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Sample records for preparation digesters separate

  1. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  2. Enzymatic Digestion for Improved Bacteria Separation from Leafy Green Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhui; Wang, Ziyuan; He, Fei; Kinchla, Amanda J; Nugen, Sam R

    2016-08-01

    An effective and rapid method for the separation of bacteria from food matrix remains a bottleneck for rapid bacteria detection for food safety. Bacteria can strongly attach to a food surface or internalize within the matrix, making their isolation extremely difficult. Traditional methods of separating bacteria from food routinely involve stomaching, blending, and shaking. However, these methods may not be efficient at removing all the bacteria from complex matrices. Here, we investigate the benefits of using enzyme digestion followed by immunomagnetic separation to isolate Salmonella from spinach and lettuce. Enzymatic digestion using pectinase and cellulase was able to break down the structure of the leafy green vegetables, resulting in the detachment and release of Salmonella from the leaves. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella from the liquefied sample allowed an additional separation step to achieve a more pure sample without leaf debris that may benefit additional downstream applications. We have investigated the optimal combination of pectinase and cellulase for the digestion of spinach and lettuce to improve sample detection yields. The concentrations of enzymes used to digest the leaves were confirmed to have no significant effect on the viability of the inoculated Salmonella. Results reported that the recovery of the Salmonella from the produce after enzyme digestion of the leaves was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than traditional sample preparation methods to separate bacteria (stomaching and manually shaking). The results demonstrate the potential for use of enzyme digestion prior to separation can improve the efficiency of bacteria separation and increase the likelihood of detecting pathogens in the final detection assay.

  3. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  4. Characterization of biochar prepared from biogas digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chen, Jie-Wei; Lin, Yu-Quan; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In the study, the biogas digestate was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochars at a broad temperature range of 300-900°C. The physico-chemical and pore properties of the resulting biochars (denoted as SDBC, solid digestate biochar), including calorific value (higher heating value), surface area/pore volume/pore size distribution, true density, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were studied. It was found that the higher heating values of the SDBC products were on a decreasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, but they indicated an increase in true density. The results are probably associated with the active pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic fragments and the calcination (or shrinkage) processes, thus resulting in the increased contents of aromatic carbon clusters and main mineral constituents remained. Based on the pore properties, pyrolysis temperature at around 800°C seemed to be the optimal condition for producing SDBC, where its Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (>100m(2)/g) largely increased as compared to that of the digestate feedstock (700°C) due to the high aromaticity via the thermal decomposition of lignocelluloses and the volatilization of inorganic minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT......), woodchips (WC), bio-char (BC), barley straw (BS) and lupin residues (LR) and were included at a DS:BA of 3:1 or 6:1, resulting in nine treatments: CTDS (control, DS only), PT3:1, PT6:1, WC3:1, WC6:1, BC3:1, BC6:1, BS3:1 and LR3:1. Depending on treatment, C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 41...

  6. Treatment of separated piggery anaerobic digestate liquid using woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, K N; Rodgers, M; Lawlor, P G; Zhan, X

    2013-01-01

    The Irish nitrates directive restricts the land area suitable for landspreading of pig manure, so anaerobic digestion warrants consideration. In this study, six identical Lodgepole pine woodchip biofilters were set up to treat the separated liquid fraction of digestate after anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Two hydraulic loading rates were examined: 5 L/m2/d (LLR) and 10 L/m2/d (HLR). Following a start-up period of 70 days, an average of 90% and 71% of NH4(+)-N was removed at LLR and HLR, respectively. LLR resulted in higher total nitrogen removals than HLR (p biofilter effluent. A batch experiment testing the capacity of saturated woodchips in removing total oxidized nitrogen (TON) from the effluent of the woodchip biofilters showed that TON was reduced by 323 mg/L from 663 mg/L in 360 h, indicating that the aerobic woodchip biofilters should incorporate a saturated layer ofwoodchips at the base ofthe biofilters to enhance nitrogen removal.

  7. Preparing School Administrators. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    Issues involved in improving administrator preparation programs are described in this ERIC Digest. A literature review identifies appropriate skills and methods for administrator training and summarizes recommendations such as application of theory to practice and development of full-time internships, school/university collaboration, mentorships,…

  8. Biogas and methane yield in response to co- and separate digestion of biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelard, Laetitia; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Rakotoniaina, Volana

    2015-01-01

    The impact of co-digestion as opposed to separate digestion, on biogas and methane yield (apparent synergetic effects) was investigated for three biomass materials (pig manure, cow manure and food waste) under mesophilic conditions over a 36 day period. In addition to the three biomass materials (digested separately), 13 biomass mixtures (co-digested) were used. Two approaches for modelling biogas and methane yield during co-digestion, based on volatile solids concentration and ultimate gas and methane potentials, were evaluated. The dependency of apparent synergetic effects on digestion time and biomass mixture composition was further assessed using measured cumulative biogas and methane yields and specific biogas and methane generation rates. Results indicated that it is possible, based on known volatile solids concentration and ultimate biogas or methane yields for a set of biomass materials digested separately, to accurately estimate gas yields for biomass mixtures made from these materials using calibrated models. For the biomass materials considered here, modelling indicated that the addition of pig manure is the main cause of synergetic effects. Co-digestion generally resulted in improved ultimate biogas and methane yields compared to separate digestion. Biogas and methane production was furthermore significantly higher early (0-7 days) and to some degree also late (above 20 days) in the digestion process during co-digestion.

  9. Intensifying digestion of diaspore and separation of alumina and silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小斌; 彭志宏; 刘桂华; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    It was found that there lies a linear relationship among the thermodynamic data of complicate inorganic compounds with similar components. A method for estimating the thermodynamic data of complicate compound and a thermodynamic database involving alumina production were developed. It was found that the alumina digestion rate of activated diasporic bauxite by means of heat field increased much due to the structure aberration, i.e, from perfect structure to unstable corundum. The results from thermodynamic calculation and experiments showed that it was feasible for desilication at atmospheric pressure, and the effects on equilibrium concentration of SiO2 included temperature, mole ratio of Na2O/Al2O3 (αk), caustic and Na+ concentration. The technology of desilication of green liquor at atmosphere and separation of alumina and silica in aluminate solution with high concentration were established. The reaction activity of compounds containing silica and the converting law among compounds were studied, and the prototype technology of desilication products by hydrotreatment was also developed.

  10. Phosphorus distribution and availability in untreated and mechanically separated biogas digestates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bachmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogas digestates contain valuable nutrients but also have high water contents. Di-gestates were sampled from two different biogas facilities before and after solid-liquid separation and were analyzed with regard to their composition and phosphorus (P fractions. Additionally, to investigate the P fertilizer effects of these digestates in comparison with undigested slurry or TripleSuper-P (TSP, they were applied in a pot experiment (6 kg soil per pot in an amount corresponding to 200 mg P per pot in combination with various crops (amaranth, maize, maize + beans mixed cropping, sorghum. A separation of digestates resulted in higher P concentrations of the solid fraction in comparison with the liquid fraction. The proportion of the readily soluble P fractions (H2O-P, NaHCO3-P to the total P was higher than 70 % in all digestates. The digestates increased P uptake of the tested crops and concentrations of bioavailable P in the soil to the same extent as highly soluble TSP. Activities of soil enzymes were lower after application of the digestates in comparison to unfermented slurry. The fertilizer management of digestates can be improved by a solid-liquid separation since the solid fraction showed a relatively high concentration of P resulting in a reduction in application doses required to meet the P demands of crops.

  11. Digested Ara h 1 Loses Sensitizing Capacity When Separated into Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Rigby, Neil M.

    2012-01-01

    The major peanut allergen Ara h 1 is an easily digestible protein under physiological conditions. The present study revealed that pepsin digestion products of Ara h 1 retained the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat model, while this sensitizing capacity was lost by separating the digest...... into fractions by gel permeation chromatography. Protein chemical analysis showed that the peptide composition as well as the aggregation profiles of the fractions of Ara h 1 digest differed from that of the whole pool. These results indicate that the sensitizing capacity of digested Ara h 1 is a consequence...... of the peptides being in an aggregated state resembling the intact molecule or that most peptides of the digests need to be present in the same solution, having a synergistic or adjuvant effect and thereby augmenting the immune response against other peptides....

  12. Purification and separation of subsets of human Ia molecules by papain digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, N; Tosi, R; Koyama, K; Pressman, D

    1980-01-01

    Papain digestion of human Ia(-like) molecules was performed under various conditions using 125I-labelled preparation of non-ionic-detergent-solubilized Ia antigens of Daudi cells. The products were examined for their allospecificities by a direct binding reaction with human Ia alloantisera. The Daudi Ia preparation is known to contain Ia molecules of DRw6 specificity, an HLA-DR specificity and also Ia molecules of DC1 specificity, a putative non-HLA-DR specificity. Limited papain digestion cleaved off the hydrophobic portion of human Ia molecules and gave smaller sized Ia products. The cleavage did not affect the Ia alloantigenic determinants and occurred much more readily with molecules of DC1 specificity than with molecules of DRw6 specificity. As a consequence, limited papain digestion of the Daudi Ia pool yielded an Ia preparation with DRw6 specificity but lacking DC1 specificity and another Ia preparation which was enriched in DC1 specificity. The limited papain digestion of the Daudi Ia pool followed by gel filtration and LcH affinity chromatography also produced Ia REPARATIONS OF HIGH PURITY. Extensive papain digestion damaged the Ia alloantigenic determinants but the DC1 determinant was much more resistant than the DRw6 determinant. Thus extensive papain digestion yielded an Ia preparation which was relatively rich in DC1 specificity and essentially devoid of DRw6 specificity. PMID:6155328

  13. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Separation of Digested Fattening Pig Slurry for Optimal P Concentration, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    The purpose of this Life Cycle Assessment report is to investigate the potential for separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimise the utilisation of the phosphorous content of the manure. By separating, the phosphorous rich solid fraction can be brought to fields...... far away from the farm with a need for phosphorus, as the fields close to the pig farm areas usually contain abundant amounts of P. The environmental consequences of the separation has been assessed. Furthermore, the Life Cycle Assessment highlights the environmental impacts along the “manure...... management chain” for a combination of techniques: Source-segregation of manure from fattening pigs, using the solid part from the source-segregation for biogas production, utilising the biogas for heat and electricity production, separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimize...

  14. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  15. ENERGY SLUDGE PROCESSING IN A SEPARATE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DIGESTER POMORZANY IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iżewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomorzany Sewage Treatment Plant in Szczecin ensures the required parameters of treated sewage. However, due to higher efficiency of sewage treatment, more sludge is produced after the treatment process. In the examined sludge treatment plant, primary sludge is gravitationally thickened to the content of about 5% of dry matter, and the excessive is thickened in mechanical compactors up to 6% of dry matter. Settlements preliminary and excessive after compaction is discharged to the sludge tank where a pump is forced into two closed digesters. Each digester has the capacity of 5069 m3. At a temperature of about 37 °C a mesophilic digestion is performed. Biogas, that is produced in the chamber, is stored in two-coat tanks with the capacity of 1500 m3 each and after desulphurization with the biosulfex method (which results with obtaining elemental sulphur it is used as fuel in cogeneration units. The aim of this study was to determine amount of energy given by sewage sludge in the form of heat during the process of methane digestion (primary and excessive. These amounts were determined on the basis of chemical energy balance of sewage carried into and out of Separate Sludge Digesters and produced biogas within 24h. The study determined that the percentage value of average chemical energy amount turned into heat and discharged with produced methane in relation to chemical energy of sewage carried into the first digester in Pomorzany Treatment Plant in Szczecin was in the range of 47.86 ± 9.73% for a confidence level of 0.95. On average 80.86 ± 33.65% was emitted with methane and 19.14 ± 33.65% of energy was changed into heat.

  16. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  17. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended.

  18. Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale hybrid biofilters were set up to treat the separated pig manure digestate liquid at two loading rates of 0.12 and 0.07 kg N m(-3) per day. The hybrid biofilters were operated with a sequencing batch reactor mode. Over the operation of 136 days, 84% and 88% of total nitrogen was removed on average in addition with complete nitrification at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. In the anoxic phase, the nitrate reduction rates were 0.31 and 0.24 mg L(-1) min(-1); and in the aerobic phase, nitrification rates were 0.29 and 0.18 mg L(-1) min(-1) at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. It was found that in the hybrid biofilters, biofilm biomass had much higher nitrification and denitrification activities than suspended growth biomass. Phosphorus removals achieved were up to 88%. The results show the hybrid biofilter technology is valid for high nutrient pig manure digestate liquid treatment.

  19. Nutrient and heavy metal accumulation in municipal organic waste from separate collection during anaerobic digestion in a two-stage laboratory biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Christine; Dornack, Christina; Raab, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Municipal organic waste (MOW) is a promising feedstock for biogas plants and separate collection will increase available quantities. To close nutrient circles digestates shall be redistributed to arable land. However, less is known about digestate properties and how they are influenced during digestion. Therefore, changes in nutrient and heavy metal concentration in the solid digestate were investigated during anaerobic treatment of MOW in a two-stage laboratory biogas plant. Results show that the solid digestate is exposed to element accumulation, except for N, P and Mg. The loss of initial N, P and Mg load accounts up to 45%, which must be redistributed elsewhere in the digester system. K load of feedstock was completely rediscovered in the solid digestate. Heavy metal concentration in the digestate increases by factor 1.6 at average. The results emphasize that element retention in the digester system has a decisive impact on nutrient content of digestates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ζ-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis.

  1. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  2. Separation of inerts by differential sedimentation as previous stage to anaerobic digestion of organic fraction from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, C.; Martinez, V.; Esplugas, P.

    2009-07-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants have as main function the valuation of municipal waste by means of materials recovery and valuation of organic fraction. In this type of facilities, the anaerobic digestion is a biological treatment of the organic matter collected in origin or mechanically separated from the mixed MSM. The objective is its valuation under the form of biogas and organic compost. Anaerobic digestion has high energy efficiency and a good range or organic matter elimination. Nevertheless, treatment of organic matter recovered from mixed MSW presents serious operation problems due to sedimentation of heavy improper materials (sands, glasses, metals) and flotation of light materials inside the digestors and piping. (Author)

  3. Simplified sample preparation method for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: in-gel digestion on the probe surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2001-01-01

    Identification and detailed characterization of complex mixtures of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) require optimized and robust methods for interfacing electrophoretic techniques to mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-......Identification and detailed characterization of complex mixtures of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) require optimized and robust methods for interfacing electrophoretic techniques to mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption...... for protein identification similar to that obtained by the traditional protocols for in-gel digestion and MALDI peptide mass mapping of human proteins, i.e. approximately 60%. The overall performance of the novel on-probe digestion method is comparable with that of the standard in-gel sample preparation...

  4. Preparation of immunomagnetic nanoparticles and their application in the separation of mouse CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Xu, Ke; Xu, Jianhe; Chen, Wei; Shen, Hebai; Liu, Jianwen

    2009-06-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of about 60 nm were synthesized by coprecipitation from ferrous and ferric iron solutions and coated with silica. Then the nanoparticles were modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPS) in order to immobilize anti-CD34 + monoclonal antibodies to the surface of modified magnetic particles. The results of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) indicated that the nanoparticles were successfully prepared. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo confirmed that the mouse CD34 + cells (cells expressing CD34) were separated by the immunomagnetic nanoparticles. The viability of the separated cells was studied by hematopoietic colony-forming assay, the result of which showed that the target cells still had an ability of proliferation and differentiation. The application of the separated CD34 + cells was in testing the pharmacological effect of three samples isolated from enzyme-digested traditional Chinese medicine Colla corii asini.

  5. Composite wheat-plantain starch salted noodles. preparation, proximal composition and in vitro starch digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Rendón-Villalobos; Perla Osorio-Díaz; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Juscelino Tovar; Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Salted noodles were prepared with different contents of wheat grits and plantain starch (PS). The blends were hydrated with 2% NaCl (w/v), homogenized, and the resulting doughs were sheeted through a pasta machine, cut into strips ~30cm in length, cooked, and their composition and in vitro starch digestibility was assessed. Moisture (6.43-7.60%) and ash contents (2.08-3.12%) increased by the addition of PS. Fat level decreased from 0.41 to 0.31% as the substitution of wheat grits increased. R...

  6. Fast centrifugal partition chromatography as a preparative-scale separation technique for citrus flavones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) is a preparative-scale separations methodology based on the principles of counter current chromatography. Separations by FCPC are typically achieved with higher recoveries and with lower solvent use compared to conventional column chromatography. HSCP...

  7. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  8. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed...... screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered...... in the biopulp. The biochemical methane potential for the biopulp was 469±7mL CH4/g ash-free mass. Moreover, all Danish and European Union requirements regarding the content of hazardous substances in biomass intended for land application were fulfilled. Compared to other pre-treatment alternatives, the screw...

  9. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

    1995-01-31

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

  10. Preparation and separation of DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Geyou; Zheng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purification of single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from their synthetic mixture is a prerequisite for many applications. DNA-controlled carbon nanotube (CNT) purification has evolved over a decade along with other separation techniques utilizing different types of dispersing agents such as surfactants and polymers. The size of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) libraries affords practically unlimited ways of coating SWCNTs. Recent developments in separating surfactant-dispersed SWCNTs by polymer aqueous two-phase (ATP) extraction has enabled rapid and efficient SWCNT separation on a larger volume scale. Applying the ATP separation method to DNA-SWCNT hybrids opens a new route for effective sorting of nanotubes into each and every single-chirality species. Here, we report protocols for purifying as many as 15 single-chirality nanotube species from a synthetic mixture based on the separation of DNA-SWCNTs by the aqueous two-phase (ATP) method.

  11. Preparation of thermal resistant-enhanced separators for lithium ion battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Micro-porous membrane made of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) is most widely used as physical separators between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary batteries. However, the polymer membranes so soften or melt when the temperature reaches 130 .deg. C or higher because of thermal shrinkage of the polyolefin separators, and thaw low thermal stability may cause internal short circuiting or lead to thermal runaway. In this study, to realize a highly safe battery, we prepared three type separators as crosslinked PE separator, polymer-coated PE separator, and ceramic-coated PE separators, for lithium secondary battery by electron beam irradiation. We prepared crosslinked PE separators with the improved thermal stability by irradiating a commercial PE separator with an electron beam. A polymer-coated PE separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. Ceramic-coated PE separator was prepared by coating ceramic particles on a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The prepared separators were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity, thermal shrinkage and battery performance test.

  12. Co-digestion of the hydromechanically separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic digestion of the hydromechanically sorted organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (HS-OFMSW) co-digested with sewage sludge (SS). Eight laboratory-scale experiments were conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 15 and 20 days of solids retention time (SRT). The biogas yield from the waste reached 309 to 315 dm(3)/kgVS and 320 to 361 dm(3)/kgVS under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The addition of SS to HS-OFMSW (1:1 by weight) improved the C/N balance of the mixture, and the production of biogas through anaerobic mesophilic digestion increased to 494 dm(3)/kgVS, which corresponded to 316 dm(3)CH4/kgVS. However, when SS and HS-OFMSW were treated under thermophilic conditions, methanogenesis was inhibited by volatile fatty acids and free ammonia, which concentrations reached 5744 gCH3COOH/m(3) and 1009 gNH3/m(3), respectively.

  13. Preparation of methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic microbore column for chromatographic separation of DNA fragments and oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabarudin, Akhmad, E-mail: sabarjpn@ub.ac.id [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Brawijaya University, Jl Veteran Malang 65145 (Indonesia); Huang, Junchao; Shu, Shin; Sakagawa, Shinnosuke [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Umemura, Tomonari, E-mail: umemura@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potentially preparative applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of oligodeoxythymidylic acids and DNA fragments. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the preparation of a microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column suitable not only for analytical purposes but also for potentially preparative applications. In order to meet the conflicting requirements of high permeability and good mechanical strength, the following two-step procedure was applied. First, an epoxy-containing monolith was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) within the confines of a silicosteel tubing of 1.02 mm i.d. and 1/16 Double-Prime o.d. in the presence of a ternary porogenic mixture of 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The monolithic matrix was subsequently converted into weak anion-exchanger via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy group with diethyl amine. The dynamic binding capacity was 21.4 mg mL{sup -1} for bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 10% breakthrough. The morphology and porous structure of this monolith were assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). To optimize the separation efficiency, the effects of various chromatographic parameters upon the separation of DNA fragments were investigated. The resulting monolithic anion exchanger demonstrated good potential for the separation of both single- and double-stranded DNA molecules using a gradient elution with NaCl in Tris-HCl buffer (20 mM). Oligodeoxythymidylic acids (dT{sub 12}-dT{sub 18}) were successfully resolved at pH 8, while the fragments of 20 bp DNA ladder, 100 bp DNA ladder, and pBR322-HaeIII digest were efficiently separated at pH 9.

  14. Rapid Preparation of Monolithic Columns for Capillary Electrochromatography Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jun GONG; Yi Jun ZHANG; Yu Ping ZHANG; Seong Ho CHOI

    2006-01-01

    Fritless packed silica gel columns were prepared using sol-gel technology. The part of a75 μm i.d. capillary was filled with a mixture of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, toluene and hydrochloric acid. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,Irgacure 1700 and irgacure 1800 were added in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the polymerization process. The above eight solutions were irradiated at 365 nm about5-10 min to prepare the porous monolithic sol-gel columns by a one-step process.

  15. Separation of interleukins by a preparative chromatofocusing-like method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkarsh, S P; Russoman, E A; Roy, S K

    1993-02-12

    A chromatofocusing-like method used in the large-scale separation of deamidated from amidated recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (amino acids 117-271), derived from Escherichia coli, is described. Two major protein species having isoelectric points (pI) of approximately 5.3 and 5.1 were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a sulfopropyl strong cation-exchange column. Unlike standard chromatofocusing technique, this method does not use carrier ampholytes during gradient separation of proteins, nor does it employ increased ionic strength for protein elution, the usual method for performing standard ion-exchange chromatography. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the protein with a pI of 5.3 revealed an Asn residue at position 32 as predicted by the cDNA sequence. The pI 5.1 species showed an Asp residue at the same position as a result of deamidation of Asn. This method was also used in the large-scale separation of N-Met from des-Met recombinant human interleukin-1 beta.

  16. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun, E-mail: qyk@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, {sup 1}H NMR and even by less-sensitive {sup 13}C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  17. Aluminum and phosphorus separation: application to preparation of target from brain tissue for {sup 26}Al determination by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Russell D.; Robertson, J. David; Sharma, Pankaj; Yokel, Robert A. E-mail: ryokel1@pop.uky.edu

    1999-04-01

    Acid digested brain containing 4 mg added {sup 27}Al was ashed at 1000 deg. C to prepare an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis of {sup 26}Al. A glass-like material usually resulted which was thought to be aluminum (Al) oxyphosphate. The separation of Al and phosphate was investigated. Al, but not phosphate, was bound by a cation exchange resin (AG 50-X8). Hydrofluoric acid eluted the Al from the resin. Removal of phosphate from acid digested brain by this method produced an amorphous material after ashing that was easier to recover from the porcelain crucible and had a higher AMS beam current. This procedure to separate Al from phosphate may have utility in other applications.

  18. Preparation and characterization of fully separated gold nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jakub, E-mail: jakub.siegel@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, Johannes [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz (Austria); Reznickova, Alena; Svorcik, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of laterally ordered separated Au nanowire arrays on PET is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process is based on evaporation of Au on PET template in glancing angle geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting nanowires are organized in parallel arrays of approximately 2500 wires. - Abstract: We reported on the development of an unconventional approach for the physical synthesis of laterally ordered self-organized arrays of well-separated metallic nanowires supported on nanostructured dielectric templates. The method, combining nanoscale patterning of the polyethylene terephthalate substrate by polarized light of excimer laser with glancing angle deposition of the gold, provides an interesting alternative to lithography-based nanopatterning approaches. Separation of individual nanowires is manifested by anisotropy of their electrical properties. Focused ion beam equipped scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the resulting nanowires were organized in parallel arrays of approximately 2500 wires with an average length of about 1000 {mu}m and uniform width of about 150 nm.

  19. Evaluation of starter dietary digestible lysine level on broilers raised under a sex-separated or straight-run housing regime, part 2: Economics of sex separation and digestible lysine level for maximum returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Colson, G; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the maximum net returns digestible lysine (dLys) levels (MNRL) when maintaining the ideal amino acid ratio for starter diets of broilers raised sex separate or comingled (straight-run). A total of 3,240 Ross 708 chicks was separated by sex and placed in 90 pens by 2 rearing types: sex separate (36 males or 36 females) or straight-run (18 males + 18 females). Each rearing type was fed 6 starter diets (25 d) formulated to have dLys levels between 1.05 and 1.80%. A common grower diet with 1.02% of dLys was fed from 25 to 32 days. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake were assessed at 25 and 32 d for performance evaluation. Additionally, at 26 and 33 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Data were modeled using response surface methodology in order to estimate feed intake and whole carcass weight at 1,600 g live BW. Returns over feed cost were estimated for a 1.8-million-broiler complex of each rearing system under 9 feed/meat price scenarios. Results indicated that females needed more feed to reach market weight, followed by straight-run birds, and then males. At medium meat and feed prices, female birds had MNRL at 1.07% dLys, whereas straight-run and males had MNRL at 1.05%. As feed and meat prices increased, females had MNRL increased up to 1.15% dLys. Sex separation resulted in increased revenue under certain feed and meat prices, and before sex separation cost was deducted. When the sexing cost was subtracted from the returns, sex separation was not shown to be economically viable when targeting birds for light market BW. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Preparation of thiophilic paramagnetic adsorbent for separation of antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The micron-sized mierospheres with superparamagnetic property were synthesized with vinyl acetate and divinylbenzene by microsuspension polymerization. After the complete alcoholysis, these hydroxyl-functionalized microspheres were activated by divinylfone and modified with mercaptoethanol to prepare the thiophilic magnetic adsorbent, which was used to specifically isolate immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum. This thiophilic magnetic adsorbent performed an evident salt-dependent adsorption behavior for IgG. Due to their salt-promoted adsorption towards IgG under high salt concentration, the absorbed antibodies could be extracted in low salt concentration with high purity.

  1. Preparation of Gas Separation Membranes and their Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Chauhan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric membranes have been prepared form the polysulfone using dry-wet phase-inversion technique. These membranes show a thin dense skin at one surface and porous as well as the selectivity of membranes. In addition an online permeate composition analysis system has also been setup to quantify the concentration fo the two major components of atmospheric ari, namely oxygen and nitrogen using a gas chromatograph. Memvranes have been tested at various feed pressures. Teh developed membranes are capable of enriching atmospheric air to a level of 30 per cent and more.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    traditional pretreatment method using a screw press. The inventory of the technologies was constructed including the mass balance, amount of biogas produced, nutrient recovery rates, and produced biomass quality. The technologies were modelled in the LCA-model EASETECH and the potential environmental impacts......The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  3. SAPO-34 Membranes for N-2/CH4 separation: Preparation, characterization, separation performance and economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, SG; Zong, ZW; Zhou, SJ; Huang, Y; Song, ZN; Feng, XH; Zhou, RF; Meyer, HS; Yu, M; Carreon, MA

    2015-08-01

    SAPO-34 membranes were synthesized by several routes towards N-2/CH4 separation. Membrane synthesis parameters including water content in the gel, crystallization time, support pore size, and aluminum source were investigated. High performance N-2-selective membranes were obtained on 100-nm-pore alumina tubes by using Al(i-C3H7O)(3) as aluminum source with a crystallization time of 6 h. These membranes separated N-2 from CH, with N-2 permeance as high as 500 GPU with separation selectivity of 8 at 24 degrees C. for a 50/50 N-2/CH4 mixture. Nitrogen and CH, adsorption isotherms were measured on SAPO-34 crystals. The N-2 and CH, heats of adsorption were 11 and 15 kJ/mol, respectively, which lead to a preferential adsorption of CE-H-4 over N-2 in the N-2/CH4 mixture. Despite this, the SAPO-34 membranes were selective for N-2 over CH4 in the mixture because N-2 diffuses much faster than CH4 and differences in diffusivity played a more critical role than the competitive adsorption. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that the required N-2/CH4 selectivity would be 15 in order to maintain a CH4 loss below 10%. For small nitrogen-contaminated gas wells, our current SAPO-34 membranes have potential to compete with the benchmark technology cryogenic distillation for N-2 rejection. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,

  4. Monolithic liquid-chromatography columns for protein analysisprotein digest separation and integrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the research described in this thesis are to evaluate the applicability of both silica-based and polymeric monolithic columns for protein analysis. The first part describes investigations into the effects of column length and stationary-phase chemistry on the separation of protein

  5. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  6. Hocodems technology in comparison with conventional separation processes for coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, P. [Heinrich Holter GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The new Hocodems technology, which is an advanced development of the Larcodems process, is presented and compared with conventional separation processes in coal preparation: Ep values and separation densities for a selected particle size range are compared. Comparisons of investment and operating costs are also made. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Preparation and characterization of new zeolite membranes. Application to gaseous separation; Preparation et caracterisation de nouvelles membranes de zeolithe application a la separation gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, M.

    1996-11-25

    Zeolites are interesting for the preparation of inorganic membranes which could be used for the continuous separation of gas and liquids by gas permeation and pervaporation. Zeolites membranes are obtained by hydrothermal synthesis and are characterized by XRD, SEM, TDA, IR, chemical analysis, EPMA, NMR, MAS NMR and gas permeation. After some tests of preparation of zeolite CHA and MFI self supporting membranes, the work is turned towards the preparation of zeolite MFI membranes supported by porous disks or {alpha} alumina, glass and tubes of carbon covered with a thin layer or zirconium dioxide. It is shown that the characteristics of the support (reactivity, pores dimensions, ...) strongly influence the quality of the prepared membrane. Two originals preparation processes are finalized. For the alumina disks, a gel precursor of zeolite is firs formed at the surface of the support by immersing successively that support in two non miscible liquids before the crystallisation. The gel is then converted into the zeolite by contact with water vapor. The zeolite layer obtained is localized at the surface of the support and present not only at the outside but also at the inside of the support. The characteristics of the zeolite layer can be controlled and the method can be adapted to various porous supports. The membrane obtained is interesting for hydrocarbons separations, for example the separation of methane and isobutane. In the case of Vycor glass disks, the reactivity of the support is first enhanced by contact with saturated water vapour. The temperature of the synthesis is then chosen relatively low in order to limit the attack of the support. With that method, a basic solution can be used without degradation of the support.The basicity leads to the formation of little crystals whose assembling is compact and homogeneous. The membrane obtained is interesting for example for the separation of normal butane and isobutane. (author) 71 refs.

  8. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  9. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (PGMA-EDMA) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized PGMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  10. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  11. Anaerobic digestion from residue of industrial cassava industrialization with acidogenic and methanogenic physical separation phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, M A; Tavares, C R; Bergamasco, R; Bonifácio, A L; Costa, R T

    2000-01-01

    A trial was carried out in a continuous regimen, using a completely stirred tank reactor, at acidogenic phase, and a hybrid reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket + fixed bed) at methanogenic phase at room temperature. The residue to be treated came from a flour and cassava meal industry, and the reactors operated for 300 d with affluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 7500, 9000, 11,000, and 14,000 mg/L. The final results showed a biogas production with a content of 80% methane and an average reduction of COD and free cyanide of nearly 96 and 98%, respectively. The separation of phases selected bacterial groups. At acidogenic phase, a predominance of propionic, n-butyric, and n-valeric acids, as well as a biomass composed of 95% fermentative bacilli, which were responsible for a 90% reduction in free cyanide concentration, was observed. At methanogenic phase, a predominance of methanogenic bacteria that came only from the Methanothrix genus was observed. The bacteria were responsible for high levels of organic matter removal and methane production.

  12. Nanoliter-volume protein enrichment, tryptic digestion, and partial separation based on isoelectric points by CE for MALDI mass spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Chandra A; Jurcic, Kristina; Yeung, Ken K-C

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-specific proteolysis is an important part of protein identification by MS. Digestion of protein is commonly performed in-solution, in sample vials with volumes ranging from milli- to microliters. When digestion is performed with a sample volume below 1 microL, handling of solution and potential sample loss via adsorption become significant issues. In this report, a proof of concept for the digestion of a small volume protein solution inside a capillary was demonstrated using a discontinuous buffer system previously studied (Nesbitt, C. A., et al. J. Chromatogr. A 2005, 1073, 175-180). Upon voltage application, a pH junction was created by the discontinuous buffer. Using myoglobin as an example, the protein molecules were enriched at the junction with an estimated volume of a few nanoliters. A protease, trypsin, was then introduced to myoglobin at the junction by coenrichment to induce in-capillary digestion. The voltage application was then suspended to provide the necessary time (2 h) for the proteolysis to proceed. When completed, voltage application was resumed, and the discontinuous buffer reconcentrated the peptides formed from digestion. Importantly, the refocused peptides appeared to roughly elute according to their pIs, resulting in a partial separation. Direct sample deposition from capillary was performed to facilitate mass spectral analysis by MALDI. The partial separation, according to pI, offered the potential benefits of MALDI MS signal enhancement and provided supplementary pI information for peptide identity assignment.

  13. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P

    2015-03-07

    Oral immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations are prime examples of medicinal nutrition from natural sources. Plasma products containing Ig have been used for decades in animal feed for intestinal disorders to mitigate the damaging effects of early weaning. These preparations reduce overall mortality and increase feed utilization in various animal species leading to improved growth. Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. In infants, children, and adults, the amount of intact IgG recovered in stool ranges from trace amounts up to 25% of the original amount ingested. It is generally understood that IgG can only bind to antigens within the GI tract if the Fab structure is intact and has not been completely denatured through acidic pH or digestive proteolytic enzymes. This is a comprehensive review of human studies regarding the survivability of orally-administered Ig preparations, with a focus on IgG. This review also highlights various biochemical studies on IgG which potentially explain which structural elements are responsible for increased stability against digestion.

  14. Effect of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Gut-Friendly Microorganisms, Commercial Probiotic Preparations, and Digestive Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Mannanthendil Kumaran; Debraj, Debnath; Dethe, Shekhar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2017-05-04

    Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase). Results of this study indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is compatible with the tested probiotic strains, probiotic drinks and digestive enzymes.

  15. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  16. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature.

  17. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2008-12-01

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature.

  18. Preparative separation of grape skin polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-12-01

    To develop an efficient method for large preparation of various individual polyphenols from white grape skins (Fernão Pires; Vitis vinifera) by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative-HPLC, an optimized preparative HSCCC condition with two-phase solvent system composed of Hex-EtOAc-H2O (1:50:50, v/v) was used to separate grape skin polyphenols into various fractions. Both the tail-head and head-tail elution modes were used with a flow rate of 3.0ml/min and a rotary speed of 950rpm. Afterwards, a preparative-HPLC separation was applied to isolate individual polyphenols in each of the fractions from HSCCC. Total of 7 fractions (Fraction A to G) were obtained from grape skin extract by HSCCC. After preparative-HPLC isolation, fifteen individual compounds were obtained, most of which presented high yields and purity (all over 90%). The HSCCC method followed with preparative-HPLC appeared to be convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of grape skin polyphenols.

  19. Preparation of asymmetric gas separation membranes with high selectivity by a dual-bath coagulation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, J.A.; van 't Hof, J.A.; Reuvers, A.J.; Reuvers, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of gas separation membranes in a one-step procedure is presented, where common, non-volatile solvents can be used in the polymer solution. It concerns contacting of a polymer solution with two successive nonsolvent baths, whereby the first bath initiates the formatio

  20. Preparation of ethylene vinylalcohol copolymer membranes suitable for ligand coupling in affinity separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Sager, W.F.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Hydrophilic microfiltration membranes with functional groups that can be used as coupling sites for ligands are of central interest in affinity separation, especially in view of biomedical applications. In this study, we employed ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) to prepare macrovoid-free open

  1. Preparation and characterization of gas separation hollow fiber membranes based on polyethersulfone-polyimide miscible blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapantaidakis, G.C.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the preparation and characterization of gas separation hollow fibers based on polyethersulfone Sumikaexcel (PES) and polyimide Matrimid 5218 (PI) blends are reported. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphological characteristics and structure of the asymme

  2. Preparing poly (caprolactone) micro-particles through solvent-induced phase separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Stephansen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) particles with the size distribution from 1 to 100 μm were prepared through solvent-induced phase separation, in which polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was used as the matrix-forming polymer to stabilize PCL particles. The cloud point data of PCL-acetone-water was determined...

  3. Thermally responsive phospholipid preparations for fluid steering and separation in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwei; Langan, Ted J; Durney, Brandon C; Holland, Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    Aqueous phospholipid preparations comprised of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) are prevalent materials for biological characterization and become gel-like near physiological temperature, but have a low viscosity below 24°C. The rheology of 20% phospholipid preparations of [DMPC]/[DHPC] = 2.5 reveals that, under conditions utilized for fluid steering, the materials are shear-thinning power-law fluids with a power-law index ranging from 0.30 through 0.90. Phospholipid preparations are utilized to steer fluids in microfluidic chips and support hydrodynamic delivery of sample across a double T injection region in a chip. The fact that the phospholipids are fully integrated as a valving material as well as a separation medium is demonstrated through the separation of linear oligosaccharides labeled with 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid.

  4. In situ sol-gel preparation of porous alumina monoliths for chromatographic separations of adenosine phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajickova, Zuzana; Rubi, Emir; Svec, Frantisek

    2011-06-03

    A method enabling the in situ preparation of porous alumina monoliths within 100 μm i.d. fused silica capillaries has been developed. These monoliths were prepared using the sol-gel process from a mixture consisting of an inorganic aluminum salt, a porogen, an epoxide, and a solvent. We investigated the effects of varying the preparation conditions on the physical characteristics of the monoliths with respect to their potential application in chromatographic separations. The best columns were obtained from a mixture of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, N,N-dimethylformamide, water, ethanol and propylene oxide. Adenosine phosphates were then separated in the optimized column with retention increasing according to number of phosphate functionalities.

  5. Preparative Separation and Identification of the Flavonoid Phlorhizin from the Crude Extract of Lithocarpus Polystachyus Rehd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid phlorhizin is abundant in the leaves of Sweet Tea(ST, Lithocarpus Polystachyus Rehd. Phlorhizinwas preparatively separated and purified from a crude ST extract containing 40% total flavonoids by static adsorption and dynamic desorption on ADS-7 macroporous resin and neutral alumina column chromatography. Only water and ethanol were used as solvents and eluants throughout the whole separation and purification process. Using a phlorhizin standard as the reference compound, the target compound separated from the crude ST extracts was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrosprayionization mass spectrometry (EIS-MS and identified as 99.87% pure (by HPLC-UV phlorhizin. The results showed that 10g of the targetcompound could be obtained from 40g of the crude extracts in a single operation, indicating a 40% recovery. Therefore, this represents an efficientand environmentally-friendly technology for separating and purifying phlorhizinfrom ST leaves.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymer liquid chromatography column for the separation of ephedrine enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy balamurugan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study molecular imprinting technology was employed to prepare a specific affinity sorbent for the resolution of Ephedrine, a chiral drug. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared by non-covalent molecular imprinting with either (+ or (--Ephedrine ((R∗,S∗-2-(methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol as the template. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol di-methacrylate were copolymerized in the presence of the template molecule. The bulk polymerization was carried out in chloroform with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, at 5°C and under UV radiation. The resulting MIP was ground into powders, which were slurry packed into analytical columns. After removal of template molecules, the MIP-packed columns were found to be effective for the resolution of (±-Ephedrine racemates. The separation factor for the enantiomers ranged between 1.3 and 2.1 when the column was packed with MIP prepared with (+-Ephedrine as the template. A separation factor ranging from 1.3 to 2.6 could be achieved from the column packed with MIP, prepared with (--Ephedrine as the template. Although the separation factor was higher with that previously obtained from reversed-phase column chromatography following derivatization with a chiral agent, elution peaks were broader due to the heterogeneity of binding sites on the MIP particles and the possible non-specific interaction.

  7. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of vegetable market waste fraction of municipal solid waste and development of improved technology for phase separation in two-phase reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Bijoy Kumar; Jash, Tushar

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from vegetable market waste (VMW) fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) by two-phase anaerobic digestion system should be preferred over the single-stage reactors. This is because VMW undergoes rapid acidification leading to accumulation of volatile fatty acids and consequent low pH resulting in frequent failure of digesters. The weakest part in the two-phase anaerobic reactors was the techniques applied for solid-liquid phase separation of digestate in the first reactor where solubilization, hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic waste occur. In this study, a two-phase reactor which consisted of a solid-phase reactor and a methane reactor was designed, built and operated with VMW fraction of Indian MSW. A robust type filter, which is unique in its implementation method, was developed and incorporated in the solid-phase reactor to separate the process liquid produced in the first reactor. Experiments were carried out to assess the long term performance of the two-phase reactor with respect to biogas production, volatile solids reduction, pH and number of occurrence of clogging in the filtering system or choking in the process liquid transfer line. The system performed well and was operated successfully without the occurrence of clogging or any other disruptions throughout. Biogas production of 0.86-0.889m(3)kg(-1)VS, at OLR of 1.11-1.585kgm(-3)d(-1), were obtained from vegetable market waste, which were higher than the results reported for similar substrates digested in two-phase reactors. The VS reduction was 82-86%. The two-phase anaerobic digestion system was demonstrated to be stable and suitable for the treatment of VMW fraction of MSW for energy generation.

  8. Novel preparation of monolithic imprinted columns for electrochromatographic separation by photopolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping Zhang; Guo Qiang Zuo; Wen Jun Gong; Yue E. Deng; Quan Ming Li

    2007-01-01

    A monolithic molecularly imprinted polymer with specific recognition ability for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) was prepared by in situ photopolymerization, using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, toluene and isooctane as porogenic solvents and Irgacure 1800 as an initiator.Baseline separation of isomers of hydroxybenzoic acid was achieved in less than 8 min on this monolithic column using 4-HBA as template, but not on the blank polymer.Furthermore, some neutral compounds could also be baseline-separated on the imprinted polymer column in the mode of pressure-driven capillary electrochromatography.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure separated by screw pressing and centrifugation in a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor at 25 °C

    OpenAIRE

    Rico de la Hera, Carlos; Rico Gutiérrez, José Luis; Lasa Díaz, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction (LF) of dairy manure was studied in lab scale in a high-load anaerobic reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)) operated at 25 °C. The LF was obtained by a separation process in a pilot plant consisting of screw pressing and centrifugation enhanced by flocculation in a pilot plant. The separation process produced a LF free of suspended solids (SS), whose supernatant chemical oxygen demand (COD) and COD due to volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 9...

  10. Separation and formation of ryanodine from dehydroryanodine. Preparation of tritium-labelled ryanodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutko, J.L.; Thompson, L.J.; Schlatterer, R.G. and others

    1986-02-01

    The commercially available preparation of the naturally occurring diterpene ester ryanodine contains several compounds in addition to ryanodine. These compounds were separated and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The two major components, ryanodine and dehydroryanodine represented 90% of the material present. A method for the efficient reduction of dehydroryanodine to ryanodine was developed and used to produce ryanodine having tritium atoms at positions 19 and 20 and a specific activity of 60.8 Ci/mmole.

  11. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Ji, Yibing, E-mail: jiyibing@msn.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  12. Artificial receptor-functionalized nanoshell: facile preparation, fast separation and specific protein recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Lei Jianping; Ju Huangxian, E-mail: jpl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science (Education Ministry of China), Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-05-07

    This work combined molecular imprinting technology with superparamagnetic nanospheres as the core to prepare artificial receptor-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for separation of homologous proteins. Using dopamine as a functional monomer, novel surface protein-imprinted superparamagnetic polydopamine (PDA) core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared in physiological conditions, which could maintain the natural structure of a protein template and achieved the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) from one dimension to zero dimension for efficient recognition towards large biomolecules. The resultant nanoparticles could be used for convenient magnetic separation of homologous proteins with high specificity. The nanoparticles possessed good monodispersibility, uniform surface morphology and high saturation magnetization value. The bound amounts of template proteins measured by both indirect and direct methods were in good agreement. The maximum number of imprinted cavities on the surface of the bovine hemoglobin (Hb)-imprinted nanoshell was 2.21 x 10{sup 18} g{sup -1}, which well matched their maximum binding capacity toward bovine Hb. Both the simple method for preparation of MIPs and the magnetic nanospheres showed good application potential in fast separation, effective concentration and selective biosensing of large protein molecules.

