subject to the features of teaching aims, teaching contents and interactive methods. Virtual experiment platform production and development should fully take the characteristics of network operation into consideration and adopt relevant technologies to improve the effect and speed of network software application in internet.

  19. Speculations on Quasi-Experimental Design in HIV/AIDS Prevention Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T. Campbell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a speculative discussion on what quasi-experimental designs might be useful in various aspects of HIV/AIDS research. The first author’s expertise is in research design, not HIV, while the second author has been active in HIV prevention research. It is hoped that it may help the HIV/AIDS research community in discovering and inventing an expanded range of possibilities for valid causal inference. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i1.16113

  20. Pliocene Model Intercomparison (PlioMIP) Phase 2: scientific objectives and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Rowley, D.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Chandler, M. A.; Hunter, S. J.; Lunt, D. J.; Pound, M.; Salzmann, U.

    2015-08-01

    The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) is a co-ordinated international climate modelling initiative to study and understand climate and environments of the Late Pliocene, and their potential relevance in the context of future climate change. PlioMIP operates under the umbrella of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), which examines multiple intervals in Earth history, the consistency of model predictions in simulating these intervals and their ability to reproduce climate signals preserved in geological climate archives. This paper provides a thorough model intercomparison project description, and documents the experimental design in a detailed way. Specifically, this paper describes the experimental design and boundary conditions that will be utilised for the experiments in Phase 2 of PlioMIP.