  13. Artificial receptor-functionalized nanoshell: facile preparation, fast separation and specific protein recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2010-05-07

    This work combined molecular imprinting technology with superparamagnetic nanospheres as the core to prepare artificial receptor-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for separation of homologous proteins. Using dopamine as a functional monomer, novel surface protein-imprinted superparamagnetic polydopamine (PDA) core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared in physiological conditions, which could maintain the natural structure of a protein template and achieved the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) from one dimension to zero dimension for efficient recognition towards large biomolecules. The resultant nanoparticles could be used for convenient magnetic separation of homologous proteins with high specificity. The nanoparticles possessed good monodispersibility, uniform surface morphology and high saturation magnetization value. The bound amounts of template proteins measured by both indirect and direct methods were in good agreement. The maximum number of imprinted cavities on the surface of the bovine hemoglobin (Hb)-imprinted nanoshell was 2.21 x 10(18) g( - 1), which well matched their maximum binding capacity toward bovine Hb. Both the simple method for preparation of MIPs and the magnetic nanospheres showed good application potential in fast separation, effective concentration and selective biosensing of large protein molecules.

  14. Benchmarking sample preparation/digestion protocols reveals tube-gel being a fast and repeatable method for quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leslie; Fornecker, Luc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah; Carapito, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Sample preparation, typically by in-solution or in-gel approaches, has a strong influence on the accuracy and robustness of quantitative proteomics workflows. The major benefit of in-gel procedures is their compatibility with detergents (such as SDS) for protein solubilization. However, SDS-PAGE is a time-consuming approach. Tube-gel (TG) preparation circumvents this drawback as it involves directly trapping the sample in a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. We report here the first global label-free quantitative comparison between TG, stacking gel (SG), and basic liquid digestion (LD). A series of UPS1 standard mixtures (at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 fmol) were spiked in a complex yeast lysate background. TG preparation allowed more yeast proteins to be identified than did the SG and LD approaches, with mean numbers of 1979, 1788, and 1323 proteins identified, respectively. Furthermore, the TG method proved equivalent to SG and superior to LD in terms of the repeatability of the subsequent experiments, with mean CV for yeast protein label-free quantifications of 7, 9, and 10%. Finally, known variant UPS1 proteins were successfully detected in the TG-prepared sample within a complex background with high sensitivity. All the data from this study are accessible on ProteomeXchange (PXD003841).

  15. Preparation of superhydrophobic/oleophilic copper mesh for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaijie; Gu, Wenhan; Fu, Jingyuan; Liu, Ying; Chen, Shougang

    2017-08-01

    A superhydrophobic and oleophilic copper mesh film with micro/nano hierarchical structures was prepared through facile electrodeposition and immersion processes. Contact angles of water and oil on the modified mesh were 152.4° and 12.6°, respectively. The modified mesh showed high oil-water separation efficiency (were above 90%) and rate with high oil flux of 4507 Lm-2 h-1. Results show that oil can pass through the coated mesh easily, whereas water was held on the modified mesh, which demonstrated that the coated films matched well with the requirements for effective separation of oil-water mixtures. Therefore, the coated mesh is a promising and effective membrane for separating oil-water mixtures.

  16. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar).

  17. Plasma processes in the preparation of lithium-ion battery electrodes and separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Avendaño, J.; Veilleux, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the energy storage devices that dominate the portable electronic market. They are now also considered and used for electric vehicles and are foreseen to enable the smart grid. Preparing batteries with high energy and power densities, elevated cycleability and improved safety could be achieved by controlling the microstructure of the electrode materials and the interaction they have with the electrolyte over the working potential window. Selecting appropriate precursors, reducing the preparation steps and selecting more efficient synthesis methods could also significantly reduce the costs of LIB components. Implementing plasma technologies can represent a high capital investment, but the versatility of the technologies allows the preparation of powdered nanoparticles with different morphologies, as well as with carbon and metal oxide coatings. Plasma technologies can also enable the preparation of binder-free thin films and coatings for LIB electrodes, and the treatment of polymeric membranes to be used as separators. This review paper aims at highlighting the different thermal and non-thermal plasma technologies recently used to synthesize coated and non-coated active materials for LIB cathodes and anodes, and to modify the surface of separators.

  18. Preparative separation of cacao bean procyanidins by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Lanxin; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-11-15

    In this work, an efficient method for preparative separation of procyanidins from raw cacao bean extract by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed. Under the optimized solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1:50:50, v/v/v) with a combination of head-tail and tail-head elution modes, various procyanidins fractions with different polymerization degrees were successfully separated. UPLC, QTOF-MS and (1)H NMR analysis verified that these fractions contained monomer up to pentamer respectively. Dimeric procyanidin B2 (purity>86%) could be isolated by HSCCC in a single run. Other individual procyanidins in these fractions could be further isolated and purified by preparative HPLC. The developed HSCCC together with preparative HPLC techniques appeared to be a useful tool for large preparation of different procyanidins from cacao beans. Furthermore, by antioxidant activity assays, it was proved that both fractions and individual procyanidins possessed greater antioxidant activities compared to standard trolox. The antioxidant activities of procyanidins increase as the increase of their polymerization degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. “Click chemistry” preparation of WCX packings for protein separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Lou Zhao; Chao Song; Fei Wang; Quan Bai

    2012-01-01

    Click chemistry was applied to immobilize three kinds of alkyne-carboxylic acids onto azide-modified silica gel to prepare three novel stationary phases for weak cation exchange chromatography (WCX).The developed protocol combines the benefits of operational simplicity,exceptionally mild conditions and high surface loadings.Six kinds of standard proteins were separated completely on the novel packings.Compared with commercial WCX columns,the three kinds of novel WCX packings prepared by click chemistry approach have better resolution and selectivity.Lysozyme was purified successfully from egg white with the novel WCX column by one step.The purity was more than 97% and a high specific activity was achieved to be 81,435 U/mg.The results illustrate the potential of click chemistry for preparation of stationary phase for IEC.

  20. Sequencing of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by partial Driselase digestion: the preparation and quantitative and qualitative analysis of two new tetrasaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorences, E P; Fry, S C

    1994-10-17

    The pentasaccharide (XXG), [formula: see text] obtained from Rosa xyloglucan, was converted to two isomeric tetrasaccharides, a and b (Xyl1.Glc3), by mild acid hydrolysis. During hydrolysis in 2 M trifluoroacetic acid at 90 degrees C, optimal yields of a and b were obtained after 20-40 min. Each tetrasaccharide was purified by preparative paper chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two isomers were distinguished by the products of their partial digestion with Driselase, which hydrolyses the glucosidic bonds sequentially from the non-reducing terminus: a and b yielded cellobiose and Xyl-->Glc-->Glc, respectively showing that they were [formula: see text] and [formula: see text] respectively. Tetrasaccharide b was chromatographically identical, upon HPLC on Dionex CarboPac PA1, with the tetrasaccharide produced from XXG by the action of Tropaeolum alpha-D-xylosidase, supporting the proposed structure. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were assayed quantitatively by measurement of the yield of isoprimeverose (Xyl-->Glc) after complete Driselase digestion.

  1. PREPARATION OF EVOH MICROPOROUS MEMBRANES via THERMALLY INDUCED PHASE SEPARATION USING BINARY SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microporous ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) flat membranes and hollow-fiber membranes with 38 mol% ethylene content were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) using the mixture of 1,4-butanediol and poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG400) as diluents. Effects of the ratio of 1,4-butanediol to PEG400 on the phase diagrams, phase separation mechanism and membrane morphology were studied by small angle light scattering (SALS) measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that by varying the composition of the binary solvent, the phase diagrams and membrane morphology can be controlled successfully. Moreover, the phase diagrams showed that broader regions of Liquid-Liquid (L-L) phase separation were obtained, as well as closer distances between L-L phase separation lines and Solid-Liquid (S-L) phase separation lines. Interconnected structures observed both in the flat membrane and hollow fiber membrane consist with the above results.

  2. Preparation of Slowly Digestible Starch by Citric Acid-hydrolysis with Autoclaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study is to produce Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS by a combination of citric acid-hydrolysis and autoclaving from raw corn starch. The effects of citric acid concentration, acid hydrolysis time, temperature and refrigeration and retro gradation time on the formation of SDS were investigated. The optimal process conditions optimized by Box-Benhnken’s central composite design and response surface analysis was as follows: concentration of citric acid is 0.08 M, acid hydrolyzed at 116°C for 14.5 min, and then stored at 0°C for 72 h. Under these optimal conditions, the content of SDS peaked at 19.38%.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Membranes Formed by Nonsolvent Induced Phase Separation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Guillen, Gregory R.

    2011-04-06

    The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Comparative studies of peak intensities and chromatographic separation of proteolytic digests, PTMs, and intact proteins obtained by nanoLC-ESI MS analysis at room and elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene V; Ivanov, Alexander R

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates that the chromatographic separation performed at highly stabilized elevated temperature results in significant improvements in sensitivity, quantitative accuracy, chromatographic resolution, and run-to-run reproducibility of nanoLC-MS analysis of complex peptides mixtures. A newly developed platform was shown to provide conditions for accurate temperature stabilization and temperature homogeneity when performing nanoLC-ESI MS analysis. We quantitatively assessed and compared the recovery of peptides and small proteins from nanoLC columns at room and elevated temperatures. We found that analyses performed at highly stabilized elevated temperatures led to improved detection sensitivity, reproducibility, and chromatographic resolution in reversed-phase LC separation of unmodified peptides (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic), post-translationally modified peptides (O-phosphorylated), and small intact proteins. The analytical benefits of elevated temperatures for qualitative and quantitative proteomic LC-MS profiling were demonstrated using mixtures of synthetic peptides, tryptic digests of mixtures of model proteins, and digested total lysates of isolated rat kidney mitochondria. The effect of elevated temperature on the ion suppression was also demonstrated. Graphical Abstract A fragment of overlaid LC retention time-m/z planar views demonstrates the improved separation performance in the analysis of a complex peptide mixture at elevated temperature. Retention time-m/z 2D peptide features detected at 60 °C (magenta) were matched and aligned with features detected at room temperature (green).

  5. Preparation of imprinted cryogel cartridge for chiral separation of l-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgönüllü, Semra; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-06-01

    l-Phe-imprinted cryogel cartridge was prepared for the chiral separation of l-Phe. N-Methacryloyl l-phenylalanine (MAPA) was used as a functional monomer for complexing with l-Phe. The selectivity of the membranes was investigated by using d-Phe, l-Trp, and d-Trp as competitor molecules. The PHEMAPA-l-Trp membranes were 6.4, 4.3, and 5.5 times more selective for l-Phe than d-Phe, l-Trp, and d-Trp, respectively. The PHEMAPA-l-Phe cryogel cartridge was incorporated into the fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) equipment and was able to separate D,l-Phe racemic mixture efficiently. The PHEMAPA-l-Phe membranes were shown to be reusable many times without significant loss of the adsorption capacity.

  6. Preparation of Metallic Iron Powder from Pyrite Cinder by Carbothermic Reduction and Magnetic Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction and magnetic separation procedure of pyrite cinder in the presence of a borax additive was performed for the preparation of reduced powder. The effects of borax dosage, reduction temperature, reduction time and grinding fineness were investigated. The results show that when pyrite cinder briquettes with 5% borax were pre-oxidized at 1050 °C for 10 min, and reduced at 1050 °C for 80 min, with the grinding fineness (<0.44 mm passing 81%, the iron recovery was 91.71% and the iron grade of the magnetic concentrate was 92.98%. In addition, the microstructures of the products were analyzed by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mineralography, and the products were also studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD to investigate the mechanism; the results show that the borax additive was approved as a good additive to improve the separation of iron and gangue.

  7. Preparation of novel polymer–metal oxide nanocomposites with nanophase separated hierarchical structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Nam; Y Tsutsumi; C Yoshikawa; Y Tanaka; R Fukaya; T Kimura; H Kobayashi; T Hanawa; A Kishida

    2011-12-01

    This article deals with preparation of nanocomposite which comprised of nanophase separated structure of polymer chains and metal oxide. By grafting poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(HEMA) on the surface of titanium which is covered by passive titanium oxide by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and executing anodic polarization, hierarchy nanophase separated structure with controlled thickness can be obtained. The titanium ions would be cationically charged and completely filled up the unoccupied binding sites of the polymer chains via electrochemical reaction, eventually covering the polymer chains with titanium oxide. However, this structure can be obtained when the anodic polarization is executed at initial applied voltage exceeding 10 VSCE. The control of thickness is possible by controlling the initial applied voltage. These results prove that the conventional polymer can form composite structure with metal oxide without using fillers or special polymers designed for composite.

  8. Characterization of Polysulfone Membranes Prepared with Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, L. G.; Pintilie, Ș C.; Vlad, M.; Birsan, I. G.; Baltă, Ș

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Membrane technology is one of the most used water treatment technology because of its high removal efficiency and cost effectiveness. Preparation techniques for polymer membranes show an important aspect of membrane properties. Generally, polysulfone (PSf) and polyethersulfone (PES) are used for the preparation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Polysulfone (PSf) membranes have been widely used for separation and purification of different solutions because of their excellent chemical and thermal stability. Polymeric membranes were obtained by phase inversion method. The polymer solution introduced in the nonsolvent bath (distilled water) initiate the evaporation of the solvent from the solution, this phenomenon has a strong influence on the transport properties. The effect of the coagulation bath temperature on the membrane properties is of interest for this study. Membranes are characterized by pure water flux, permeability, porosity and retention of methylene blue. The low temperature of coagulation bath improve the membrane’s rejection and its influence was most notable.

  9. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2, and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5, along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4. Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4 (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5 at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2 at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  10. Preparative separation of monoclonal antibody aggregates by cation-exchange laterally-fed membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar, Pedram; Sadavarte, Rahul; Butler, Michael; Durocher, Yves; Ghosh, Raja

    2017-06-15

    Cation exchange (CEX) chromatography is widely used for large-scale separation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) aggregates. The aggregates bind more strongly to CEX media and hence elute after the monomeric mAb in a salt gradient. However, monomer-aggregate resolution that is typically obtained is poor, which results in low product recovery. In the current study we address this challenge through the use of cation-exchange laterally-fed membrane chromatography (LFMC). Three different LFMC devices, each containing a bed of strong cation-exchange (S) membranes were used for preparative-scale removal of mAb aggregates. Trastuzumab (IgG1) biosimilar derived from human embryonic kidney 293 (293) cells was used as the primary model mAb in our study. The other mAbs investigated were Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line derived Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) and a heavy chain chimeric mAb EG2-hFc. In each of these case-studies, aggregates were well-resolved from the respective monomer. The separated and collected monomer and aggregate fractions were analyzed using techniques such as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC), native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (or PAGE), and size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). The high efficiency of separation obtained in each case was due to a combination of the small membrane pore size (3-5μm), and the use of LFMC technology, which has been shown to be suitable for high-resolution, multi-component protein separations. Also, the LFMC based separation processes reported in this study were more than an order of magnitude faster than equivalent resin-based, cation exchange chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human genomic DNA analysis using a semi-automated sample preparation, amplification, and electrophoresis separation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisi, Fariba; Blizard, Benjamin A; Raissi Shabari, Akbar; Ching, Jesus; Kintz, Gregory J; Mitchell, Jim; Lemoff, Asuncion; Taylor, Mike T; Weir, Fred; Western, Linda; Wong, Wendy; Joshi, Rekha; Howland, Pamela; Chauhan, Avinash; Nguyen, Peter; Petersen, Kurt E

    2004-03-01

    The growing importance of analyzing the human genome to detect hereditary and infectious diseases associated with specific DNA sequences has motivated us to develop automated devices to integrate sample preparation, real-time PCR, and microchannel electrophoresis (MCE). In this report, we present results from an optimized compact system capable of processing a raw sample of blood, extracting the DNA, and performing a multiplexed PCR reaction. Finally, an innovative electrophoretic separation was performed on the post-PCR products using a unique MCE system. The sample preparation system extracted and lysed white blood cells (WBC) from whole blood, producing DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Separation of multiple amplicons was achieved in a microfabricated channel 30 microm x 100 microm in cross section and 85 mm in length filled with a replaceable methyl cellulose matrix operated under denaturing conditions at 50 degrees C. By incorporating fluorescent-labeled primers in the PCR, the amplicons were identified by a two-color (multiplexed) fluorescence detection system. Two base-pair resolution of single-stranded DNA (PCR products) was achieved. We believe that this integrated system provides a unique solution for DNA analysis.

  12. Two-dimensional counter-current chromatography for the preparative separation of prenylflavonoids from Artocarpus altilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin; Sun, Cuirong; Wang, Yu; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2007-06-01

    A two-dimensional counter-current chromatographic system (2D-CCC) for preparative isolation and purification of three prenylflavonoids from Artocarpus altilis is presented. An upright CCC instrument (CCC1, total capacity: 1600 ml) was used as the first dimension. Effluent of interest from CCC1 was collected on-line into a 30 ml sample loop by a laboratory-prepared column-switching interface and introduced into a high-speed CCC instrument (CCC2, total capacity: 210 ml) for the second dimension separation. With this 2D-CCC system and a pair of two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:7:3 and 5:5:6.5:3.5, v/v/v/v), which had been selected by high-speed CCC, about a 500 mg amount of the crude extract was separated, yielding 9 mg of compound 1, 28 mg of compound 2 and 78 mg of compound 3. The purities of the three prenylflavonoids were 98.7 (1), 98.3 (2) and 97.2% (3), respectively, as determined by HPLC analysis. Their chemical structures were identified by electrospray ionization MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  13. Optimization of Preparative Separation and Purification of Total Polyphenols from Sargassum tenerrimum by Column Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samee Haider; LI Zhenxing; LIN Hong; Khalid Jamil

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols from the ethanol extracts of Sargassum tenerrimum (ST) with potent antiallergie effects were studied to optimize separation process through column chromatography. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of three widely used adsorbents: macroporous resin, silica gel, and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), were critically evaluated respectively and studied for the optimization of preparative separation of polyphenols. Static operations on these adsorbents showed that macroporous resin had the best adsorption and desorption capability among the three adsorbents. Dynamic adsorption and desorption with maeroporous resin packed column were also conducted to optimize the parameters such as: with the optimal values shown in brackets, the concentration of extract solution (4 times diluted), pH value (6-7), adsorption speed (3 BVh1, bed volumes/per hour), concentration of ethanol (80%), elution speed (3 BV h-1) and elution volume (7 BV). The chromatographic process so optimized gave a purity of 62.43% from the crude polyphenols, providing a promising basis for large scale preparation of bioactive polyphenols upon further scaling up tests.

  14. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P supplemented......, but the total Ca intake in phytase-supplemented diets were similar (P > 0.05). Birds fed 1.3 g Ca/kg diet showed the lowest (P 0.05) to the diets with 4.3 g Ca/kg. No significant (P > 0.05) effect of dietary Ca concentration on the CAID of starch, fat and GE was found...

  15. Separation of cis- and trans-Asarone from Acorus tatarinowii by Preparative Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparative gas chromatography (pGC method was developed for the separation of isomers (cis- and trans-asarone from essential oil of Acorus tatarinowii. The oil was primarily fractionated by silica gel chromatography using different ratios of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as gradient elution solvents. And then the fraction that contains mixture of the isomers was further separated by pGC. The compounds were separated on a stainless steel column packed with 10% OV-101 (3 m × 6 mm, i.d., and then the effluent was split into two gas flows. One percent of the effluent passed to the flame ionization detector (FID for detection and the remaining 99% was directed to the fraction collector. Two isomers were collected after 90 single injections (5 uL with the yield of 178 mg and 82 mg, respectively. Furthermore, the structures of the obtained compounds were identified as cis- and trans-asarone by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra, respectively.

  16. Preparative divergent flow IEF without carrier ampholytes for separation of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastna, Miroslava; Slais, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Efficient separation method is a crucial part of the process in which components of highly complex biological sample are identified and characterized. Based on the principles of recently newly established electrophoretic method called divergent flow IEF (DF IEF), we have tested the DF IEF instrument which is able to operate without the use of background carrier ampholytes. We have verified that during separation and focusing of sample consisting of high numbers of proteins (yeast lysate and wheat flour extract), the pH gradient of preparative DF IEF can be created by autofocusing of the sample components themselves without any addition of carrier ampholytes. In DF IEF, the proteins are separated, desalted and concentrated in one step. The fractions of yeast lysate sample, collected at the DF IEF output and subjected to gel IEF, contained the zones of proteins gradually covering the pI values from 3.7 to 8.5. In our experimental arrangement, the highest number of proteins has been found in fractions with pI values around 5.3 as detected by polyacrylamide gel IEF with CBB staining. During DF IEF, the selected protein bands have been concentrated up to 16.8-fold.

  17. Preparation of weak cation exchange packings for chromatographic separation of proteins using "click chemistry''.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Bai, Quan; Song, Chao; Wang, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2012-04-01

    "Click chemistry" is defined as a class of robust and selective chemical reactions affording high yields and is tolerant to a variety of solvents (including water), functional groups, and air. In this study, click chemistry was used as an effective strategy for coupling three alkyne-carboxylic acids onto the azide-silica to obtain three novel stationary phases of weak cation exchange chromatography, which were characterized with FTIR and elemental analysis. Six kinds of standard proteins, such as myoglobin, RNase A, RNase B, cytochrome C, α-chymotrypsin A, and lysozyme, were separated completely with the three novel weak cation exchange chromatography stationary phases. Compared with commercial weak cation exchange chromatography columns, the three kinds of novel weak cation exchange chromatography packings prepared by click chemistry approach have better resolution and selectivity. The mass recovery of more than 97% was obtained for all the tested proteins, and the bioactivity recovery of lysozyme on the prepared column was determined to be 96%. In addition, lysozyme was purified successfully from egg white with the novel weak cation exchange chromatography column by one step. The purity was more than 97% and a high specific activity was achieved to be 81 435 U/mg. The results illustrate the potential of click chemistry for preparing stationary phase for ion-exchange chromatography.

  18. Effect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Britten, Michel

    2017-02-08

    Calcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.

  19. Sample preparation and separation techniques for bioanalysis of morphine and related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2009-03-01

    In present time the use or misuse of morphine and its derivatives are monitored by assaying the presence of the drug and its metabolites in biofluids. In the present review, focus is placed on the sample preparation and on the separation techniques used in the current best practices of bioanalysis of morphine and its major metabolites. However, as methods for testing the misuse of heroin, a morphine derivative, often involve bioanalytical methods that cover a number of other illicit drug substances, such methods are also included in the review. Furthermore, the review also includes bioanalysis in a broader perspective as analysis of plant materials, cell cultures and environmental samples. The review is not intended to cover all publications that include bioanalysis of morphine but is more to be considered a view into the current best practices of bioanalysis of morphine, its metabolites and other related substances.

  20. Preparation of Al/Si functionally graded materials using ultrasonic separation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongtao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM have been widely used in many industries such as aerospace, energy and electronics. In this experimental study of fabricating FGM, an approach was developed to prepare Al/Si FGM using power ultrasonic separation method. Material sample with continuously changing composition and performance/properties was successfully produced. Results showed that the microstructure of the FGM sample transited, from its top to bottom, from the hypereutectic structure with a large quantity of primary Si gradually to the eutectic, and fi nally to the hypoeutectic with numerous primary Al dendrites. The distribution of primary Si and microhardness of the FGM sample also presented graded characteristics, resulting that the wear resistance of the FGM sample decreased from top to bottom. Preliminary discussion was made on the mechanism of the formation of Al/Si FGM.

  1. Preparation of Al/Si functionally graded materials using ultrasonic separation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhongtao; LI Tingju; Yue Hongyun; Zhang Jian; Li Jie

    2008-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) have been widely used in many industries such as aerospace, energy and electronics. In this experimental study of fabricating FGM, an approach was developed to prepare Al/Si FGM using power ultrasonic separation method. Material sample with continuously changing composition and performance/properties was successfully produced. Results showed that the microstructure of the FGM sample transited, from its top to bottom, from the hypereutectic structure with a large quantity of primary Si gradually to the eutectic, and finally to the hypoeutectic with numerous primary AI dendrites. The distribution of primary Si and microhardness of the FGM sample also presented graded characteristics, resulting that the wear resistance of the FGM sample decreased from top to bottom. Preliminary discussion was made on the mechanism of the formation of Al/Si FGM.

  2. Preparative separation of glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Lesur, David; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2012-11-01

    The main glycoalkaloids of a commercial potato cultivar, α-chaconine and α-solanine, were extracted from sprouts of Solanum tuberosum cv. Pompadour by a mixture of MeOH/H(2)O/CH(3)COOH (400/100/50, v/v/v). In these conditions, 2.8±0.62g of crude extract were obtained from 50g of fresh sprouts and the total glycoalkaloid content was determined by analytical HPLC at 216.5mg/100g. α-Chaconine and α-solanine were separated in a preparative scale using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). In a solvent system composed of a mixture of ethyl acetate/butanol/water (15/35/50, v/v/v), α-chaconine (54mg) and α-solanine (15mg) were successfully isolated from the crude extract in one step of purification. The purity of isolated compounds was determined to be higher than 92% by HPLC analysis.

  3. Production, separation and target preparation of 171Tm an 147Pm for neutron cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Heinitz, S; Schumann, D; Dressler, R; Kivel, N; Guerrero, C; Köster, U; Tessler, M; Paul, M; Halfon, S

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections of s-process branching point isotopes represents a basic requirement for the understanding of star evolution. Since such branching point isotopes are by definition radioactive, the measurement of their cross sections from thermal to stellar energies becomes a challenging task. Considerable amounts of material have to be produced, representing a significant radioactive hazard. We report here on the production and separation of 3.5 mg 171Tm from 240 mg 170Er2O3 and 72 µg 147Pm from 100 mg 146Nd2O3 irradiated at the ILL high flux reactor. Thin targets were prepared with high chemical and radioisotopic purity suitable for neutron capture measurements at n_TOF CERN and the SARAF-LiLiT facility.

  4. Separation of impurities in diazinon preparations and their effect on porphyrin biosynthesis in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, A W; Elsbury, S; Elder, G H; Jackson, A H; Rao, K R

    1982-03-15

    The impurities present in commercial diazinon preparations have been examined by high performance liquid chromatography with particular reference to the ability of these compounds to cause porphyrin accumulation in cultures of chicken embryo liver cells. Diazinon and its impurities are readily separated on 10 micron Partisil using cyclohexane-dioxan mixtures. The main impurities are tetraethylpyrophosphate, sulphotetraethylpyrophosphate, 2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimid-4-one, 2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-thione, and 2-isopropyl-4-ethylthio-6-methylpyrimidine. A previously unreported impurity, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-S-pyrimidinyl diethylthiophosphate (isodiazinon), was also detected. Both diazinon and isodiazinon cause accumulation of coproporphyrin in cultures of chicken embryo liver cells. Isodiazinon has a greater effect on porphyrin biosynthesis in the cultures than has diazinon. It is suggested that the point of interference with porphyrin biosynthesis is towards the end of the pathway.

  5. Preparation of Photoirradiation Molecular Imprinting Polymer for Selective Separation of Branched Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photoirradiation molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP with azobenzene was used as a functional monomer for the selective separation of the branched cyclodextrins. The functional monomer 4-methacryloyloxy azobenzene (MAA and the molecular template 6-O-α-d-maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G2-β-CD were implemented for the molecular imprinting. The core-shell structure of photoirradiation MIP was visualized by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM. With Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, we identified that G2-β-CD was imprinted into the polymer and removed from the MIP. The binding association constant (Ka and the maximum number of the binding site (Nmax were 1.72 × 104 M−1 and 7.93 μmol·g−1 MIP, respectively. With alternate irradiation at 365 and 440 nm light, the prepared MIP reversibly released and rebound to the G2-β-CD, which resulted in the nearly zero amount of G2-β-CD in the solution. The HPLC results indicated that the purity of G2-β-CD could reach 90.8% after going through MIP. The main finding of our study was that the photoirradiation of MIP was an easy and effective method for the selective separation of the branched cyclodextrins.

  6. Preparation of diclofenac-imprinted polymer beads for selective molecular separation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2017-01-13

    Molecular imprinting technique is an attractive strategy to prepare materials for target recognition and rapid separation. In this work, a new type of diclofenac (DFC)-imprinted polymer beads was synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization using 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The selectivity and capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated in aqueous solution. Equilibrium binding results show that the MIPs have a high selectivity to bind DFC in a wide range of pH values. Moreover, in liquid chromatography experiment, the imprinted polymer beads were packed into column to investigate the binding selectivity under nonequilibrium conditions. The retention time of DFC on the MIP column is significantly longer than its structural analogues. Also, retention of DFC on the MIP column was significantly longer than on the nonimprinted polymer column under aqueous condition. As the new MIP beads can be used to achieve direct separation of DFC from water, the synthetic method and the affinity beads developed in this work opened new possibilities for removing toxic chemicals from environmental and drinking water.

  7. Preparation of alumina nanoshell coated porous silica spheres for inorganic anions separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhihua; Wu, Dapeng; Ding, Kun; Guan, Yafeng

    2016-02-12

    It had been reported that alumina nanoshell coating could be obtained on the external surface of various substrates in one-nanometer precision in aqueous solution. In this work, alumina nanoshell coated mesoporous silica microbeads (nanoAl2O3/mesoSiO2) were prepared with the similar method, and were successfully applied to inorganic anions separation. As the mass transfer speed is largely constrained in the mesopore compared with that on the open surface, it was found that a complete alumina nanoshell coating could be obtained within the mesopore until the five-time coating was carried out. After characterization by BET, SEM and FTIR, it was found that the obtained nanoAl2O3/mesoSiO2 particles are smooth and well dispersed, and the mesopores are well reserved. In addition, the full coverage of nanoAl2O3 shell in mesopores was also confirmed by the binding capacity experiments with berberine. Finally, the nanoAl2O3/mesoSiO2 particles were packed in silica capillary for the separation of inorganic anions I(-), SCN(-), Br(-), NO2(-) and NO3(-) with ion chromatography (IC), and a column efficiency of 3.8 × 10(4) plates per meter was obtained for I(-).

  8. Mixed mosaic membranes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly for ionic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sahadevan; Yan, Yu; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Gao, Haifeng; Phillip, William A

    2014-12-23

    Charge mosaic membranes, which possess distinct cationic and anionic domains that traverse the membrane thickness, are capable of selectively separating dissolved salts from similarly sized neutral solutes. Here, the generation of charge mosaic membranes using facile layer-by-layer assembly methodologies is reported. Polymeric nanotubes with pore walls lined by positively charged polyethylenimine moieties or negatively charged poly(styrenesulfonate) moieties were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly using track-etched membranes as sacrificial templates. Subsequently, both types of nanotubes were deposited on a porous support in order to produce mixed mosaic membranes. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the facile deposition techniques implemented result in nanotubes that are vertically aligned without overlap between adjacent elements. Furthermore, the nanotubes span the thickness of the mixed mosaic membranes. The effects of this unique nanostructure are reflected in the transport characteristics of the mixed mosaic membranes. The hydraulic permeability of the mixed mosaic membranes in piezodialysis operations was 8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). Importantly, solute rejection experiments demonstrate that the mixed mosaic membranes are more permeable to ionic solutes than similarly sized neutral molecules. In particular, negative rejection of sodium chloride is observed (i.e., the concentration of NaCl in the solution that permeates through a mixed mosaic membrane is higher than in the initial feed solution). These properties illustrate the ability of mixed mosaic membranes to permeate dissolved ions selectively without violating electroneutrality and suggest their utility in ionic separations.

  9. Preparation of a thermoresponsive polymer grafted polystyrene monolithic capillary for the separation of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takuya; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    To develop aqueous microseparation columns for bioactive compounds, a thermoresponsive polymer grafted polymer monolith was prepared inside silica capillaries having an I.D. of 100μm by polymerization of styrene (St) with m/p-divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of polydimethylsiloxane as porogen, followed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm). SEM analysis indicated that the resulting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) grafted polystyrene monolith had a consecutive three-dimensionally interconnected structure and through-pores, similar to the base polystyrene (PSt) monolith. The elution behavior of steroids with different hydrophobicity was evaluated using micro-high-performance liquid chromatography in sole aqueous mobile phase. Temperature dependent interaction changes were observed between steroids and the PNIPAAm modified surfaces. Furthermore, the interaction between bioactive compounds and the PNIPAAm grafted PSt surfaces was controlled and eventually separate these molecules with different hydrophobicities by simple temperature modulation in aqueous environment. The PNIPAAm grafted PSt monolithic capillary showed improved separation properties of bioactive compounds, compared with a PNIPAAm grafted hollow capillary in aqueous environment.

  10. Preparation of ultrafiltration membrane by phase separation coupled with microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryani, Puput Eka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Purnama, Herry [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UniversitasMuhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. Jendral Ahmad Yani, Surakarta 57102, Central Java (Indonesia); Susanto, Heru, E-mail: heru.susanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang 50275, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membrane is still a big challenge in the membrane field. In this paper, polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) coupled with microwave irradiation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) were used as additives to improve membrane hydrophilicity. In this study, the concentration of additive, irradiation time and microwave power was varied. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the performances were tested by adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling experiments. The results show that the irradiation time and irradiation power are very important parameter that influence the membrane characteristic. In addition, type and concentration of additive are other important parameters. The results suggest that microwave irradiation is the most important parameter influencing the membrane characteristic. Both pure water flux and fouling resistance increase with increasing irradiation time, power irradiation, and additive concentration. PES membrane with addition of 10% w/w PEG and irradiated by 130 W microwave power for 180 seconds is the best membrane performance.

  11. Treating separated liquid dairy manure derived from mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to reduce indicator pathogens and Salmonella concentrations for use as organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth W; Ogejo, Jactone A; Krometis, Leigh Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.

  12. Biogas production from spent rose hips (Rosa canina L.): fraction separation, organic loading and co-digestion with N-rich microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osojnik Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Muri, Petra; Djinović, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2014-11-01

    Complex waste streams originating from extraction processes containing residual organic solvents and increased C/N ratios have not yet been considered as feedstock for biogas production to a great extent. In this study, spent rosehip (Rosa canina L.) solid residue (64%VS, 22 MJ/kg HHV, 30C/1N) was obtained from an industrial ethanol aided extraction process, and extensively examined in an automated batch bioreactor system for biogas production. Fraction separation of the compact lignocellulosic seeds increased the available sugar and ethanol content, resulting in high biogas potential of the sieved residue (516 NL/kg VS'). In co-digestion of spent rosehip substrate with non-deactivated nitrogen rich microbial co-substrates, methanogenesis was favored (Y(m) > 68%(CH4)). In individual digestion of microbial co-substrates, this was not the case, as biogas with 28 vol.% N2 was produced from activated sludge supplement. Therefore, effective inhibition of exogenous microbiota was achieved in the presence of carbonaceous spent rose hip.

  13. Identifying Gel-Separated Proteins Using In-Gel Digestion, Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching: Consider the Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Jessica C.; Dassenko, David J.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on…

  14. Identifying Gel-Separated Proteins Using In-Gel Digestion, Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching: Consider the Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Jessica C.; Dassenko, David J.; Mohamed, Essa A.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on…

  15. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion from dilution with or without solid and liquid separations of broiler litter manures to biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi; Silva, Adriane de Andrade; Romantine, Camila Machado [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern about the manure management in farms has increased between farmers and mainly in consumers. The poultry production generates a large amount of solid waste and consumes too much energy to keep the feeding, ventilation and heat systems working properly. So, studies aiming the energetic sustainability of poultry production have been developed. In this study were used 6 (six) Indian's batch-load digester, supplied with broiled litter reused in three lots of broiler chicken. The treatments were, screened broiler litter and non-screened broiler litter, in a four parts of water for broiler litter (4/1) dilution. The biogas volume produced (m{sup 3}) was evaluated in 63 trial days and presented the dates weekly. There were different significant (p<0.01) between treatments, observed that on third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth weeks were noticed superiority in the nonscreened broiler litter treatment. With this trial, we conclude that the non-screened broiler litter produced a larger and faster biogas quantity than the screened broiler litter treatment and is an easier way to manage the manure produced in farms. (author)

  16. Preparative separation of arsenate from phosphate by IRA-400 (OH) for oxygen isotopic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Berner, Zsolt; Khelashvilli, Pirimze; Norra, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    The paper reports about a series of tests carried out to find out the optimal conditions for the preparative separation of arsenate and phosphate from natural waters, using the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 (OH). Freundlich isotherms have been constructed on basis of data obtained by stirring different amounts of resin (0.05-1.00 g) with solutions containing 1mg/L As and 10mg/L P in form of arsenate and phosphate and the effect of pH and P/As ratio on adsorption was investigated. It was found that at these concentrations 0.5 g of IRA-400 (OH) can adsorb quantitatively arsenate and phosphate within 1h. In a range of 3.6-11.1, pH seems to have no influence on the adsorption behavior of the resin, but at pH 1.5 the adsorption of both arsenate and phosphate drops to values close to zero. Experiments with solutions with P/As ratios in a range between 1 and 30 have shown that the concentration ratios have also little effect on adsorption. An efficient selective desorption of the anions could be achieved with 2 mol/L HNO3 or HCl, but the use of HCl is impracticable if the separation aims at precipitating arsenate for oxygen isotopic work. The reported adsorption/ desorption properties of the resin are supported also by data obtained by investigating the resin particles with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a fluorescence detection device.

  17. Characterization of gel-separated glycoproteins using two-step proteolytic digestion combined with sequential microcolumns and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Protein glycosylation can be vital for changing the function or physiochemical properties of a protein. Abnormal glycosylation can lead to protein malfunction, resulting in severe diseases. Therefore, it is important to develop techniques for characterization of such modifications in proteins...... present a new technique that allows characterization of low amounts of glycoproteins separated by gel electrophoresis. The method takes advantage of sequential specific and nonspecific enzymatic treatment followed by selective purification and characterization of the glycopeptides using graphite powder...

  18. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    two phase and sub optimal conditions improves the energy potential to 8.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed} with VS(removal) efficiency as 80.7% in total 15 days of HRT. The net energy balance results indicated the co-digestion of IFW with waste products of SS treatment plant viz. primary sludge (PS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) are amenable substrates for the two-stage anaerobic bio-hydrogen and biomethane digestion process. (orig.)

  19. Superhydrophilic porous TiO 2 film prepared by phase separation through two stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weixin; Deng, Wei; Lei, Ming; Huang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    A novel method was developed to produce a TiO 2 film with circular pores on its surface. The pores aroused from the precursor solution using both acetylacetone (AcAc) and diethanolamine (DEA) as stabilizers. The appearance of interconnected or isolated pores for the films was discussed in relation to the phase separation in the sol-gel process with the presence of Acac and DEA. Macropore size, together with connectivity of pores and gel skeleton, can be controlled by selecting an appropriate composition for preparation at DEA amount or regulating a time scale of the sol-gel transition. Finally, wetting behavior of the resulting films was characterized by using contact angle measurements. The TiO 2 films with interconnected or relatively isolated pores exhibit superhydrophilic characteristic, although it is not exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Deducing from the Wenzel-Cassie regimes' transition criterion, the existence of Cassie impregnating wetting regime rather than Wenzel one upon these porosity-driven superhydrophilic surfaces can be obtained.

  20. Ordered macroporous quercetin molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, characterization, and separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yonggang; Liu, Qin; Ye, Lifang; Wu, Quanzhou; He, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    Ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared by a combination of the colloidal crystal templating method and the molecular imprinting technique by using SiO2 colloidal crystal as the macroporogen, quercetin as the imprinting template, acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a more regular macroporous structure, a narrower pore distribution and a greater porosity compared with the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The kinetic and isothermal adsorption behaviors of the polymers were investigated. The results indicate that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a faster intraparticle mass transfer process and a higher adsorption capacity than the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were further employed as a sorbent for a solid-phase extraction. The results show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers can effectively separate quercetin from the Gingko hydrolysate.

  1. Separating esterase targets of organophosphorus compounds in the brain by preparative chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, I; Vilanova, E; Benabent, M; Estévez, J

    2014-02-10

    Low level exposure to organophosphorus esters (OPs) may cause long-term neurological effects and affect specific cognition domains in experimental animals and humans. Action on known targets cannot explain most of these effects by. Soluble carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1.1) of chicken brain have been kinetically discriminated using paraoxon, mipafox and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride as inhibitors and phenyl valerate as a substrate. Three different enzymatic components were discriminated and called Eα, Eβ and Eγ. In this work, a fractionation procedure with various steps was developed using protein native separation methods by preparative HPLC. Gel permeation chromatography followed by ion exchange chromatography allowed enriched fractions with different kinetic behaviors. The soluble chicken brain fraction was fractionated, while total esterase activity, proteins and enzymatic components Eα, Eβ and Eγ were monitored in each subfraction. After the analysis, 13 fractions were pooled and conserved. Preincubation of the soluble chicken brain fraction of with the organophosphorus mipafox gave rise to a major change in the ion exchange chromatography profile, but not in the molecular exchanged chromatography profile, which suggest that mipafox permanently modifies the ionic properties of numerous proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphene nanoplatelets-reinforced polyetherimide foams prepared by water vapor-induced phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbasi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work considers the preparation of medium-density polyetherimide foams reinforced with variable amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (1–10 wt% by means of water vapor-induced phase separation (WVIPS and their characterization . A homogeneous closed-cell structure with cell sizes around 10 µm was obtained, with foams exhibiting zero crystallinity according to X-ray diffraction (XRD. Thermogravimetric analysis under nitrogen showed a two-step thermal decomposition behaviour for both unfilled and graphene-reinforced foams, with foams containing graphene presenting thermal stability improvements, related to a physical barrier effect promoted by the nanoplatelets. Thermo-mechanical analysis indicated that the specific storage modulus of the nanocomposite foams significantly increased owing to the high stiffness of graphene and finer cellular morphology of the foams. Although foamed nanocomposites displayed no further sign of graphene nanoplatelets exfoliation, the electrical conductivity of these foams was significant even for low graphene contents, with a tunnel-like model fitting well to the evolution of the electrical conductivity with the amount of graphene.

  3. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  4. Separation and sequencing of familiar and novel murine proteins using preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, B A; Patterson, R M; Witcher, L L; He, C; Selkirk, J K

    1994-05-01

    Strategies are needed for rapid protein isolation in order to identify disease-related proteins and facilitate the design of oligonucleotides for further molecular inquiry. In our laboratory, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblasts have been found to express a variety of proteins in various subcellular fractions which are relevant to experimental transformation and carcinogenesis. Preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) procedures were developed to identify major cytoplasmic proteins by electroblotting and microsequencing. Isoelectric focusing tube gels were enlarged to 6 mm ID to accommodate larger protein loads at 0.5 to 2 mg protein. Separated proteins were electrotransferred from 6 mm thick slab gels onto 0.22 mu polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Nearly 100 prominent blotted proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue between pI 4.5-7.0 and 18-106 kDa and, of these, 27 prominent and well-resolved proteins were selected for sequencing. Sequences of 14 to 24 amino acid residues in length were obtained from 11 proteins which were identified from computerized databases. Some of these identified proteins had structural or enzymatic functions while others had only recently been discovered, including a newly reported Hsp 70 class member and a novel calcium-binding protein, reticulocalbin. The new heat shock protein has a molecular mass of 75 kDa and has been designated as Grp75, PBP74, CSA or p66mot-1 in mice and humans with purported roles in transformation and antigen processing. Reticulocalbin is an endoplasmic reticular protein which contains six domains of the EF-hand motif associated with high-affinity calcium-binding proteins. It may be involved in protein transport and luminal protein processing. In addition, sequences of 5 to 11 residues in length were also obtained from six other unidentified proteins. Thus, we have found that preparative 2-D PAGE serves as a powerful one-step purification method for protein isolation and

  5. Improved tryptic digestion assisted with an acid-labile anionic surfactant for the separation and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms of a proteolytic-resistant glycoprotein by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Albert; Giménez, Estela; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Certain glycoproteins are rather difficult to digest due to compacted tertiary or quaternary structures. In a previous study, a capillary LC coupled to TOF-MS (μLC-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and characterization of the glycopeptide glycoforms of human transferrin (Tf), a proteolytic resistant glycoprotein, in serum samples. After immunoaffinity purification, Tf was digested with trypsin in the presence of RapiGest(®) and μLC-TOF-MS analyses permitted to detect the N413 and N611 glycopeptide glycoforms. Conversely, the use of this surfactant, albeit mandatory to quantitatively digest the isolated Tf, proved detrimental to CE-TOF-MS analysis due to its interaction with the inner surface of the silica capillary walls. As CE is usually regarded as an interesting alternative to other separation techniques (low consumption of reagents, excellent separation efficiency, and reduced analysis times), in this work, the undesirable interferences of the surfactant have been removed to allow the correct separation and detection of Tf glycoforms by CE-TOF-MS. Moreover, the digestion protocol described by the RapiGest(®) manufacturer has been modified to minimize desialylation of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms. The new developed CE-TOF-MS methodology has been then compared with the former μLC-TOF-MS by means of sensitivity and separation efficiency of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms in the standard glycoprotein. Additionally, Tf glycopeptide glycoforms from serum of healthy volunteers and patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation have also been analyzed following the developed methodology.

  6. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product prepared using advanced meat... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.24 Product prepared using advanced meat...

  7. Preparation of extraction resin for radio lanthanides separation; Preparacion de resina de extraccion para separacion de radiolantanidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz B, C.C. de la; Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: delacruzbc@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents the methodology that was developed for the preparation of one extractant resin with the aim of HDEHP, to separate radio lanthanides with serial atomic numbers. In this case it is exemplified with the separation of the following elements: Gadolinium-161 and the Terbium-161; this last radioisotope it is a beta emitting ({beta}{sup -}) that has a great potential to be used in therapy, also in nuclear medicine and in oncology, this is due to the high penetration power of their {beta}{sup -} particles that can kill to the cancerous cells and to inhibit the growth of the same ones. To be able to separate them it is necessary to appeal to extremely selective separation techniques, since the chemical properties of these elements are very similar. The chromatography is one of the more used analytical tools, this is due to its great sensibility and the selectivity in the compounds separation, in particular the use of the extractive chromatography has shown the feasibility of carrying out this type of separations for this type of elements. The resin with base of HDEHP was absorbed in an inert support under diverse preparation conditions. The extractant properties of the resin, in relation to the elements Gd and Tb (distribution coefficients), its were determined by means of the dynamic method, using as eluent solutions of nitric acid. The Gd-159 was prepared by irradiation of Gd-168 with thermal neutrons and the Tb-161 it is the result of the radioactive decay of the Gd-161 that is produced in turn with the irradiation with neutrons of Gd-160. The coefficients of distribution of Gd and Tb, using the prepared resin under diverse conditions are presented. (Author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of a Lithium-ion battery separator from cellulose nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the desired properties for stretch monolayer separators used in Lithium-ion batteries has been a challenge. In the present study a cellulose nanofiber/PET nonwoven composite separator is successfully fabricated, using a wet-laid nonwoven (papermaking process, which can attain optimal properties in wettability, mechanical strength, thermal resistance, and electrochemical performance simultaneously. The PET nonwoven material, which is fabricated from ultrafine PET fibers by a wet-laid process, is a mechanical support layer. The porous structure of the composite separator was created by cellulose nanofibers coating the PET in a papermaking process. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, which are an eco-friendly sustainable resource, have been drawing considerable attention due to their astounding properties, such as: incredible specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability, high mechanical strength and hydrophilicity. The results show that the CNF separator exhibits higher porosity (70% than a PP (polypropylene separator (40%. The CNF separator can also be wetted by electrolyte in a few seconds while a PP separator cannot be entirely wetted after 1 min. The CNF separator has an electrolyte uptake of 250%, while a PP separator has only 65%. Another notable finding is that the CNF separator has almost no shrinkage when exposed to 180 °C for 1 h, whereas a PP separator shrinks by more than 50%. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC shows that the CNF separator has a higher melting point than a PP separator. These findings all indicate that the CNF 29 separator will be more favorable than stretch film for use in Lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Active flow management in preparative chromatographic separations: a preliminary investigation into enhanced separation using a curtain flow inlet fitting and segmented flow outlet fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Ritchie, Harald J; Ladine, James R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Active flow management in the form of curtain flow sample introduction and segmented outlet flow control has been shown to enable sample to elute through a chromatography column under the principles of the "infinite diameter column". Such an elution process avoids the detrimental effects of the heterogeneity of particle-packed chromatographic columns by injecting the sample directly into the radial core region of the column, thus avoiding wall effects. The process described herein illustrates how the principles of the infinite diameter column can be applied using conventional injection devices suitable for long-term analysis that requires robust protocols. Using this approach, sensitivity in separation was 2.5 times greater than conventional chromatography, yielding a product at twice the concentration. Benefits of curtain flow injection are thus relevant to both preparative-scale and analytical-scale separations.

  10. Preparative separation of high-purity cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris(L.) Link by high-speed countercurrent chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Licai; Liang, Yong; Lao, Deqiang; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in a preparative scale has been applied to separate and purify cordycepin from the extract of Cordyceps militaris(L.) Link by a one-step separation. A high efficiency of HSCCC separation was achieved on a two-phase solvent system of n-hexane–n-butanol–methanol–water (23:80:30:155, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 ml/min under a revolution speed of 850 rpm. HSCCC separation of 216.2 mg crude sample (contained cordycepin at 44.7% purity after 732 cation-exchange resin clean-up) yielded 64.8 mg cordycepin with purity of 98.9% and 91.7% recovery. Identification of the target compound was performed by UV, IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. PMID:21643461

  11. Slowly digestible starch from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch: preparation, structural characteristics, and glucose response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was optimized to increase the formation of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in waxy potato starch, and the structural and physiological properties of this starch were investigated. A maximum SDS content (41.8%) consistent with the expected value (40.1%) was obtained after...

  12. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  13. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.; Su, N.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates and then characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: Development of a process for composite membrane fabrication; Characterization of composite membrane; and Development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. The experimental procedures are described.

  14. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the separation of arctiin and arctigenin in Fructus Arctii and its herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wenjuan; Chen, Yonglei; Zhang, Yuxia; Ding, Xiuping; Chen, Hongli; Liu, Mancang

    2007-12-01

    A microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method was used to separate arctiin and arctigenin in Fructus Arctii and its herbal preparations. The separation of arctiin and arctigenin was performed using a 1-butanol-SDS-ethyl acetate-water microemulsion in 10mM sodium tetraborate buffer. The analytes were baseline-resolved within 4 min. In the concentration range 5-500 microg/mL, the calibration curves reveal linear relationships between the peak area for each analyte and its concentration (correlation coefficients: 0.9993 for arctiin and 0.9998 for arctigenin). The method was applied to the analysis of arctiin and arctigenin in herbal preparations, and the recoveries were 98.7-103.1% for arctiin and 97.6-103.2% for arctigenin, respectively.

  15. Preparative Separation and Purification of the Total Flavonoids in Scorzonera austriaca with Macroporous Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xie; Qiu-Shi Guo; Guang-Shu Wang

    2016-01-01

    The use of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of total flavonoids to obtain high-purity total flavonoids from Scorzonera austriaca was studied. The optimal conditions for separation and purification of total flavonoids in S. austriaca with macroporous resins were as follows: D4020 resin columns were loaded with crude flavonoid extract solution, and after reaching adsorptive saturation, the columns were eluted successively with 5 bed volumes (BV) of water, 5 BV of 5% (v/v) ...

  16. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  17. PREPARATION OF ASYMMETRIC POLYETHERKETONE FLAT AND HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANES FOR GAS SEPARATION USING ACETIC ACID BASED COAGULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ping Yang; Philip J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Membranes for gas separation have developed significantly in the last twenty years, however, there is still a need for high temperature and chemically resistant membranes that exhibit good selectivity and gas permeability. Our study examines the fundamental properties of polyetherketone (PEK, a thermally stable and chemically resistant polymer)membranes prepared using concentrated sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) as the solvent. Non-solvents used in the work included acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, glycerol, and water. The concentration of the polymer solutions was chosen to be 20%. The membrane structures were examined using SEM, and the gas separation properties were measured using a lab-scale test rig.The results show that formation and control of membrane structures are complicated, and many preparation parameters affect membrane morphology and performance. Using appropriate conditions skinned sponge-like structured hollow fiber membranes could be made from PEK by using acetic acid as the internal coagulant. PEK hollow fibers spun from 20%PEK/H2SO4 solutions with 50% aqueous acetic acid as internal coagulant had selectivity for hydrogen/methane of around 40, implying a solution diffusion separation mechanism for gas separation without the need for fiber coating or after post-treatments.

  18. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  19. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  20. Efficient separation of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin from turmeric using supercritical fluid chromatography: From analytical to preparative scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Liang, Wen-fei; Ji, Shuai; Yang, Lu; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Yong-wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). It has attracted widespread attention for its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The separation of curcumin and its two close analogs, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, has been challenging by conventional techniques. In this study, an environmentally friendly method based on supercritical fluid chromatography was established for the rapid and facile separation of the three curcuminoids directly from the methanol extract of turmeric. The method was first developed and optimized by ultra performance convergence chromatography, and was then scaled up to preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Eluted with supercritical fluid CO2 containing 8-15% methanol (containing 10 mM oxalic acid) at a flow rate of 80 mL/min, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin could be well separated on a Viridis BEH OBD column (Waters, 250 mm × 19 mm, 5 μm) within 6.5 min. As a result, 20.8 mg of curcumin (97.9% purity), 7.0 mg of demethoxycurcumin (91.1%), and 4.6 mg of bisdemethoxycurcumin (94.8%) were obtained after a single step of supercritical fluid chromatography separation with a mean recovery of 76.6%. Showing obvious advantages in low solvent consumption, large sample loading, and easy solvent removal, supercritical fluid chromatography was proved to be a superior technique for the efficient separation of natural products.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Silicone Liquid Core/Polymer Shell Microcapsules via Internal Phase Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata; Ma, Baoguang

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules with a silicone liquid core surrounded by a polymeric shell were synthesisedthrough the controlled phase separation. The dispersed silicone phase consisted of the shellpolymer PMMA, a good solvent for the PMMA (dichloromethane, DCM) and a poor solvent(methylhydrosiloxane dimethylsil...

  2. Preparation of regenerated immobilized enzyme reactor and application in microwave assisted digestion%磁性可再生性固定化酶制备及其在微波辅助蛋白酶解中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦美苹; 庞玉凤; 陈正毅; 苏日辉; 杜甫佑; 阮贵华

    2014-01-01

    将磁性可再生性固定化酶应用于微波辅助蛋白酶解。包覆了 SiO2的 Fe3 O4磁性粒子(Fe3 O4@mSiO2)表面经3-(2,3-环氧丙氧)丙基三甲氧基硅烷偶联剂(GLYMO)与亚氨基二乙酸(IDA)反应的产物(GLYMO-IDA)修饰,加入Cu2+形成金属螯合配体后利用Cu2+与木瓜蛋白酶作用固定木瓜蛋白酶。在优化条件下,获得的固定化酶酶活为1158.8 U,酶活保留率达44.1%。所获得的固定化木瓜蛋白酶具有易再生、再生后酶活稳定的特点。再生5次后酶活平均值为1014 U,再生率达88%。HPLC分析表明,微波辅助结合固定化可再生酶可用于黑蚂蚁蛋白的快速酶解,获得的色谱图轮廓与自由酶酶解结果相似。酶解过程快,多肽丰富且易与底物分离,表明可再生固定化酶结合微波辅助有助于蛋白的酶解与多肽的制备。%The magnetic regenerated immobilized papain is applied for microwave assisted enzymatic digestion (MAED).Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were coated with SiO2by sol-gel method and Fe3O4@ mSiO2 were formed and then modified by the reaction products of 3-Glycidyloxy propyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent (GLYMO)and iminodiacetic acid (IDA).After Cu2+was chelated on the Fe3 O4@mSiO2-GLYMO-IDA,the papain was immobilized on.In optimized conditions,the activity of the immobilized papain was 1 158.8 U and the rate of remained activity of papain was 44.1%.After five times of regeneration,the average activity of the immobilized papain was 1 014 U and regeneration rate was about 88%.Coupled with MAED,the immobilized papain was applied for black ants protein digestion.The HPLC analysis shows that during 30 min,the digestion product from immobilized papain MAED could be easily separated from the substrate and its responding HPLC profiles were similar to the product from free papain digestion,reflecting that the digestion speed of black ants protein with immobilized papain was fast and

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophilically Modified PVDF Membranes by a Novel Nonsolvent Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningen Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a nonsolvent thermally-induced phase separation (NTIPS method was first proposed to fabricate hydrophilically-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes to overcome the drawbacks of conventional thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS and nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS methods. Hydrophilically-modified PVDF membranes were successfully prepared by blending in hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA at 140 °C. A series of PVDF/PVA blend membranes was prepared at different total polymer concentrations and blend ratios. The morphological analysis via SEM indicated that the formation mechanism of these hydrophilically-modified membranes was a combined NIPS and TIPS process. As the total polymer concentration increased, the tensile strength of the membranes increased; meanwhile, the membrane pore size, porosity and water flux decreased. With the PVDF/PVA blend ratio increased from 10:0 to 8:2, the membrane pore size and water flux increased. The dynamic water contact angle of these membranes showed that the hydrophilic properties of PVDF/PVA blend membranes were prominently improved. The higher hydrophilicity of the membranes resulted in reduced membrane resistance and, hence, higher permeability. The total resistance Rt of the modified PVDF membranes decreased significantly as the hydrophilicity increased. The irreversible fouling related to pore blocking and adsorption fouling onto the membrane surface was minimal, indicating good antifouling properties.

  4. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  5. Development of bufferless gel electrophoresis chip for easy preparation and rapid DNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandrov, Sergiy; Aman, Abdurazak; Lim, Wanyoung; Kim, Younghee; Bae, Nam Ho; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Park, Sungsu

    2017-09-27

    This work presents a handy, fast, and compact bufferless gel electrophoresis chip (BGEC), which consists of precast agarose gel confined in a disposable plastic body with electrodes. It does not require large volumes of buffer to fill reservoirs, or the process of immersing the gel in the buffer. It withstands voltages up to 28.4 V/cm, thereby allowing DNA separation within 10 minutes with a similar separation capability to the standard gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that our BGEC is highly suitable for in situ gel electrophoresis in forensic, epidemiological settings and crime scenes where standard gel electrophoresis equipment cannot be brought in while quick results are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION METHOD OF LINEAR AND NON—LINEAR LIQUID PREPARATIVE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuWenli; LiZhong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes the identification method of linear and non-linear chromatographic system.Isotherms and lumped mass transfer coefficients of chromatography separating isomer sorbitol and mannitol on D80 adsorbent are determined.The analyses of root mean square error of chromatography elution curves are carried out.The results show that the system studied is non-linear and the theoretical elution curves of the non-linear chromatographic model are more accurate than those of the linear chromatographic model,Results of parameter sensitivity analyses show that elution curves of non-linear chromatopraphic separation aremore sensitive to the variation of parameter “ai” in the adsorption isotherms Qi=Ci*/(ai+biCi*) than to the variation of parameter "bi”as well as lumped mass transfer coefficients.

  7. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Wong, Jessica X H; Kwok, Honoria; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane) to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4%) for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  8. Microphase-Separated PE/PEO Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Assisted Vapor Phase Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukourov, Andrei; Gordeev, Ivan; Ponti, Jessica; Uboldi, Chiara; Melnichuk, Iurii; Vaidulych, Mykhailo; Kousal, Jaroslav; Nikitin, Daniil; Hanyková, Lenka; Krakovský, Ivan; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2016-03-01

    Immiscible polymer blends tend to undergo phase separation with the formation of nanoscale architecture which can be used in a variety of applications. Different wet-chemistry techniques already exist to fix the resultant polymeric structure in predictable manner. In this work, an all-dry and plasma-based strategy is proposed to fabricate thin films of microphase-separated polyolefin/polyether blends. This is achieved by directing (-CH2-)100 and (-CH2-CH2-O-)25 oligomer fluxes produced by vacuum thermal decomposition of poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene oxide) onto silicon substrates through the zone of the glow discharge. The strategy enables mixing of thermodynamically incompatible macromolecules at the molecular level, whereas electron-impact-initiated radicals serve as cross-linkers to arrest the subsequent phase separation at the nanoscale. The mechanism of the phase separation as well as the morphology of the films is found to depend on the ratio between the oligomeric fluxes. For polyolefin-rich mixtures, polyether molecules self-organize by nucleation and growth into spherical domains with average height of 22 nm and average diameter of 170 nm. For equinumerous fluxes and for mixtures with the prevalence of polyethers, spinodal decomposition is detected that results in the formation of bicontinuous structures with the characteristic domain size and spacing ranging between 5 × 10(1) -7 × 10(1) nm and 3 × 10(2)-4 × 10(2) nm, respectively. The method is shown to produce films with tunable wettability and biologically nonfouling properties.

  9. Reciprocating free-flow isoelectric focusing device for preparative separation of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Zhi; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yi; Li, Guo-Qing; Li, Shan; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Liu, Shao-Rong; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2015-11-27

    The traditional recycling free-flow isoelectric focusing (RFFIEF) suffered from complex structure, tedious operations and poor extensibility as well as high cost. To address these issues, a novel reciprocating free-flow isoelectric focusing device (ReFFIEF) was developed for proteins or peptides pre-fractionation. In the new device, a reciprocating background flow was for the first time introduced into free flow electrophoresis (FFE) system. The gas cushion injector (GCI) used in the previous continuous free-flow electrophoresis (CFFE) was redesigned for the reciprocating background flow. With the GCI, the reciprocating background flow could be achieved between the GCI, separation chamber and transient self-balance collector (tSBC). In a run, process fluid flowed to and from, forming a stable reciprocating fluid flow in the separation chamber. A pH gradient was created within the separation chamber, and at the same time proteins were focused repeatedly when passing through the chamber under perpendicular electric field. The ReFFIEF procedure was optimized for fractionations of three model proteins, and the optimized method was further used for pre-fractionation of model human serum samples. As compared with the traditional RFFIEF devices developed about 25 years ago, the new ReFFIEF system showed several merits, such as simple design and structure, user-friendly operation and easy to extend as well as low cost.

  10. Preparative separation of echinocandin B from Aspergillus nidulans broth using macroporous resin adsorption chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shu-Ping; Liu, Miao; Wang, Qiu-Liang; Xiong, Yan; Niu, Kun; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2015-01-26

    Echinocandin B (ECB), an echinocandin type of lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Aspergillus nidulans, is a precursor for the synthesis of novel anti-fungal drug - anidulafungin. In this work, a separation strategy involving one-step macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was established for ECB purification from Aspergillus nidulans CCTCC M 2010275 fermentation broth. Among nine macroporous resin adsorbents tested, the non-polar resin HP-20 had the best adsorption and desorption performance. The static equilibrium adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second order model. The separation parameters of ECB from broth were optimised by dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments with the column packed with HP-20 resin. Under optimal conditions, the purity increased by 3.8-fold from 23.2% in broth to 88.5% in eluent with 87.1% recovery yield by a one-step treatment. Our study provided a one-step and effective method for large-scale production of ECB, and offered references for separating other echinocandins from broth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of composites immobilizing highly selective adsorbents and their application to the separation of nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Onodera, Yoshio

    2001-03-01

    Radionuclides in high-level liquid waste are classified into four groups such as transuranic elements (TRU) group, technetium - platinum group, strontium - cesium group, and others group. Cesium showed high adsorption selectivity to AMP [(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}12MoO{sub 3}3H{sub 2}O], AWP [(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PO{sub 4}12WO{sub 3}3H{sub 2}O], and KNiFC(K{sub 2-x}Ni{sub x/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}]nH{sub 2}O). These inorganic ion exchangers with selectivity of cesium are possible to be supported by porous materials and to be immobilized by polymer. Some examples (AMP/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AMP/alginate, and KNiFC/zeolite) are shown in this paper. KCuFC/alginate can adsorb Pd into KCuFC, Ru into alginate, but can not adsorb Rh. Accordingly, platinum metals (Pd, Ru and Rh) are separated by it. Pd, Ru and Rh in their mixed solution are mutually separated by using Cyanex 302/alginate and chromatography. Eu and Am adsorbed by Cyanex 301-alginate acid gel microcapsule were separated by gradient elution. Then, 98.8% of Eu and 91.3% of Am were eluted at pH 2 and pH 1, respectively. (S.Y.)

  12. Preparation of PVdF-based electrospun membranes and their application as separators

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhuai Ding et al

    2008-01-01

    A one-step method preparing of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based electrospun membranes (PEMs) containing TiO2 has been developed. The effect of TiO2 on the morphology, degree of crystallization and electrochemical behavior of PEMs was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical measurements. The PEMs containing TiO2 show improved ionic conductivity and cycling performance compared with pure PEMs.

  13. Separation and determination of four active anthraquinones in Chinese herbal preparations by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Fan, Liuyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin in Rhubarb, Juemingzi, and Chinese herbal preparations was developed by combination of flow injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the first time. The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (75 mm x 50 microm ID x 375 microm OD, effective separation length of 48 mm) and direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. By a series of optimization, the sample solvent consisted of NaOH (100 mmol/L) and ACN (1:1 v/v), and a running buffer composed of 15 mmol/L sodium borate - 12.5 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - 42% v/v ACN (pH 10.1) was applied for the separation of the four anthraquinones. The separation was rapid and highly reproducible, with complete resolution of all four compounds within 6 min. The sample throughput rate could reach up to 12 per h. The repeatability (defined as relative standard deviation) was 4.45, 4.44, 4.34, 0.61% with peak height evaluation and 1.62, 0.89, 2.49, 2.19% with peak area evaluation for physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin, respectively.

  14. In situ Silver Spot Preparation and on-Plate Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection in Thin Layer Chromatography Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, K.; Mircescu, N. E.; Szabo, L.; Leopold, L. F.; Chiş, V.; Leopold, N.

    2013-05-01

    An improved approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of mixture constituents after thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation is presented. A SERS active silver substrate was prepared under open air conditions, directly on the thin silica film by photo-reduction of silver nitrate, allowing the detection of binary mixtures of cresyl violet, bixine, crystal violet, and Cu(II) complex of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The recorded SERS spectrum provides a unique spectral fingerprint for each molecule; therefore the use of analyte standards is avoided, thus rendering the presented procedure advantageous compared to the conventional detection methodology in TLC.

  15. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  16. In-situ Al/24Si Functional Graded Materials Prepared by Electromagnetic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cylinder-like in-situ Al/24Si FGMs were produced by using electromagnetic separating process. Si primary phasereinforced layer with volume fraction as high as 16 pct was formed at the outer region of the cylinder-like sampleswhere the local hardness and wear resistance were enhanced remarkably. Moreover, both of strength and ductility inthe inner region provided insurance of reliable strength for this as-cast gradient material. It indicated that generalmechanical properties such as good wear resistance at the outer region and good ductility in the central part couldbe obtained with the optimized redistribution of the Si primary particles under the electromagnetic force.

  17. Carbons prepared from Spartina alterniflora and its anaerobically digested residue by H3PO4 activation: characterization and adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Nie, Er; Li, Jihua; Zhao, Yongjun; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2011-04-15

    Two series of activated carbons were prepared from Spartina alterniflora and from its anaerobically digested residue by H(3)PO(4) activation at various process conditions, and used as adsorbents for the removal of cadmium (II) in aqueous solutions. The surface areas and pore volumes of carbons were derived from adsorption isotherms (N(2) at 77K). The surface chemistry of carbons was investigated by infrared spectroscopy. Comparison study indicated that physicochemical properties of the activated carbons were strongly dependent not only on activation conditions but also on biopolymer contents of precursors. Several isotherm models were investigated and the adsorption isotherm data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 47.85 mg/g at 25 °C. The results showed that the activated carbon produced from S. alterniflora could be employed as a promising adsorbent for removing cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions.

  18. Preparation of High-Surface-Area SnO2 and ZrO2 by Reflux-Digestion and Solvothermal Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Ying Wei; Feng Jiang; Gang Xu; Sheng-Ming Xu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the preparation methods on the properties of SnO2 and ZrO2 powders, especially the specific surface area and the stability upon calcination was investigated. SnO2 and ZrO2 prepared by chemical precipitation using reflux-digestion process with NaOH possess high surface area at the calcination temperature of 500℃~1000℃. A novel solvothermal process in the presence of urea was used to synthesize nanocrystalline SnO2 powders excluding the adulteration of Si. As increasing the concentration of urea, the grain size of the as-prepared powders reduced and the surface area increased.SnO2 nanocrystals with a grain size of ca. 1 nm and a high surface area of 331 m2g-1 were obtained by this method. These high-surface-area powders are favorable for gas-sensing and catalysis applications, and the development of an advanced material for structural engineering ceramics.

  19. A novel bio-safe phase separation process for preparing open-pore biodegradable polycaprolactone microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Aurelio; Domingo, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Open-pore biodegradable microparticles are object of considerable interest for biomedical applications, particularly as cell and drug delivery carriers in tissue engineering and health care treatments. Furthermore, the engineering of microparticles with well definite size distribution and pore architecture by bio-safe fabrication routes is crucial to avoid the use of toxic compounds potentially harmful to cells and biological tissues. To achieve this important issue, in the present study a straightforward and bio-safe approach for fabricating porous biodegradable microparticles with controlled morphological and structural features down to the nanometer scale is developed. In particular, ethyl lactate is used as a non-toxic solvent for polycaprolactone particles fabrication via a thermal induced phase separation technique. The used approach allows achieving open-pore particles with mean particle size in the 150-250 μm range and a 3.5-7.9 m(2)/g specific surface area. Finally, the combination of thermal induced phase separation and porogen leaching techniques is employed for the first time to obtain multi-scaled porous microparticles with large external and internal pore sizes and potential improved characteristics for cell culture and tissue engineering. Samples were characterized to assess their thermal properties, morphology and crystalline structure features and textural properties.

  20. Preparative Separation and Purification of the Total Flavonoids in Scorzonera austriaca with Macroporous Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Guo, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2016-06-13

    The use of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of total flavonoids to obtain high-purity total flavonoids from Scorzonera austriaca was studied. The optimal conditions for separation and purification of total flavonoids in S. austriaca with macroporous resins were as follows: D4020 resin columns were loaded with crude flavonoid extract solution, and after reaching adsorptive saturation, the columns were eluted successively with 5 bed volumes (BV) of water, 5 BV of 5% (v/v) aqueous ethanol and 5 BV of 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at an elute flow rate of 2 BV·h(-1). Total flavonoids were obtained from the 30% aqueous ethanol eluate by vacuum distillation recovery. The content of flavonoid compounds in the total flavonoids was 93.5%, which represents an improvement by about 150%. In addition, five flavonoid compounds in the product were identified as 2″-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl isoorientin, 6-C-α-l-arabipyranosyl orientin, orientin, isoorientin and vitexin by LC-ESI-MS analysis and internal standard methods. The results in this study could represent a method for the large-scale production of total flavonoids from S. austriaca.

  1. Preparative Separation and Purification of the Total Flavonoids in Scorzonera austriaca with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of total flavonoids to obtain high-purity total flavonoids from Scorzonera austriaca was studied. The optimal conditions for separation and purification of total flavonoids in S. austriaca with macroporous resins were as follows: D4020 resin columns were loaded with crude flavonoid extract solution, and after reaching adsorptive saturation, the columns were eluted successively with 5 bed volumes (BV of water, 5 BV of 5% (v/v aqueous ethanol and 5 BV of 30% (v/v aqueous ethanol at an elute flow rate of 2 BV·h−1. Total flavonoids were obtained from the 30% aqueous ethanol eluate by vacuum distillation recovery. The content of flavonoid compounds in the total flavonoids was 93.5%, which represents an improvement by about 150%. In addition, five flavonoid compounds in the product were identified as 2″-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl isoorientin, 6-C-α-l-arabipyranosyl orientin, orientin, isoorientin and vitexin by LC-ESI-MS analysis and internal standard methods. The results in this study could represent a method for the large-scale production of total flavonoids from S. austriaca.

  2. Separating limits on preparation versus online processing in multitasking paradigms: Evidence for resource models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We conducted 2 multitasking experiments to examine the finding that first-task reaction times (RTs) are slower in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm than in the prioritized processing (PP) paradigm. To see whether this difference between the 2 paradigms could be explained entirely by differences in first-task preparation, which would be consistent with the standard response selection bottleneck (RSB) model for multitasking interference, we compared the size of this difference for trials in which a second-task stimulus actually occurred against the size of the difference for trials without any second-task stimulus. The slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm was larger when the second-task stimulus appeared than when it did not, indicating that the difference cannot be explained entirely by between-paradigm differences in first-task preparation. Instead, the results suggest that the slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm is partly because of differences between paradigms in the online reallocation of processing capacity to tasks. Thus, the present results provide new evidence supporting resource models over the RSB model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwu [Department of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ternary phase diagrams showed the potential encapsulation capabilities of the three shell materials. The effects of the shell/core ratio and the molecular weight of the shell material on the encapsulation efficiency and the thermal capacity of the microcapsules were also discussed. Microcapsules with melting enthalpy > 100 J/g, encapsulation efficiency 66-75%, particle size<1 {mu}m were obtained for all three shell materials. (author)

  4. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  5. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  6. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  7. Preparation of a new micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separator for high performance Li secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Sung-Jin [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Chnugnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ihm, Young-Eon [Department of Materials Engineering, Chnugnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-10-01

    In this study, micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separators (PE-g-PMMA) were prepared by a radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto a conventional PE separator followed by a phase inversion. After the phase inversion, the micro-pores were generated in the grafted PMMA layer. The prepared micro-porous PE-g-PMMA separators showed an improved electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity due to their improved affinity with a liquid electrolyte and the presence of pores in the grafted PMMA layer. The PE-g-PMMA separators exhibited a lower thermal shrinkage compared to the original PE separator. The PE-g-PMMA separators showed a better oxidation stability up to 5.0 V when compared to the original PE separator (4.5 V)

  8. Preparation of a new micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separator for high performance Li secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-10-01

    In this study, micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separators (PE-g-PMMA) were prepared by a radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto a conventional PE separator followed by a phase inversion. After the phase inversion, the micro-pores were generated in the grafted PMMA layer. The prepared micro-porous PE-g-PMMA separators showed an improved electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity due to their improved affinity with a liquid electrolyte and the presence of pores in the grafted PMMA layer. The PE-g-PMMA separators exhibited a lower thermal shrinkage compared to the original PE separator. The PE-g-PMMA separators showed a better oxidation stability up to 5.0 V when compared to the original PE separator (4.5 V).

  9. Preparation and identification of ⅤⅠ-type slowly digestible starch%ⅤⅠ-型慢消化淀粉的制备与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙晨希; 田耀旗; 金征宇

    2013-01-01

    以高直链玉米淀粉为原料,添加乳化剂(单硬脂酸甘油酯、月桂酸单甘酯、硬脂酰乳酸钙),分别采用蒸煮糊化法、HCl/KOH沉淀法和酒精碱法制备 Ⅴ-型高直链玉米淀粉-脂质络合物.对该络合物的晶体结构、络合率、慢消化淀粉含量及血糖指数及进行了分析测定,结果表明,以高直链玉米淀粉和单硬脂酸甘油酯为原料,采用酒精碱法制备的淀粉络合物,晶体类别为ⅤⅠ-型,适用于作为新型慢消化淀粉.同时发现,该条件下制备的ⅤⅠ-型慢消化淀粉,主客体络合率为66.7%,慢消化淀粉含量高达67.4%,预测血糖指数最低达45,符合低血糖指数(GI)健康食品范畴.%Ⅴ-amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose maize starch with glycerin monostearate (GMS),glycerol monolaurate (GML) and calcium stearoyl lactylate (CSL) by heating,alkaline synthesis methods and alcoholic-alkaline treatment.The crystalline structure,binding rate,content of slowly digestible starch and the glycol index of the prepared inclusion complexes were determined.The results showed that,ⅤⅠ-amylose inclusion prepared from high amylose maize starch and GMS by alcoholic-alkaline treatments could be the best way to prepare ⅤⅠ-type slowly digestible starch (SDS).The product had a maximum SDS content of 67.4%,with binding rate of 68.4% and the predicted blood sugar index of 45,fitting to the health standard

  10. Preparation of molecularly imprinted cross-linked chitosan/glutaraldehyde resin for enantioselective separation of L-glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; El-Sokkary, A M A

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, separation of L-glutamic acid from dilute aqueous solution by solid-phase extraction based on molecular imprinting technique using cross-linked chitosan/glutaraldehyde resin was investigated. L-Glutamic acid imprinted cross-linked chitosan (LGIC) was prepared by cross-linking of chitosan by glutaraldehyde cross-linker, in the presence of L-glutamic acid. Non-imprinted cross-linked chitosan (NIC) as control was also prepared by the same procedure in the absence of template molecules. The morphological structures of both LGIC and NIC were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). LGIC particles were applied to determine the optimum operational condition for l-glutamic acid separation from dilute aqueous solution. In adsorption step, optimum pH and retention time were 5.5 and 100 min, while corresponding values in extraction step were 2.5 and 60 min, respectively. The adsorption isotherms indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities of L- and D-glutamic acid on LGIC were 42+/-0.8 and 26+/-1.2mg/g, respectively, while in case of NIC, both L- and D-glutamic acid present the same maximum adsorption capacity 7+/-0.6 mg/g, which confirm that the molecular imprinting technique creates an enantioselectivity of LGIC toward L-glutamic acid. In addition, chiral resolution of l-, d-glutamic acid racemic mixture was carried out using column of LGIC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymer composites and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation and polymer-metal hybrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joonsung

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of composite materials and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation. High melting crystallizable diluents were mixed with polymers so that the phase separation would be induced by the solidification of the diluents upon cooling. Theoretical phase diagrams were calculated using Flory-Huggins solution thermodynamics which show good agreement with the experimental results. Porous materials were prepared by the extraction of the crystallized diluents after cooling the mixtures (hexamethylbenzene/polyethylene and pyrene/polyethylene). Anisotropic structures show strong dependence on the identity of the diluents and the composition of the mixtures. Anisotropic crystal growth of the diluents was studied in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics using DSC, optical microscopy and SEM. Microstructures of the porous materials were explained in terms of supercooling and dendritic solidification. Dual functionality of the crystallizable diluents for composite materials was evaluated using isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and compatible diluents that crystallize upon cooling. The selected diluents form homogeneous mixtures with iPP at high temperature and lower the viscosity (improved processability), which undergo phase separation upon cooling to form solid particles that function as a toughening agent at room temperature. Tensile properties and morphology of the composites showed that organic crystalline particles have the similar effect as rigid particles to increase toughness; de-wetting between the particle and iPP matrix occurs at the early stage of deformation, followed by unhindered plastic flow that consumes significant amount of fracture energy. The effect of the diluents, however, strongly depends on the identity of the diluents that interact with the iPP during solidification step, which was demonstrated by comparing tetrabromobisphenol-A and

  12. Post-polymerization photografting on methacrylate-based monoliths for separation of intact proteins and protein digests with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Rudy J; Wouters, Sam; Barcaru, Andrei; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; de Koning, Leo J; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Post-polymerization photografting is a versatile tool to alter the surface chemistry of organic-based monoliths so as to obtain desired stationary phase properties. In this study, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid was grafted to a hydrophobic poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith to create a strong cation exchange stationary phase. Both single-step and two-step photografting were addressed, and the effects of grafting conditions were assessed. An experimental design has been applied in an attempt to optimize three of the key parameters of the two-step photografting chemistry, i.e. the grafting time of the initiator, the monomer concentration and the monomer irradiation time. The photografted columns were implemented in a comprehensive two-dimensional column liquid chromatography ( (t) LC ×  (t) LC) workflow and applied for the separation of intact proteins and peptides. A baseline separation of 11 intact proteins was obtained within 20 min by implementing a gradient across a limited RP composition window in the second dimension. (t) LC ×  (t) LC with UV detection was used for the separation of cytochrome c digest, bovine serum insulin digest and a digest of a complex protein mixture. A semi-quantitative estimation of the occupation of separation space, the orthogonality, of the (t) LC ×  (t) LC system yielded 75%. The (t) LC ×  (t) LC setup was hyphenated to a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer instrument to identify the bovine serum insulin tryptic peptides and to demonstrate the compatibility with MS analysis.

  13. Preparative Separation of Spirobisnaphthalenes from Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was applied for the first time for the preparative separation of spirobisnaphthalenes from a crude extract of the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, associated with the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis. Six spirobisnaphthalenes were successfully separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-chloroform-methanol-water (1.5:3.0:2.5:2.0, v/v. About 18.0 mg of diepoxin k (1, 245.7 mg of palmarumycin C13 (2, 42.4 mg of palmarumycin C16 (3, 42.2 mg of palmarumycin C15 (4, 32.6 mg of diepoxin δ (5, and 22.3 mg of diepoxin γ (6 with purities of 56.82, 71.39, 76.57, 75.86, 91.01 and 82.48%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, were obtained from 500 mg of the crude extract in a one-step elution within 7 h of separation procedure by HSCCC. The purified spirobisnaphthalenes were further structurally characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  14. Preparation of electrospun Ag/TiO2 nanotubes with enhanced photocatalytic activity based on water/oil phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wei, Jinxin; Shi, Huimin; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zhengmei

    2017-02-01

    Ag/TiO2 composite nanotubes were prepared by electrospinning based on water/oil phase separation effect, their photocatalytic abilities were evaluated under the UV-visible light irradiation. Comparing with bare TiO2 nanofibers, Ag/TiO2 nanotubes exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities in the decomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes stems from the improved separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs induced by Ag and the high dyes absorption ability of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes; the high specific surface areas of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes with large amounts of active sites, speeding the photocatalytic activity up; the short diffusion path of photo-generated carriers caused by thin thickness of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes. The strategy, fabrication electrospun Ag/TiO2 hybrid nanotubes based on water/oil phase separation effect, is a one step, simple and versatile method, which can be easily expanded to the fabrication of other materials for photocatalysis, water splitting and energy conversion.

  15. Preparative separation and purification of bufadienolides from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jialian; Zhang, Yongqing, E-mail: fleiv@163.com [College of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Lin, Yunliang; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Geng, Yanling [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Qinde [Shandong College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Laiyang, Shandong (China)

    2013-09-01

    Eight bufadienolides were successfully isolated and purified from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with preparative HPLC (prep-HPLC). First, a stepwise elution mode of HSCCC with the solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:6, 4:6:5:5, v/v) was employed and four bufadienolides, two partially purified fractions were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract. The partially purified fractions III and VI were then further separated by prepHPLC, respectively, and another four bufadienolides were recovered. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra. (author)

  16. Preparative separation and purification of bufadienolides from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bufadienolides were successfully isolated and purified from ChanSu by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with preparative HPLC (prep-HPLC. First, a stepwise elution mode of HSCCC with the solvent system composed of petroleum ether - ethyl acetate - methanol - water (4:6:4:6, 4:6:5:5, v/v was employed and four bufadienolides, two partially purified fractions were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract. The partially purified fractions III and VI were then further separated by prep-HPLC, respectively, and another four bufadienolides were recovered. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS and ¹H-NMR spectra.

  17. Isotope separation method for preparing novel semiconductors, and semiconductor junctions containing the novel semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanica, M.M.; Ivascu, M.; Ilas, G.; Dumitru, I.

    1997-02-20

    An isotope separation method for use in the field of semiconductors is provided. The method is an improvement to the invention disclosed in OSIM patent application no. 95-01302 of 13.07.1995. Specifically, a method is provided for processing a semiconductor element having a cubic, rhombic or hexagonal crystalline structure and containing at least two stable isotopes, to enable the concentration of the various isotopes to be altered. The method comprises exposing the element to a temperature adjacent to its diffusion temperature, simultaneously applying to the element a 1 Amp., 4-30 KV electric current proportional to the ionisation energy expressed in Kcal/g mol, arranging the element being processed in a gaseous medium containing at least one inert gas to prevent oxidation of the element, and continuing the process for around 2 hours. An antimony (Sb) element with an isotope ratio of Sb 121 (P1,P2):Sb 123 (P3) = 1.70 is also provided. (author) figs.

  18. Hierarchical Porous Polymer Beads Prepared by Polymerization-induced Phase Separation and Emulsion-template in a Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cai Wang; Yan-xiong Pan; Kai Shi; Chao Peng; Xiang-ling Ji

    2014-01-01

    Porous polymer beads (PPBs) containing hierarchical bimodal pore structure with gigapores and meso-macropores were prepared by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) and emulsion-template technique in a glass capillary microfluidic device (GCMD).Fabrication procedure involved the preparation of water-in-oil emulsion by emulsifying aqueous solution into the monomer solution that contains porogen.The emulsion was added into the GCMD to fabricate the (water-in-oil)-in-water double emulsion droplets.The flow rate of the carrier continuous phase strongly influenced the formation mechanism and size of droplets.Formation mechanism transformed from dripping to jetting and size of droplets decreased from 550 μm to 250 μm with the increase in flow rate of the carrier continuous phase.The prepared droplets were initiated for polymerization by on-line UV-irradiation to form PPBs.The meso-macropores in these beads were generated by PIPS because of the presence ofporogen and gigapores obtained from the emulsion-template.The pore morphology and pore size distribution of the PPBs were investigated extensively by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP).New pore morphology was formed at the edge of the beads different from traditional theory because of different osmolarities between the water phase of the emulsion and the cartier continuous phase.The morphology and proportion of bimodal pore structure can be tuned by changing the kind and amount of porogen.

  19. Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic platinum-doped carbon aerogel catalyst for hydrogen isotope separation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Singh; R Singh; A Singh; D K Kohli; U Deshpande; P K Gupta

    2014-10-01

    We report preparation of hydrophobic platinum-doped carbon aerogel (PtCA) catalyst and its characterization for catalytic exchange reactions between hydrogen isotopes. The PtCA powder was synthesized by sol–gel polymerization method, mixed with colloidal PTFE solution, and coated on Dixon rings to obtain hydrophobic catalyst. The Pt cluster size in PtCA powder was observed to vary from 3 to 5 nm for a change in resorcinol to alkali molar ratio in synthesis solution from 20 to 200. Transmission electron microscopy of powder showed that the Pt clusters were uniformally dispersed and Pt0 metallic content estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was found to be of ∼ 70%. The catalytic activity was found to depend on Pt cluster size and was higher for smaller cluster size. For the smallest achieved Pt cluster size of 3 nm, catalytic activity of ∼ 0.8 m3 (STP) s-1 m-3 was obtained for hydrogen isotope exchange in atmospheric pressure conditions.

  20. Separation of digesta fractions complicates estimation of ileal digestibility using marker methods with Cr2O3 and Co-EDTA in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Pustjens, A.M.; Kabel, M.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marker methodologies to measure ileal and total tract digestibilities of diets varying in content and degradability of dietary fiber in broiler chickens were evaluated. Chromium sesquioxide (Cr2O3) and cobalt-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Co-EDTA) were used as markers of solid and soluble fracti

  1. Preparing for Advanced LIGO: A Star-Galaxy Separation Catalog for the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Kulkarni, M. K.; Cao, Y.; Laher, R. R.; Masci, F. J.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    The search for fast optical transients, such as the expected electromagnetic counterparts to binary neutron star mergers, is riddled with false positives (FPs) ranging from asteroids to stellar flares. While moving objects are readily rejected via image pairs separated by ˜1 hr, stellar flares represent a challenging foreground, significantly outnumbering rapidly evolving explosions. Identifying stellar sources close to and fainter than the transient detection limit can eliminate these FPs. Here, we present a method to reliably identify stars in deep co-adds of Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) imaging. Our machine-learning methodology utilizes the random forest (RF) algorithm, which is trained using > 3× {10}6 sources with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. When evaluated on an independent test set, the PTF RF model outperforms the SExtractor star classifier by ˜4%. For faint sources (r\\prime ≥slant 21 mag), which dominate the field population, the PTF RF model produces a ˜19% improvement over SExtractor. To avoid false negatives in the PTF transient-candidate stream, we adopt a conservative stellar classification threshold, corresponding to a galaxy misclassification rate of 0.005. Ultimately, ˜1.70× {10}8 objects are included in our PTF point-source catalog, of which only ˜106 are expected to be galaxies. We demonstrate that the PTF RF catalog reveals transients that otherwise would have been missed. To leverage its superior image quality, we additionally create an SDSS point-source catalog, which is also tuned to have a galaxy misclassification rate of 0.005. These catalogs have been incorporated into the PTF real-time pipelines to automatically reject stellar sources as non-extragalactic transients.

  2. Preparation of porous microsphere-scaffolds by electrohydrodynamic forming and thermally induced phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbar, Hanif; Luo, C.J.; Bakhshi, Poonam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Day, Richard [Division of Medicine, University College London, Rockefeller Building, 21 University Street, London, WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of forming technologies able to mass produce porous polymeric microspheres with diameters ranging from 150 to 300 μm is significant for some biomedical applications where tissue augmentation is required. Moreover, appropriate assembly of microspheres into scaffolds is an important challenge to enable direct usage of the as-formed structures in treatments. This work reports the production of poly (glycolic-co-lactic acid) and poly (ε-caprolactone) microspheres under ambient conditions using one-step electrohydrodynamic jetting (traditionally known as atomisation) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). To ensure robust production for practical uses, this work presents 12 comprehensive parametric mode mappings of the diameter distribution profiles of the microspheres obtained over a broad range of key processing parameters and correlating of this with the material parameters of 5 different polymer solutions of various concentrations. Poly (glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) in Dimethyl carbonate (DMC), a low toxicity solvent with moderate conductivity and low dielectric constant, generated microspheres within the targeted diameter range of 150–300 μm. The fabrication of the microspheres suitable for formation of the scaffold structure is achieved by changing the collection method from distilled water to liquid nitrogen and lyophilisation in a freeze dryer. Highlights: ► EHDA is a unique method for production of the desired size of microspheres. ► Polymer solution properties are used to tailor the size distribution of spheres. ► Process control parameters (flow rate and applied voltage) are key in size control. ► Combination of EHDA with TIPS provides porous microspheres for assembly of scaffold.

  3. [Study on Content Determination of Lead and Arsenic in Four Traditional Tibetan Medicine Prescription Preparations by Wet Digestion Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-yuan; Du, Yu-zhi; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Ming-jie; Li, Cen; Yang, Hong-xia; Zhao, Jing; Xia, Zheng-hua; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-04-01

    Four common traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations "Anzhijinghuasan, Dangzuo, Renqingchangjue and Rannasangpei" in tibetan areas were selected as study objects in the present study. The purpose was to try to establish a kind of wet digestion and flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HAAS) associated analysis method for the content determinations of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine under optimized digestion and measurement conditions and determine their contents accurately. Under these optimum operating conditions, experimental results were as follows. The detection limits for lead and arsenic were 0.067 and 0.012 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The quantification limits for lead and arsenic were 0.22 and 0.041 µg · mL(-1) respectively. The linear ranges for lead and arsenic were 25-1,600 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9995) and 12.5-800 ng · mL(-1) (r = 0.9994) respectively. The degrees of precision(RSD) for lead and arsenic were 2.0% and 3.2% respectively. The recovery rates for lead and arsenic were 98.00%-99.98% and 96.67%-99.87% respectively. The content determination results of lead and arsenic in four traditional tibetan medicine prescription preparations were as fol- lows. The contents of lead and arsenic in Anzhijinghuasan are 0.63-0.67 µg · g(-1) and 0.32-0.33 µg · g(-1) in Anzhijinghua- san, 42.92-43.36 µg · g(-1) and 24.67-25.87 µg · g(-1) in Dangzuo, 1,611. 39-1,631.36 µg · g(-1) and 926.76-956.52 µg- g(-1) in Renqing Changjue, and 1,102.28-1,119.127 µg-g(-1) and 509.96-516.87 µg · g(-1) in Rannasangpei, respectively. This study established a method for content determination of lead and arsenic in traditional tibetan medicine, and determined the content levels of lead and arsenic in four tibetan medicine-prescription preparations accurately. In addition, these results also provide the basis for the safe and effective use of those medicines in clinic.

  4. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  5. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  6. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  7. Complexation-Induced Phase Separation: Preparation of Metal-Rich Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco

    2017-08-01

    The majority of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes for industrial or medical applications are fabricated by phase inversion. Complexation induced phase separation (CIPS)—a surprising variation of this well-known process—allows direct fabrication of hybrid membranes in existing facilities. In the CIPS process, a first step forms the thin metal-rich selective layer of the membrane, and a succeeding step the porous support. Precipitation of the selective layer takes place in the same solvent used to dissolve the polymer and is induced by a small concentration of metal ions. These ions form metal-coordination-based crosslinks leading to the formation of a solid skin floating on top of the liquid polymer film. A subsequent precipitation in a nonsolvent bath leads to the formation of the porous support structure. Forming the dense layer and porous support by different mechanisms while maintaining the simplicity of a phase inversion process, results in unprecedented control over the final structure of the membrane. The thickness and morphology of the dense layer as well as the porosity of the support can be controlled over a wide range by manipulating simple process parameters. CIPS facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. The nature of the CIPS process facilitates a precise loading of a high concentration of metal ions that are located in only the top layer of the membrane. Moreover, these metal ions can be converted—during the membrane fabrication process—to nanoparticles or crystals. This simple method opens up fascinating possibilities for the fabrication of metal-rich polymeric membranes with a new set of properties. This dissertation describes the process in depth and explores promising

  8. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  9. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  10. Elemental modes of occurrence in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation techniques at a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Seidu, L.B.A.; Honaker, R.Q. [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Kyger, J.R.; Higgins, B.L.; Robertson, J.D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Pal, S.; Seehra, M.S. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({proportional_to} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  11. Effect of the dose of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparations on preingestive fiber hydrolysis, ruminal fermentation, and in vitro digestibility of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Adesogan, A T

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the dose rates of 5 Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE; 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) on in vitro digestibility, fermentation characteristics, and preingestive hydrolysis of bermudagrass haylage and to identify the optimal dose of each EFE for subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies. In experiment 1, EFE were diluted in citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 6) and applied in quadruplicate in each of 2 runs at 0× (control), 0.5×, 1×, 2×, and 3×; where 1× was the respective manufacturer-recommended dose (2.25, 2.25, 10, 15, and 15g of EFE/kg of dry matter). The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and for a further 24h at 39°C after the addition of ruminal fluid. In experiment 2, a similar approach to that in experiment 1 was used to evaluate simulated preingestive effects, except that sodium azide (0.02% wt/vol) was added to the EFE solution. The suspension was incubated for 24h at 25°C and then 15mL of water was added before filtration to extract water-soluble compounds. For both experiments, data for each enzyme were analyzed separately as a completely randomized block design with a model that included effects of EFE dose, run, and their interaction. In experiment 1, increasing the EFE dose rate nonlinearly increased the DM digestibility of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) of 1A, 2A, 11C, and 13D. Optimal doses of 1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D, as indicated by the greatest increases in NDFD at the lowest dose tested, were 2×, 2×, 1×, 0.5×, and 0.5×, respectively. Increasing the dose rate of 2A, 11C, and 13D nonlinearly increased concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and propionate (mM), decreased their acetate-to-propionate ratios and linearly decreased those of samples treated with 1A and 15D. In experiment 2, increasing the dose rate of each EFE nonlinearly decreased concentrations of netural detergent fiber; also, increasing

  12. Plasma, blood and liver tissue sample preparation methods for the separate quantification of liposomal-encapsulated prednisolone phosphate and non-encapsulated prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Evelien A W; Soetekouw, José A; Bakker, Peter F A; Baijens, Bart J H; Vromans, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Besides the development of sample preparation methods for the determination of separate liposomal-encapsulated prednisolone phosphate and non-encapsulated prednisolone concentrations in murine plasma and blood, this article also presents the first description of an accurate sample preparation method

  13. Separation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiping; Dong, Congcong; Wang, Kai; Jiang, Zedong; Chen, Yanhong; Yang, Yuanfan; Chen, Feng; Ni, Hui

    2016-09-01

    An effective high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was established for the preparative isolation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. With a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-acetone-ethanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v/v/v), 100mg crude extract of P. rhodozyma was separated to yield 20.6mg of astaxanthin at 92.0% purity. By further one step silica gel column chromatography, the purity reached 99.0%. The chemical structure of astaxanthin was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), UV spectroscopy scanning, high performance liquid chromatography with a ZORBAX SB-C18 column and a Waters Nova-pak C18 column, and ESI/MS/MS.

  14. Preparation of Freestanding GaN Wafers by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy with Void-Assisted Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yuichi; Eri, Takeshi; Shibata, Masatomo; Sunakawa, Haruo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Ichihashi, Toshinari; Usui, Akira

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a novel technique for preparing large-scale freestanding GaN wafers. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of thick GaN layer was performed on a GaN template with a thin TiN film on the top. After the cooling process of the HVPE growth, the thick GaN layer was easily separated from the template by the assistance of many voids generated around the TiN film. As a result, a freestanding GaN wafer was obtained. The wafer obtained had a diameter of 45 mm, and a mirror-like surface. The-full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of (0002) and (10\\bar{1}0) peaks in the X-ray rocking curve profile were 60 and 92 arcsec, respectively. The dislocation density was evaluated at 5× 106 cm-3 by etch pit density measurement.

  15. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braendli, Rahel C. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECOTOX), Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: thomas.bucheli@art.admin.ch; Kupper, Thomas [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mayer, Jochen [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Stadelmann, Franz X. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tarradellas, Joseph [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECOTOX), Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained st0010ab.

  16. Preparative separation of gallocatechin gallate from Camellia ptilophylla using macroporous resins followed by sephadex LH-20 column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Zhou, Xuelin; Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Yang, Xiaorong; Han, Xiaoqiang; Shi, Xianggang; Song, Xiaohong; Ye, Chuangxing; Ko, Chun-hay

    2016-02-01

    Gallocatechin gallate (GCG) possesses multiple potential biological activities. However, the content of GCG in traditional green tea is too low which limits its in-depth pharmacological research and application. In the present study, a simple, efficient and environment-friendly chromatographic separation method was developed for preparative enrichment and separation of GCG from cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) which contains high content of GCG. In the first step, the adsorption properties of selected resins were evaluated, and XAD-7HP resin was chosen by its adsorption and desorption properties for GCG. In order to maximize column efficiency for GCG collection, the operating parameters (e.g., flow rate, ethanol concentration, and bed height) were optimized. We found that the best combination was the feed concentration at 20mg/mL, flow rate at 0.75 BV/h and the ratio of diameter to bed heights as 1:12. Under these conditions, the purity of GCG was 45% with a recovery of 89%. In order to obtain pure target, a second step was established using column chromatography with sephadex LH-20 gel and 55% ethanol-water solution as eluent. After this step, the purity of the GCG was 91% with a recovery of 68% finally.

  17. Preparation of graphene oxide-manganese dioxide for highly efficient adsorption and separation of Th(IV)/U(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ning; Li, Long; Ding, Jie; Li, Shengke; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Xiangke; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-05-15

    Manganese dioxide decorated graphene oxide (GOM) was prepared via fixation of crystallographic MnO2 (α, γ) on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) and was explored as an adsorbent material for simultaneous removal of thorium/uranium ions from aqueous solutions. In single component systems (Th(IV) or U(VI)), the α-GOM2 (the weight ratio of GO/α-MnO2 of 2) exhibited higher maximum adsorption capacities toward both Th(IV) (497.5mg/g) and U(VI) (185.2 mg/g) than those of GO. In the binary component system (Th(IV)/U(VI)), the saturated adsorption capacity of Th(IV) (408.8 mg/g)/U(VI) (66.8 mg/g) on α-GOM2 was also higher than those on GO. Based on the analysis of various data, it was proposed that the adsorption process may involve four types of molecular interactions including coordination, electrostatic interaction, cation-pi interaction, and Lewis acid-base interaction between Th(IV)/U(VI) and α-GOM2. Finally, the Th(IV)/U(VI) ions on α-GOM2 can be separated by a two-stage desorption process with Na2CO3/EDTA. Those results displayed that the α-GOM2 may be utilized as an potential adsorbent for removing and separating Th(IV)/U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions.

  18. Preparation and investigation of the gas separation properties of polyurethane-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Morteza; Afarani, Hajar Taheri; Tarashi, Zohreh [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The effect of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the gas separation properties of polyurethane has been investigated. Polyurethane was synthesized using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as hard segment and poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG, 2,000 g/mol) as soft segment. The synthesized polymer was in a 1 : 2 : 1 molar ratio of polyol : diisocyanate : chain extender through bulk two-step polymerization. PU membranes were prepared by thermal phase inversion method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses characterized the prepared membranes. FTIR and SEM results indicate the good interaction between particles and polymer matrix and also the nanoscale dispersion of TiO{sub 2} particles in polymer matrix. Gas permeation properties of PU-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite membranes with TiO{sub 2} contents up to 30 wt% were studied for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} gases at 10 bar and 25 .deg. C. Results suggest a decrease in permeability of studied gases and increase in gas selectivities as TiO{sub 2} content increases.

  19. Preparative separation of sesamin and sesamolin from defatted sesame meal via centrifugal partition chromatography with consecutive sample injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Park, Chae Lee; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Young-Mi; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-02-01

    A preparative separation method using consecutive sample injection centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was developed to obtain sesamin and sesamolin from defatted sesame meal extracts. A two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:2:8:2, v/v) was applied in reversed-phase mode (descending mode). Preliminary experiments with an SCPC-100 (column volume: 100mL) were performed to select the appropriate two-phase solvent system and sample injection times; these parameters were then used with an SCPC-1000 (column volume: 1000mL) in a 10-fold scale-up preparative run. A sample containing 3g of crude extract was consecutively injected four times onto the SCPC-1000, which yielded 328mg of sesamin and 168mg of sesamolin. These compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and determined to have purities of 95.6% and 93.9%, respectively. Sesamin and sesamolin (30μM) increased antioxidant response element (ARE) luciferase activity 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively.

  20. Separation and determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica L. and its preparation by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqin; He, Xiaojun; Qi, Shengda; Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-05-03

    An easy, rapid method for simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in Strychnos nux-vomica L. and its preparation was developed by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) without pretreatment for the first time. Optimum separation was achieved with a fused-silica capillary column (50 cmx75 microm i.d.) and a running buffer containing 30 mM ammonium acetate, 1.0% acetic acid and 15% acetonitrile (ACN) in methanol medium. The applied voltage was 30.0 kV. The analytes were detected by UV at 214 nm. The effects of concentration of ammonium acetate, acetic acid and organic modifier on electrophoretic behavior of the analytes were studied. The established method with sophoridine as internal standard was linear in the range of 5-1000 mg/mL for both strychnine and brucine. The extracts of Strychnos nux-vomica and its preparation could be directly injected for determination with recoveries ranging from 94.5 to 104%.

  1. Prepared polymethacrylate-based monoliths for the separation of cations by non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel analytical system for non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography. Methacrylate monolithic columns were prepared from silanized fused-silica capillaries of 320 µm i.d. by in situ polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate in the presence of 1,4-butanediol, 1-propanol and water as the porogen solvents. The introduction of cation-exchange sites was achieved by sulfonating the matrix with sodium sulfite to produce total cation-exchange capacities in the range of 45-105 μequiv/mL for a 25 cm column. The conditions (concentrations of sodium sulfite solution, reacting time and modified flow rate) of sulfonation were optimized. The hydrodynamic and chromatographic performances were estimated. Coupled with a conductivity detector, a capillary ion chromatography system was set up with the prepared column. Finally, the resultant column was used for the separations of five common univalent cations (Li(+), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+) and Cs(+)) using methanesulfonic acid as the eluent and four divalent cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) by non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography; the chromatographic parameters were further researched.

  2. Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside a from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Di, Duolong; Bai, Qingqing; Li, Jintian; Chen, Zhenbin; Lou, Song; Ye, Helin

    2011-09-14

    Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were systematically investigated. Mixed-mode MARs were prepared by a physical blending method. By evaluation of the adsorption/desorption ratio and adsorption/desorption capacity of mixed-mode MARs with different proportions toward RA and ST, the mixed-mode MAR 18 was chosen as the optimum strategy. On the basis of the static tests, it was found that the experimental data fitted best to the pseudosecond-order kinetics and Temkin-Pyzhev isotherm. Furthermore, the dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were performed on the mini column packed with mixed-mode MAR 18. After one run treatment, the purity of rebaudioside A in purified product increased from 40.77 to 60.53%, with a yield rate of 38.73% (W/W), and that in residual product decreased from 40.77 to 36.17%, with a recovery yield of 57.61% (W/W). The total recovery yield reached 96.34% (W/W). The results showed that this method could be utilized in large-scale production of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides in industry.

  3. Preparation of a surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane for selective separation of molybdate anion from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianxian; Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Yuan

    2017-07-05

    A surface-grafted imprinted ceramic membrane (IIP-PVI/CM) for recognizing molybdate (Mo(VI)) anion was prepared by surface-initiated graft-polymerization. Firstly, raw alumina ceramic membrane (CM) was deposited with SiO2 active layer by situ hydrolysis deposition method. Subsequently, γ-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (MPS) was used as a coupling agent to introduce double bonds onto the SiO2 layer (MPS-CM). Then, 1-vinylimidazole (VI) was employed as a functional monomer to graft-polymerization onto the MPS-CM (PVI-CM). During the graft-polymerization, the influence factors of grafting degree of PVI were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions (monomer concentration 20wt%, temperature 70°C, initiator amount 1.1wt% and reaction time 8h), the grafting degree of 20.39g/100g was obtained. Further, Mo(VI) anion was used as a template to imprint in the PVI-CM by employing 1,6-dibromohexane as a cross-linking agent, and then Mo(VI) was removed, obtaining the IIP-PVI/CM with many imprinted cavities for Mo(VI). Thereafter, static adsorption and dynamic separation properties of IIP-PVI/CM for Mo(VI) were studied. Results indicate that IIP-PVI/CM shows a specific selectivity for Mo(VI) with the adsorption capacity of 0.69mmol/100g, and the selectivity coefficient of IIP-PVI/CM is 7.48 for molybdate to tungstate anions. During the dynamic separation, IIP-PVI/CM has also good selectivity for separation of Mo(VI) and W(VI) anions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  5. [Determination of 8 trace elements in mantle muscle and cuttlebone of Sepiella maindroni by ICP-MS using microwave digestion for sample preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Wen; Chi, Chang-Feng; He, Guang-Yuan; Xu, Mei-Ying

    2009-12-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of the contents of 8 trace elements in mantle muscle and cuttlebone of Sepiella maindroni after microwave digestion of the sample has been developed. Satisfactory linearity of working curves for the 8 elements was obtained, giving all their correlation coefficients over 0.997 3. The precision of measurement ranges from 2.4% to 8.7% in terms of relative standard deviation. The recoveries and the limits of detection are in the range of 96.5%-106.3% and 0.002-0.032 microg x L(-1), respectively. It was indicated that the proposed method had the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. The results showed that the mantle muscle and cuttlebone of Sepiella maindroni contained rich trace elements Zn and Cu, but the contents of Cd and As are higher than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and U.S. Food and Drug Standard. Furthermore, our study provides new scientific foundation for the quality control, culture, general application, resource utilization and exporting of Sepiella maindroni.

  6. Use of eutectic mixtures for preparation of monolithic carbons with CO₂-adsorption and gas-separation capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Salas, N; Jardim, E O; Silvestre-Albero, A; Gutiérrez, M C; Ferrer, M L; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F; Silvestre-Albero, J; del Monte, F

    2014-10-21

    With global warming becoming one of the main problems our society is facing nowadays, there is an urgent demand to develop materials suitable for CO2 storage as well as for gas separation. Within this context, hierarchical porous structures are of great interest for in-flow applications because of the desirable combination of an extensive internal reactive surface along narrow nanopores with facile molecular transport through broad "highways" leading to and from these pores. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been recently used in the synthesis of carbon monoliths exhibiting a bicontinuous porous structure composed of continuous macroporous channels and a continuous carbon network that contains a certain microporosity and provides considerable surface area. In this work, we have prepared two DESs for the preparation of two hierarchical carbon monoliths with different compositions (e.g., either nitrogen-doped or not) and structure. It is worth noting that DESs played a capital role in the synthesis of hierarchical carbon monoliths not only promoting the spinodal decomposition that governs the formation of the bicontinuous porous structure but also providing the precursors required to tailor the composition and the molecular sieve structure of the resulting carbons. We have studied the performance of these two carbons for CO2, N2, and CH4 adsorption in both monolithic and powdered form. We have also studied the selective adsorption of CO2 versus CH4 in equilibrium and dynamic conditions. We found that these materials combined a high CO2-sorption capacity besides an excellent CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity and, interestingly, this performance was preserved when processed in both monolithic and powdered form.

  7. New on-line separation workflow of microbial metabolites via hyphenation of analytical and preparative comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Wang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Liu, Xiu-Xiu; Chang, Fang-Rong; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-10-15

    Microbial metabolites represent an important source of bioactive natural products, but always exhibit diverse of chemical structures or complicated chemical composition with low active ingredients content. Traditional separation methods rely mainly on off-line combination of open-column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the multi-step and prolonged separation procedure might lead to exposure to oxygen and structural transformation of metabolites. In the present work, a new two-dimensional separation workflow for fast isolation and analysis of microbial metabolites from Chaetomium globosum SNSHI-5, a cytotoxic fungus derived from extreme environment. The advantage of this analytical comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) lies on its ability to analyze the composition of the metabolites, and to optimize the separation conditions for the preparative 2D-LC. Furthermore, gram scale preparative 2D-LC separation of the crude fungus extract could be performed on a medium-pressure liquid chromatograph×preparative high-performance liquid chromatography system, under the optimized condition. Interestingly, 12 cytochalasan derivatives, including two new compounds named cytoglobosin Ab (3) and isochaetoglobosin Db (8), were successfully obtained with high purity in a short period of time. The structures of the isolated metabolites were comprehensively characterized by HR ESI-MS and NMR. To be highlighted, this is the first report on the combination of analytical and preparative 2D-LC for the separation of microbial metabolites. The new workflow exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  8. Preparation of the Iron Oxide Red from the Converter Dust by the Magnetic Separation and Roasting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. J.; Li, S. Q.; Yang, C. Q.

    2017-05-01

    Preparation of iron oxide red (α-Fe2O3) from the converter dust by the superconductivity high gradient magnetic separation (S-HGMS) and roasting process was investigated in the paper. The basic properties of the dust were studied by the X Ray Fluorescence, the chemical analysis and the X Ray Diffraction methods. The results showed that the raw dust mainly contained elements of Fe‵O‵Si‵Ca, the iron content of the raw dust was 61.80%, and there were ferrous phases of Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3, Fe2(SiO4) and CaFe(Si2O6) in the raw dust. Under the optimum conditions of magnetic field intensity of 1.8T, the dispersion agent of 30mg/L and velocity of 500mL/min, the powders absorbed by the magnetic medium mainly contained Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3, and the iron content of powders absorbed was up to 65.90%. The Fe2+ content of the powders absorbed under the optimum magnetic conditions dropped to 0.25% from 19.10% after roasting of fifty minutes, and the iron content of powders absorbed under the optimum magnetic conditions fell to 64% due to oxidation, and the Fe3O4 was removed. Finally the α-Fe2O3 content was up to 91.07% in the iron oxide red.

  9. Use of beta-cyclodextrin in the capillary zone electrophoretic separation of the components of clandestine heroin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, M; Manetto, G; Mori, C; Papi, C; Di Pietro, N; Salotti, V; Bortolotti, F; Tagliaro, F

    2001-07-27

    The present paper describes the methodological optimization and validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the rapid determination of heroin, secondary products and additives present in clandestine heroin samples, by using 20 mM beta-cyclodextrins in phosphate buffer, pH 3.23. Applied potential was 15 kV and separation temperature was 24 degrees C; detection was by UV absorption at 200 nm wavelength. Heroin samples were first dissolved in CHCl3-MeOH (96:4, v/v) and injected by pressure (0.5 p.s.i., 3 s; 1 p.s.i.=6894.76 Pa) after evaporation of the organic mixture and reconstitution in aqueous buffer. Under the described conditions, phenylethylamine (internal standard), morphine, monoacetylmorphine, heroin, acetylcodeine, papaverine, codeine and narcotine were baseline resolved in less than 10 min. The limit of detection was better than 1 microg/ml for each analyte. The study of the intra-day and day-to-day precision showed, in terms of migration times, RSDs < or = 0.71% and, in terms of peak areas, RSDs < or = 3.2%. Also, the evaluation of linearity and analytical accuracy of the method provided good results for all the analytes investigated, thus allowing its application to real cases of seized controlled drug preparations.

  10. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Synthesis of. beta. -D-glucan in vitro: HPLC separation of oligosaccharides from enzymic digests of glucans synthesized by Golgi apparatus and UDP-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Anion exchange HPLC (Dionex) resolves {beta}-D-glucose oligosaccharides which vary in (1{yields}3) and (1{yields}4) linkage structure. The products from incubation of UDPG and cellular membranes from maize enriched for Golgi apparatus, ER, and plasma membrane are digested with glucan hydrolases specific for either (1{yields}3) or (1{yields}4) linkages and one which requires a specific (1{yields}3){beta}-D-glc-(1{yields}4){beta}-D-glc sequence. Two oligomers released by the latter enzyme are diagnostic of cereal grass mixed-linkage {beta}-D-glucan and are used as standards to examine reaction conditions for synthesis of this polymer with radioactive substrates. Our preliminary data indicate that formation of specific sequences of {beta}-D-glucan is increased by high concentrations of UDPG. Other radioactive oligomers are present in greater quantity than those from authentic mixed-linkage glucan and their linkage structure is now under investigation.

  12. Quantitative bottom-up proteomics depends on digestion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Liang, Yuxue; Phinney, Karen W; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-01-07

    Accurate quantification is a fundamental requirement in the fields of proteomics and biomarker discovery, and for clinical diagnostic assays. To demonstrate the extent of quantitative variability in measurable peptide concentrations due to differences among "typical" protein digestion protocols, the model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was subjected to enzymatic digestion using 12 different sample preparation methods, and separately, was examined through a comprehensive timecourse of trypsinolysis. A variety of digestion conditions were explored including differences in digestion time, denaturant, source of enzyme, sample cleanup, and denaturation temperature, among others. Timecourse experiments compared differences in relative peptide concentrations for tryptic digestions ranging from 15 min to 48 h. A predigested stable isotope-labeled ((15)N) form of the full-length (HSA) protein, expressed in yeast was spiked into all samples prior to LC-MS analysis to compare yields of numerous varieties of tryptic peptides. Relative quantification was achieved by normalization of integrated extracted ion chromatograms (XICs) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) on a triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS. Related peptide fragmentation transitions, and multiple peptide charge states, were monitored for validation of quantitative results. Results demonstrate that protein concentration was shown to be unequal to tryptic peptide concentrations for most peptides, including so-called "proteotypic" peptides. Peptide release during digestion displayed complex kinetics dependent on digestion conditions and, by inference, from denatured protein structure. Hydrolysis rates at tryptic cleavage sites were also shown to be affected by differences in nearest and next-nearest amino acid residues. The data suggesting nonstoichiometry of enzymatic protein digestions emphasizes the often overlooked difficulties for routine absolute

  13. Preparation of quaternary amine monolithic column for strong anion-exchange chromatography and its application to the separation of Enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huimin; Yin, Dezhong; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2016-10-15

    Large size virion is unable to diffuse into pores of conventional porous chromatography particles. Therefore, separation of virion by conventional column-packing materials is not quite efficient. To solve this problem, a monolithic column with large convective pores and quaternary amine groups was prepared and was applied to separate Enterovirus 71 (EV71, ≈5700-6000kDa). Cross-section, pore structure, hydrodynamic performance, adsorption property and dynamic binding capacity of prepared monolithic column were determined. Double-pore structures, macropore at 2472nm and mesopore at 5-60nm, were formed. The porosity was up to 63.3%, which enable higher permeability and lower back pressure of the monolithic column than commercial UNO™ Q1 column. Based on the breakthrough curves, the loading capacity of bovine serum albumin was calculated to be 42.0mg per column. In addition, prepared quaternary amine monolithic column was proved to be suitable for the separation of protein mixture by strong anion-exchange chromatography. As a practical application, prepared monolith column presents excellent performance to the separation of EV71 from virus-proteins mixture.

  14. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  15. Preparation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted well-controlled 3D skeletal monolith based on E-51 epoxy resin for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Peiyong; Shen, Ying; Qi, Li; Yang, Gengliang; Chen, Yi

    2011-08-15

    A novel type of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted E-51 epoxy-based monoliths in a 100 mm × 4.6mm I.D. stainless steel column with well-controlled three-dimensional skeletal structures has been prepared and proposed for the separation of proteins. The grafted PNIPAAm chain via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization was successfully performed. The proposed method provided a new route to modify the E-51 epoxy-based monoliths for widening their applications. Meanwhile, the temperature and the salt concentration responses of the grafted monolithic columns were investigated. Under the salt gradient, six proteins were well separated in hydrophobic interaction mode. Moreover, for further confirming the application of the prepared monolith was meaningful for proteome analysis in actual system, the separation of human serum sample was performed.

  16. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  17. Development of an efficient soymilk cream production method by papain digestion, heat treatment, and low-speed centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Naoki; Wu, Chang-Yu; Kim, Yoon-Kyung; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Abe, Keietsu

    2015-01-01

    We developed the simple method of soymilk cream production from the high-fat soymilk, which was prepared by papain digestion and heat treatment. As a result of the treatment, high-fat soymilk was aggregated and it became possible to separate soymilk cream as the surface fraction by low-speed centrifugation (6000 × g, 10 min).

  18. Performance evaluation of a non-woven lithium ion battery separator prepared through a paper-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2014-06-01

    Porous separator functions to electrically insulate the negative and positive electrodes yet communicate lithium ions between the two electrodes when infiltrated with a liquid electrolyte. The separator must fulfill numerous requirements (e.g. permeability, wettability, and thermal stability) in order to optimize the abuse tolerance and electrochemical performance of a battery. Non-woven mat separators have advantages such as high porosity and heat resistance. However, their applications in lithium ion batteries are very limited as their inadequate pore structures could cause accelerated battery performance degradation and even internal short. This work features the development of thermally stable non-woven composite separators using a low cost paper-making process. The composite separators offer significantly improved thermal dimensional stability and exhibit superior wettability by the liquid electrolyte compared to a conventional polypropylene separator. The open porous structures of the non-woven composite separators also resulted in high effective ionic conductivities. The electrochemical performance of the composite separators was tested in coin cells. Stable cycle performances and improved rate capabilities have been observed for the coin cells with these composite separators.

  19. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  20. Hoecodems technology in comparison with conventional separation processes for coal preparation; Die Hoecodems-Technologie im Vergleich zu konventionellen Sortierverfahren in der Steinkohlenaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, P. [Hoelter GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    The new Hoecodems technology is presented and compared with conventional separation processes in coal preparation. It is clearly shown that new preparation processes - including the Hoecodems technology - operate extremely economically in respect of the selected particle size range for the complementary separation processes. This applies particularly to the achievable Ep values. A comparison of the investment and operating costs drawn up for a new Polish coal preparation plant with a throughput of 1200 tph shows that, as a result of the compact plant construction possible with the application of the new preparation process incorporating Hoecodems technology, the investment costs only amount to around 85% and the operating costs only about 91% of those required for a conventional preparation plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die neue Hoecodems-Technologie wird vorgestellt und mit konventionellen Sortierverfahren in der Steinkohlenaufbereitung verglichen. Dabei wird herausgestellt, dass neue Aufbereitungsverfahren - zu denen auch die Hoecodems-Technik gehoert - im Hinblick auf den gewaehlten Korngroessenbereich der einander zugeordneten Sortierverfahren besonders wirtschaftlich arbeiten. Das gilt besonders fuer die erzielbaren Ep-Werte. Ein Investitions- und Betriebskostenvergleich fuer eine polnische Steinkohlenaufbereitungsanlage mit einem Durchsatz von 1200 t/h zeigt aufgrund der kompakten Bauweise bei Einsatz des neuen Aufbereitungsverfahrens einschliesslich der Hoecodems-Technologie, dass die Investitionskosten nur etwa 85% und die Betriebskosten nur etwa 91% einer konventionellen Aufbereitungsanlage betragen. (orig.)

  1. Solo but Not Separate: Preparing 21st-Century School Library Professionals Who Can "Go It Alone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Becky

    2011-01-01

    Preparing school librarians for a diverse array of 21st-century educational environments is a daunting task. Faculty in school library preparation programs send candidates out into sparsely populated rural areas, dense urban settings, and everything in between. Some candidates will provide services and resources in updated, modern facilities,…

  2. 大鼠胚胎来源肝干细胞分离纯化方法的比较%Comparison of mechanical separation and enzymatic digestion methods in isolating fetal hepatic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 叶章群; 陈志强; 王博涵; 刘冠林; 余虓; 郭辉; 夏丁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the number and viability of fetal hepatic stem cells isolated by mechanical separation and enzymatic digestion methods.Methods Two kinds of cell isolation methods,namely,mechanical separation procedure and enzymatic digestion method,were used to obtain hepatic stem cells from fetal liver tissues.The total number and viability of cells were compared.The isolated cells were identified by immunofluorescence.Results There was no significance in the number of cells obtained by combination of enzymatic digestion (63.36 ± 12.67) × 106 and mechanical procedure (57.49 ± 14.25)× 106 ( P > 0.05 ).But the survival rate by mechanical procedure ( 96.37 ± 0.82 ) % was significantly higher than that by combination of enzymatic digestion (93.53 ± 0.63 )%(P<0.05).Conclusion The fetal hepatic stem cells are of high viability by mechanical procedure.Mechanical procedure is a simple,economic and effective method to isolate fetal hepatic stem cells.%目的 观察比较机械分离法和酶消化法分离纯化孕鼠胚胎来源肝干细胞的优劣.方法 取孕13.5 d SD大鼠胚胎肝后分别用机械分离法和酶消化法分离纯化肝干细胞,比较两种方法所得细胞总量和存活率的差异,用免疫荧光染色法鉴定细胞,并比较原代培养前后肝干细胞存活率的变化.结果两种方法分离培养出的细胞形似卵圆形,经免疫荧光染色法检测表达干细胞标志物CD34和胆管细胞标志物CK19,机械分离法分离的肝干细胞数量(57.49±14.25)×106与酶消化法(63.36±12.67)× 106相当,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但机械分离法所得肝干细胞的存活率(96.37±0.82)%高于酶消化法(93.53±0.63)%(P<0.05),并且培养前后细胞存活率也明显高于酶消化法,两两比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 机械分离法是一种简单、经济、实用的胚胎来源肝干细胞分离纯化方法.

  3. Separation of water and oil by poly (acrylic acid)-coated stainless steel mesh prepared by radiation crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jung Woong; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Young Mook; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The stainless steel mesh coated with poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel was fabricated and applied for the separation of water and oil. The stainless steel mesh was immersed in aqueous poly (acrylic acid) solution, and then irradiated by radiation to introduce poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel on the surface of mesh by crosslinking. It was possible to separate oil and water from mixtures of oil/water effectively using the hydrogel-coated mesh. The effect of irradiation dose, coating thickness, size of mesh on the separation efficiency was examined.

  4. Preparative separation and purification of Rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts by mixed bed of macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Zhenbin; Di, Duolong

    2012-05-01

    The separation and purification of Rebaudioside A (RA) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts (Steviosides) by macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) mixed bed were systematically investigated. MAR mixed bed of HPD750-LSA40-LSA30-DS401 was selected due to its better separation degree. Based on the kinetics/thermodynamics experiment of the mixed bed, it was found that the experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model, and intra-particle diffusion was rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherm was consistent with IV equilibrium adsorption isotherm classified by Brunauer. Furthermore, the influencing factors for the separation of RA based on HPLC were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the separation degree for RA (DAS) increased from 0.771 to 1.54. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the purity of the obtained product increased from 60% to 97%.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns for separating polar small molecules by capillary liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren, E-mail: msfuh@scu.edu.tw

    2015-04-29

    Highlights: • Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to increase hydrophilicity of polymeric monoliths. • Fast separation of phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min using MAA-incorporated column. • Separations of aflatoxins and phenicol antibiotics were achieved using MAA-incorporated column. - Abstract: In this study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was incorporated with alkyl methacrylates to increase the hydrophilicity of the synthesized ethylene dimethacrylate-based (EDMA-based) monoliths for separating polar small molecules by capillary LC analysis. Different alkyl methacrylate–MAA ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% alkyl methacrylate–MAA–EDMA monoliths in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The porosity, permeability, and column efficiency of the synthesized MAA-incorporated monolithic columns were characterized. A mixture of phenol derivatives is employed to evaluate the applicability of using the prepared monolithic columns for separating small molecules. Fast separation of six phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min with gradient elution using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. In addition, the effect of acetonitrile content in mobile phase on retention factor and plate height as well as the plate height-flow velocity curves were also investigated to further examine the performance of the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. Moreover, the applicability of prepared polymer-based monolithic column for potential food safety applications was also demonstrated by analyzing five aflatoxins and three phenicol antibiotics using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column.

  6. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  7. Preparative separation of sulfur-containing diketopiperazines from marine fungus Cladosporium sp. using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-09

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  8. Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1 and cladosporin B (3, and a known compound haematocin (2 from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v and (2:1:2:1, v/v, in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  9. 自配消解液分光光度法测定污水中的COD%Determination of COD by spectrophotometry with self-prepared digestion solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 杨新萍; 周立祥

    2009-01-01

    以自配消解液代替ThermoFisher公司AQ4001COD测定系统的专用消解液,比较了自配消解液分光光度法与国家标准重铬酸钾法(GB 11914-1989)测定化学需氧量(COD)的差异.对比试验表明,自配消解液分光光度法测定COD的结果精确度和准确度高,与国家标准方法无显著性差异.自配消解液分光光度法测定水样COD值的相对标准偏差;低量程(30~150 mg/L)为1.38%~2.53%,中量程(0~1 500 mg/L)为0.47%~3.63%,高量程(2 000~15 000 mg/L)为0.17%~3.53%,在国家标准方法测试水样COD值的允许误差范围内.除制革废水外,自配消解液可以代替AQ4001COD测定系统的专用消解液,适用不同量程范围内污水COD的测定.自配消解液分光光度法具有试剂使用量少、速度快、经济、二次污染小等优点,值得在环境科学领域及废水水质监测中推广应用.%Determination of COD by spectrophotometry is performed by replacing the high-cost special digestion reagent of ThermoFisher's AQ4001COD system with the self-prepared digestion solution in the present study. The results showed that COD determination by spectrophotometry with self-prepared digestion solution exhibits a higher precision and accuracy. Furthermore, no significant differences for COD determination value are found between China national standard method (GB 11914-1989) and the above-mentioned spectrophotometry with self-prepared digestion solution . The standard deviation of COD determination values by spectrophotometry with self-prepared digestion solution varies from 1. 38% to 2. 53% for water sample with a lower COD concentration from 30 to 150 mg/L ,from 0. 47% to 3. 63% for water sample with a middle COD concentration ranged from 0 to 1 500 mg/L, and from 0. 17% to 3. 53% for water sample with a higher COD concentration of more than 3 000 mg/L. It is concluded that COD determination by spectrophotometry with self-prepared digestion solution is suitable to determine COD

  10. Separation of three anthraquinone glycosides including two isomers by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Denglang; Liu, Yongling; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Guoying; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf.

  11. Is microwave digestion using TFM vessels a suitable preparation method for Pt determination in biological samples by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Nadine; Eybe, Tanja; Zimmermann, Sonja; Sures, Bernd

    2009-03-02

    The occurrence of Pt in environmental matrices is increasing since the introduction of automobile catalytic converters. Given that Pt is bioavailable and causes biological effects in plants and animals, respective biomonitoring programs are in high demand. But the analytical methods for conducting such programs have not yet been sufficiently established. Therefore, a study was carried out to develop a microwave digestion of biological samples, which allows a rapid determination of Pt by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. A high pressure microwave system was used and the digestion was performed in HNO(3) and HCl. After digestion the HNO(3) was evaporated with a microwave assisted vacuum concentration set. The study resulted in a procedural detection limit of 37.5 ng L(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 18%. A recovery study resulted in a Pt loss below 5%. The microwave assisted evaporation of HNO(3) performed satisfactorily and up to 500 mL of the sample solution could be used for the voltammetric measurements without any effect on the peak heights. A direct comparison of Pt concentrations conducted after microwave digestion and digestion by high pressure ashing showed similar values. However, these promising results were not persistent throughout the repeated analysis using the same Teflon vessels. The vessels did not endure the harsh conditions and due to aging processes the Pt loss consistently increased until Pt determination in environmental relevant concentrations became impossible. Quartz vessels could not be employed as an alternative to the Teflon vessels, due to a lack of compatibility with the vacuum concentration system. Consequently, the results of this paper show that there is a need for further development of more resistant Teflon materials.

  12. PREPARATION OF MICROPOROUS ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE (UHMWPE) BY THERMALLY INDUCED PHASE SEPARATION OF A UHMWPE/LIQUID PARAFFIN MIXTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie Shen; Mao Peng; Fei Qiao; Jie-lai Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a microporous structure was prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS).Liquid paraffin (LP) was used as a diluent in the preparation of microporous UHMWPE.Small angle laser light scattering (SALLS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the phase separation temperatures,I.e.the cloud points and the dynamic crystallization temperatures,respectively.It was found that the cloud points were coincident with the crystallization temperatures,indicating that a solid-liquid phase separation occurred during thermal quenching of the UHMWPE/LP solution,while,no liquid-liquid phase separation above the crystallization temperature was observed.The effects of the content and the molecular weight of UHMWPE on the morphology and average pore size were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mercury porosimetry.With the increase of the content of UHMWPE,the average pore size of the microporous material decreased and the molecular weight of UHMWPE could also influence the pore size slightly.

  13. Target-guided separation of Bougainvillea glabra betacyanins by direct coupling of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerz, Gerold; Wybraniec, Sławomir; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-02

    In this study, preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography was directly coupled to an electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry device (IP-HSCCC/ESI-MS-MS) for target-guided fractionation of high molecular weight acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae). The direct identification of six principal acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins in the mass range between m/z 859 and m/z 1359 was achieved by positive ESI-MS ionization and gave access to the genuine pigment profile already during the proceeding of the preparative separation. Inclusively, all MS/MS-fragmentation data were provided during the chromatographic run for a complete analysis of substitution pattern. On-line purity evaluation of the recovered fractions is of high value in target-guided screening procedures and for immediate decisions about suitable fractions used for further structural analysis. The applied preparative hyphenation was shown to be a versatile screening method for on-line monitoring of countercurrent chromatographic separations of polar crude pigment extracts and also traced some minor concentrated compounds. For the separation of 760mg crude pigment extract the biphasic solvent system tert.-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 2:2:1:5 (v/v/v/v) was used with addition of ion-pair forming reagent trifluoroacetic acid. The preparative HSCCC-eluate had to be modified by post-column addition of a make-up solvent stream containing formic acid to reduce ion-suppression caused by trifluoroacetic acid and later significantly maximized response of ESI-MS/MS detection of target substances. A variable low-pressure split-unit guided a micro-eluate to the ESI-MS-interface for sensitive and direct on-line detection, and the major volume of the effluent stream was directed to the fraction collector for preparative sample recovery. The applied make-up solvent mixture significantly improved smoothness of the continuously

  14. Separation of haemopoietic cells for biochemical investigation. Preparation of erythroid and myeloid cells from human and laboratory-animal bone marrow and the separation of erythroblasts according to their state of maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F L; Beswick, T M; Chesterton, C J

    1981-03-15

    The separation of haemopoietic bone-marrow cells by centrifugation through discontinuous density gradients of Percoll is described. This method was used to prepare fractions enriched in erythroblasts, myeloid blast cells or reticulocytes from bone marrow of anaemic and non-anaemic rabbits, from the marrow of other anaemic laboratory animals and from human samples. It is a simple, rapid, reproducible and inexpensive technique that can be readily adapted to suit individual requirements. Secondly, a convenient method is presented for the separation of large quantities of bone-marrow cells into fractions enriched in erythroblasts at different stages of maturation, by velocity sedimentation through a linear gradient of 1-2% sucrose at unit gravity. In vitro, erythroblasts adhere together strongly via a mechanism almost certainly involving a beta-galactoside-specific surface lectin termed erythroid developmental agglutinin. Since the efficiency of cell-separation techniques depends heavily on the maintenance of a single cell suspension in which each unit can move independently, the presence of an adhesive molecule at the cell surface is of considerable significance. The effect of washing the marrow with a lactose-containing medium, which has been shown to remove the agglutinin, was therefore investigated in relation to both methods. The separation on Percoll gradients is considerably enhanced by this treatment. In addition, the unit-gravity sedimentation gradient can be loaded with 5-10 times more cells after lactose extraction in comparison with intact marrow. Although enrichment is less, a useful fractionation according to maturation is still obtained.

  15. Development of long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology - Preparation of ion exchanges for selective separation of radioactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Si Joong; Jeong, Hae In; Shim, Min Sook [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Ion exchanger contained nitrogen-oxygen donor macrocyclic units was synthesized, and immobilization process was carried out by adsorption of the exchanger to silica gel. The binding constants were measured with acid concentration. From the binding constants, selectivity for Pt(II) ion and acid concentration of eluents were determined. The most optimum conditions for the separation were also determined from investigating the effects of amount of immobile phase and column length. And liarit aza-crown ethers were synthesized and selectively separated Cs/Sr ion from mixed metal solution. 37= refs., 24 tabs., 40 figs. (author)

  16. Enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of racemic pharmaceuticals: a facile one-pot in situ preparation of lipase-based polymer monoliths in capillary format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    New affinity monolithic capillary columns of 150 µm internal diameter were prepared in situ fused glass capillary via either immobilization or encapsulation of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) on or within polymer monoliths, respectively. The immobilized lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 19.1% monomers (8.9% MMA and 10.2% GMA), 19.8% EDMA, and 61.1% porogens (54.2% formamide and 6.9% 1-propanol) w/w or 20% GMA, 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (51.6% cyclohexanol and 8.4% 1-dodecanol) in the presence of AIBN (1%) as a radical initiator. This was followed by pumping a solution of lipase through the capillaries and rinsing with potassium phosphate buffer. On the other hand, the encapsulated lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 20% monomers (GMA), 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (48% 1-propanol, 6% 1,4-butanediol) or 16.4% monomers (16% BuMA, 0.4% SPMA), 23.6% EDMA, and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol along with 6% lipase aqueous solution in potassium phosphate buffer. The prepared capillary columns were investigated for the enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of a set of different classes of racemic pharmaceuticals, namely, α- and β-blockers, antiinflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Run-to-run repeatability was quite satisfactory. The encapsulated lipase-based capillary monolith showed better enantioselective separations of most of the investigated compounds. Baseline separation was achieved for alprenolol, atenolol, bromoglutithimide, carbuterol, chloropheneramine, cizolertine carbinol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid, desmethylcizolertine, nomifensine, normetanephrine, and sulconazole under reversed phase chromatographic conditions. A speculation about the understanding of the chiral recognition mechanism of

  17. Preparation and Properties of Separator for Lithium-ion battery%锂离子二次电池用隔膜的制备及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任旭梅; 吴锋; 吴川; 李汉军; 黄学杰

    2001-01-01

    本文采用倒相法制备了锂离子二次电池用的PVDF-HFP共聚物型多孔聚合物隔膜,该聚合物膜具有良好的机械性能,其孔隙率可达75%,吸附电解液后增重450%,电导率为10-3 S/cm,组装成电池后表现出良好的循环性能和较低的极化率.%Lithium-ion batteries are well adapted to the new multimedia applications. PP/PE based microporous film is commonly used as separator in commercial lithium ion batteries. Here we report a microporous film which is superior to the commercial available separator. The microporous PVDF polymer separators were prepared by the phase inversion process. The pore size of the separator is  7 μm, and it's porosity is 75%. The membrane in LiPF6-EC/DEC showed high ionic conductivity (above 10-3 S/cm at room temperature), and good mechanical properties (103 kg/cm2). The half-cells consisted of Li/PVDF separator/MCMB showed excellent cycling characteristics and the stable discharge capacity is 302 mAh/g.

  18. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form

  19. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bakker, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  20. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  1. Vertical phase separation of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends prepared by electrostatic spray deposition for organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onojima, Norio; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Ayato

    2017-05-01

    Blend films composed of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). ESD is considered as an intermediate process between dry and wet processes since the solvent present in small droplets can almost be evaporated before arriving at the substrate. Post-drying treatments with the time-consuming evaporation of residual solvents can be omitted. However, it is still not clear that a vertically phase-separated structure can be formed in the ESD process since the vertical phase separation of the blend films is associated with the solvent evaporation. In this study, we fabricated bottom-gate, top-contact organic field-effect transistors based on the blend films prepared by ESD and the devices exhibited transistor behavior with small hysteresis. This result demonstrates that the vertical phase separation of a blend film (upper TIPS pentacene active layer/bottom PMMA gate insulator) can occur in the facile one-step ESD process.

  2. Well-defined functional mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids prepared by an ICAR ATRP technique integrated with bio-inspired polydopamine chemistry for lithium isotope separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuekun; Liu, Xuegang; Ye, Gang; Song, Yang; Liu, Fei; Huo, Xiaomei; Chen, Jing

    2017-05-09

    Mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids with well-preserved mesoporosity were prepared by integrating the initiators for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique with the bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. By manipulating the auto-oxidative polymerization of dopamine, uniform PDA layers were deposited on the surfaces and pore walls of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs), thereby promoting the immobilization of ATRP initiators. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were then grown from the OMSs by using the ICAR ATRP technique. The evolution of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids during synthesis, in terms of morphology, structure, surface and porous properties, was detailed. And, parameters influencing the controlled growth of polymer chains in the ICAR ATRP system were studied. Taking advantage of the abundant epoxy groups in the PGMA platform, post-functionalization of the mesoporous silica/polymer hybrids by the covalent attachment of macrocyclic ligands for the adsorptive separation of lithium isotopes was realized. Adsorption behavior of the functionalized hybrids toward lithium ions was fully investigated, highlighting the good selectivity, and effects of temperature, solvent and counter ions. The ability for lithium isotope separation was evaluated. A higher separation factor could be obtained in systems with softer counter anions and lower polarity solvents. More importantly, due to the versatility of the ICAR ATRP technique, combined with the non-surface specific PDA chemistry, the methodology established in this work would provide new opportunities for the preparation of advanced organic-inorganic porous hybrids for broadened applications.

  3. Effects of compound microbiological preparation on intestinal microflora and digestive function of Allogynogenetic crucian carp%复合微生态制剂对异育银鲫肠道菌群和消化机能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宦海琳; 丁丽; 周维仁; 闫俊书; 徐小明; 顾金

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of compound microbiological preparation an intestinal microflora and digestive function of Allogynogenetic crucian carp, three kinds of single probiotics preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 0.04% , 0.06% and 0. 08% , Lactobacillus aeidophilus at 0. 01% , 0. 02% and 0. 03% , and Bacillus subtilis at 0.01% , 0. 03% and 0. 05% were added into the feed and mixed for compound probiotics by L,(34) design. The results showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae had a significant effects on the number of intestinal Lactobacillus and Bacillus (P0. 05). Saccharomyces cerevisiae post the strongest effects on digestive enzyme and apparent digestibil-ity. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and apparent digestibilities of phosphorus and dry matter were significant ( P<0.01 or P<0.05). Proper collocation of three probiotics preparations could optimize the microbi-al ecosystem of intestine and promote the digestion and absorption of dietary nutrition. The better formula was the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.08% , Lactobacillus acidophilus0. 03% , and Bacillus subtilis 0.01 %.%为了研究复合微生态制剂对异育银鲫肠道菌群和消化机能的影响,在饲料中添加不同水平的酿酒酵母(0.04%、0.06%、0.08%)、嗜酸乳酸菌(0.01%、0.02%、0.03%)以及枯草芽孢杆菌(0.01%、0.03%、0.05%)3种益生菌制剂,采用L9(34)正交设计法配制成9种复合微生态制剂.结果表明,酿酒酵母对肠道乳酸菌和芽孢杆菌含量的影响达到极显著水平(P<0.01),枯草芽孢杆菌对肠道乳酸菌含量的影响达到显著水平(P<0.05).3种益生菌对大肠杆菌和气单胞菌含量的影响均显著(P<0.05).3种试验益生菌对异育银鲫前、中、后肠段的淀粉酶、脂肪酶及蛋白酶均有不同程度的影响,但差异不显著(P>0.05).酿酒酵母对肠道消化酶和营养物质表观消化率的影响最大,对磷表观消化率影响的极显著(P<0.01),对干物质

  4. Preparative separation of isovitexin and isoorientin from Patrinia villosa Juss by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinyong; Fan, Guorong; Hong, Zhanying; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Yutian

    2005-05-13

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3, v/v/v) was used to isolate and separate two C-glycosylflavones from Patrinia villosa Juss, a traditional Chinese medicine. The separation produced 42.9 mg isovitexin and 20.1 mg isoorientin with purities of 99.3% and 98.5%, respectively as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in one step elution from 250 mg crude extract, and identification was performed by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. It is the first report of discovering isovitexin and isoorientin from the plant of Patrinia genus.

  5. Nanoparticles of conjugated polymers prepared from phase-separated films of phospholipids and polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jungju; Kwag, Jungheon; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Joonhyuck; Lee, Yong Man; Lee, Yebin; Park, Jonghyup; Heo, Jung; Joo, Chulmin; Park, Tae Jung; Yoo, Pil J; Kim, Sungjee; Park, Juhyun

    2014-07-09

    Phase separation in films of phospholipids and conjugated polymers results in nanoassemblies because of a difference in the physicochemical properties between the hydrophobic polymers and the polar lipid heads, together with the comparable polymer side-chain lengths to lipid tail lengths, thus producing nanoparticles of conjugated polymers upon disassembly in aqueous media by the penetration of water into polar regions of the lipid heads.

  6. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip S. Brown; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work...

  7. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-03-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised.

  8. Mechanically durable, superoleophobic coatings prepared by layer-by-layer technique for anti-smudge and oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces are of interest for anti-fouling, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, low-drag, anti-fog, and oil-water separation applications. Current bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. A so-called layer-by-layer approach, involving charged species with electrostatic interactions between layers, can provide the flexibility needed to improve adhesion to the substrate while providing a low surface tension coating at the air interface. In this work, a polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and a fluorosurfactant are spray deposited separately to create a durable, superoleophobic coating. Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) polyelectrolyte was complexed with a fluorosurfactant layer (FL), which provides oil repellency while being hydrophilic. This oleophobic/superhydrophilic behavior was enhanced through the use of roughening with SiO2 particles resulting in a superoleophobic coating with hexadecane contact angles exceeding 155° and tilt angles of less than 4°. The coating is also superhydrophilic, which is desirable for oil-water separation applications. The durability of these coatings was examined through the use of micro- and macrowear experiments. These coatings currently display characteristics of transparency. Fabrication of these coatings via the layer-by-layer technique results in superoleophobic surfaces displaying improved durability compared to existing work where either the durability or the oil-repellency is compromised. PMID:25731716

  9. Preparative separation of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Xikai; Wang, Mei; Liu, Daicheng [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, Daijie; Lin, Xiaojing; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2013-09-01

    An efficient method for the rapid separation and purification of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography in combination with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully built. The crude ethanol extracts from dry artichoke were first pre-separated by polyamide column chromatography and divided in two parts as sample 1 and sample 2. Then, the samples were further separated by HSCCC and yielded 7.8 mg of chlorogenic acid (compound I), 24.5 mg of luteolin-7-O-{beta}-D-rutinoside (compound II), 18.4 mg of luteolin-7-O-{beta}-D-glucoside (compound III), and 33.4 mg of cynarin (compound IV) with purity levels of 92.0%, 98.2%, 98.5%, and 98.0%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  10. Preparative Separation of Alkaloids from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don Benn. by Conventional and pH-Zone-Refining Countercurrent Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC modes were compared by separation of major alkaloids from crude extract of Picrasma quassioides. The conventional HSCCC separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:4.5:5.5, v/v/v/v with 200 mg loading. pH-Zone-refining CCC was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–n-butanol–water (3:2:7:9, v/v/v/v where triethylamine (10 mM was added to the upper organic stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (5 mM was added to the lower aqueous phase with 2 g loading. From 2 g of crude extract, 87 mg of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one (a, 38 mg of 1-methoxy-β-carboline (b, 134 mg of 1-ethyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (c, 74 mg of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (d, 56 mg of 1-vinyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (e and 26 mg of 1-vinyl-4-dimethoxy-β-carboline (f were obtained with purities of over 97.0%. The results indicated that pH-zone-refining CCC is an excellent separations tool at the multigram level.

  11. Preparative Separation of Main Ustilaginoidins from Rice False Smut Balls by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ustilaginoidins are bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins isolated from the rice false smut balls (FSBs infected by the pathogen Villosiclava virens in rice spikelets on panicles. In order to obtain large amounts of pure ustilaginoidins to further evaluate their biological activities and functions, phytotoxicity on rice, security to human and animals as well as to accelerate their applications as pharmaceuticals, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully applied to the isolation and purification of seven bis-naphtho-γ-pyrone mycotoxins, namely ustilaginoidins A (1, G (2, B (3, H (4, I (5, C (6, and J (7 from the ethyl acetate crude extract of rice FSBs. Both 1 and 2 were prepared by HSCCC from the low-polarity fraction of the crude extract using the two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the volume ratio of 6.5:3.5:5.0:5.0. Similarly, 3, 4 and 5 were prepared from the medium-polarity fraction using the system at the volume ratio of 4.0:5.0:5.0:6.0, and 6 and 7 were prepared from the higher-polarity fraction using the system at volume ratio of 3.0:5.0:4.0:6.7. A total of 6.2 mg of 1, 5.1 mg of 2, 3.9 mg of 3, 1.2 mg of 4, 5.7 mg of 5, 3.5 mg of 6, and 6.1 mg of 7 with purities of 88%, 82%, 91%, 80%, 92%, 81% and 83%, respectively, were yielded from total 62 mg fraction samples in three independent HSCCC runs. The structures of the purified ustilaginoidins were characterized by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  12. Preparation of mixed molecularly imprinted polymer magnetic nanoparticles and its application in separation of Chinese traditional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yihui; Ma, Yajuan; Bai, Wenting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Liu, Min; Huang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    A mixed imprinted polymer which can rapidly adsorb all flavonoids from raspberry extract was prepared and recycled. The hybrid molecular surface imprinted polymers were prepared by using quercetin as the template molecule and Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres as the carrier. The molecular imprinting polymer was prepared by using the "initial template molecule, molecularly imprinted polymer, mixed template molecule, molecularly imprint ted polymers (MIPS)". The adsorption performance and durability of the hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated by using the fingerprints of the ethyl acetate fraction of raspberry as an index. The adsorption of flavonoids from raspberry extract, lindenoside, cis-lindenin, quercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids was completely adsorbed by mixed molecular-imprinted polymer, and the other components were basically adsorbed. When Mix-IMPs were repeatedly used 10 times, the fingerprints showed that the content and content of flavonoids were basically the same. The experimental results show that Mix-IMPs has good adsorption performance, can be recycled and used for rapid enrichment of flavonoids in raspberry.

  13. Preparative separation of C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dahui [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China); Shu, Xikai; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xi, Xingjun; Zheng, Zhenjia [China National institute of Standardization, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v). Mesaconitine (I), hypaconitine (II), and deoxyaconitine (III) were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. (author)

  14. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  15. Preparation of a hierarchically porous AlPO4 monolith via an epoxide-mediated sol–gel process accompanied by phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Li, Yang Zhu, Xingzhong Guo, Kazuki Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi Kanamori and Hui Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 with a macro–mesoporous structure has been successfully prepared via the sol–gel process accompanied by phase separation in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide (PEO. Gelation of the system has been mediated by propylene oxide (PO, while PEO induces a phase separation. The dried gel is amorphous, whereas the crystalline tridymite phase precipitates upon heating above 1000 °C. Heat treatment does not spoil the macroporous morphology of the AlPO4 monoliths. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements revealed that the skeletons of the dried gels possess a mesostructure with a median pore size of about 30 nm and a surface area as high as 120 m2 g−1. Hydrothermal treatment before heat treatment can increase the surface area to 282 m2 g−1.

  16. Preparation of a hierarchically porous AlPO4 monolith via an epoxide-mediated sol-gel process accompanied by phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Zhu, Yang; Guo, Xingzhong; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Yang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Monolithic aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) with a macro-mesoporous structure has been successfully prepared via the sol-gel process accompanied by phase separation in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Gelation of the system has been mediated by propylene oxide (PO), while PEO induces a phase separation. The dried gel is amorphous, whereas the crystalline tridymite phase precipitates upon heating above 1000 °C. Heat treatment does not spoil the macroporous morphology of the AlPO4 monoliths. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements revealed that the skeletons of the dried gels possess a mesostructure with a median pore size of about 30 nm and a surface area as high as 120 m2 g-1. Hydrothermal treatment before heat treatment can increase the surface area to 282 m2 g-1.

  17. Preparative separation of C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH‑zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v. Mesaconitine (I, hypaconitine (II, and deoxyaconitine (III were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and NMR.

  18. Preparation of a carbon molecular sieve and application to separation of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, J.L.; Jose, H.J.; Moreira, R.F.P.M. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry and Food Engineering

    2003-03-01

    The emission of CO{sub 2} from power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause of the accumulation of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The separation of CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}/air mixtures can play a key role in alleviating this problem. This separation can be carried out by using suitable adsorbents, such as carbon molecular sieves. In this work, a CMS was prepared by deposition of polyfurfuryl alcohol polymer on activated carbon. After deposition of the polymer, the material was carbonized at 800{sup o}C for 2 hours. This material was used to separate O-2/N-2 mixtures and CO{sub 2} in a fixed bed at room temperature. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained were fitted to theoretical models in order to establish the main mechanisms of mass transfer. The breakthrough curves showed that it is possible to separate O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The shape of the breakthrough curves was not influenced by the total flow, indicating that the gas contact for the gas mixture was good. The experimental data were fitted to theoretical models and it was established that the main mechanism of mass transfer was intraparticle diffusion.

  19. Rapid preparative separation of six bioactive compounds from Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. using microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinru; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Xinxin; He, Jiao; Sun, Wenji

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method combining microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for preparative separation of six bioactive compounds including loganic acid (I), isoorientin-4'-O-glucoside (II), 6'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl gentiopicroside (III), swertiamarin (IV), gentiopicroside (V), sweroside (VI) from traditional Tibetan medicine Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. MAE parameters were predicted by central composite design response surface methodology. That is, 5.0 g dried roots of G. crassicaulis were extracted with 50 mL 57.5% aqueous ethanol under 630 W for 3.39 min. The extract (gentian total glycosides) was separated by HSCCC with n-butanol/ethyl acetate/methanol/1% acetic acid water (7.5:0.5:0.5:3.5, v/v/v/v) using upper phase mobile in tail-to-head elution mode. 16.3, 8.8, 12., 25.1, 40.7, and 21.8 mg of compounds I-VI were obtained with high purities in one run from 500 mg of original sample. The purities and identities of separated components were confirmed using HPLC with photo diode array detection and quadrupole TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The study reveals that response surface methodology is convenient and highly predictive for optimizing extraction process, MAE coupled with HSCCC could be an expeditious method for extraction and separation of phytochemicals from ethnomedicine.

  20. Preparation of a carbon molecular sieve and application to separation of N2, O2 and CO2 in a fixed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 from power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause of the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The separation of CO2 from CO2/air mixtures can play a key role in alleviating this problem. This separation can be carried out by using suitable adsorbents, such as carbon molecular sieves. In this work, a CMS was prepared by deposition of polyfurfuryl alcohol polymer on activated carbon. After deposition of the polymer, the material was carbonized at 800masculineC for 2 hours. This material was used to separate O2/N2 mixtures and CO2 in a fixed bed at room temperature. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained were fitted to theoretical models in order to establish the main mechanisms of mass transfer. The breakthrough curves showed that it is possible to separate O2, N2 and CO2. The shape of the breakthrough curves was not influenced by the total flow, indicating that the gas contact for the gas mixture was good. The experimental data were fitted to theoretical models and it was established that the main mechanism of mass transfer was intraparticle diffusion.

  1. Coaching for Tests. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara

    The term "coaching" applies to a variety of types of test preparation programs which vary in length, instructional method, and content. Most research on the effectiveness of coaching has examined the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a measure of academic abilities used to predict college performance. This ERIC Digest reviews studies of…

  2. Preparation of PVDF/TiO_2 Electrospun Membranes and its Application as Separators for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Microporous PVDF-based membranes could be used as polymer matrix due to its good ionic conductivity and high electrochemical stability in the organic electrolyte[1,2].Fig.1 SEM image of PVDF/TiO2 membraneIt was reported that the ionic conductivity of microporous PVDF-based membranes could be improved by filling with Al2O3 nanoparticles[3].In this paper,electrospinning was employed to prepare microporous PVDF/TiO2 membranes and tetrabutyl titanate was used as original source of TiO2 to improve...

  3. Full scale demonstration plant for anaerobic digestion of sorted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikriszt, G.; Koehlin, S.-E.; Kaellersjoe, L. (BIOMET AB, Sundbyberg (SE)); Frostell, B. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    1992-01-01

    A possible future alternative for the treatment of organic material inmunicipal solid waste is anaerobic digestion at a TS concentration of around 10%. The results from a successful pilot plant experiment were reported. An existing 900 m{sup 3} full scale anaerobic digester for municipal sludge was reconstructed for digestion of a mixture of sorted municipal solid waste and municipal sludge. The reconstruction of the anaerobic digester system involved the installation of a novel milling stage for size reduction of incoming waste, removal of unsuitable materials, such as glass, metals etc and preparation of a feedstock with a TS concentration of 10%. The anaerobic digester has been equipped with a mechanical mixing system. The system also comprises an internal water recirculation system, allowing a minimal production of waste water for further treatment. The retrofitted digester was started in September 1991 and the milling station and the separation system in April 1992. During the demonstration operation, the interest is focused on the following key areas: May the succesful results in a 20 m{sup 3} pilot plant be realised also on a full scale Is it possible to solve potential accumulation problems Is the reliability and durability of the milling equipment chosen In the paper, the full scale plant is presented as well as initial results of operation. (au).

  4. 62Ni 同位素的分离制备%Separation and Preparation of 62 Ni Isotope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀艳; 米亚静; 曾自强; 李公亮; 屠锐

    2014-01-01

    微型核电池是目前航天器仪器、设备理想的电源。63 Ni是镍电池的核心工作物质。通过在反应堆中辐照高丰度的稳定同位素62 Ni ,能产生放射性同位素63 Ni。为保证62 Ni的丰度达到要求,本文开展了62 Ni同位素的分离制备研究,进行了磁场及束流输运计算,对离子源及接收器口袋进行了改进设计,制定了电磁分离法分离高丰度62 Ni的工艺流程。利用现有的电磁同位素分离器,开展了用电磁分离法分离高丰度、高纯度62 Ni稳定同位素的实验,最终获得了丰度≥90%的62 Ni同位素。%Micro nuclear battery is the perfect power of space craft equipment .63 Ni is the core operation material of the 63 Ni battery .It can produce radioisotope 63 Ni w hile high abundance 62 Ni is irradiated in the reactor .In order to meet the requirements of the abundance and the purity ,research of the separation for 62 Ni isotope was developed . The magnetic field and beam transmission status were simulated . The improvement designs of the ion source and the collector pocket were carried out .The process flow of high abundance 62 Ni using electromagnetic separation method was established . The experiment of 62 Ni isotope was developed by using electromagnetism isotope separator . The results show that the enrichment of 62 Ni isotope is more than 90% .

  5. Preparing and Digesting Megabase-size Nuclear DNA of Glycine soja Genome%野生大豆核基因组Mb级DNA的制备与酶切

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 李克秀; 赵洪锟; 董英山

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear DNA was extracted from etiolated seedlings of Glycine soja. Generally, the nuclei were embeded in lowmelting-point agarose pulgs, digested with proteinase K and depurated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis to yield about two Megabase-size DNA. The concentration of DNA solution could be up to 10 ng · μL-1 after partial digestion by Hind Ⅲ, elution by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, concentration and dialysis. The result of examination by ligation and eletroporation showed that the DNA obtained by the method was suitable for consequent construction of genomic library of Glycine soja.%以野生大豆黄化幼苗为材料提取其细胞核DNA,经LMP包埋并用蛋白酶K裂解其中的核蛋白后,采用脉冲电泳回收2 Mb左右细胞核DNA.用HindⅢ对回收细胞核DNA进行部分酶切并用脉冲电泳回收酶切后的DNA片段,经电洗脱、浓缩和透析后DNA溶液浓度可达10 ng·μL.连接转化检测结果表明:该DNA可用于后续野生大豆基因组可转化人工染色体(TAC)文库的构建和基因组分析.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  7. Physicochemical and electrochemical characterization of battery separator prepared by radiation induced grafting of acrylic acid onto microporous polypropylene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutual radiation grafting technique was used to graft acrylic acid on micrometer thick micro-porous polypropylene membrane using high-energy gamma radiation. Grafting could not be achieved in aqueous acrylic acid solution. The presence of Mohr’s salt effectively retarded the homopolymerization of acrylic acid but did not lead to grafting enhancement. Mohr’s salt in presence of acids was found to be effective in enhancing the grafting yield. Contact angle measurement studies of the grafted and radiation treated polypropylene showed that initial grafting as well as radiation treatment of poly(propylene in aqueous medium and in presence of Mohr’s salt enhances its affinity towards the grafting solution. The enhancement in the polar component of surface energy of treated polypropylene membrane is the primary cause of grafting enhancement. The membranes grafted to an extent of ~20% were found to perform comparably with the battery separator presently being used by battery industry.

  8. Separation of Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide in Waste Water with Ion Exchange Using Activated Carbon Prepared by Bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    Activated carbon is prepared by bamboo for the selective recovery of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), contained in waste water from semiconductive industry, at the end of pipe of the plant. The adsorption ability of the activated carbon from bamboo (BAC) is comparable to the commercial activated carbons. The adsorption of TMAH with BAC in batchwise system increases with increase in pH value of the aqueous solution, and the effective adsorption and elution yield is also obtained in column system. Quantitative adsorption-elution processing can be achieved with the present BAC, and thus indicating the BAC is effective material as the adsorbent of TMAH at the end of pipe of the plant.

  9. Chromatographic separation of piracetam and its metabolite in a mixture of microsomal preparations, followed by an MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kapendra; Siddiqui, Anees A; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Niyaz; Anwar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-07-01

    A rapid bioanalytical method was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of piracetam and its metabolite (M1) in human microsomal preparations by fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In addition, a validated method of M1 in rat plasma was developed and successfully applied on pharmacokinetic studies. The present study was carried out to determine the metabolic pathways of piracetam for phase I metabolism and used cytochrome P450 isoforms responsible for the piracetam metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). While additional potential metabolites of piracetam were suggested by computer-modeling. The resulting 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) acetic acid was the sole metabolite detected after the microsomal treatment. The amide hydrolysis mainly underwent to form a metabolite i.e., 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) acetic acid (M1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of zirconium oxy ion-imprinted particle for the selective separation of trace zirconium ion from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yueming; Liu, Pingxin; Liu, Xiaoli; Feng, Jing; Fan, Zhuangjun; Luan, Tianzhu

    2014-10-01

    Zr(IV) oxy ion-imprinted particle (Zr-IIP) was prepared using the metal ion imprinting technique in a sol-gel process on the surface of amino-silica. The dosages of zirconium ions as imprinted target, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) as a functional monomer and teraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a cross-linker were optimized. The prepared Zr-IIP and Zr(IV) oxy ion non-imprinted particle (Zr-NIP) were characterized. pH effect, binding ability and the selectivity were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Zr-IIP had an excellent binding capacity and selectivity in the water. The equilibrium data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir model for Zr(IV) binding onto Zr-IIP, respectively. The saturate binding capacity of Zr-IIP was found to be 196.08 μmol g(-1), which was 18 times higher than that of Zr-NIP. The sequence of binding efficiency of Zr-IIP for various ions was Zr(IV)>Cu(II)>Sb(III)>Eu(III). The coordination number has an important effect on the dimensional binding capacity. The equilibrium binding capacity of Zr-IIP for Zr(IV) decreased little under various concentrations of Pb(II) ions. The analysis of relative selectivity coefficient (Kr) indicated that the Zr-IIP had an appreciable binding specificity towards Zr(IV) although the competitive ions coexisted in the water. The Zr-IIP could serve as an efficient selective material for recovering or removing zirconium from the water environment.

  11. Comparison Of The Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Separated From Placenta With Different Digest Way%比较不同消化方式获得的胎盘间充质干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章毅; 洪艳; 陆瑶; 霍思维

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,mesenchymal stem cells(Mesenchymal stem cell,MSC)has become a hot research topic in the field of stem cell,it not only support the hematopoietic system,but also in the cultivation of the specific conditions to a variety of tissue cells differentiatio.It is easily to obtain MSC from placenta.Comparison of the characters of the mesenchymal stem cells that separated from human placenta with different enzymes.Detached the amniotic membrane of placenta surface.Shearing human chorionic and human chorionic trophoblastic respectively of the fetal side.After mechanical crushing respectively with collagenase II digestion to separate mononuclear cells.With DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum in 37℃ and 5% CO2,95% saturated humidity,after 48 hours the full amount in liquid,dislodge suspension cells,to add fresh medium.When cell fusion to about 90%,using trypsin digestion for cell batches.Through Comparison the total number of primary cell,pictorial record of the subsequent growth,and by flow cytometry to measure the surface marker:positive rate of CD90,CD73,CD105 to Compare the biological characters of the mesenchymal stem cells that separated with different enzymes.The mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis,to identify the cell biological characteristics of stem cells.Share the same digestion time,enzyme concentration,shaking table speed,you can get more cells with the type II collagen enzyme.Cell growth situation is relatively better than type IV collagen enzyme.If come up from the cost compare type II collagen enzyme relatively low cost,so we can select type II collagen enzyme in the production and experiments.%近年来,间充质干细胞(mesenchymal stem cells,MSCs)已成为干细胞领域的研究热点,其不仅支持造血系统,还可在特定的培养条件下向多种组织细胞分化。人胎盘来源的MSC取材容易。该研究比较不同的组织消化

  12. Separation of four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal using aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Shao, Qian; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal. In the aqueous two-phase flotation section, the effects of sublation solvent, solution pH, (NH4 )2 SO4 concentration in aqueous solution, cosolvent, N2 flow rate, flotation time, and volumes of the polyethylene glycol phase on the recovery were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were selected: 50 wt% polyethylene glycol 1000 ethanol solvent as the flotation solvent, pH 4, 350 g/L of (NH4 )2 SO4 concentration in aqueous phase, 40 mL/min of N2 flow rate, 30 min of flotation time, 10.0 mL of flotation solvent volume, and two times. After aqueous two-phase flotation concentration, the flotation products were purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The purities of the final products A and B were 98.1 and 99.0%. Product B was the mixture of three compounds based on the analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography at the temperature of 10°C, while product A was hyperoside after the identification by nuclear magnetic resonance. Astragalin, 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, and 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were obtained with the purity of 93.8, 97.1, and 99.2%, respectively, after the further separation of product B using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

  13. Plasma treatment of hydrophobic sub-layers to prepare uniform multi-layered films and high-performance gas separation membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiuxiu; Kanezashi, Masakoto; Nagasawa, Hiroki; Tsuru, Toshinori, E-mail: tsuru@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • TEOS and BTESE films were improved by coating sols on plasma-treated Me-SiO{sub 2} films. • BTESO sols were well coated on Me-SiO{sub 2} films with and without plasma treatment. • The gas performance of BTESE/Me-SiO{sub 2} membrane was improved with plasma treatment. - Abstract: Uniform and defect-free silica films were prepared by spin-coating silica sols on plasma-treated hydrophobic sub-layers. Three kinds of silica films were prepared using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and bis(triethoxysily)octane (BTESO) via sol–gel method. First, hydrophobic sub-layers were pre-coated on silicon wafers with Me-SiO{sub 2} sols prepared from mixtures of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and TEOS. After firing at 400 °C, the films showed water contact angles of 120°. Then TEOS- and BTESE-derived sols were directly spin-coated on the Me-SiO{sub 2} films, resulting in separated and scattered coatings. A H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} plasma modification method was used to change the properties of the Me-SiO{sub 2} films from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity without damaging either the surface morphology or the bulk chemistry. After the treatment, the TEOS- and BTESE-derived sols formed homogenous films. On the other hand, the Me-SiO{sub 2} films were fully coated with BTESO either with or without plasma treatment. This was probably due to both the polar (–OH) and non-polar (long –CH{sub 2}) portions of the BTESO-derived sols. For gas separation applications, the corresponding BTESE membranes showed great improvement in gas selectivity after the plasma treatment of hydrophobic Me-SiO{sub 2} layers.

  14. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/SiO2 composite membranes prepared by electrospinning and their excellent properties for nonwoven separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Xilan; Cao, Chuanbao; Li, Jili; Zhu, Youqi

    2014-04-01

    PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes exhibiting high safety (thermal stability), high ionic conductivity and excellent electrochemical performances are firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) homopolymer and silicon dioxide (SiO2) sol synchronously for the separators of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and hot oven tests show that the PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes are thermally stable at a high temperature of 400 °C while the commercial Celgard 2400 PP membrane exhibits great shrinkage at 130 °C, indicating a superior thermal stability of PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes than that of Celgard membrane. Moreover, the composite membrane exhibits fairly high ionic conductivity (7.47 × 10-3 S cm-1) that significantly improves the performance of LIBs. The PVdF/SiO2 composite membranes are also evaluated to have higher level of porosity (75-85%) and electrolyte uptake (571-646 wt%), lower interfacial resistance compared to the Celgard separator. The lithium-ion cell (using LiFePO4 cathode) assembled with the composite membrane exhibits more stable cycle performance, higher discharge capacity (159 mAh g-1) and excellent capacity retention which proves that they are promising candidates for separators of high performance rechargeable LIBs.

  15. A New Technique for Preparation of High-Grade Titanium Slag from Titanomagnetite Concentrate by Reduction-Melting-Magnetic Separation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Yang, Kun; Wen, Shu-ming; Bai, Shao-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for preparation of high-grade titanium slag from Panzhihua vanadium titanomagnetite concentrate by reduction-melting-magnetic separation processing. Chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to characterize the samples. The effective separation of iron and titanium slag could be realized by melting metallized pellets at 1550°C for 60 min with the addition of 1% CaO (basicity of 1.1) and 2% graphite powder. The small iron particles embedded in the slag could be removed by fine grinding and magnetic separation process. The grade of TiO2 in the obtained high-grade titanium slag reached 60.68% and the total recovery of TiO2 was 91.25%, which could be directly applied for producing titanium white by the sulfuric acid process. This technique provides an alternative method to use vanadium titanomagnetite concentrate of the Panzhihua area in China.

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of novel ternary ZnO/AgI/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as magnetically separable visible-light-driven photocatalysts with excellent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekofteh-Gohari, Maryam; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of novel ternary ZnO/AgI/Fe3O4 nanocomposites, as magnetically separable visible-light-driven photocatalysts using ultrasonic irradiation method. The XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, and VSM techniques was applied for characterization of structure, purity, morphology, optical, and magnetic properties of the resultant samples. The superior activity was seen for the nanocomposite with 8 weight ratio of ZnO/AgI to Fe3O4 in degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange is about 32, 6, and 5-fold higher than that of the ZnO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The highly enhanced activity of the ternary magnetic photocatalyst was mainly attributed to more visible-light absorption ability and efficiently separation of the charge carriers. Furthermore, it was revealed that the ultrasonic irradiation time and calcination temperature affect largely on the photocatalytic activity. Finally, the magnetic photocatalyst was successfully separated from the treated solution using external magnetic field.

  17. Liquid-phase non-thermal plasma-prepared N-doped TiO(2) for azo dye degradation with the catalyst separation system by ceramic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hui; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Tseng, Wei-Lun; Wang, Yi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    This study strived to improve the photocatalytic activity by using liquid-phase non-thermal plasma (LPNTP) technology for preparing N-doping TiO(2) as well as to separate/recover the N-dope TiO(2) particles by using ceramic ultrafiltration membrane process. The yellow color N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts, obtained through the LPNTP process, were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The UV-Vis spectrum of N-doped TiO(2) showed that the absorption band was shifted to 439 nm and the band gap was reduced to 2.82 eV. The structure analysis of XRD spectra showed that the peak positions and the crystal structure remained unchanged as anatase after plasma-treating at 13.5 W for 40 min. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2) was evaluated by azo dyes under visible light, and 63% of them was degraded after 16 hours in a continuous-flow photocatalytic system. For membrane separation/recover system, the recovery efficiency reached 99.5% after the ultrafiltration had been carried out for 90 min, and the result indicated that the photocatalyst was able to be separated/recovered completely.

  18. Complexation induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer thin dense skin loaded with metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco

    2015-04-21

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  19. Complexation-induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer-thin dense skin loaded with metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-05-13

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  20. Antifungal activity of magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolghasem Hoseinzadeh; Aziz Habibi-Yangjeh; Mahdi Davari

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites with different weight ra-tios of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method. The resultant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission elec-tron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM). Antifungal activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum as two phytopathogenic fungi. Among the nanocomposites, the sample with 1:8 weight ratio of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr was selected as the best nanocomposite. This nanocomposite in-activates Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum at 120 and 60 min, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the microwave irradiation time has considerable influence on the antifungal activity and the sample prepared by irradiation for 10 min showed the best activity. Moreover, the nano-composite without any thermal treatment displayed the superior activity.

  1. Antifungal activity of magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hoseinzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, magnetically separable Fe3O4/ZnO/AgBr nanocomposites with different weight ratios of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted method. The resultant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX, and vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM. Antifungal activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum as two phytopathogenic fungi. Among the nanocomposites, the sample with 1:8 weight ratio of Fe3O4 to ZnO/AgBr was selected as the best nanocomposite. This nanocomposite inactivates Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum at 120 and 60 min, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that the microwave irradiation time has considerable influence on the antifungal activity and the sample prepared by irradiation for 10 min showed the best activity. Moreover, the nanocomposite without any thermal treatment displayed the superior activity.

  2. Preparation and characterization of poly(triallyl isocyanurate-co-trimethylolpropane triacrylate) monolith and its applications in the separation of small molecules by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Hao, Mengbei; Li, Ruo; Bai, Ligai; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-03-14

    A new polymeric monolith was prepared in stainless-steel column and fused-silica capillary, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization technique. In the polymerization, triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) was used as the functional monomer; trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) as the crosslinking agent; polyethylene glycol 200 and 1,2-propanediol as the co-porogens; carbon tetrachloride as the initiator and ferrous chloride as the catalyst. The conditions of polymerization were optimized. Morphology of the prepared poly(TAIC-co-TMPTA) monolith was investigated by scanning electron microscopy; pore properties were assayed by mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. The characterization indicated that the prepared reversed-phase monolith possessed uniform structure, good permeability and mechanical stability. The column was used as the stationary phase of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) to separate the mixture of aromatic compounds. The new column performed around 125,000 theoretical plates per meter. The column showed good reproducibility: the relative standard deviation values of the retention factor values for aromatic compounds were less than 1.52% (n=7, column-to-column).

  3. Preparation and characterization of polysulfone affinity membranes bearing a synthetic peptide ligand for the separation of murine immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Cristiana; Algeri, Cristian; Sarti, Giulio C

    2008-01-01

    Affinity membranes have been prepared by immobilizing D-PAM, a synthetic ligand that exhibits affinity for the Fc portion of antibodies, onto poliethersulfone microporous membranes. The ligand density has been measured and the ligand utilization was evaluated and compared with literature data available for chromatographic beads. The resulting new affinity membranes have been experimentally characterized and tested by using pure murine IgG solutions and mouse serum. Equilibrium and kinetic parameters have been obtained in batch experiments using pure protein solutions. The highest binding capacity measured for murine IgG was 45 microg/cm(2) obtained at 1.2 mg/mL protein concentration at equilibrium, while the maximum static binding capacity calculated with the Langmuir model was 81 microg/cm(2). The adsorption of murine IgG on the affinity membranes was described using different isotherms: Freundlich and Temkin models have been considered and critically compared with the Langmuir adsorption model. A dynamic binding capacity of 21 microg/cm(2) was obtained by feeding a solution of 0.3 mg/mL of murine IgG, confirming the results obtained in batch experiments at the same concentration. The affinity membranes considered are endowed with good binding capacity for murine IgG and good selectivity for immunoglobulins and can be considered for the capturing step of an antibody production process.

  4. Preparative separation of six antimycin A components from antimycin fermentation broth by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyan; Wen, Yaoming; Chen, Xiuming; Lin, Yuhan; Zhou, Jingming; Xie, Ying; Wang, Huaiwang; Jiang, Hong; Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-03

    A method of using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established for preparative isolation and purification of antimycin A components from antimycin fermentation broth. Six antimycin A components were successfully purified for the first time by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:2:4:1, by volume). Total of 20mg antimycin A(4)(a or b), 25mg antimycin A(3)(a or b), 21mg antimycin A(8)(a or b), 34mg antimycin A(2)(a or b), 26mg antimycin A(1)(a or b) and 34mg antimycin A(1)(a or b) with the purities of 93.2, 98.6, 96.2, 94.1, 94.9 and 96.7%, respectively, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were yielded from 200mg crude sample only in one HSCCC run. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW...

  6. Use of multiresponse statistical techniques to optimize the separation of diosmin, hesperidin, diosmetin and hesperitin in different pharmaceutical preparations by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammani, Mohamad Subhi; Clavijo, Sabrina; Portugal, Lindomar; Suárez, Ruth; Seddik, Hassan; Cerdà, Víctor

    2017-05-15

    A new method for the separation and determination of four flavonoids: hesperidin (HES), diosmin (DIO), hesperitin (HTIN), and diosmetin (DTIN) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-DAD detection. Multivariate statistics (2(k) full factorial and Box Behnken Designs) has been used for the multiresponse optimization of the chromatographic separation, which was completed in 22min, and carried out on a symmetry® C18 column (250×3mm; 5µm) as stationary phase. Separation was conducted by gradient elution mode using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water pH: 2.5 (CH3COOH), as mobile phase. Analytes were separated setting the column at 22°C, with a flow rate of 0.58mLmin(-1) and detected at 285nm. Under the optimized conditions, the flavonoids showed retention times of: 8.62, 11.53, 18.55 and 19.94min for HES, DIO, HTIN and DTIN, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification were <0.0156µgmL(-1) and <0.100µgmL(-1), respectively. Linearity was achieved with good correlation coefficients values (r(2)=0.999; n=5). Intra-day and inter-day precision were found to be less than 3.44% (n=7). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine the target flavonoids in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory recoveries (between 95.2% and 107.9%), demonstrating that should also find application in the quality control, as well as in the pharmacokinetic studies of these drugs.

  7. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Application of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation and separation of schizandrin and gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinyong; Fan, Guorong; Qu, Liping; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Yutian

    2005-08-05

    Following an initial cleaning-up step on the D101 macroporous resin, a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.9:0.9:1, v/v) was used to isolate and separate schizandrin and gomisin A from Schisandra chinensis. A total of 107 mg schizandrin and 36 mg gomisin A with purities of 99.5% and 99.1% were obtained from 400 mg crude extract in one-step elution and less than 3 h, and the structure identification was performed by UV, IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  9. 多孔陶瓷分离膜支撑体的制备%Preparation of Porous Ceramic Separation Membrane Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚会; 汪建根

    2012-01-01

    采用氧化铝为主要原料制备出多孔陶瓷分离膜支撑体,对原料粉体做了TG/DSC曲线分析.研究了支撑体的烧结温度对收缩率的影响;烧结温度、保温时间和原料粉体粒径对孔结构、孔径的影响;造孔剂用量对孔隙率的影响.结果表明:在烧结温度1 200℃,保温时间4h,造孔剂用量(即造孔剂质量占原料总质量的百分数,下同)大于20%的条件下,制备出孔径分布均匀,孔隙率大于50%,符合透水要求的多孔陶瓷分离膜支撑体.%Porous ceramic separation membrane supports are prepared using alumina fine as the main raw materials, and the TG/DSC curves of the powder of raw materials are analyzed. The effect of the supports' sintering temperature on the shrinkage rate is studied. The effects of different sintering temperature, holding time and materials powder particle size on pore structure and size of the supports are also studied. The effect of the pore former dosage on porosity is also within the scope of study. The results show that porous ceramics separation membrane supports of uniform pore size distribution and with porosity more than 50% and pervious to water can be prepared under the following optimum conditions:sintering temperature being 1 200 ℃, holding time being 4 h, and porous agent being more than 20%.

  10. Preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with short, medium and long chain fats and starch nanocrystals and their in vitro digestion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering emulsions are receiving more attention as delivery systems in food and pharmaceuticals because they can be formulated with nontoxic food ingredients to form stable emulsions. In this study, 40-100 nm starch nanocrystals (SNCs) prepared from acid hydrolysis of waxy maize starches were used ...

  11. Preparation of PFSA/PSf hollow fiber composite membranes with recovered PFSA for the pervaporation separation of EtOH/H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorosulfonic acid/Polysulfone(PFSA/PSf) hollow fiber composite membranes have been prepared by dip-coating method using PSf ultrafiltration(UF) membrane as substrate with recovered PFSA.The composite membranes were applied to the pervaporation separation of 95% ethanol(EtOH)/H2O mixture.SEM images show that the thickness of the PFSA skin layer of the composite membranes is about 2 μm,much thinner than those of other PFSA composite membranes revealed in the literatures.Effects of annealing temperature,coating solution concentration and counter-ions of PFSA on the pervaporation performances of the composite membranes were investigated.The total flux decreases and separation factor increases with the increase of annealing temperature.The highest permeation flux of 3230 g m-2 h-1 and a separation factor of 5.4 is obtained for the composite membrane annealed at 80°C.The lowest permeation flux of 396 g m-2 h-1 and a separation factor of 27.7 is obtained for the composite membrane annealed at 160°C.The permeation performances of the PFSA/PSf composite membrane are evidently influenced by the counter-ions of PFSA.The flux sequence of the PFSA/PSf composite membranes with different counter-ions is H+>Li+>Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+>Ba2+>Fe3+>Al3+,and the separation factor sequence is H+Na+>K+.There are very little variations of △Eapp values between the composite membranes with three divalent counterions(Mg2+,Ca2+ and Ba2+),and the △Eapp values of the composite membranes with two trivalent counterions(Fe3+ and Al3+) are relatively high.

  12. One-step preparation and application of mussel-inspired poly(norepinephrine)-coated polydimethylsiloxane microchip for separation of chiral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wu, Lu-Lu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the self-polymerization of norepinephrine (NE) and its favorable film-forming property, a simple and green preparation approach was developed to modify a PDMS channel for enantioseparation of chiral compounds. After the PDMS microchip was filled with NE solution, poly(norepinephrine) (PNE) film was gradually formed and deposited on the inner wall of microchannel as permanent coating via the oxidation of NE by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. Due to possessing plentiful catechol and amine functional groups, the PNE-coated PDMS microchip exhibited much better wettability, more stable and suppressed EOF, and less nonspecific adsorption. The water contact angle and EOF of PNE-coated PDMS substrate were measured to be 13° and 1.68 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , compared to those of 108° and 2.24 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from the untreated one, respectively. Different kinds of chiral compounds, such as amino acid enantiomer, drug enantiomer, and peptide enantiomer were efficiently separated utilizing a separation length of 37 mm coupled with in-column amperometric detection on the PNE-coated PDMS microchips. This facile mussel-inspired PNE-based microchip system exhibited strong recognition ability, high-performance, admirable reproducibility, and stability, which may have potential use in the complex biological analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Silk fibroin/sodium alginate composite nano-fibrous scaffold prepared through thermally induced phase-separation (TIPS) method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhp9810_a@163.com; Liu, Xiaotian, E-mail: xtianliu@126.com; Yang, Mingying, E-mail: yangm@zju.edu.cn; Zhu, Liangjun, E-mail: ljzhu@zju.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    To mimic the natural fibrous structure of the tissue extracellular matrix, a nano-fibrous silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) composite scaffold was fabricated by a thermally-induced phase-separation method. The effects of SF/SA ratio on the structure and the porosity of the composite scaffolds were examined. Scanning electron microscopy and porosity results showed that the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds possessed an excellent nano-fibrous structure and a porosity of more than 90%. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the physical interaction between SF and SA molecules and their good compatibility in the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds, whereas they showed less compatibility in the 1SF/1SA scaffold. Cell culture results showed that MG-63 cells can attach and grow well on the surface of the SF/SA scaffolds. The nano-fibrous SF/SA scaffold can be potentially used in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricate a nano-fibrous silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) composite scaffold. • The scaffold was prepared through a thermally induced phase separation method. • SF molecules are physically interacted with SA molecules. • Good molecular compatibility can be found in 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds. • The nano-fibrous SF/SA scaffold is biocompatible.

  14. Facile preparation of magnetic separable powdered-activated-carbon/Ni adsorbent and its application in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuanqi; Gondal, Mohammed A; Chang, Xiaofeng; Yamani, Zain H; Li, Nianwu; Lu, Hongling; Ji, Guangbin

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic separable Nickel/powdered activated carbon (Ni/PAC) and its application as an adsorbent for removal of PFOS from aqueous solution. In this work, the synthesized adsorbent using simple method was characterized by using X-ray diffractionometer (XRD), surface area and pore size analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The surface area, pore volume and pore size of synthesized PAC was 1521.8 m(2)g(-1), 0.96 cm(3)g(-1), 2.54 nm, respectively. Different kinetic models: the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, and three adsorption isotherms--Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin--were applied to study the sorption kinetics and isothermal behavior of PFOS onto the surface of an as-prepared adsorbent. The rate constant using the pseudo-second-order model for removal of 150 ppm PFOS was estimated as 8.82×10(-5) and 1.64×10(-4) for PAC and 40% Ni/PAC, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the composite adsorbents exhibited a clear magnetic hysteretic behavior, indicating the potential practical application in magnetic separation of adsorbents from aqueous solution phase as well.

  15. Preparation and characterization of underwater superoleophobic chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings for self-cleaning and oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Fu, Youjia; Yan, Xiaoxia; Chang, Yanjiao; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coatings cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared. Effects of the coating composition and NaOH solution treatment on surface morphology and topography were investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It was found that the process of immersing the CS/PVA coatings into NaOH solution was crucial to enhance rough structure on the coating surface. The rough surface structure and the hydrophilic groups of CS and PVA made the CS/PVA coatings possess underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oil. Oil contact angle of the prepared CS/PVA coatings was up to 161° and slide angle was only 3°. Moreover, the CS/PVA coatings showed stable superoleophobicity in high salt, strong acidic, and alkaline environments as well as underwater self-cleaning property and excellent transparency. The CS/PVA coatings could be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with high efficiency.

  16. Preparation of Fe2O3-TiO2 composite from Sukabumi iron sand through magnetic separation, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Pranata, H. P.; Hanif, Q. A.; Ismoyo, Y. A.; Ichsan, K. F.

    2016-11-01

    Preparation of Fe2O3/TiO2 composite from Sukabumi iron sand by magnetic separation, roasting, leaching and precipitation treatment has been carried out. Magnetic separation can separate magnetic particles and non-magnetic particles of iron sand content, while the non-magnetic particles (wustite (FeO), hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4)) was washing with oxalic acid 1 M. The result product then was roasted at 800 °C treated by sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) addition of 1:1; 2:1 and 1:2 (w/w) of iron sand to Na2CO3 weight ratio, respectively. The X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis result shown that Sukabumi iron sand have hematite (Fe2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) content about 72.17% dan 14.42%. XRD analysis of roasted iron sand shown the rutile (TiO2), Hematite (Fe2O3), NaFeO2, FeO, and Na2TiO3. Leaching of roasted iron sand using sulphuric acid (H2SO4) have influenced by concentrations of the H2SO4 solution. The optimum iron sand dissolution occurred in H2SO4 9 M, which condensation product of the leachant have a weight ratio of Fe:Ti = 1:1 (w/w). Meanwhile, the settling back-filtrate result of second condensation was obtained a ratio of Fe2O3: TiO2 of 3: 1 (w/w).

  17. Separation of mono- and di-PEGylate of exenatide and resolution of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates by preparative ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh Thi; Lee, Jae Sun; Yun, Soi; Lee, E K

    2016-07-29

    Exenatide is a synthetic version of the 39-mer peptide of Exendin-4, which is an FDA-approved therapeutic against Type II diabetes mellitus. However, exenatide has a very short in-serum half-life and PEGylation have been performed to improve its in-serum stability. PEGylation often yields multivalent binding to non-specific residues, and the desired species should be carefully separated by chromatographies. In this study, we first devised an aqueous-phase, two-step PEGylation process. This consists of thiolation of Lys 12 and 27 residues followed by attachment of PEG-maleimide (10kD) to thiol groups. This process yields various species: mono-PEGylates with positional isomers, di-PEGylate, and other higher MW substances. A prep-grade cationic exchange chromatography (HiTrap SP) at pH 3.0 partially separated mono- and di-PEGylates based on the molar ratio of conjugated PEG and peptide and thus molecular weight of the conjugates. To further investigate the chromatographic separation of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates, we prepared two kinds of exenatide analogs by point mutation; K12C and K27C. Each analog was mono-PEGylated with very high yield (>95%). When a mixture of the two positional isomers of mono-PEGylates was applied to HiTrap SP chromatography, K12C-PEGylate and K27C-PEGylate eluted separately at 0.22M and 0.33M NaCl, respectively. When the proportions of acid and its conjugate base of the amino acid residues adjacent to the PEGylation site at pH 3.0 were analyzed, K27C-PEGylate shows stronger positive charge than K12C-PEGylate, and we propose the residence time difference between the two mono-PEGylates could be due to the charge difference. ELISA result shows that the immuno-binding activity of both analogs and their mono-PEGylates are well maintained. Furthermore, both mono-PEGylates of the analogs show higher than 50-fold improved anti-trypsin stability. We expect that mono-PEGylates of the exenatide analogs are alternatives to the conventional C40

  18. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    The increasing number of biogas plants over the last decades has brought the need to improve techniques to handle digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions is often applied in centralised biogas plants, which...... necessitates the subsequent distribution of nutrients. The liquid fraction of digestate can be used as fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems and the most common practice of utilising the liquid fraction of digestate is direct field application in the vicinity of the biogas plant. However, direct...

  19. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O.; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®. Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digest...

  20. 中压制备液相色谱快速分离制备儿茶素单体%Separation and Preparation of Catechins by Preparative Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 李春苗; 鲜殊; 王玺; 宛晓春; 凌铁军; 李大祥

    2013-01-01

    以反相中压制备液相色谱为工具,甲醇-水作为洗脱溶剂,通过C18 (ODS-AQ)填料从茶多酚中一步分离出表没食子儿茶素(EGC)、表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)、表儿茶素(EC)、表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)等四种儿茶素单体.1.0g纯度为92.6%的茶多酚经过中压色谱,制备得到了90 mg EGC、355 mg EGCG、23 mgEC和92mg ECG,它们的纯度分别为91.8%、97.6%、97.7%、99.3%,纯品得率56.0%,四种单体总回收率达到68.2%.四种儿茶素单体的结构经核磁共振氢谱、碳谱以及高分辨质谱加以确证.%With advances in column particles,preparative medium pressure Liquid chromatography (MPLC) is an potential alternative to preparative HPLC for purifying active botanical compounds on reverse phase. To obtain high-purity cat-echin monomers, a MPLC system with online real-time operation software (DR FLASH Ⅱ) was introduced to separate catechin monomers from tea polyphenols with the methanol-water elution on two serial connected C18 (ODS-AQ) columns (125 mm × 26 mm, 30-50 μm,40 g) at 120-150 psi. With loading of 1. 0 g of tea polyphenols with the purity of 92. 6% , the four catechin monomers as epigallocatechin ( EGC), epigallocatechin gallate ( EGCG), epicatechin (EC) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) were separated and purified at only one step in one time. 90 mg of EGC,355 mg of EGCG,23 mg of EC ,92 mg of ECG were harvested and their purities were 91. 8% ,97.6% ,97.7% and 99.3% respectively. The yields and recovery of total four catechins monomers were up to 56.0% and 68.2% respectively. The structures of the four catechins were subsequently confirmed by analysis of their H NMR,13C NMR and HRESI-MS. Those indicate that MPLC could be helpful to the rapid and efficient preparation of catechin monomers from tea polyphenols.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  2. Magnetically separable Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@whu.edu.cn [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Cao, Qihua [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel magnetically-separable Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} photocatalyst was in situ prepared. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs had rough and porous chitosan surface layer embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed large surface areas and special dimodal pore structure. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs showed superparamagnetism and could be easily magnetic separated. • Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited good visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite (Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation–reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu{sub 2}O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and semiconductor Cu{sub 2}O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu{sub 2}O/CS–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B

  3. Separation of the potential G-quadruplex ligands from the butanol extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. by countercurrent chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian; Cao, Xueli; Xu, Jing; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yalin

    2017-07-21

    G-quadruplex DNA structure is considered to be a very attractive target for antitumor drug design due to its unique role in maintaining telomerase activities. Therefore, discovering ligands with high stability of G-quadruplex structure is of great interest. In this paper, pH-zone refining counter current chromatography (CCC) and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed for the separation of potent G-quadruplex ligands from the n-butanol fraction of the crude extract of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, which is a traditional Chinese medicine recently found to display high inhibitory activity against several human cancer cells. The 75% aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Z. ailanthoides and its fractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol displayed almost the same G-quadruplex stabilization ability. Here, pH-zone refining CCC was used for the separation of the alkaloids from the n-butanol fraction by a seldom used solvent system composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:1:2.5) with 10mM TEA in the organic stationary phase as retainer and 10mM HCl in the aqueous mobile phase as eluter. Compounds I, II and III were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 31.2, 94.0, and 26.4mg respectively from 300mg of lipophilic fraction within 80min, which were identified as three tetrahydroprotoberberines isolated for the first time in this plant. In addition, a phenylpropanoid glycoside compound IV (Syringin), an isoquinoline (Magnoflorine, V), and two lignin isomers (+)-lyoniresiol-3α-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (VI) and (-)-lyoniresinol -3α-O-β-D -glucopyranoside (VII) were isolated by traditional CCC together with preparative HPLC. Compounds IV, V, VI and VII were obtained, with purity greater than 95%, in the quantities of 4.0, 13.2, 6.7, and 6.5mg respectively from 960mg of hydrophilic fraction. Among the seven isolated compounds, tetrahydroprotoberberine I, II and III were found to display remarkable

  4. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei

    2015-02-01

    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  5. Preparation of PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane for salty oil emulsion separation: Physicochemical properties changes and its impact on fouling propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngang, H. P.; Ahmad, A. L.; Low, S. C.; Ooi, B. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/silica (SiO2) composite membranes were prepared by diffusion induced phase separation through direct blending method. The roles of SiO2 particles concentration on membrane physicochemical properties were evaluated through oil emulsion separation under high ionic strength environment whereby hydrophobic interaction is prevalent. Membranes were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement, membrane porosity and pore size distribution. It was expected that by adding the monodispersed SiO2, it will render the membrane with hydrophilic characteristic. However, it is concomitantly changing the physical properties of the membrane. Addition of SiO2 caused the changes to the physicochemical properties of the composite membrane and its effects on the fouling propensity were evaluated. It was found that the mean pore size of the membranes increased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. The addition of hydrophilic SiO2 had accelerated the precipitation of the membrane dope solution resulting in changes of membrane cross section morphology. FESEM images showed the membrane cross-section morphology of PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane had gradually changed from finger-like to macrovoid-like structure with the increased of SiO2 concentration. The hydrophilicity of the PVDF/SiO2 composite membrane was enhanced which is a desired property for water purification. However, the changes in physical properties (pore size, porosity, and surface roughness) had played more dominant role in the oil emulsion fouling behaviour rather than hydrophilicity enhancement. Due to the salting out effect under high ionic strength environment, hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the oil adsorption. The increment in membrane pore size, porosity, and surface roughness after incorporation of SiO2 particles had encountered more serious relative flux reduction and

  6. Primary Discussion on the Preparation of the Li- ion Batteries Separator Based on the Poly( vinylidene fluoride)%聚偏氟乙烯制备锂离子电池隔膜初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丕严

    2012-01-01

    The status and problems of the Li - ion batteries separator were reviewed. The new materials for preparation of the Li - ion batteries separator and their development status were summarized. The structural characteristics and performance requirements of Li - ion batteries separator were introduced. The preparation and modifi- cation methods of Li - ion batteries separator based on the poly ( vinylidene fluoride) were preliminarily studied.%综述了锂离子电池隔膜的现状及其存在的问题,以及制备锂离子电池隔膜的新材料与发展现状;介绍了锂离子电池隔膜的结构特点与性能要求;对聚偏氟乙烯制备锂离子电池隔膜的方法及其改性技术进行了初步的探讨。

  7. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  8. Magnetically separable CuFe2O4/AgBr composite photocatalysts: Preparation, characterization, photocatalytic activity and photocatalytic mechanism under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yalei; Lin, Cuiping; Bi, Huijie; Liu, Yonggang; Yan, Qishe

    2017-01-01

    The CuFe2O4 and CuFe2O4/AgBr composites with different CuFe2O4 contents were prepared by a facile sol-gel and hydrothermal method, respectively. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS). Their magnetic properties, photocatalytic degradation activities on methyl orange (MO) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) solution and photocatalytic mechanism were investigated in detail. The results revealed that the CuFe2O4/AgBr composites exhibited significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure CuFe2O4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the matched band structure of two components and more effective charge transportation and separations. In addition, the quenching investigation of different scavengers demonstrated that h+, rad OH, rad O2- reactive species played different roles in the decolorization of MO and degradation of TC.

  9. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 anode film with spinodal phase separation structure in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Yao, Jianxi; Zhao, Jingyong; Rao, Wangping; Xiao, Li; Tian, Hongxin

    2013-10-01

    Low electronic transmission efficiency and high charge recombination are the existing problems of photoanode film in traditional dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This paper put forward the photoanode TiO2 films with spinodal phase separation structure (SPSS) and continuous TiO2 skeleton which were triggered by the photopolymerization of organic monomers in a photomonomer-inorganic precursor system. The photoanode TiO2 films fabricated by different precursor solution compositions and different coating layers were characterized mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photocatalysis and photoelectric performance test. The results indicated that, the as-prepared TiO2 anode film with seven coating layers and heat treated at 500 °C showed higher photoelectric conversion efficiency at about 2% than that of other samples with less coating layers and lower heat treatment temperature. The film also showed excellent photocatalytic activity by using methylene blue (MB) dye as a model organic substrate under fluorescent lamp irradiation. It is suggested that the film with SPSS structure has the potential to improve the electronic transmission efficiency and reduce the carrier recombination due to its particular structure, higher surface area, and lack of bottleneck in electronic transmission. It is worth noting that the SPSS structure provides new ideas to develop new photoanode films and further improve the photoelectric conversion performance of the DSSC in future.

  10. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred......The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results...... and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced....

  11. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  14. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  15. 柱色谱分离制备低乙酸乙酯儿茶素%Column chromatography separation preparation of catechins with low content of ethyl acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 郑琳; 龚正礼

    2012-01-01

    Catechins is a representative active substance of tea,whose preparation has been much-talked- about. Based on previous study,the thesis hoped to find the optimal control conditions to produce catechins with low content of ethyl acetate through analyzing the separation experiment condition of column chromatography. The best control condition was purifying catechins with polyamide resin and the elution sequence was 25% ethanol, ethyl acetate:80% ethanol=2:1. Product quality index for: ethyl acetate〈20mg/kg, total catechins≥ 75%, EGCG ≥ 55%, Caf〈2%, yield coefficient〉 10%.%儿茶素作为绿茶的标志性活性物质,它的提取和制备技术一直以来备受关注。本文在前人研究的基础上,以绿茶碎末为原料,经溶剂浸提、离心除渣、柱色谱分离、浓缩和真空干燥提取制备,通过对柱色谱分离条件的实验分析,找到最佳控制条件:用聚酰胺树脂对儿茶素进行分离纯化,最佳洗脱顺序为25%乙醇,乙酸乙酯:80%乙醇=2:1,生产出低乙酸乙酯的儿茶素。产品质量指标为:乙酸乙酯低于国际标准20mg/kg,儿茶素≥75%,EGCG≥55%,咖啡因〈2%.收率〉10%。

  16. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pancreatic islet isolation by mechanical-enzymatic separation, stationary collagenase digestion and dextran discontinuous density gradient purification: experimental study in dogs Isolamento das ilhotas pancreáticas pela separação mecânica-enzimática digestão estacionária com colagenase e purificação com gradiente de densidade descontínua de dextran: estudo experimental em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for allotransplantation of pancreatic islets in man depend on the development of methods that provide sufficient quantities of pancreatic islets from a single donor, which are capable, when transplanted, of achieve the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism. Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of the isolation of Langerhans islets from dogs, by means of mechanical-enzymatic separation technique with stationary digestion using collagenase, and purification with a discontinuous dextran density gradient. Methods: The counting of islet numbers and evaluation of their sizes was accomplished by staining with diphenylthiocarbazone and using stereoscopic microscopes equipped with eyepiece reticule for the measurement of average diameters of stained islets. Results: The results disclosed that the average number of islets isolated was 81032.20 ± 24736.79 and the average number of islets isolated per kg of body weight was 6938.70 ± 1392.43. The average number of islets isolated per kg of body weight showed significant correlation with body weight and weight of the pancreas resected. Conclusion: The number of islets isolated, of a single donor, by mechanical-enzymatic separation, stationary collagenase digestion and discontinuous dextran density gradient purification can be sufficient to success of pancreatic islets transplant in dogs.A perspectiva do alotransplante de ilhotas pancreáticas no homem está na dependência do desenvolvimento de métodos que propiciem quantidades suficientes de ilhotas pancreáticas, originadas de doador único, capazes de, quando transplantadas, levarem à normalização do metabolismo dos hidratos de carbono. Objetivo: Avaliar, em cães, a eficácia do isolamento das ilhotas de Langerhans por meio da técnica de separação mecânica-enzimática, digestão estacionária com colagenase e purificação pelo gradiente de densidade descontínua de dextran. Métodos: A contagem do número e avaliação do tamanho

  18. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh D.; Ting-Chun Wen; Hung-Cheng Li; Pei-Hsuan Hsieh; Yet-Ran Chen; Huan-Cheng Chang; Chau-Chung Han

    2016-01-01

    While mass spectrometry (MS) plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP) by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation fo...

  19. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.

    2003-01-01

    metaborate. High field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE) are separated from this solution by co-precipitation with iron hydroxide. The dissolved precipitate (in 2 mol l HCl) is loaded directly onto a standard cation exchange column which separates remaining sample matrix from the heavy...

  20. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  1. Comparison of Two Methods of Ruminal Digestibility Determination (in situ and in vitro of Pomegranate Seed Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Fathi Nasri

    2016-08-01

    PSP was prepared by drying of wet PSP in oven at 60ºC. The digestibility of each feed was determined by both in situ and in vitro methods using two Holstein fistulated heifers and Daisy incubator, respectively. Animals were fed a total mixed ration containing 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay, 1.8 kg/d of concentrate, 0.5 kg/d of corn silage and 1.8 kg/d of wheat straw (DM basis at two meals. The ingredients of concentrate were barley grain (35%, corn grain (18%, soybean meal (10%, canola meal (15%, wheat bran (11.5%, molasses (7%, vitamin-mineral supplement (1%, oyster shell (2% and salt (0.5% (DM basis. Comparison between treatments for each of digestibility methods at 24 and 48 h of incubation was done separately based on completely randomized design using SAS software. Correlation between digestibility determination methods was estimated using Corr proc of SAS and regression coefficient and also regression equation of in situ digestibility method on in vitro digestibility method was determined using Reg proc of SAS. Results and Discussion The results showed that DM digestibility of PSP (both ensiled and dried was estimated higher when measured by in vitro than in situ method at both incubation times. The correlation between two methods of digestibility determination for dried and ensiled PSP after 24h incubation was 0.81 and 0.96, respectively and after 48h incubation was 0.99 and 0.75, respectively. The regression equations of DM in situ digestibility estimation from DM in vitro digestibility data were of high accuracy. Tagliapietra et al. (27 compared the in vitro and in situ DM digestibility of 11 different feeds and found a high correlation coefficient of 0.90 (P

  2. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  3. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  4. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D

    2005-11-15

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  5. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  7. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    necessitates the subsequent distribution of nutrients. The liquid fraction of digestate can be used as fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems and the most common practice of utilising the liquid fraction of digestate is direct field application in the vicinity of the biogas plant. However, direct...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions......The increasing number of biogas plants over the last decades has brought the need to improve techniques to handle digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions is often applied in centralised biogas plants, which...

  8. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar;

    2014-01-01

    executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...... hydrolysates were chosen to study the effect of in vitro digestion on bioactivity. The protein concentration decreased in all samples during digestion and the molecular weight distribution of the peptides shifted towards lower values. Thus, in vitro digestion with GI proteases resulted in a further degradation...... of the peptides obtained by hydrolysis. The antihypertensive effect increased in all samples after digestion with GI proteases whereas the antioxidative capacity decreased. The effect on the caspase activity depended on the proteases used in the preparation of hydrolysates. In conclusion, the caspase activity...

  9. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: merja.torniainen@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: prasad.kaparaju@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  10. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  11. Modelling grass digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plan

  12. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  13. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  14. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure.

  15. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  16. Efficient extraction and preparative separation of four main isoflavonoids from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves by deep eutectic solvents-based negative pressure cavitation extraction followed by macroporous resin column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yu-Yan; Efferth, Thomas; Wang, Hui-Mei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-15

    In this study, green and efficient deep eutectic solvent-based negative pressure cavitation-assisted extraction (DES-NPCE) followed by macroporous resin column chromatography was developed to extract and separate four main isoflavonoids, i.e. prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves. The extraction procedure was optimized systematically by single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology. The maximum extraction yields of prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A reached 1.204, 1.057, 0.911 and 2.448mg/g dry weight, respectively. Moreover, the direct enrichment and separation of four isoflavonoids in DES extraction solution was successfully achieved by macroporous resin AB-8 with recovery yields of more than 80%. The present study provides a convenient and efficient method for the green extraction and preparative separation of active compounds from plants.

  17. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  18. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic wastewa

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  20. Mercury and trace element distribution in density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal: Implications for mercury reduction and preparation of export coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Connie L.; van Alphen, Chris; Koenig, Alan E.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2017-01-01

    Eight density separates of Permian Highveld (#4) coal were investigated for partitioning of Hg and trace elements. The separates include float fractions obtained in heavy media having densities of 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 g/cm3, and the sink fraction for 2.0 g/cm3. Bulk analysis of the separates shows strong (R2 ≥ 0.80) positive correlations between pyritic sulfur and mercury, and between ash yield and both pyritic sulfur and mercury. Laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of individual pyrite grains in the separates confirms association of Hg and As with pyrite as indicated by bulk analysis. Other elements detected in pyrite by LA-ICP-MS include Mn, Co, Ni, Tl, and Pb. Results for the separates allow prediction of Hg, trace elements, and ash yields expected in specific South African coal products. These range from 0.06 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 11.5% ash for the export fraction to 0.47 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 60.9% for the discard (stone) fraction (dry basis). Results show pronounced differences expected between coal used for domestic power generation and coal which is exported.

  1. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h.

  2. Application and recovery of ionic liquids in the preparative separation of four flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea by on-line three-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shufeng; Hu, Liming; Ma, Chaoyang; Lv, Wenping; Wang, Hongxin

    2014-09-01

    A novel on-line three-dimensional liquid chromatography method was developed to separate four main flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea. Ethyl acetate/0.5 mol/L ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride aqueous solution was selected as the solvent system. In the first-dimension separation, the target flavonoids were entrapped and subsequently desorbed into the second-dimension high-speed countercurrent chromatographic column for separation. In the third-dimension chromatography, the residual ionic liquid in the four separated flavonoids was removed and the used ionic liquid was recovered. As a result, 35.1 mg of compound 1, 20.4 mg of compound 2, 8.5 mg of compound 3, and 10.6 mg of compound 4 were obtained from 1.53 g R. rosea extract. They were identified as rhodiosin, rhodionin, herbacetin, and kaempferol, respectively. The recovery of ionic liquid reached 99.1% of the initial amount. The results showed that this method is a powerful technology for the separation of R. rosea flavonoids and that the ionic-liquid-based solvent system has advantages over traditional solvent systems in renewable and environmentally friendly properties.

  3. Methane production during storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Sommer, Svend G; Gabriel, Søren; Christensen, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source-separated municipal organic waste is considered feasible in Denmark. The limited hydraulic retention in the biogas reactor (typically 15 d) does not allow full degradation of the organic waste. Storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste can therefore be a source of methane (CH4) emission that may contribute significantly to the potential global warming impact from the waste treatment system. This study provides a model for quantifying the CH4 production from stored co-digested municipal organic waste and estimates the production under typical Danish climatic conditions, thus quantifying the potential global warming impact from storage of the digested municipal organic waste before its use on agricultural land. Laboratory batch tests on CH4 production as well as temperature measurements in eight full-scale storage tanks provided data for developing a model estimating the CH4 production in storage tanks containing digested municipal organic waste. The temperatures measured in separate storage tanks on farms receiving digested slurry were linearly correlated with air temperature. In storage tanks receiving slurry directly from biogas reactors, significantly higher temperatures were measured due to the high temperatures of the effluent from the reactor. Storage tanks on Danish farms are typically emptied in April and have a constant inflow of digested material. During the warmest months the content of digested material is therefore low, which limits the yearly CH4 production from storage.

  4. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  5. Evaluation of the rotary drum reactor process as pretreatment technology of municipal solid waste for thermophilic anaerobic digestion and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros; Zhu, Baoning; Batistatos, Nicolas Ion; Zhang, Ruihong

    2017-08-21

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains a large fraction of biodegradable organic materials. When disposed in landfills, these materials can cause adverse environmental impact due to gaseous emissions and leachate generation. This study was performed with an aim of effectively separating the biodegradable materials from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) facility and treating them in well-controlled anaerobic digesters for biogas production. The rotary drum reactor (RDR) process (a sub-process of the MBT facilities studied in the present work) was evaluated as an MSW pretreatment technology for separating and preparing the biodegradable materials in MSW to be used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The RDR processes used in six commercial MSW treatment plants located in the USA were surveyed and sampled. The samples of the biodegradable materials produced by the RDR process were analyzed for chemical and physical characteristics as well as anaerobically digested in the laboratory using batch reactors under thermophilic conditions. The moisture content, TS, VS and C/N of the samples varied between 64.7 and 44.4%, 55.6 to 35.3%, 27.0 to 41.3% and 24.5 to 42.7, respectively. The biogas yield was measured to be between 533.0 and 675.6 mL g(-1)VS after 20 days of digestion. Approximately 90% of the biogas was produced during the first 13 days. The average methane content of the biogas was between 58.0 and 59.9%. The results indicated that the biodegradable materials separated from MSW using the RDR processes could be used as an excellent feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The digester residues may be further processed for compost production or further energy recovery by using thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-09-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria.

  7. Analysis on the TBS coarse slime separation effect of Xinyang coal preparation plant%新阳选煤厂TBS粗煤泥分选效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张文志; 赵建刚; 朱立强

    2012-01-01

      新阳选煤厂整体工程分两期完成,分别采用不同的分选工艺。文中详述了TBS粗煤泥分选机的工作原理和实际生产的分选效果。通过分析发现,粗煤泥利用TBS分选后精矿灰分波动相对较小,能满足生产需要,但对入料的适应性差,入料变化时,精煤损失到尾矿中,造成尾煤灰分波动较大。%  the Xinyang coal separation plant overall project completed in two phases, using different separation process. This paper intro-duces the working principle and the actual production of the separation effect of coarse slime separation equipment —TBS. Through the analysis we found that, The ash of Concentrate has smaller fluctions by using TBS. It can meet the need of production.But the adaptability of TBS is not good.,When the feeding is changing large amounts of coal loss to the tailings and the ash of coal tailing havs large fluctuation

  8. 新阳选煤厂粗煤泥分选设备评述%Commentary of coarse slime separation equipment of Xinyang coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张文志; 赵建刚; 朱立强

    2012-01-01

      新阳选煤厂整体工程分两期完成,分别采用不同的分选工艺。文中详述了TBS和RC两种粗煤泥分选设备的工作原理和实际生产的分选效果。两者对比发现,入料发生波动时造成尾煤产品质量不合格,大量精煤损失到尾矿中。相对RC分选机,TBS的适应性稍好。%  the Xinyang coal separation plant overall project completed in two phases, using different separation process. This paper intro-duces the working principle and the actual production of the separation effect of two kinds of coarse slime separation equipment —TBS and RC. The contrast between the two found, feeding fluctuations caused by tail coal product quality, large amounts of coal loss to the tailings. Relative to the RC sorting machine, TBS adaptability slightly better.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  10. The usability of digestate in organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M

    2012-01-01

    As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.

  11. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  12. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen (NPN) in the rumen, the effect of digestible energy on the rate and .... Fahey, 1982) and inhibitors of amino acid deamination. (Chalupa & Scott, 1976). ... the omasum, although both urea and ammonia may be absorbed (0,9 gld.

  13. Innovative Progress of the Separation & Purification Technologies in the Production of Chinese Materia Medica Preparation%中药制剂分离与纯化技术创新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秦娥; 梁金龙

    2012-01-01

    论述了深入研究中药制剂分离技术创新进展的意义,概述了固液分离技术在中药制剂中的重要作用,首次全面总结了14种制药分离与纯化主要设备的重大发展历程及创新特征,首次系统剖析了14种中药制剂提取分离与纯化高新技术原理特性和应用效果,首次研究阐明了现代中药制剂分离与纯化技术主要呈现的新老技术复合化、高技术超常化和新技术多样化三大发展趋势。%This paper discussed the significance of deep investigation on the innovative progress of separation & purification technologies in the production of Chinese materla medica preparation and summarized the important function of solid-liquid separation technology during the production process. Meanwhile, this study reviewed the momentous development course and innovative characteristics of the fourteen major separation & purification equipments, analyzed the principles and applies of separation & purification technologies systematically. It was clarified in the paper that compounding of old and new technologies, the practical application of high tech and the diversity of new tech were the three development trends on separation & purification technologies in the production of Chinese materia medica preparation nowadays.

  14. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  15. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Roque, Jose A; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-05-23

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Color Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) to separate the closely related minor components Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ∼3.5% Pk5 and ∼0.7% Pk7. The separations were performed with highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent systems that were chosen by applying the recently introduced method known as graphic optimization of partition coefficients (Zeng et al., 2013). Multiple ∼1.0g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-butanol/abs. ethanol/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched dye mixture (∼160mg) of which Pk5 represented ∼46% and Pk7, ∼21%. Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼61mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7%. Pk7 (20.7mg, ∼83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column contents. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass

  16. Labeling of double-stranded DNA by ROX-dideoxycytosine triphosphate using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and separation by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figeys, D.; Renborg, A.; Dovichi, N.J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    1994-12-01

    Terminal transferase is used to add a single fluorescently labeled dideoxynucleotide to double-stranded DNA prepared by restriction endonuclease action on a bacteriophage. The product is separated by capillary electrophoresis with both hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and non-cross-linked polyacrylamide. The reaction products generate single peaks for each fragment with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. However, the higher resolution separation produced by non-cross-linked polyacrylamide shows that the product contains two components for each restriction digest fragment. This labeling technique should be useful in restriction fragment length polymorphism studies. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of packed capillary columns for the separation of nucleic acids by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, H; Krajete, A; Parson, W; Huber, C G

    2000-09-29

    Oligonucleotides and double stranded DNA fragments were separated in 200 microm I.D. capillary columns packed with micropellicular, octadecylated, 2.1 microm poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC). Both the length and the diameter of the connecting capillaries (150 x 0.020 mm I.D.) as well as the detection volume (3 nl) had to be kept to a minimum in order to maintain the high efficiency of this chromatographic separation system with peak widths at half height in the range of a few seconds. Three different types of frits, namely sintered silica particles, sintered octadecylsilica particles, and monolithic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) frits were evaluated with respect to their influence on chromatographic performance. Best performance for the separation of oligonucleotides and long DNA fragments was observed with the PS-DVB frits, whereas the short DNA fragments were optimally resolved in columns terminated by octadecylsilica frits. The maximum loading capacity of 60 x 0.20 mm I.D. columns ranged from 20 fmol (7.7 ng) for a 587 base pair DNA fragment to 500 fmol (2.4 ng) for a 16-mer oligonucleotide. Lower mass- and concentration detection limits in the low femtomol and low nanomol per liter range, respectively, make capillary IP-RP-HPLC with UV absorbance detection highly attractive for the separation and characterization of minute amounts of synthetic oligonucleotides, DNA restriction fragments, and short tandem repeat sequences amplified by polymerase chain reaction.

  18. Preparative separation and identification of derivatized beta-methylphenylalanine enantiomers by chiral SFC, HPLC and NMR for development of new peptide ligand mimetics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogle, Lisa M; Mann, Charles W; Watts, William L; Zhang, Yingru

    2006-03-03

    A direct preparative purification of all four isomers of the unnatural amino acid beta-methylphenylalanine was achieved using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with stacked-injection. Final purification of the Cbz-methyl ester derived isomers was performed on a Daicel Chiralpak AD-H column (20 mm x 250 mm), using 50:50 methanol/ethanol as the organic modifier and resulted in purification of over 3.4 g of material in 6.25 h with >90% total recovery. The absolute stereochemical assignment of the purified amino acids was determined through a combination of chiral HPLC, NMR and optical rotation studies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported preparative approach that has yielded all four compounds in a single chromatographic run.

  19. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR.

  20. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 μm. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable.

  1. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  2. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography◊

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Jose A.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Colour Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with the recently introduced highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous solvent systems to separate Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ~3.5% Pk5 and ~0.7% Pk7. Multiple ~1.0 g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4 g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-BuOH/EtOHabs/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After applying a specially developed method for removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched mixture (~160 mg) of Pk5 and Pk7 (~46% and ~21%, respectively). Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ~ 61 mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7% (by HPLC at 254 nm). Pk7 (20.7 mg, ~83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column content. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and several 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC). PMID:24755184

  3. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Chimonanthus praecox Flowers by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using a Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhi Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC has been successfully used for the separation of eight compounds from Chimonanthus praecox flowers. Firstly, the crude extract of Chimonanthus praecox flowers was dissolved in a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O (5:5:3:7, v/v and divided into two parts: the upper phase (part I and the lower phase (part II. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate the phenolic acids from part I and part II, respectively. Considering the broad polarity range of target compounds in part I, a stepwise elution mode was established. Two optimal solvent systems of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O–formic acid (FA (5:5:3:7:0.02, 5:5:4.3:5.7:0.02, v/v were employed in this separation. Five phenylpropanoids and two flavonoids were successfully separated from 280 mg of part I, including 8.7 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 95.3% purity, 10.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 96.8% purity, 11.3 mg of p-coumaric acid (c, 98.9% purity, 12.2 mg of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (d, 95.9% purity, 24.7 mg of quercetin (e, 97.3% purity, 33.8 mg of kaempferol (f, 96.8% purity, and 24.6 mg of 4-hydroxylcinnamic aldehyde (g, 98.0% purity. From 300 mg of part II, 65.7 mg of rutin (h, 98.2% purity, 7.5 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 77.4% purity, and 4.7 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 81.6% purity were obtained using the solvent system EtOAc–n-butanol (n-BuOH–FA–H2O (4:1:0.5:5, v/v. The structures of the eight pure compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. To the best of our knowledge, compounds a–d and f were the first separated and reported from the Chimonanthus praecox flower extract.

  4. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus......, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester...... to enhance their methane productivity in batch experiments. In the present study, continuous experiments at a mesophilic (38°C) CSTR-type anaerobic digester fed with swine manure first and a mixture of manure with AAS-treated digested fibers in the sequel, were performed. The methane yield of AAS...

  5. Chelating fibers prepared with a wet spinning technique using a mixture of a viscose solution and a polymer ligand for the separation of metal ions in an aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kato, Toshifumi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kamichatani, Waka; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Saito, Mitsuru; Tohda, Koji

    2012-02-15

    Chelating fibers containing polymer ligands such as carboxymethylated polyallylamine, carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine, and a copolymer of diallylamine hydrochloride/maleic acid were prepared with a wet spinning technique using mixtures of a viscose solution and the polymer ligands. The chelating fibers obtained effectively adsorbed various metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV), and Zn(II). The metal ions adsorbed could be readily desorbed using 0.1 or 0.5 mol L(-1) HNO(3). The chelating fiber containing carboxymethylated polyallylamine was available for the separation of some metal ions in synthetic wastewater containing a large amount of Na(2)SO(4). The wet spinning technique using a solution containing a base polymer and a polymer ligand was quite simple and effective and would be applicable for preparing various chelating fibers.

  6. Laboratory intercomparison of marine particulate digestions including Piranha: a novel chemical method for dissolution of polyethersulfone filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohnemus, Daniel C; Auro, Maureen E; Sherrell, Robert M; Lagerström, Maria; Morton, Peter L; Twining, Benjamin S; Rauschenberg, Sara; Lam, Phoebe J

    2014-01-01

    .... In preparation for these analyses, we conducted a four laboratory intercomparison exercise to determine our degree of intercalibration and to examine how several total digestion procedures perform...

  7. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts.

  8. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn;

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...

  9. THE DIGESTION OPERATION IN THE ALKALI ALUMINAT SOLUTIONS OF ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES IN THE BOEHMITIC BAUXITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ŞAHİN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present more than 90 per cent of the world's alumina is produced by the Bayer process, a simple technology providing high purity final product. A part from some exceptional local conditions, bauxite is processed almost solely by this technology. As a benefication process, alumina production releases the aluminum oxide content of bauxite from other accompanying oxides thus providing alumina suitable for electrolysis in a cryolite melt. The basic theory of the Bayer process was elaborated by K.J. Bayer and described in his patents in 1887 and 1892. The first patent refers to the aid of seed crystals of aluminum hydroxide or of carbonic acid, that is, to the precipitation and carbonation processes. The second patent formulates the concept that the aluminum oxide content of bauxites can be dissolved in sodium hydroxide solutions, with the formulation of sodium aluminate, a process called digestion nowadays. The most important operations of the Bayer technology are bauxite preparation, crushing, grinding, digestion, red mud separation, thickening, washing, filtration, precipitation, calcination and evaporation. In spite of its great significance as regards the complete Bayer technology, the structure of sodium aluminate solutions has not been cleared up definitely yet. Boehmite is the most important aluminum mineral of karstic bauxites. Some experimental results showing the various effects on aluminum hydroxides by alkali process from boehmitic bauxites and the factors gowerning the digestion operation of aluminate solutions were investigated.

  10. Bioassay-guided preparative separation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory C-flavone glycosides from Desmodium styracifolium by recycling complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Qi; Luo, Jian-Guang; Han, Chao; Xu, Jin-Fang; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy of the convergence of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and bioactive assay technique was developed for rapidly screening and separating the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from the aerial parts of Desmodium styracifolium. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude extract was first established to target the bioactive fractions based on HSCCC coupled with in vitro ACE inhibitory assay. Subsequently, the bioactive fractions were further separated by the recycling complexation HSCCC respectively, using 0.10 mol/L copper sulfate in the lower phase of two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol/water (1:1, v/v). Five C-glycosylflavones, vicenin 2 (1), carlinoside (2), vicenin 1 (3), schaftoside (4) and vicenin 3 (5), were successfully obtained. Their chemical structures were identified using ESI-MS and NMR. All the isolates showed in vitro ACE inhibitory activity with the IC50 values between 33.62 and 58.37 μM. The results demonstrated that the established method was proposed as an excellent strategy to systematically screen and purify active compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application.

  12. 'Proteomic basics--sample preparation and separation': the 1st European Summer School in Kloster Neustift, 12-18 August, 2007 Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Katrin; Kühn-Hölsken, Eva; Schmidt, Carla; Schulenborg, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Proteomics is rapidly developing into a routine approach for protein analysis in many laboratories. The series of European-wide Summer Schools 'Proteomics Basics' (http://www.proteomic-basics.eu/) aims at teaching of comprehensive knowledge in proteomics research and applied technologies for master and graduate students and postdocs currently moving into the field of proteomic research. In the next 3 years the series will cover the theoretical basis of the fundamental topics in the various areas of proteomic analysis, i.e. sample preparation and handling, mass spectrometry, post-translational modifications and quantitation given by leading experts in the field. This summer school series embodies a unique advantage in comparison with conventional scientific meetings and university curricula: internationally renowned experts will give a detailed perspective view of the fundamentals of their particular proteome research area, something which is usually not encountered at conferences and congresses. Here, we give a report on the first European Summer School 'Sample Preparation and Handling' within the series 'Proteomic Basics' that was held at the monastery in Neustift close to Bressanone/Brixen, Italy from August 12 to 18, 2007.

  13. RAPID SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND RADIOSTRONTIUM IN VEGETATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-06-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in vegetation samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. The actinides in vegetation method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in vegetation sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles or vegetation residue after furnace heating is effectively digested.

  14. Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

  15. Papain digestion of crude Trichoderma reesei cellulase: Purification and properties of cellobiohydrolase I and II core proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Brown, J.P.; Evans, B.R.; Affholter, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    Papain digestion of a crude Trichoderma reesei cellulose preparation followed by gel filtration on a Superdex column resulted in the separation of cellobiohydrolase (CBH) I and II core proteins (cp). They were further purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatofocusing. N-terminal protein sequencing of the CBH II cp preparation confirmed its identity. A comparison of the catalytic activity and cellulose-binding ability of these core proteins was made. The major differences between them were the findings that CBH II cp possessed a sixfold higher specific activity toward p-nitrophenylcellobioside than the native CBH II preparation and still bound to microcrystalline cellulose, unlike CBH I cp. Neither CBH I cp nor CBH II cp had activity toward carboxymethylcellulose, but both were able to hydrolyze barley b-glucan. These data suggest that removal of the cellulose-binding domain and hinge region from CBH I and II have different effects on their properties.

  16. 柱色谱分离制备无酯儿茶素%Column chromatography separation preparation of catechins without ethyl acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 陈茜; 周洁; 龚正礼

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the technology of the preparation of no ethyl acetate catechins.Methods:Based on previous studies,using the dust and broken tea as raw materials,ethanol and resins were used for the preparation of no ethyl acetate catechins.Firstly,taking the ethanol concentration of 80% as solvent to extract the tea.The extraction conditions were tea leaves-to-ethanol ratio of 1:20,extraction time of 50min and extraction temperature of 70℃.Secondly,on the basis of the resin screening test and column efficiency test,the dynamic adsorption and desorption test were designed to optimize the technology conditions of dynamic adsorption and desorption of catechin.Results:Under the optimum extraction conditions,the leaching rate of catechin was 20.16%.Polyamide resin was screened for the purification of catechins.The optimal adsorption conditions were sample flow velocity in 1BV/h,concentration of tea of 20mg/mL.The optimal deabsorption conditions were flow rate of 1BV/h,gradient elution with 1.2BV water,1BV 25% ethanol and 1BV 80% ethanol solution respectively.The prepared catechin contained total catechins≥80%,EGCG≥60%,CAF≤0.5%,and the yield≥7%.Conclusion:According to the best technical conditions of the trial for the preparation of no ethyl acetate catechins,the product was fully meeting the requirements of no ethyl acetate catechins.%目的:探索制备无酯儿茶素的工艺。方法:在前人研究的基础上,以绿茶碎末为原料,用乙醇树脂法制备无酯儿茶素产品。先用80%乙醇,按照料液比1:20、浸提50min、温度70℃的浸提工艺对茶叶进行浸提,并在树脂筛选实验和柱效实验的基础上,设计动态吸附及解吸实验,优化动态吸附与解吸儿茶素的工艺条件。结果:在该浸提条件下,儿茶素的提取率为20.16%;筛选出聚酰胺树脂来纯化儿茶素,纯化的最佳工艺条件为:上样流速1BV/h、料液浓度为20mg/mL;解吸流速为1BV/h,分别用1.2BV

  17. Separation of p-divinylbenzene by selective room-temperature adsorption inside Mg-CUK-1 prepared by aqueous microwave synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccoccia, Beau; Bohnsack, Alisha M; Waggoner, Nolan W; Cho, Kyung Ho; Lee, Ji Sun; Hong, Do-Young; Lynch, Vincent M; Chang, Jong-San; Humphrey, Simon M

    2015-04-27

    A new Mg(II) -based version of the porous coordination polymer CUK-1 with one-dimensional pore structure was prepared by microwave synthesis in water. Mg-CUK-1 is moisture-stable, thermally stable up to 500 °C, and shows unusual reversible soft-crystal behavior: dehydrated single crystals of the material selectively adsorb a range of organic molecules at ambient temperature and pressure. Both polar and apolar aromatic compounds, including pyridine, benzene, p-xylene, and p-divinylbenzene (p-DVB), are all readily adsorbed, while other isomers from complex mixtures of xylenes or DVBs are selectively excluded. The solvent-loaded structures have been studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Time-dependent liquid sorption experiments using commercially available DVB demonstrate a high and rapid selective adsorption of p-DVB and exclusion of m-DVB and ethylvinylbenzene isomers.

  18. Resolution and isolation of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine using thin silica gel layers impregnated with L-glutamic acid, comparison of separation of its diastereomers prepared with chiral derivatizing reagents having L-amino acids as chiral auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Ravi; Nagar, Hariom

    2015-03-01

    Thin silica gel layers impregnated with optically pure l-glutamic acid were used for direct resolution of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine in their native form. Three chiral derivatizing reagents, based on DFDNB moiety, were synthesized having l-alanine, l-valine and S-benzyl-l-cysteine as chiral auxiliaries. These were used to prepare diastereomers under microwave irradiation and conventional heating. The diastereomers were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column with detection at 340 nm using gradient elution with mobile phase containing aqueous trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile in different compositions and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on reversed phase (RP) C18 plates. Diastereomers prepared with enantiomerically pure (+)-isoxsuprine were used as standards for the determination of the elution order of diastereomers of (±)-isoxsuprine. The elution order in the experimental study of RP-TLC and RP-HPLC supported the developed optimized structures of diastereomers based on density functional theory. The limit of detection was 0.1-0.09 µg/mL in TLC while it was in the range of 22-23 pg/mL in HPLC and 11-13 ng/mL in RP-TLC for each enantiomer. The conditions of derivatization and chromatographic separation were optimized. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification.

  19. 铁酸镍负载TiO2的可磁分离光催化剂的制备及性能%Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of Magnetically Separable TiO2 Supported on Nickel Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许士洪; 上官文峰; 袁坚; 陈铭夏; 施建伟

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically separable photocatalyst TiO2/SiO2/NiFe2O4 (TSN) with a typical ferromagnetic hysteresis was prepared by a liquid catalytic phase transfer method.When the intensity of applied magnetic field weakened to zero,the remnant magnetism of the prepared photocatalyst faded to zero.The photocatalytst can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into aqueous solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated,that makes the photocatalysts promising for wastewater treatment.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst, indicating that the magnetic SiO2/NiFe2O4 (SN) particle was compactly enveloped by P-25 titania and TiO2 shell was formed.The magnetic composite showed high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water.A thin SiO2 layer between NiFe2O4 and TiO2 shell prevented effectively the leakage of charges from TiO2 particles to NiFe2O4,which gave rise to the increase in photocatalytic activity.Moreover,the experiment on recycled use of TSN demonstrated a good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity.

  20. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetically Separable Cu2O Photocatalyst%可磁分离Cu2O光催化剂的制备与光催化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 李燕; 徐海燕

    2012-01-01

    采用共沉淀法制备了镍锌铁氧体,水合肼还原法制备了镍锌铁氧体负载Cu2O可磁分离光催化剂.采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD),高分辨透射电子显微镜(HRTEM)对所制得的样品进行了表征;并以甲基橙为降解对象,考察了镍锌铁氧体负载Cu2O可磁分离光催化剂的光催化性能.结果表明:Cu2O/镍锌铁氧体复合粉体对甲基橙溶液有较高的降解能力,重复使用4次光催化效率仍保持在81%,而且Cu2O/镍锌铁氧体光催化剂可通过外加磁场进行分离,具有较好的应用前景.%Nickel-zinc ferrite powders were prepared by coprecipitation method, and magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst was prepared by hydrazine hydrate reduction method. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activities of magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst were investigated by the degradation of methyl orange. The results show that the composite Cu2O-coated nickel-zinc ferrite powders had higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange solution. In addition, its photocatalytic efficiency could be maintained at 81% when it was repeatedly used for 4 times. The magnetically separable Cu2O/nickel-zinc ferrite photocatalyst could be separated from the system by applying an external magnetic field to it. It's considered that the Cu2O-coated nickel-zinc ferrite is a promising photocatalyst.

  1. Pre-Separation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-04

    SEPARATEES Defense Outplacement Referral System (DORS) Since most of us are not independently wealthy, we will need a job after separation. DORS is...Job Assistance SPOUSES OF ALL SEPARATEES As a spouse you may take advantage of preparing Standard Form 17 1’s and resu- the outplacement services

  2. Preparation of a novel ionic hybrid stationary phase by non-covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with amino-derivatized silica gel for fast HPLC separation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Hayriye; Çelik, K Serdar; Aral, Tarık; Topal, Giray

    2016-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were immobilized on spherical silica gel with a 4-μm average particle size and a 60-Å average pore size. The amino-derivatized silica gel was non-covalently coated with carboxylated SWCNTs to preserve the structure of the nanotubes and their physico-chemical properties. The novel ionic hybrid stationary phase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and then, it was used to fill an empty 150×4.6mm(2) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. Chromatographic parameters, such as the theoretical plate number, retention factor and peak asymmetry factor, and analytical parameters, such as the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linear range, calibration equation, and R(2) value, and quantitative analysis parameters were calculated for all of the analytes. Using different mobile phases, five different classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were separated in a very short analysis time of 4-8min. Furthermore, a high theoretical plate number (up to 25000) and an excellent peak asymmetry factor (1.0) were obtained. The results showed that the surface of the SWNTs had very strong interactions with aromatic groups, therefore providing high selectivity for the separation of different classes of aromatic compounds. This study indicates that SWCNTs enable the extension of the application range of the newly prepared stationary phases for the fast separation of aromatic compounds by HPLC.

  3. [[Chiral separation of five arylpropionic acid drugs and determination of their enantiomers in pharmaceutical preparations by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) stationary phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, An; Wan, Qiang; Fan, Huajun; Chen, Zhi; Wu, Xuehao; Huang, Xiaowen; Zang, Linquan

    2014-09-01

    Chromatographic behaviors for enantiomeric separation of arylpropionic acid drugs were systematically developed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) (CTMB) as chiral stationary phase (CSP). The effects of the composition of the mobile phase, additives and temperature on chiral separation of flurbiprofen, pranoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen and loxoprofen were further investigated. The enantiomers had been successfully separated on CSP of CTMB by the mobile phase of methanol-0.1% (v/v) formic acid except naproxen by acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid at 25 °C. The mechanisms of the racemic resolution for the above mentioned five drugs are discussed thermodynamically and structurally. The resolutions between respective enantiomers for arylpropionic acid drugs on CTMB had significant differences due to their chromatographic behaviors. The order of resolutions ranked pranoprofen, loxoprofen, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen. The method established has been successfully applied to the determination of the enantiomers of the five drugs in commercial preparations under the optimized conditions. It proved that the method is simple, reliable and accurate.

  4. Investigation of microstructure, mechanical properties and cellular viability of poly(L-lactic acid) tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by different thermally induced phase separation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud; Medley, John; Kwon, Hyock Ju

    2013-01-01

    Two thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) methods have been used to fabricate biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) tissue engineering scaffolds each with fibrous (F-TIPS) and porous (P-TIPS) microstructures. Three levels of PLLA concentration (3, 5 and 7 wt%) were employed in each fabrication method and both wet and dry specimens were studied. Simple compression testing revealed that an elastic-plastic representation of the mechanical behavior was possible for all specimens. Both elastic and plastic moduli were higher for the P-TIPS, for higher polymer concentration, and might be somewhat higher for dry as opposed to wet specimens. For F-TIPS specimens, permanent deformation occurred successively during cyclic deformation but a "memory effect" simplified the behavior. Although F-TIPS microstructure better resembled the natural extracellular matrix, human osteosarcoma fibroblast cells showed more consistent viability in the P-TIPS scaffolds under our unloaded test protocols. Biodegradation in cell culture medium resulted in a decreased elastic moduli for F-TIPS specimens. Information presented regarding the microstructure, mechanical properties and cell viability of these PLLA scaffolds that should help reduce the number of iterations involved in developing tissue engineering products.

  5. Silk fibroin/sodium alginate composite nano-fibrous scaffold prepared through thermally induced phase-separation (TIPS) method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Liu, Xiaotian; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Liangjun

    2015-10-01

    To mimic the natural fibrous structure of the tissue extracellular matrix, a nano-fibrous silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) composite scaffold was fabricated by a thermally-induced phase-separation method. The effects of SF/SA ratio on the structure and the porosity of the composite scaffolds were examined. Scanning electron microscopy and porosity results showed that the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds possessed an excellent nano-fibrous structure and a porosity of more than 90%. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the physical interaction between SF and SA molecules and their good compatibility in the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds, whereas they showed less compatibility in the 1SF/1SA scaffold. Cell culture results showed that MG-63 cells can attach and grow well on the surface of the SF/SA scaffolds. The nano-fibrous SF/SA scaffold can be potentially used in tissue engineering.

  6. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  7. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  8. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  9. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  10. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  11. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  12. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  13. Rapid isoelectric point determination in a miniaturized preparative separation using jet-dispensed optical pH sensors and micro free-flow electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christin; Beckert, Erik; Nagl, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Herein, the fabrication, characterization, calibration, and application of integrated microfluidic platforms for fast isoelectric point (pI) determinations via free-flow electrophoresis with integrated inkjet-printed fluorescent pH sensor microstructures are presented. These devices allow one to determine the pI of a biomolecule from a sample mixture with moderately good precision and without addition of markers in typically less than 10 s total separation and analysis time. Polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA) hydrogels were covalently coupled with fluorescein and hydroxypyrene trisulfonic acid (HPTS)-based pH probes. These were piezoelectrically jet-dispensed onto acrylate-modified glass as pH sensor microarrays with a diameter of 300-600 μm and thicknesses of 0.4-2.4 μm with high spatial accuracy. Microchip fabrication and integration of these pH sensor arrays was realized by multistep liquid-phase photolithography from oligoethylene glycol precursors resulting in glass-based microfluidic free-flow isoelectric focusing (μFFIEF) chips with integrated pH observation capabilities. The microchips were characterized with regard to pH sensitivity, response times, photo-, and flow stability. Depending on the sensor matrix, they allowed IEF within a pH range of roughly 5.5-10.5 with good sensitivity and fast response times. These microchips were used for FFIEF of small molecule markers and several protein mixtures with simultaneous monitoring of local pH. This allowed the determination of their pI via multispectral imaging of protein and pH sensor fluorescence without addition of external markers. Obtained pI's were generally in good agreement with known data, demonstrating the applicability of the method for pI determination in micropreparative procedures within a time frame of a few seconds only.

  14. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    expressions) for accessing and modifying shared structures, and for explicit allocation and deallocation of storage. Assertions are extended by introducing a "separating conjunction" that asserts that its sub-formulas hold for disjoint parts of the heap, and a closely related "separating implication". Coupled......, dynamically allocated arrays, and recursive procedures. We will also discuss promising future directions....

  15. Preparative Separation of Catechin and Epi-Catechin by High Performance Counter-Current Chromatography%儿茶素和表儿茶素异构体的高效逆流色谱分离制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成超; 尹鹭; 曹学丽; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    应用高效逆流色谱法(HPCCC)对茶叶中的儿茶素和表儿茶素两种同分异构体的分离制备方法进行研究。结果表明:以正己烷-乙酸乙酯-水(体积比1:20:20)为两相溶剂系统,上相为固定相,下相为流动相,可以实现儿茶素和表儿茶素的完全分离。采用138mL的分离柱、1g儿茶素粗提物,在120min内一次制备即可得到纯度在95%以上的表儿茶素约35mg,纯度在99%以上的儿茶素325mg,纯度90%~99%的儿茶素100mg。%High performance counter-current chromatography(HPCCC) was used for the separation and preparation of two isomers,catechin and epicatechin from crude extract of green tea.The results indicated that catechin and epicatechin could be separated completely by HPCCC using a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane,ethyl acetate and water(1:20:20,V/V) to form an upper phase as the stationary phase and a lower phase as the mobile phase.By using a 138 mL separation column,approximately 35mg of epicatechin( 95% purity) and 325mg of( 99% purity) or 100mg of(90%-99% purity) cetechin were obtained from 1 g of crude extract through one-step separation in 120 min.

  16. Evaluation in an emergency department of rapid separator tubes containing thrombin for serum preparation prior to hs-cTnT and CK-MB analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Yasemin U; Huysal, Kagan; Bulut, Mehtap; Polat, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In our emergency department, we collect blood in Rapid Serum Tubes (RSTs; Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ), in which clotting times are reduced. We investigated the influence of RST use on cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) test results, in comparison with the use of tubes featuring a separator gel containing a clotting activator (SSTs; Green-vac, Yongin, Korea). Samples from 60 patients were divided into equal aliquots and placed into RSTs and SSTs; hs-cTnT and CK-MB concentrations were determined using an autoanalyzer (Elecsys 2010) running commercial assays (Roche Diagnostics, Penzberg, Germany). Between-tube differences in CK-MB and hs-cTnT values were compared using the paired t-test, and correlations among variables were evaluated by calculation of Spearman correlation coefficients (r values). Deming regression analysis was performed and Bland-Altman plots were constructed. The hs-cTnT and CK-MB test results obtained from samples placed into RSTs and SSTs did not differ (p > 0.1). The correlations between the concentrations of hs-cTnT and CK-MB in samples placed into RSTs and SSTs were good; both r values were unity (p MB] = 0.95 SST [CK-MB]-0.09 ng/ml. The biases of 1.4 pg/ml (95% CI: minus 8.1-10.7 pg/ml) for hs-cTnT levels and 0.249 ng/ml (95% CI: minus 0.682-1.681 ng/ml) for CK-MB levels assayed using either tube was acceptable. The hs-cTnT and CK-MB test results did not significantly differ when either tube was used. RST tube use was associated with a short clotting time; this was an advantage in an emergency laboratory setting.

  17. 全钒液流电池隔膜的制备与性能%Preparation and Properties of Separation Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪南方; 刘素琴

    2013-01-01

    All vanadium redox flow battery ( VRB) is accepted as a electrochemical energy storage device for the load levelling and peak shaving of the grid, the power supply for remote area, the charging power source for the electric vehicles, and the uninterruptible power supply. As one of the key components in VRB system, the membrane, in the terms of its structures and properties, is responsible for the efficiencies of the VRB. The ion conductivity and vanadium ions permeation of the membrane affect the voltage efficiency and coulombic efficiency of the battery, respectively. The chemical stability of the membrane determines the long-term performance and lifetime of the battery. This review mainly summarizes the preparation and properties of the fluorinated ionic exchange membranes, the non-fluorinated ionic exchange membranes, and the pore membranes. The promising research strategies are outlook.%全钒液流电池作为一种电化学储能装置在电网调峰、山区供电、电动车充电电源、应急电源等方面具有很广阔的应用前景.隔膜是全钒液流电池的关键组件之一,其结构和性能决定电池的效能.隔膜的离子传导率和钒离子的渗透率分别影响电池的电压效率和电流效率.隔膜的化学稳定性决定电池的长期运行的稳定性和使用寿命.本文根据隔膜的类别不同,分别阐述了含氟离子膜、非氟离子膜及多孔膜的制备与上述性能的关系,并展望了隔膜的发展方向.

  18. Preparation of carbon molecular sieve membranes by KOH activation for gas separation%KOH活化法制备气体分离用炭分子筛膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小勇; 刘锐; 胡浩权; 郑明东

    2012-01-01

    选用KOH为活化剂,利用化学活化法制备炭分子筛膜,考察在热塑性酚醛树脂(PFNR)涂膜液中添加不同质量分数的KOH对炭分子筛膜的影响.结果表明,在炭化过程中,KOH的加入可促进炭分子筛膜孔径的均匀分布,使炭分子筛膜具有发达的孔隙结构.当KOH在PFNR中的添加量从0%增加到4%时,H2的渗透速率由23.68×10-10 mol·m-2·s-1·pa-1提高到28.6×10-10 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1;但H2/N2和H2/CH4的分离系数明显下降,分别从471.3下降到147.5、540下降到270.CO2/CH4和O2/N2的分离系数只有轻微下降.%Carbon molecular sieve membranes were prepared by the pyrolysis of a mixture containing phenolic novolac resin and KOH. The effects of KOH on the properties of the membranes were investigated. Results showed that membranes with homogeneous pore size distributions and high gas permeation rates can be obtained by controlling the amount of KOH . Their H2 gas permeability increased from 23.68×10-10to28.6×10-10 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1and H2/N2 and H/CH4 selectivity decreased from 471.3 to 147.5 and 540 to 270 respectively, while the CO2/CH4 and O2/N, selectivity changed little with increasing KOH content in the coating solution from 0 to 4 mass% .

  19. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  20. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  1. Digestion of sludge and organic waste in the sustainability concept for Malmoe, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Jes la Cour; Gruvberger, Christopher; Hanner, Niklas; Aspegren, Henrik; Svaerd, Aasa

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sludge has been part of the treatment plant in Malmoe for many years and several projects on optimisation of the digestion process have been undertaken in full scale as well as in pilot scale. In order to facilitate a more sustainable solution in the future for waste management, solid waste organic waste is sorted out from households for anaerobic treatment in a newly built city district. The system for treatment of the waste is integrated in a centralised solution located at the existing wastewater treatment plant. A new extension of the digester capacity enables separate as well as co-digestion of sludge together with urban organic waste from households, industry, restaurants, big kitchens, food stores, supermarkets, green markets etc. for biogas production and production of fertiliser. Collection and pre-treatment of different types of waste are in progress together with examination of biogas potential for different types of organic waste. Collection of household waste as well as anaerobic digestion in laboratory and pilot scale has been performed during the last year. It is demonstrated that organic household waste can be digested separately or in combination with sludge. In the latter case a higher biogas yield is found than should be expected from digestion of the two materials separately. Household waste from a system based on collection of organic waste from grinders could be digested at mesophilic conditions whereas digestion failed at thermophilic conditions.

  2. Digestion of sludge and organic waste in the sustainability concept for Malmö, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour Jansen, J; Gruvberger, C; Hanner, N; Aspegren, H; Svärd, A

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sludge has been part of the treatment plant in Malmö for many years and several projects on optimisation of the digestion process have been undertaken in full scale as well as in pilot scale. In order to facilitate a more sustainable solution in the future for waste management, solid waste organic waste is sorted out from households for anaerobic treatment in a newly built city district. The system for treatment of the waste is integrated in a centralised solution located at the existing wastewater treatment plant. A new extension of the digester capacity enables separate as well as co-digestion of sludge together with urban organic waste from households, industry, restaurants, big kitchens, food stores, supermarkets, green markets etc. for biogas production and production of fertiliser. Collection and pre-treatment of different types of waste are in progress together with examination of biogas potential for different types of organic waste. Collection of household waste as well as anaerobic digestion in laboratory and pilot scale has been performed during the last year. It is demonstrated that organic household waste can be digested separately or in combination with sludge. In the latter case a higher biogas yield is found than should be expected from digestion of the two materials separately. Household waste from a system based on collection of organic waste from grinders could be digested at mesophilic conditions whereas digestion failed at thermophilic conditions.

  3. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin

    2004-01-01

    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  4. Slowly digestible starch--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.

  5. Removal and separation of impurity ions in preparation of high-purity inorganic salts%高纯无机盐制备中杂质离子的去除与分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了在制备高纯无机盐过程中,有害杂质离子——重有色金属离子(Cu、Mg、Zn、Pd、Cd等)、铁离子、砷化物的去除与分离方法:氧化-还原法、难溶金属氢氧化物沉淀法、硫化物沉淀法.%Introduced in the preparation of high purity inorganic salt process, harmful impurity ion-heavy non-ferrous metal ion (Cu,Mg,Zn,Pd,CDS,etc. ) ,iron ion,arsenide in removing and separation methods : oxidation-reduction method and difficult to thick metal hydroxide precipitation, sulfide precipitation.

  6. Solvent: A Key in Digestive Ripening for Monodisperse Au Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Xuan; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Yunong; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Jun; Fu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work has mainly investigated the influence of the solvent on the nanoparticles distribution in digestive ripening. The experiments suggested that the solvents played a key role in digestive ripening of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). For the benzol solvents, the resulting size distribution of Au NPs was inversely related to the solvent polarity. It may be interpreted by the low Gibbs free energy of nanoparticles in the high polarity medium, which was supposedly in favor of reducing the nanoparticles distribution. Through digestive ripening in the highly polar benzol solvent of p-chlorotoluene, monodisperse Au NPs with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% were achieved. This indicated that digestive ripening was an effective and practical way to prepare high-quality nanoparticles, which holds great promise for the nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  7. Secondary Structure and Subunit Composition of Soy Protein In Vitro Digested by Pepsin and Its Relation with Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro digestibility and structure of soybean protein isolates (SPIs prepared from five soybean varieties were investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, using FT-IR microspectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that β-conformations were prone to be hydrolyzed by pepsin preferentially and transformed to unordered structure during in vitro digestion, followed by the digestion of α-helix and unordered structure. A negative linear correlation coefficient was found between the β-conformation contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. The intensities of the protein bands corresponding to 7S and 11S fractions were decreased and many peptide bands appeared at 11~15 kDa during enzymatic hydrolysis. β-conglycinin was poorly hydrolyzed with pepsin, especially the β-7S subunit. On the other hand, basic polypeptides of glycinin degraded slower than acidic polypeptides and represented a large proportion of the residual protein after digestion. 11S-A3 of all SPIs disappeared after 1 h digestion. Moreover, a significant negative linear correlation coefficient (r=-0.89 was found between the β-7S contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. These results are useful for further studies of the functional properties and bioactive properties of these varieties and laid theoretical foundations for the development of the specific functional soy protein isolate.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  9. Efficacy of microbial phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for gestating and lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Kemme, P.A.; Broz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested from 20% to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of phytase derived from

  10. 煤焦油的分离和优质煤沥青的制备%Separation and High-quality Coal-tar Pitch Preparation from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建石; 魏贤勇; 李鹏; 丛兴顺; 窦有权; 宗志敏

    2011-01-01

    Coal tar is extracted sequentially in self-designed batch extractor at 25 ℃. The lightweight components are separated through a few columns chromatography. Meanwhile GC and GC/MS are used to analyze and classify the main compounds. Furthermore naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and acearylenes are separated out from the lightweight components. Heavyweight components are prepared high-quality coal-tar pitches by R-134 evaporator device after reextracting small molecular compounds and the structural properties of coal-tar pitches are analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.%常温下(25℃)使用自行设计的萃取装置对煤焦油进行分步萃取,所得轻质组分经过柱层析多级分离,使用气相色谱(GC)和气质联用(GC/MS)归类分析煤焦油中的主要化合物,分离出萘、菲、蒽、荧蒽、芘和醋芳烯等化合物纯品.所得重质组分经反萃取去除小分子后,通过R- 134蒸发器装置制备优质煤沥青,并使用红外光谱仪(FT-IR)分析其结构特性.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Facilitated Transport Membranes Composed of Chitosan-Styrene and Chitosan-Acrylonitrile Copolymers Modified by Methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for CO₂ Separation from CH₄ and N₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvagina, Ksenia V; Mochalova, Alla E; Sazanova, Tatyana S; Petukhov, Anton N; Moskvichev, Alexandr A; Vorotyntsev, Andrey V; Afonso, Carlos A M; Vorotyntsev, Ilya V

    2016-06-09

    CO₂ separation was found to be facilitated by transport membranes based on novel chitosan (CS)-poly(styrene) (PS) and chitosan (CS)-poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) copolymer matrices doped with methylimidazolium based ionic liquids: [bmim][BF₄], [bmim][PF₆], and [bmim][Tf₂N] (IL). CS plays the role of biodegradable film former and selectivity promoter. Copolymers were prepared implementing the latest achievements in radical copolymerization with chosen monomers, which enabled the achievement of outstanding mechanical strength values for the CS-based membranes (75-104 MPa for CS-PAN and 69-75 MPa for CS-PS). Ionic liquid (IL) doping affected the surface and mechanical properties of the membranes as well as the gas separation properties. The highest CO₂ permeability 400 Barrers belongs to CS-b-PS/[bmim][BF₄]. The highest selectivity α (CO₂/N₂) = 15.5 was achieved for CS-b-PAN/[bmim][BF₄]. The operational temperature of the membranes is under 220 °C.

  12. Rapid Separation of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in Yogurt and Preparation of Fermentation Agent%酸奶中杆菌和球菌的快速分离及发酵剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鸿; 李靖靖; 岳春

    2013-01-01

    Because of symbiosis relation between Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermothillus,it is difficult to separate them.According tothe different demand on pH value,Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermothillus were separated by different media,and then a excellent yogurt fermentation agent was prepared by mixed Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermothillus with ratio of (1~2) ∶ 1.%保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌有共生关系,较难分离.根据保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌对培养基pH值的不同需求,分别配制不同的培养基,将其分离开来;然后将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌活化菌悬液以(1~2)∶1的比例混合,制得一种优良的酸奶发酵剂.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Facilitated Transport Membranes Composed of Chitosan-Styrene and Chitosan-Acrylonitrile Copolymers Modified by Methylimidazolium Based Ionic Liquids for CO2 Separation from CH4 and N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia V. Otvagina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CO2 separation was found to be facilitated by transport membranes based on novel chitosan (CS–poly(styrene (PS and chitosan (CS–poly(acrylonitrile (PAN copolymer matrices doped with methylimidazolium based ionic liquids: [bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], and [bmim][Tf2N] (IL. CS plays the role of biodegradable film former and selectivity promoter. Copolymers were prepared implementing the latest achievements in radical copolymerization with chosen monomers, which enabled the achievement of outstanding mechanical strength values for the CS-based membranes (75–104 MPa for CS-PAN and 69–75 MPa for CS-PS. Ionic liquid (IL doping affected the surface and mechanical properties of the membranes as well as the gas separation properties. The highest CO2 permeability 400 Barrers belongs to CS-b-PS/[bmim][BF4]. The highest selectivity α (CO2/N2 = 15.5 was achieved for CS-b-PAN/[bmim][BF4]. The operational temperature of the membranes is under 220 °C.

  14. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  15. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  16. Three novel triazine-based materials with different O/S/N set of donor atoms: One-step preparation and comparison of their capability in selective separation of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chiyao; Zhang, Meicheng; Li, Bo; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2015-12-30

    Cyanuric chloride was chosen as a core skeleton which reacted with desired linker molecules, urea, thiourea and thiosemicarbazide, to prepare three novel functional covalent triazine-based frameworks, CCU (O-donor set), CCTU (S-donor set) and CCTS (S, N-donor set) respectively, designed for selective adsorption of U(VI). The products have high nitrogen concentration (>30 wt%), regular structure, relatively high chemical and thermal stability. Adsorption behaviors of the products on U(VI) were examined by batch experiments. CCU and CCTU can extract U(VI) from simulated nuclear industrial effluent containing 12 co-existing cations with relatively high selectivity (54.4% and 54.2%, respectively). Especially, effects of donor atoms O/S on adsorption were investigated, and the outcomes indicate that the difference in coordinating ability between the donor atoms is weakened in large conjugated systems, and the related functional groups with originally very strong coordination abilities may not be the best choice for the application in selective adsorption of uranium and also other metals. The as-proposed approach can easily be expanded into design and preparation of new highly efficient adsorbents for selective separation and recovery of uranium through adjusting the structures, types and amounts of functional groups of adsorbents by choosing suitable linkers.

  17. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm.

  18. Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst Nanospheres%可磁分离光催化剂的制备及其光催化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许士洪; 谭东栋; 毕得福; 时鹏辉; 李晔

    2013-01-01

    通过反胶束法和溶胶-凝胶法制备出了一种类蛋结构的可磁分离光催化剂纳米球ZnO@SiO2@NiFe2O4(ZSN),这种光催化剂显示出了超顺磁性和较好的光催化活性.该光催化剂的X-射线衍射和TEM分析结果表明:NiFe2O4纳米粒子被包裹在二氧化硅内形成磁性硅球SiO2@NiFe2O4 (SN)载体,ZnO纳米粒子包覆在SN的表面,形成ZnO光催化壳层.光催化实验表明,在500℃下煅烧3h的ZSN表现出最佳的光催化活性.%A novel magnetically separable photocatalyst nanosphere ZnO@SiO2@NiFe2O4 (ZSN) with egg-type structure was prepared by reverse micelles method and sol-gel method. The prepared photocatalyst shows superparamagnetic nature and high photocatalytic activity. XRD and TEM were used to characterize the structure of ZSN. The photocatalytic activity of ZSN was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange. The results indicated that the nickel ferrite cqre nanoparti-cles were completely encapsulated into the silica nanospheres as carrier, and the ZnO nanoparticles were coated onto the surface of the SN nanospheres, forming a ZnO shell for photocatalysis. The as-prepared ZSN calcined at 500 ℃ for 3 h presented the best photocatalytic activity.

  19. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  20. Isolation of Protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida by Alginate Lyase Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoke; JIANG Xiaolu; GUAN Huashi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate protoplasts from Undaria pinnatifida. Protoplasts of the alga were isolated enzymatically by using alginate lyase, which was prepared by fermenting culture of a strain Vibrio sp. 510. Monofacterial method was applied for optimizing digestion condition. The optimum condition for protoplast preparation is enzymatic digestion at 28 ℃ for 2 h using alginate lyase at the concentration of 213.36 U (8 mL) every 0.5 g fresh thalline with NaCl 50 and at the shaking speed of 150 r min-1 during digestion. The protoplast yield can reach 2.62 + 0.09 million per 0.5 g fresh leave under the optimum condition. The enzyme activity is inhibited by Ca2+ and slightly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ at concentrations of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 molL-1.

  1. 整体材料的研制及其在蛋白质组色谱分离中的应用%Preparation of monolithic materials and applications in proteomic chromatographic separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慈; 梁玉; 梁振; 张丽华; 张玉奎

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of facile preparation,fast mass transfer,low backpressure and easy modifica-tion,monolithic materials have been widely used in chromatographic separation.In order to familiarize profes-sionals of home and abroad with the present situation of monolithic materials,this review mainly summarizes the preparation methods of different kinds of monolithic materials (including organic polymer monoliths,silica-based monoliths,organic-inorganic hybrid silica monoliths)and their applications in the separation of proteins or peptides in proteomics.It was pointed out that compared with packed column,monolithic packed column efficiency was to be further improved from the performance of monolithic materials,such as specific surface area,pore size distribution,stablity and hydrophilicity.Taking advantage of the low backpressure of monolithic materials,the capillary monolithic column with superlong and superfine inner diameter was prepared in order to make high efficient separation analysis of macro proteomics samples.With the further study of monolithic materials preparation technology,monolithic materials will play more important role in the fields of food safety, life science and environment.%整体材料由于具有制备简单、传质速度快、低背压、表面易于修饰等优势,在色谱分离领域中应用非常广泛。为使业界了解国内外对整体材料研制的现状,对有机聚合物整体材料、硅胶整体材料、有机-无机杂化整体材料三种整体材料的制备方法及其在蛋白质组学中蛋白质和肽段色谱分离中的应用进行了综述,指出:与填充柱相比,整体柱的分离柱效仍有待进一步提高,可以从整体材料的性能,如比表面积、孔径分布、稳定性、亲水性等方面进行改进。利用整体材料低背压的优势,可制备超长、超细内径毛细管整体柱,有利于微量蛋白质组学样品的高效分离分析。随着对整体材料制备

  2. Polyimide and polyimide/silica composites membranes for applications in gas separation: effects of preparation conditions on the structure and the permeation properties; Membranes polyimide et composites polyimide/silice pour des applications de separation gazeuse: effets des conditions de preparation sur la structure et les proprietes de permeation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goizet, S.

    1997-03-01

    Polyimides have been largely studied in gaseous permeation for their high selectivities and thermo-stability. Correlatively, their permeabilities are low. The aim of this work has been to study the effect of the introduction of silica particles on the gaseous permeation properties of these polymers. The studied polyimides are the ODA-PMDA (with the same chemical structure of the Kapton), a fluorinated polyimide, the 6FDA-mPDA and the Ultem. The chosen way to introduce silica in these polymers is the sol-gel process. Polyimide/silica composites containing different proportions of silica have been carried out. The materials alone and in presence of silica have been characterized by different techniques (NMR, FTIR, light diffusion, TGA, DSC, viscosimetry, X-ray diffraction, SEM and density). Auto-supported membranes (films) and membranes supported on porous materials (thin layers) have been carried out. The gas permeation tests (He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) of these membranes and their static characterization (thickness, density, chains organization) have led us to establish correlations between the preparation of such materials, their structure and their properties. The introduction of silica allows to increase the permeabilities. Selectivities are in some case improved too. This phenomenon has been explained by the structural changes occurring during the preparation of materials, due to the used preparation mode and to the presence of silica. (O.M.)

  3. Purification, characterization and antioxidant properties of low molecular weight collagenous polypeptide (37 kDa) prepared from whale shark cartilage (Rhincodon typus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevithan, Elango; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Jingyi; Hong, Shaotong; Wu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    A low molecular weight type-II collagenous polypeptide (CIIp) from whale shark (WS) cartilage was prepared by thermolysin digestion; and examined for their physico-functional and antioxidant properties. The purified collagen was composed of an identical (α1)3 chains and was characterized as type-II. After hydrolysis with thermolysin, the α-chain of the WS collagen was degraded into smaller peptides with molecular weight ranging from 70 to 20KDa. CIIp was successfully separated from the hydrol...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions......Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...

  5. Consejeria de los directores (Principal Mentoring). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although…

  6. Science Classrooms for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest summarizes research on teaching special needs students relative to the concerns of K-12 science teachers. Guidelines for instituting inclusive policies and practices are presented. Strategies for preparing science classroom materials and adapting teaching methods for students with physical and learning disabilities are also discussed,…

  7. Anaerobic Digestion Analysis. Training Module 5.120.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with alkalinity, volatile acids and carbon dioxide determinations for an anaerobic sludge digester. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers total and bicarbonate…

  8. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  9. Digestive health in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.

  10. Effect of compound enzyme preparation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglet%复合酶制剂对仔猪生长性能及养分消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜德伟; 孟宪梅; 孙肖明; 孙华军

    2012-01-01

    Pigs, weighing an average of 20.0 kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments, eight pigs with each pen. The groups were respectively fed with the three kinds of different diets which contained no compound enzyme preparation, compound enzyme preparation I , compound enzyme preparation II for 28 days. The results show that compound enzyme preparation with full range and high enzyme activity, can not only improve effectively the growth performance and ameliorate utilization of nitrogen and phosphorus in feed, but also reduce pollution of pig manure. So compound enzyme preparation will be the development trend in the form of new efficient and environmental protection feed additive in the future.%研究选取了体重为20.0 kg左右的杜×长×大三元杂交猪24头,随机分为3组,每个处理组8头,分别饲喂不合酶制剂、含酶制剂Ⅰ、含酶制剂Ⅱ的3种日粮,饲养期为28 d.结果表明,酶种类齐全、酶活高的复合酶制剂,能够更有效地提高仔猪的生长性能,改善对饲料氮和磷的利用,降低粪便的排放污染,是未来高效新型环保饲料添加剂的发展趋势.

  11. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossios Apostolos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  12. Apoptosis-inducing activity of a driselase digest fraction of green tea residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Y; Koyama, Y; Saeki, K; Sazuka, M; Ookawa, K; Isemura, M

    2001-01-01

    We enzymatically digested green tea residue with Driselase, a crude preparation containing cellulase, pectinase and proteases, in order to examine the potential usefulness of the residue. A fraction of the digest soluble in 70% ethanol was found to induce the death of U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells by apoptosis. Other enzyme preparations gave similar products with cell death-inducing activity of varing potency. The green tea residue may therefore be a useful source of potential agents with anti-cancer activity.

  13. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Crolla, Anna; Desjardins, Raymond L; MacDonald, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions were measured over two years at an earthen storage containing digestate from a mesophilic biodigester in Ontario, Canada. The digester processed dairy manure and co-substrates from the food industry, and destroyed 62% of the influent volatile solids (VS). Annual average emissions were 19gCH4m(-3)d(-1) and 0.27gCH4kg(-1)VSd(-1). About 76% of annual emissions occurred from June to October. Annual cumulative emissions from digestate corresponded to 12% of the CH4 produced within the digester. A key contributor to CH4 emissions was the sludge layer in storage, which contained as much VS as the annual discharge from the digester. These findings suggest that digestate management provides an opportunity to further enhance the benefits of biogas (i.e. reducing CH4 emissions compared to undigested liquid manure, and producing renewable energy). Potential best practices for future study include complete storage emptying, solid-liquid separation, and storage covering.

  14. PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF PIG’S DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Krstanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal development of the digestive system of piglets is a complex process characterized by numerous changes in the structural and functional level caused by the action of various factors. As the main organ in which digestion and absorption take place, the small intestine is most affected by these changes. During parturition the digestive system is colonized by numerous microorganisms which further stimulate the structural and immune development acting as a part of the protective barrier lining. Colostrum intake passively immunizes and promotes the development of the digestive system. The enzymatic system of piglets is undeveloped after parturition and adapted to colostrum and milk digestion developing gradually due to the interaction of food ingredients, microbiota and genes. After weaning piglets stop to eat temporarily and a short delay in growth and invasion of intestinal structure and function occure. In order to prepare the digestive system for weaning, it is important to start feeding piglets with high quality, hygienic and balanced forage on time.

  15. GPS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  16. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  17. Recovery of energy from Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, T; Ramasamy, E V

    2008-01-01

    We present studies on solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SOFADs) in which chopped Colocasia esculenta was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop an efficient means of utilizing the semi-aquatic weed that is otherwise an environmental nuisance. Two types of SOFADs were studied. The first type had a single vessel with two compartments. The lower portion of the digester, 25% of the total volume, was separated from the upper by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cow dung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the digester led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The bioleachate, rich in the VFAs, passed through the perforated PVC disk and was collected in the lower compartment of the digester. The other type of digesters, referred to as anaerobic multi-phase high-solids digesters (AMHDs), had the same type of compartmentalized digester unit as the first type and an additional methaniser unit. Up-flow anaerobic filters (UAFs) were used as methaniser units, which converted the bioleachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 60% methane. All SOFADs developed a consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 20 weeks from the start. Among the two types of digesters studied, the AMHDs were found to perform better with a twofold increase in biogas yield compared to the first type of digesters.

  18. The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi has a flow-through system for digestion with three consecutive phases of extracellular digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumann, D; Puls, G

    1997-01-01

    The ctenophore (comb jelly) Mnemiopsis leidyi is a periodically abundant and voracious predator in U.S. coastal waters. Mnemiopsis leidyi is especially competitive at high prey concentrations because of its very efficient extracellular digestion. We investigated the functional basis for these outstanding digestion capabilities. Extracellular digestion takes place in the pharynx and consists of three distinct and consecutive phases. The three phases take place in different regions of the pharynx so that various prey items can be treated simultaneously in each phase. The first phase is acidic, while the second and the third are alkaline. Extracellular digestion is completed by ciliary currents that mechanically disrupt the predigested food. Bulky indigestible food fragments are expelled through the mouth. Except for a small area, the paths for ingestion and egestion are separate. Hence, both ingestion and egestion can occur simultaneously. The flattened and elongated shape of the pharynx provides the morphological basis for this flow-through system with various regions for different digestive treatments of the food. This system is highly elaborated compared with those of other lower invertebrates and allows for an efficient, fast, and simultaneous digestion of many prey items, which accounts for the outstanding feeding capabilities of M. leidyi.

  19. Testing in Literature. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Pointing out that student testing in literature should take into account each school's philosophy concerning the literature curriculum, this digest explores the broad domain of literature study and looks at specific objectives and outcomes in literature testing. The digest discusses answers to the following questions: (1) Where are the broad…

  20. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  1. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  2. Highly biocompatible and water-dispersible, amine functionalized magnetite nanoparticles, prepared by a low temperature, air-assisted polyol process: a new platform for bio-separation and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Manasmita; Dhak, Prasanta; Gupta, Satyajit; Basak, Amit; Pramanik, Panchanan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mishra, Debasish; Maiti, Tapas K, E-mail: md_manasmita@yahoo.com, E-mail: panchanan_123@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur (India)

    2010-03-26

    A low temperature polyol process, based on glycolaldehyde mediated partial reduction of FeCl{sub 3{center_dot}}6H{sub 2}O at 120 deg. C in the presence of sodium acetate as an alkali source and 2, 2{sup '}-(ethylenedioxy)-bis-(ethylamine) as an electrostatic stabilizer has been used for the gram-scale preparation of biocompatible, water-dispersible, amine functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with an average diameter of 6 {+-} 0.75 nm. With a reasonably high magnetization (37.8 e.m.u.) and amine groups on the outer surface of the nanoparticles, we demonstrated the magnetic separation and concentration implications of these ultrasmall particles in immunoassay. MRI studies indicated that these nanoparticles had the desired relaxivity for T{sub 2} contrast enhancement in vivo. In vitro biocompatibility, cell uptake and MR imaging studies established that these nanoparticles were safe in clinical dosages and by virtue of their ultrasmall sizes and positively charged surfaces could be easily internalized by cancer cells. All these positive attributes make these functional nanoparticles a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

  3. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  4. Ultrafast laser control of vibrational dynamics for a two-dimensional model of HONO 2 in the ground electronic state: separation of conformers, control of the bond length, selective preparation of the discrete and the continuum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, M.; Paramonov, G. K.

    1998-06-01

    Selective excitation of the vibrational bound and the continuum states, controlled by subpicosecond infrared (IR) laser pulses, is simulated within the Schrödinger wave function formalism for a two-dimensional model of the HONO 2 molecule in the ground electronic state. State-selective excitation of the OH bond is achieved by single optimal laser pulses, with the probability being 97% for the bound states and more than 91% for the resonances. Stable, long-living continuum states are prepared with more than 96% probability by two optimal laser pulses, with the expectation energy of the molecule being well above the dissociation threshold of the ON single bond, and its life-time being at least 100 ps. The length of the ON single bond can be controlled selectively: stretching and contraction by about 45% of its equilibrium length are demonstrated. Laser separation of spatial conformers of HONO 2 in inhomogeneous conditions occurring on an anisotropic surface or created by a direct current (DC) electric field is analysed. The relative yields of target conformers may be very high, ranging from 10 to 10 8, and the absolute yields of up to 40% and more are calculated.

  5. Separation and preparation of 6-gingerol from molecular distillation residue of Yunnan ginger rhizomes by high-speed counter-current chromatography and the antioxidant activity of ginger oils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhilin; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Xiaosong; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Mo; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-02-01

    Molecular distillation residue (MD-R) from ginger had the most total phenol content of 247.6mg gallic acid equivalents per gram (GAE/g) among the ginger oils. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully performed in separation and purification of 6-gingerol from MD-R by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:5:7, v/v/v/v). The target compound was isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by HPLC. A total of 90.38±0.53mg 6-gingerol was obtained from 600mg MD-R, with purity of 99.6%. In addition, the structural identification of 6-gingerol was performed by EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Moreover, the orders of antioxidant activity were vitamin E (VE)>supercritical fluid extraction oleoresin (SFE-O)=MD-R=6-gingerol>molecular distillation essential oil (MD-EO) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)=VE>6-gingerol>MD-R=SFE-O>MD-EO, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and β-Carotene bleaching.

  6. Comparison of detergent-based sample preparation workflows for LTQ-Orbitrap analysis of the Escherichia coli proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, Alessandro; Biosa, Grazia; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Addis, Maria Filippa; Uzzau, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    This work presents a comparative evaluation of several detergent-based sample preparation workflows for the MS-based analysis of bacterial proteomes, performed using the model organism Escherichia coli. Initially, RapiGest- and SDS-based buffers were compared for their protein extraction efficiency and quality of the MS data generated. As a result, SDS performed best in terms of total protein yields and overall number of MS identifications, mainly due to a higher efficiency in extracting high molecular weight (MW) and membrane proteins, while RapiGest led to an enrichment in periplasmic and fimbrial proteins. Then, SDS extracts underwent five different MS sample preparation workflows, including: detergent removal by spin columns followed by in-solution digestion (SC), protein precipitation followed by in-solution digestion in ammonium bicarbonate or urea buffer, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), and 1DE separation followed by in-gel digestion. On the whole, about 1000 proteins were identified upon LC-MS/MS analysis of all preparations (>1100 with the SC workflow), with FASP producing more identified peptides and a higher mean sequence coverage. Each protocol exhibited specific behaviors in terms of MW, hydrophobicity, and subcellular localization distribution of the identified proteins; a comparative assessment of the different outputs is presented.

  7. Effect of Camellia sp. on dairy matrix digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Scholzová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to summarise of current knowledge about the effects and biological properties of the substances contained in leaves of Camellia sinensis, their digestion and their effect on the digestion of dairy matrices. Camellia sinensis is a plant, which is used to tea production. Tea is manufactured by fermentation of tea leaves and according to its degree it is possible to prepare different kinds of this product. The best known are green, black and oolong tea. Beverag...

  8. 二次生长法制备高分离性能的PHI分子筛膜%Preparation of PHI Zeolite Membrane with High Separation Performance by the Secondary Growth Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文辉; 常然然; 刘晓晨; 李莉

    2011-01-01

    PHI zeolite membrane was prepared by the secondary growth method on the surface of a porous CT-AI2O3 disk support. The effects of the zeolite seed preparation method, secondary growth time, and temperature on membrane synthesis were investigated. The as-synthesized PHI zeolite membranes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results show that PHI zeolite emerges on the support. The SEM results show that the support surface is fully covered by uniform and compact PHI zeolite membrane synthesized by the secondary growth method and the thicknesses of the membrane layer was found to be about 20 μm. The as-synthesized PHI zeolite membranes were used for dehydration of methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (IPA), and tert-butanol (TBA) solutions with different kinetic diameters. The influence of feed concentration on the separation performance was investigated by pervaporation tests. The results show that the PHI membranes exhibited excellent performance of the dehydration of alcohol/water mixtures. It was found that the flux and the separation factors of isopropanol and terf-butanol increased with the increment of the water amount in the feed and the separation factors of methanol and ethanol decreased slightly.%通过二次生长法在α-Al2O3支撑体表面合成了PHI分子筛膜,考察了晶种合成方式、二次生长合成温度及时间对形成PHI分子筛膜的影响.采用X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对合成膜进行表征.结果表明:载体表面合成出了PHI分子筛;二次生长法合成出的PHI分子筛膜连续、致密,膜厚约为20 μm.利用渗透汽化技术对甲醇、乙醇、异丙醇和叔丁醇等不同分子尺寸的醇/水体系进行分离性能的研究,同时考察原料液中水含量对所制备的PHI分子筛膜的分离性能的影响.结果表明:PHI分子筛膜对几种醇水体系都具有良好的分离效果,随着水含量的增加,水的渗

  9. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Cucina, Mirko; Folch, Montserrat; Tàpias, Josefina; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-05-15

    Microalgae anaerobic digestion produces biogas along with a digestate that may be reused in agriculture. However, the properties of this digestate for agricultural reuse have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to characterise digestates from different microalgae anaerobic digestion processes (i.e. digestion of untreated microalgae, thermally pretreated microalgae and thermally pretreated microalgae in co-digestion with primary sludge). The main parameters evaluated were organic matter, macronutrients and heavy metals content, hygenisation, potential phytotoxicity and organic matter stabilisation. According to the results, all microalgae digestates presented suitable organic matter and macronutrients, especially organic and ammonium nitrogen, for agricultural soils amendment. However, the thermally pretreated microalgae digestate was the least stabilised digestate in comparison with untreated microalgae and co-digestion digestates. In vivo bioassays demonstrated that the digestates did not show residual phytotoxicity when properly diluted, being the co-digestion digestate the one which presented less phytotoxicity. Heavy metals contents resulted far below the threshold established by the European legislation on sludge spreading. Moreover, low presence of E. coli was observed in all digestates. Therefore, agricultural reuse of thermally pretreated microalgae and primary sludge co-digestate through irrigation emerges a suitable strategy to recycle nutrients from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH4(+)-N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm(-1)) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm(-1)) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  11. Preparation of High-purity Reactive Black for Digital Printing with MF/NF Separation Technology%微滤/纳滤分离工艺制备数码喷墨印花高纯活性黑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩勤; 王慧; 秦国胜; 黄满满; 张亚涛

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the high purity liquid reactive black was prepared by using the membrane separation technology,including the microfiltration(MF) membrane for removing particulate,the Charged-mosiac membrane (CMM) for desalination in the constant-volume filtration and the nanofiltration(NF) membrane for dehydration.The solid reactive black with high purity was prepared by spray drying.The experimental results show that with the 61.5 g · L-1 raw material liquid,under the pressure of 1.0 MPa,the salts were removed after 8 hours desalination.The purity of dye could meet the requirement and the loss rate of the dye was 0.62%.The average permeation flux of the charged-mosiac membrane was 18.5 L · m-2 · h-1 during the desalination process,which illustrated that the fouling of membrane was not so serious.Under the pressure of 1.4-1.8 MPa,the reactive black concentration can achieve 250 g · L-1 by dehydration.The solid dye was prepared by the spray drying.It was analysed that the inorganic salt in the product was lower than the imported product used by the enterprise.To sum up,the product prepared in the experiment has a good application prospect.%实验以国产活性黑粗染料为原料,采用微滤膜除杂、荷电镶嵌膜恒容脱盐和纳滤膜脱水浓缩工艺制备高纯度、高浓度液体活性染料;并通过喷雾干燥制备了高纯固体活性黑.实验结果表明:针对染料含量为61.5 g/L的原料液,在操作压力1.0 MPa条件下,脱盐8h染料纯度达到要求,染料损失率为0.62%;脱盐过程中荷电镶嵌膜的平均透过通量约为18.5 L·m-2· h-1.在1.4~1.8 MPa下,可将高纯料液脱水浓缩,使活性黑浓度达到250 g/L.实验采用喷雾干燥法制备固体染料,经分析该产品的无机盐含量低于企业目前所用的进口产品,具有良好的应用前景.

  12. 利用α-淀粉酶和β-淀粉酶制备缓慢消化淀粉%Preparation of slowly digestible starch by α-amylase andβ-amylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国萍; 连莲

    2011-01-01

    Making normal corn starch as original material, SDS was prepared by α-amylase and β-amylase respectively. The orthogonal test optimal conditions were given as follows, α-amylase: pH 6.5, enzyme reaction time of 50 min, temperature 50 ℃, α-amylase 240 U; β-amylase: pH 7.0, enzyme reaction time of 60 min, temperature 40 ℃, β-amylase 500 U. Based on these conditions, starch products prepared using a-amylase and β-amylase showed yield of SDS by 7.11% and 10.12%. Although the optimum conditions of the two methods are similar, the products prepared using β-amylase with higher yield.%以普通玉米淀粉为原料,分别利用α-淀粉酶和β-淀粉酶制备缓慢消化淀粉(SDS),并通过正交试验优化了制备SDS的最佳工艺条件.通过正交试验确定α-淀粉酶法制备SDS的最佳条件为:pH 6.5,酶反应时间50min,温度50℃,α-淀粉酶用量240 U,在此条件下SDS最高产率为7.11%;通过正交试验确定β-淀粉酶法制备SDS的最佳务件为:pH 7.0,酶反应时间60 min,温度40℃,β-淀粉酶用量500 U,在此条件下SDS最高产率为10.12%.由于两种制备方法的最佳工艺条件差别不大,而β-淀粉酶法制备的产品产率较高.

  13. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  14. [Effects of the size of magnetic particles of immobilized enzyme reactors on the digestion performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zhou, Lianqi; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-02-01

    We applied immobilized enzyme reactors prepared with different sizes of magnetic particles into protein and proteome digestion. In addition, the influences of different sizes of the magnetic particles were studied on the reunion, enzyme efficiency and leakage sites. The experimental results showed that in comparison with the submicron magnetic particles, the amount of trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles was 3. 5 times more than that of the submicron magnetic particles. However, the enzymatic efficiency was at the same level when the same amount of trypsin was used, and the reunion phenomenon was obviously improved when the size of the magnetic nanoparticles increased. Taking the immobilized enzyme reactor of 20 nm magnetic nanoparticles as an example, the digestion performance was further examined. The experimental results showed that rapid digestion could be achieved within 1 mm when the mass ratio of the trypsin and bovine serum albumin was 1:1. The peptide number of 0 missed cleavage site and the sequence coverage changed little after the protein was digested for 10 mm. It was concluded that the digestion efficiency of the immobilized enzyme reactor was much better than that of the in-solution digestion. When the immobilized enzyme reactors and the free trypsin were used for digestion, little differences of the leakage sites were found. Therefore, the immobilized enzyme reactors prepared with different sizes of magnetic particles can be applied in proteomic research for quick and efficient digestion.

  15. 类蛋结构的可磁分离光催化剂纳米球的制备及催化性能%Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of Magnetically Separable Photocatalyst Nanospheres with Egg-like Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许士洪; 赵松建; 谭东栋; 时鹏辉; 毕得福

    2012-01-01

    A novel magnetically separable photocatalyst nanosphere TiO2@ SiO2@ NiFe2O4(TSN) with egg-like structure was prepared by reverse micelles method and electrostatic self-assembly method. The photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water. The magnetic property measurements indicate that the photocatalyst possesses a superparamagnetic nature, which can be separated and recycled conveniently through an external magnetic field. X-ray diffractometer ( XRD) and transmission electron microscope ( TEM) were used to characterize the structure of the TSN photocatalyst nanosphere. The results indicate that nickel ferrite core nanoparticles are completely encapsulated into silica nanospheres as carrier, and titania nanoparticles are assembled onto the surface of SN nanospheres, forming a TiO2 shell for photocatalysis. The SiO2 layer between the NiFe2O4 core and the TiO2 shell effectively prevents the injection of charges from TiO2 particles to NiFe2O4, which gives rise to an increase in photocatalytic activity.%通过反胶束和静电自组装方法制备了一种类蛋结构的可磁分离光催化剂纳米材料SiO2@NiFe2O4@TiO2( TSN),这种光催化剂对甲基橙废水有较好的降解效果,并显示出了超顺磁性,通过外加磁场方便地实现催化剂在水中的分离与回收.该光催化剂纳米球的X射线衍射、TEM和FTIR结果表明,铁酸镍纳米粒子被包裹在SiO2内,形成SiO2@NiFe2O4(SN)纳米球载体,纳米TiO2颗粒组装在SN表面,形成TiO2光催化壳层.利用甲基橙的降解考察了光催化剂纳米球的活性,结果表明,在NiFe2O4和TiO2之间包覆一层无定形的SiO2可以显著提高光催化剂纳米球TSN的催化活性.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite as magnetically separable photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xuemei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin (China); Tian, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Shuliang; Pan, Lei; Wang, Wenjia; Li, Yao [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Zhao, Jiupeng, E-mail: jiupengzhao@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, Xidazhi Street, Nangang District, Harbin (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite was prepared by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an enhanced visible absorption compared with pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. • The magnetic photocatalyst displayed excellent stability and reusability. • O{sub 2}{sup ·−} and {sup ·}OH play a major role during the photocatalytic process. - Abstract: In this paper, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results revealed that flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres were decorated with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} magnetic nanoparticles. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed extended absorption within the visible light range compared with pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. We evaluated the photocatalytic activities of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation and found that the obtained composite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and P25. Moreover, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite also displayed excellent stability and their photocatalytic activity decreased slightly after reusing 5 cycles. Meanwhile, the composite could be easily separated by applying an external magnetic field. The trapping experiment results suggest that superoxide radical species O{sub 2}{sup ·−} and hydroxyl radicals {sup ·}OH play a major role in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} system under visible light irradiation. The combination of flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} magnetic nanospheres provides a useful strategy for designing multifunctional nanostructure materials with enhanced photocatalytic activities in the potential applications of water purification.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase A2 in Hexaplex Trunculus digestive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebai Tarek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sPLA2-IB localization cell are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic primitive ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results The marine snail digestive phospholipase A2 (mSDPLA2 has been previously purified from snail hepatopancreas. The specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared and used for immunohistochimical and immunofluorescence analysis in order to determine the cellular location of mSDPLA2. Our results showed essentially that mSDPLA2 was detected inside in specific vesicles tentatively named (mSDPLA2+ granules of the digestive cells. No immunolabelling was observed in secretory zymogene-like cells. This immunocytolocalization indicates that lipid digestion in the snail might occur in specific granules inside the digestive cells. Conclusion The cellular location of mSDPLA2 suggests that intracellular phospholipids digestion, like other food components digestion of snail diet, occurs in these digestive cells. The hepatopancreas of H. trunculus has been pointed out as the main region for digestion, absorption and storage of lipids.

  18. Preparation of low flow-resistant methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity and the application to rapid reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of alkylbenzenes at high flow rate and elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Umemura, Tomonari; Iwashita, Yoshikazu; Odake, Tamao; Haraguchi, Hiroki; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi

    2006-02-17

    Low flow-resistant alkyl methacrylate-based monolithic stationary phases of different hydrophobicity were constructed for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography by thermally initiated radical polymerization of respective methacrylate ester monomer with different alkyl chain (C2, C4, C6, C12, C18) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a 250 microm i.d. fused silica capillary. The hydrophobicity was basically controlled by changing the length and/or the density of the alkyl-chain, while the composition and the ratio of porogenic solvent were adjusted to obtain highly permeable rigid monoliths with adequate column efficiency. Among the prepared monolithic stationary phases, C18-methacrylate monoliths polymerized from a binary porogenic solvent of isoamyl alcohol and 1,4-buthandiol exhibited the most promising performance in terms of hydraulic resistance and column efficiency. The pressure drops of 20-cm long monolithic columns were below approximately 0.4 MPa at a normal linear velocity of 1mm/s (a flow rate of 3 microL/min), and the numbers of theoretical plates for alkylbenzenes mostly exceeded 3000 plates/20 cm. The produced monolithic columns had good mechanical strength for high pressure and temperature, and could be properly operated even at a temperature of 80 degrees C and at a pressure of at least 33 MPa. At 80 degrees C, the theoretical plate numbers reached 6000 plates/20 cm because of the enhanced mass transfer. Due to the novel hydraulic resistance and mechanical strength, the separation time could be reduced 120-fold simply by raising the flow rate and column temperature.

  19. GISCOD: general integrated solid waste co-digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Usama; Li, Rongping; Jeppsson, Ulf; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Shulin

    2009-06-01

    This paper views waste as a resource and anaerobic digestion (AD) as an established biological process for waste treatment, methane production and energy generation. A powerful simulation tool was developed for the optimization and the assessment of co-digestion of any combination of solid waste streams. Optimization was aimed to determine the optimal ratio between different waste streams and hydraulic retention time by changing the digester feed rates to maximize the biogas production rate. Different model nodes based on the ADM1 were integrated and implemented on the Matlab-Simulink simulation platform. Transformer model nodes were developed to generate detailed input for ADM1, estimating the particulate waste fractions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and inerts. Hydrolysis nodes were modeled separately for each waste stream. The fluxes from the hydrolysis nodes were combined and generated a detailed input vector to the ADM1. The integrated model was applied to a co-digestion case study of diluted dairy manure and kitchen wastes. The integrated model demonstrated reliable results in terms of calibration and optimization of this case study. The hydrolysis kinetics were calibrated for each waste fraction, and led to accurate simulation results of the process and prediction of the biogas production. The optimization simulated 200,000 days of virtual experimental time in 8 h and determined the feedstock ratio and retention time to set the digester operation for maximum biogas production rate.

  20. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  1. Effect of ultrasonication on anaerobic degradability of solid waste digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, M R; D'Amato, E; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Rossi, A

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of ultrasonication on anaerobic biodegradability of lignocellulosic residues. While ultrasonication has been commonly applied as a pre-treatment of the feed substrate, in the present study a non-conventional process configuration based on recirculation of sonicated digestate to the biological reactor was evaluated at the lab-scale. Sonication tests were carried out at different applied energies ranging between 500 and 50,000kJ/kg TS. Batch anaerobic digestion tests were performed on samples prepared by mixing sonicated and untreated substrate at two different ratios (25:75 and 75:25 w/w). The results showed that when applied as a post-treatment of digestate, ultrasonication can positively affect the yield of anaerobic digestion, mainly due to the dissolution effect of complex organic molecules that have not been hydrolyzed by biological degradation. A good correlation was found between the CH4 production yield and the amount of soluble organic matter at the start of digestion tests. The maximum gain in biogas production was 30% compared to that attained with the unsonicated substrate, which was tentatively related to the type and concentration of the metabolic products.

  2. 动力锂离子二次电池聚偏氟乙烯隔膜的制备及性能表征%Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) separator for power lithium-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海翔; 李文轩; 李鹏; 曹敏; 孔瑛; 杨金荣

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery has become the new safe and pollution free green energy,and has the advantages of high work voltage,high energy density,low self discharge rate and long cycle life.Separator as an essential part of the battery plays a key role in the performance of the battery.Its main function is to keep the positive and negative electrodes apart to prevent electrical short circuit and at the same time allow rapid transport of ionic charge carriers needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell.Despite the widespread use of separator,a great need still exists for improving performance,increasing life,and reducing cost.In this paper,the composite membrane based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF) and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven matrix was prepared by coating PVDF/NMP solution on the matrix under the optimal condition.The pore structure in the PVDF region was generated by immersion precipitation of the polymer solution.Physical properties and battery performance of composite membrane were compared with those of the Celgard separator.The results showed that the composite membrane had bigger pore size and better pore distribution,porosity of 48.5%,ionic conductivity of 0.346 mS · cm-1 and tolerance of 250.8℃.The capacity of Li-ion battery made with the composite membrane was 48.7 mA · h and was maintained at about 77.9 % of the initial value on the 100 th cycle at room temperature.The battery also showed good performance at different discharge rates and could meet the requirements of practical application.%采用浸没沉淀相转化法,以聚酯(PET)无纺布为底膜,在其上涂覆聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)制备复合隔膜,应用于动力锂离子二次电池隔膜.将制备的复合隔膜与Celgard隔膜进行了孔结构分析、电化学性质、热性能等理化性质及电池性能检测对比.结果显示,复合隔膜孔径尺寸较大且分布均一,孔隙率达到48.5%,可以承受250.8

  3. Efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for breeding sows: effect during pregnancy an lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Bikker, P.; Vereecken, M.; Bierman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase

  4. Efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for breeding sows: effect during pregnancy an lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Bikker, P.; Vereecken, M.; Bierman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase deri

  5. 亲和胶质气体泡沫的制备及其对胰蛋白酶的吸附分离特性%PREPARATION OF AFFINITY-BASED COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS FOR SELECTIVE ADSORPTION AND SEPARATION OF TRYPSIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何彬; 刘杨; 孙彦

    2004-01-01

    Triton X-114, an non-ionic surfactant, was modified with the affinity ligand of trypsin, paminobenzamidine (PAB) and the affinity surfactant (PAB-TX) was synthesized. Then, the affinity surfactant was used to prepare affinity-based colloidal gas aphrons (CGA). The stability of the affinity CGA was investigated at different temperatures and compared with that of the CGA prepared from Triton X-114. Compared with the CGA from Triton X-114, the affinity CGA showed high selective adsorption property for trypsin. In the separation of a protein mixture, recovery yield higher than 74% were achieved for trypsin and the separation factor reached over 1.5. The results showed that the affinity CGA possessed promising selectivity for separating trypsin from a protein mixture.

  6. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  7. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area.

  8. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  9. Microbial community dynamics in mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of mixed waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supaphol, Savaporn; Jenkins, Sasha N; Intomo, Pichamon; Waite, Ian S; O'Donnell, Anthony G

    2011-03-01

    This paper identifies key components of the microbial community involved in the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion (AD) of mixed waste at Rayong Biogas Plant, Thailand. The AD process is separated into three stages: front end treatment (FET); feed holding tank and the main anaerobic digester. The study examines how the microbial community structure was affected by the different stages and found that seeding the waste at the beginning of the process (FET) resulted in community stability. Also, co-digestion of mixed waste supported different bacterial and methanogenic pathways. Typically, acetoclastic methanogenesis was the major pathway catalysed by Methanosaeta but hydrogenotrophs were also supported. Finally, the three-stage AD process means that hydrolysis and acidogenesis is initiated prior to entering the main digester which helps improve the bioconversion efficiency. This paper demonstrates that both resource availability (different waste streams) and environmental factors are key drivers of microbial community dynamics in mesophilic, anaerobic co-digestion.

  10. Combined techniques for characterising pasta structure reveals how the gluten network slows enzymic digestion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G; Warren, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise the influence of gluten structure on the kinetics of starch hydrolysis in pasta. Spaghetti and powdered pasta were prepared from three different cultivars of durum semolina, and starch was also purified from each cultivar. Digestion kinetic parameters were obtained through logarithm-of-slope analysis, allowing identification of sequential digestion steps. Purified starch and semolina were digested following a single first-order rate constant, while pasta and powdered pasta followed two sequential first-order rate constants. Rate coefficients were altered by pepsin hydrolysis. Confocal microscopy revealed that, following cooking, starch granules were completely swollen for starch, semolina and pasta powder samples. In pasta, they were completely swollen in the external regions, partially swollen in the intermediate region and almost intact in the pasta strand centre. Gluten entrapment accounts for sequential kinetic steps in starch digestion of pasta; the compact microstructure of pasta also reduces digestion rates.

  11. Facile trypsin immobilization in polymeric membranes for rapid, efficient protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Wei-Han; Tan, Yu-Jing; Bruening, Merlin L

    2010-12-15

    Sequential adsorption of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trypsin in nylon membranes provides a simple, inexpensive method to create stable, microporous reactors for fast protein digestion. The high local trypsin concentration and short radial diffusion distances in membrane pores facilitate proteolysis in residence times of a few seconds, and the minimal pressure drop across the thin membranes allows their use in syringe filters. Membrane digestion and subsequent MS analysis of bovine serum albumin provide 84% sequence coverage, which is higher than the 71% coverage obtained with in-solution digestion for 16 h or the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), whereas in-solution digestion under similar conditions yields no peptide signals in mass spectra even after removal of SDS. These membrane reactors, which can be easily prepared in any laboratory, have a shelf life of several months and continuously digest protein for at least 33 h without significant loss of activity.

  12. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  13. In vitro digestion rate and estimated glycemic index of oat flours from typical and high β-glucan oat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; White, Pamela J

    2012-05-23

    The in vitro starch digestion rate and estimated glycemic index (GI) of oat flours and oat starches from typical and high β-glucan oat lines were evaluated along with the impact of heating on starch digestion. Flour from oat lines ('Jim', 'Paul', IA95, and N979 containing 4.0, 5.3, 7.4, and 7.7% β-glucan, respectively) was digested by pepsin and porcine pancreatin. To determine the impact of heating on starch digestion, oat slurries were prepared by mixing oat flour and water (1:8 ratio) and heating for 10 min prior to digestion. Viscosity, as measured on a Rapid Visco Analyzer, increased with increases in concentration and molecular weight of β-glucan. The in vitro starch digestion of oat flours and a control, white bread made from wheat flour, increased as the digestion time increased. Starch digestion of oat flour was slower than that of the control (p oat-flour slurries increased the starch digestion from a range of 31-39% to a range of 52-64% measured after 180 min of in vitro digestion. There were no differences in starch digestibility among oat starches extracted from the different oat lines. The GI, estimated by starch hydrolysis of oat flours, ranged from 61 to 67, which increased to a range of 77-86 after heating. Oat-flour slurries prepared from IA95 and N979 lines with high β-glucan concentrations had lower GI values than did slurries made from Jim and Paul lines. Starch digestion was negatively correlated with β-glucan concentrations in heated oat-flour slurries (R(2) = 0.92). These results illustrate that the oat soluble fiber, β-glucan, slowed the rate of starch digestion. This finding will help to develop new food products with low GI by using oat β-glucan.

  14. Rising the exploitation of substrates by thermal digestate processing; Steigerung der Substratausnutzung durch thermische Gaerrestbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seick, Ingolf; Gebhardt, Sebastian [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal (Germany). Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    The paper introduces a new process for biogas plants to increase the utilization of substrate and to reduce the required feeding. By a thermal treatment of a partial flow of the digestate the gas yield is increased considerably, whereupon a recirculation is carried out into the fermentation process. The digestate taken from the secondary fermenter is separated to a liquid and a solid phase. The solid phase is treated thermally and led back into the main fermenter discontinuously. The discharge of a subset of the untreated digestate shall avoid accumulation of inert fractions. Batch fermentation tests with separated digestate of a typical biogas plant have shown an increase of the VS-specific gas and methane yields, e.g. of approx. 90% after a 10-minute treatment in a lab-scale high pressure autoclave at 170 C and 8 bar. Simulations point out that a long-term use of the process in biogas plants can be possible effectively. (orig.)

  15. Anaerobic digestion of corn stovers for methane production in a novel bionic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Fan, Shiyang; Jin, Shuguang; Wu, Dan; Fang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To improve the biogas production from corn stovers, a new bionic reactor was designed and constructed. The bionic reactor simulated the rumen digestion of ruminants. The liquid was separated from corn stovers and refluxed into corn stovers again, which simulated the undigested particles separated from completely digested materials and fed back again for further degradation in ruminant stomach. Results showed that the bionic reactor was effective for anaerobic digestion of corn stovers. The liquid amount and its reflux showed an obvious positive correlation with biogas production. The highest biogas production rate was 21.6 ml/gVS-addedd, and the total cumulative biogas production was 256.5 ml/gVS-added. The methane content in biogas ranged from 52.2% to 63.3%. The degradation of corn stovers were greatly enhanced through simulating the animal digestion mechanisms in this bionic reactor.

  16. Radiochemical Separation and Measurement by Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma source (ICP-SFMS of Plutonium Isotopes in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Torres-Cortés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold: to optimize the radiochemical separation of Plutonium (Pu from soil samples, and to measure the Pu concentration. Soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwaves; then, Pu purification was carried out with Pu AG1X8 resin. Pu isotopes were measured using Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma source (ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of 238UH+ in the samples a desolvation system (Apex was used. The limit of detection (LOD of Pu was determined. The efficiency of Pu recovery from soil samples varies from 70 to 93%.

  17. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  18. Development of Monolithic Column Materials for the Separation and Analysis of Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Alla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic column materials offer great advantages as chromatographic media in bioseparations and as solid-supports in biocatalysis. These single-piece porous materials have an interconnected ligament structure that limits the void volume inside the column, thus increasing the efficiency without sacrificing the permeability. The preparation of monolithic materials is easy, reproducible and has available a wide range of chemistries to utilize. Complex, heterogeneous and isobaric glycan structures require preparation methods that may include glycan release, separation and enrichment prior to a comprehensive and site-specific glycosylation analysis. Monolithic column materials aid that demand, as shown by the results reported by the research works presented in this review. These works include selective capture of glycans and glycoproteins via their interactions with lectins, boronic acids, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic/polar functional groups on monolith surfaces. It also includes immobilization of enzymes trypsin and PNGase F on monoliths to digest and deglycosylate glycoproteins and glycopeptides, respectively. The use of monolithic capillary columns for glycan separations through nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC and capillary electrochromatography (CEC and coupling these columns to MS instruments to create multidimensional systems show the potential in the development of miniaturized, high-throughput and automated systems of glycan separation and analysis.

  19. 油脂酯交换制备生物柴油的反应分离耦合工艺%REACTION-SEPARATION COUPLING PROCESS OF TRANSESTERIFICATION FOR BIODIESEL PREPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志广; 杜泽学; 闵恩泽

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol catalyzed by KOH was carried out on a 500 mL test device of coupling transesterification reaction and glycerol separation,and the reaction conditions were studied. Test results show that under the conditions of a reaction temperature of 60℃ ,the methanol/oil molar ratio of 4. 5-5. 0,feed rate in the range of 500-2 000 mL/h and a catalyst dosage of 0. 50%-0. 75% (based on oil),the molar fraction of fatty acid methyl ester in the obtained biodiesel is not less than 97%. This process possesses the advantages of fast reaction rate,high equilibrium conversion and good product selectivity. The qualities of obtained biodiesel and B5 blended product ( - 10# diesel fuel blended with 5% biodiesel)meet the relative specifications of National Standard for biodiesel fuels,GB/T 20828-2007 and GB/T 25199-2010,respectively.%在500 mL的酯交换反应和甘油分离耦合实验装置上进行大豆油制备生物柴油的试验和反应条件的研究.结果表明,在反应温度60℃、醇油摩尔比4.5~5.0、进科量500~2 000 mL/h和催化剂用量0.50%~0.75%(相对于油质量)的条件下,制备的生物柴油中脂肪酸甲酯摩尔分数不低于97%.此工艺具有反应速率快、平衡转化率和选择性高的特点.所制备的生物柴油及其与-10号柴油的调合产品B5都分别满足国家标准要求.

  20. Expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in rodent digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Oomura

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR cells were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The morphological ...

  1. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijó, Lucía, E-mail: lucia.lijo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); González-García, Sara [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  2. Improved mass spectrometric analysis of membrane proteins based on rapid and versatile sample preparation on nanodiamond particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh D; Yu, Steve S-F; Han, Chau-Chung; Chan, Sunney I

    2013-07-16

    We have developed a novel streamlined sample preparation procedure for mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of membrane proteins using surface-oxidized nanodiamond particles. The platform consists of solid-phase extraction and elution of the membrane proteins on nanodiamonds, concentrating the membrane proteins on the nanodiamonds and separating out detergents, chaotropic agents, and salts, and other impurities that are often present at high concentrations in solubilized membrane preparations. In this manner, membrane-protein extracts are transformed into MS-ready samples in minutes. The protocol is not only fast, but also widely adaptable and highly effective for preparing generic membrane protein samples for both MALDI-MS studies of membrane-protein complexes and shotgun membrane proteomics studies. As proof of concept, we have demonstrated substantial improvements in the MALDI-MS analysis of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) complex, a three-subunit transmembrane protein solubilized in various detergent buffers. Enzymatic digestions of membrane proteins are also greatly facilitated since the proteins extracted on to the nanodiamonds are exposed on the surface of the nanoparticles rather than in SDS gels or in detergent solutions. We illustrate the effectiveness of nanodiamonds for SDS removal in the preparation of membrane proteins for MS analysis on the proteome level by examining the quality of the tryptic peptides prepared by on-surface nanodiamond digestion of an E. coli membrane fraction for shotgun proteomics.

  3. Complete disassociation of adult pancreas into viable single cells through cold trypsin-EDTA digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan LI; Shi-yun PENG; Zhen-wu ZHANG; Rui-cheng FENG; Lu LI; Jie LIANG; Sheng TAI

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are necessary for understanding their properties and function; however,the preparation of high-quality single-cell suspensions from adult pancreas is prerequisite.In this study,we applied a cold trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) digestion method to disassociate adult mouse pancreata into single cells.The yield of single cells and the viability of the harvested cells were much higher than those obtained via the two commonly used warm digestion methods.Flow cytometric analysis showed that the ratio of ductal or BCRP1-positive cells in cell suspensions prepared through cold digestion was consistent with that found in vivo.Cell culture tests showed that pancreatic epithelial cells prepared by cold digestion maintained proliferative capacity comparable to those derived from warm collagenase digestion.These results indicate that cold trypsin-EDTA digestion can effectively disassociate an adult mouse pancreas into viable single cells with minimal cell loss,and can be used for the isolation and analysis of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells.

  4. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of a chiral stationary phase covalently bound with a chiral pseudo-18-crown-6 ether having a phenolic hydroxy group for enantiomer separation of amino compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongzhu, Jin; Hirose, Keiji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishioka, Ryota; Ueshige, Tetsuro; Tobe, Yoshito

    2006-10-06

    In order to develop a chiral stationary phase (CSP), which has even higher separation ability than the corresponding commercially available crown ether based CSP (OA-8000 having a pseudo-18-crown-6 ether with an OMe group as a selector), chemically bonded type CSP having a phenolic OH group on a crown ring was developed. Normal mobile phases with or without acid additive can be used with this OH type CSP in contrast to the conventional OMe type CSP which has a neutral chiral selector. Enantiomers of 25 out of 27 amino compounds, including 20 amino acids, 5 amino alcohols, and 2 lipophilic amines, were efficiently separated on a column with this CSP. Nine amino compounds out of 27 were separated with better separation factors than the corresponding OMe type CSP. It is noteworthy that the chromatography on this CSP exhibited excellent enantiomer-separations for amines and amino alcohols when triethyl amine was used as an additive in the mobile phase. Comparison of enantiomer separation ability on this OH type of CSP and on the OMe type of CSP and correlation between the enantioselectivity in chiral chromatography and that of the corresponding model compounds in solution imply that the chiral separation arose from chiral recognition in host guest interactions.

  6. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...

  7. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR THORIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, G.L.; Whatley, M.E.; Shaw, K.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process is described for the separation of uranium, thorium, and rare earths extracted from monazite by digesting with sulfuric acid. By carefully increasing the pH of the solution, stepwise, over the range 0.8 to 5.5, a series of selective precipitations will be achieved, with the thorium values coming out at lower pH, the rare earths at intermediate pH and the uranium last. Some mixed precipitates will be obtained, and these may be treated by dissolving in HNO/sub 3/ and contacting with dibutyl phosphate, whereby thorium or uranium are taken up by the organic phase while the rare earths preferentially remain in the aqueous solution.

  8. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  9. Semi-preparative separation of {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin by high performance liquid chromatographic; Separacao semipreparativa de {alpha} e {beta}-amirina por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Pinto, Angelo C., E-mail: hamerski_1@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The resin obtained from species of the genus Protium (Burseraceae) is formed mostly of pentacyclic triterpenes: {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin. The separation and purification of these triterpenes were optimized in three steps. (author)

  10. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  11. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Hydrogen Separation of Cobalt-Doped Silica Membranes%钴掺杂二氧化硅膜的制备、表征及氢气分离性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫建平; 韦奇; 段小勇; 何俊; 李群艳; 聂祚仁

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-doped silica membranes were prepared by the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and nitrate hexahydrate (Co(NO3)2·6H2O) as precursors. The status of Co, the pore structure and the gas permeation and separation performance of the doped silica membranes were investigated in detail. The results show that cobalt atoms are covalently linked to oxygen atoms by replacing a fraction of silicon atoms in the framework. Silica membranes doped with 10% cobalt have a typical microporous structure with a pore size centered at 0.52 nm and mainly distributed between 0.4 nm and 0.55 nm, and a pore volume of 0.119 cm3·g-1. The hydrogen transport in the co-doped silica membranes was subjected to a Knudsen diffusion mechanism at low temperatures and complies with an activated diffusion mechanism at temperatures higher than 100 t. The membranes possess a H2 permeance of 6.41×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 and a H2/CO2 permselectivity of 6.61 at 300 ℃, which is higher than that of Knudsen diffusion.%采用正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)和Co(NO3)2·6H2O为前驱体通过溶胶-凝胶法制备掺钴微孔二氧化硅膜,研究钴在二氧化硅膜材料中的存在状态、膜材料孔结构以及膜材料的气体渗透和分离性能.结果表明钴元素以Si-O-Co的形式存在于SiO2骨架之中,掺杂Co 10%的微孔SiO2膜具有典型的微孔结构,其孔体积为0.119 cm3·g-1,平均孔径在0.52 nm左右且孔径主要分布在0.4~0.55 nm之间.氢气在膜材料中的输运低温下遵循Knudsen扩散机理,高于100℃时遵循活化扩散机理,300℃时膜材料的H2渗透率达到6.41×10-7mol·m-2·s-1·pa-1,H2/CO2分离系数达到6.61,高于Knudsen扩散的理想分离系数.

  13. Preparation of free-standing graphene carbon membrane for gas separation%自支撑石墨烯炭膜的制备及气体分离性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张生义; 李琳; 王春雷; 郑天赋; 孙亚明; 王同华

    2016-01-01

    Free-standing graphene carbon membrane with conch nacre structure was preparedvia carbonizing composite membrane of graphene oxide (GO) and polyamide acid (PAA) obtained by solvent evaporation method at 600℃. The morphology and structure were characterized by XRD and SEM. The permeation performance of CO2 and CH4 of free-standing graphene carbon membrane with different PAA solid content was investigated. The results indicated that GO was thermally reduced to graphene in graphene carbon membrane after carbonization, in which graphene layers were lamellar stacked and gaps between layers were filled with holes and carbon residue. Both CO2 permeability and ideal selectivity for the CO2/CH4 of graphene carbon membranes were enhanced with increasing PAA solid content. The CO2 flux of graphene carbon membrane was up to 824 barrer and the CO2/ CH4 ideal selectivity reached 38.9 simultaneously. The gas permeation channels of graphene carbon membrane were attributed to the lamellar stacked of graphene and carbon molecule sieve in graphene carbon membrane. This study opened up new opportunities to prepare the flexible free-standing graphene carbon membrane for gas separation.%通过溶剂蒸发法得到聚酰胺酸(PAA)与氧化石墨烯(GO)的复合石墨烯膜,并经600℃炭化制备了具有良好柔韧性的仿贝壳珍珠层结构的自支撑石墨烯炭膜。通过X射线衍射和场发射扫描电镜对薄膜微观结构进行表征,并测试不同PAA固含量制备的石墨烯炭膜对CO2和CH4的分离性能。结果表明,炭化后,GO被还原成石墨烯,呈层状堆叠,堆叠的层间填充了空穴和残炭;石墨烯炭膜的CO2渗透通量和CO2/CH4分离理想选择性随PAA加入量增加,CO2通量最高可达824 barrer,此时CO2/CH4理想选择性达38.9。石墨烯层骨架和碳分子筛构成石墨烯炭膜的气体传输通道,本研究成果为柔性自支撑气体分离炭膜的制备开辟了新思路。

  14. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  15. Research Status of Lithium-ion Battery Separator Prepared by Electrospinning Technique%静电纺丝技术制备锂离子电池隔膜的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子浩

    2016-01-01

    静电纺丝纳米纤维膜基锂离子电池隔膜由于其优异的纳米特性而得到了广泛的研究.本文从单一聚合物类隔膜以及改性后的多种聚合物类隔膜和有机/无机类复合隔膜3方面对静电纺丝纳米纤维膜基锂离子电池隔膜进行了综述,并提出了静电纺丝纳米纤维膜基锂电池隔膜在今后的生产中需要解决的问题.%Lithium-ion battery separators based on electrospun nanofiber membranes have been investigat-ed widely because of its excellent nano-meter characteristics. In this paper, lithium-ion battery separators based on electrospun nanofiber membranes were reviewed from mono-polymer separators, modified multi-polymer separators, and organic/inorganic composite separators, and the problems need to solve dur-ing production of lithium-ion battery separators based on electrospun nanofiber membranes in future were proposed.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  17. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  18. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  19. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of H. pylori infection, slows the healing of peptic ulcers, and increases the likelihood that peptic ulcers will recur. The stomach and duodenum contain acids, enzymes, and other substances that help digest food. However, these substances may also harm the lining ...

  20. On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Vito

    This ERIC Digest was adapted from the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) 1991 position paper on standardized testing. Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk" in 1983, standardized testing programs have expanded greatly. Tests may be of pencil-and-paper or performance-oriented varieties. The purposes of tests…