WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation common methods

  1. A Surface Damage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    REPORI’ A SURFACE DAMAGE INVESTIGATION ON UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST SPECIMENSPREPARED BY COMMON CUTTING METHODS JUN 2 1931 THOMAS J. C. CHEW DALE A...Sýrfa-i-mage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Method I Spi-.i t’ ,, ., • T7. AUTHORý#) . _" ’ /t’ .• r...Saw 10 2.1.3 Cutting by Milling Machine 11 2.1.4 Cutting by Die Cutter 11 2.2 Uniaxial Tensile Test 12 2.3 Electron Microscope Surface Examination 13 3

  2. The common principles established to expert's preparation by a remote methods in the Earth sciences field, and their decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzh, S.; Trofimov, S.

    Modern socially economic situation in the country and in an education system is those, that traditional forms of getting education and training model cannot satisfy all needs for the educational services usually concentrated in the big cities, and so - the increased interest to new, progressive specialities has received the development in electronic - training systems. The attitude to education on the part of the states, the governments, societies has changed also. Education began to be considered as the major factor of economic growth and social development of the countries, the decision of some global problems connected to survival of mankind. In this connection, recently development and practical introduction of technologies of remote and open education are conducted in the different countries, the especial attention is given to the systems, capable to comprise, transfer and analyze huge streams of information. The experience which has been saved up by foreign colleagues, shows, that the sanction of this technological conflict lays, generally, in sphere of creation of a wide network of remote training, and, in narrow, both quality and quantity of a substantial part, also it is necessary not to forget about a choice of electronic-training systems with their reference to various areas. And an occurrence of the computer equipment in the user's end, development of existing ways and means of data transmission, functional expansion of already existing and creation of absolutely new hardware-software complexes, and many other things has begun occurrence of new scientific directions in such basic area of sciences as the Earth - science. (These are geoinformation systems, research of natural resources by space methods, organization and technology of data protection in geoinformation systems etc.) Clearly, that new specialities impose the certain conditions for preparation of experts, and, carrying out the analysis of already existing electronic training systems in the

  3. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  4. Comparison of Common Tonsillectomy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, T

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study was done to compare operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post operative pain, secondary haemorrhage in common tonsillectomy methods. Thirty two (32) paediatric population of age 7-12 years from each group randomly selected, operative techniques adopted consecutively and this study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Islami Bank Hospital, Dhaka, and Desh Medical Services, Chittagong, from January 2011 to December 2013. Surgery was performed by single midlevel surgeon. Postoperatively one month was followed the entire patient. Total 96 pediatrics population (32 for each group) was studied. Mean operating time and mean intra-operative blood loss was in cold dissection method 22 min and 15 ml, in bipolar dissection tonsillectomy 18 min and 10 ml & in laser tonsillectomy 17 min and 9 ml. Differences of operating time and variation of blood loss in various methods are not statistically significant. Laser and bipolar electro dissection tonsillectomy are popularized due to its relative less bleeding and quicker methods than that of cold dissection tonsillectomy; there is no significant difference among them.

  5. Method to prepare Semtex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  6. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  7. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap

  8. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  9. Year 3 of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: States Prepare for Common Core Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentner, Diane Stark

    2013-01-01

    With the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS), states have sought to establish clear, high expectations that are consistent across participating states and that signal what K-12 students should learn in mathematics and English language arts (ELA) to be prepared for college and careers. As of July 2013, the CCSS have been adopted by 45…

  10. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  11. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  12. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  13. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    We developed a novel quantitative analysis method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. All components were separated on an Agilent SB-C18 column by using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile/0.1% phosphoric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min for 35 min. Subsequently, linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy tests were implemented to validate the method. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of 14 components in eight normal-extraction Yinchenhao decoction samples, accompanied by hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The result that all samples were divided into three groups based on different contents of components demonstrated that extraction methods of decocting, refluxing, ultrasonication and extraction solvents of water or ethanol affected component differentiation, and should be related to its clinical applications. The results also indicated that the sample prepared by patients in the family by using water extraction employing a casserole was almost same to that prepared using a stainless-steel kettle, which is mostly used in pharmaceutical factories. This research would help patients to select the best and most convenient method for preparing Yinchenhao decoction.

  14. Method for preparing ceramic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen B.; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.; Waters, Shirley B.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparing ceramic composite comprising blending TiC particulates, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 particulates and nickle aluminide and consolidating the mixture at a temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite having fracture toughness equal to or greater than 7 MPa m.sup.1/2, a hardness equal to or greater than 18 GPa.

  15. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF STRAINED ICE. II : EFFECT OF SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Itagaki, K.; Lemieux, G.

    1987-01-01

    Since most commonly used sample preparation methods for ice dielectric studies involve rather heavy mechanical straining, the effects of straining were studied and compared with more strain-free sample preparation methods.

  16. Commonality between the preparer and the user of financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... utilised more in order to enhance the commonality of the accounting .... actionable insight, rather than producing rigid technical statements as ends in ..... offers new and innovative opportunities to accounting practitioners.

  17. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  18. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  19. Target preparation by the precipitation method for nuclear reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, K; Ohtsuki, T; Yuki, H; Mitsugashira, T; Sato, N; Suzuki, T; Fujita, M; Shinozuka, T; Kasamatsu, Y; Kikunaga, H; Shinohara, A; Shibata, S; Nakanishi, T

    2007-01-01

    A technique for preparing nuclear reaction targets of various thicknesses was developed by using common filtration technique of hydroxide precipitates with a porous Al(2)O(3) membrane filter. Uniformity was found to be within a few % in each thickness. Durability for beam irradiation was also confirmed. The preparation procedure is convenient and the method is appropriate for several target materials, including not only precious materials but also radioactive materials with low contamination.

  20. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of some common over the counter (OTC cough–cold preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur Chahal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, potential utility of thin layer chromatography to differentiate some common OTC cough–cold preparations was evaluated. Twenty solvent systems were examined from which a solvent systems A comprising methanol:ammonia in the ratio of 100:1.5 (v/v and B comprising chloroform:methanol in the ratio of 90:10 (v/v were found to be most suitable as it showed a high degree of separation of different components of these preparations. It was also found that iodine fuming technique is the best visualizing method for examining the TLC chromatograms of these drug samples prior to subsequent instrumental analysis.

  1. Method of preparing a porous silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, R.; Tazelaar, F.W.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9300816 (A) Described is a method of preparing a porous silicon carbide suitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support. Porous carbon is provided with a catalyst which is suitable for catalysing gasification of carbon with hydrogen, and with a catalyst suitable for cataly

  2. Methods for preparation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Eduard G [D.I. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-31

    The most important methods of synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes, a new form of material, are described. The prospects for increasing the scale of preparation processes and for more extensive application of nanotubes are evaluated. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  3. Method of preparing a porous silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, R.; Tazelaar, F.W.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9300816 (A) Described is a method of preparing a porous silicon carbide suitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support. Porous carbon is provided with a catalyst which is suitable for catalysing gasification of carbon with hydrogen, and with a catalyst suitable for cataly

  4. Perylene Nanoparticles Prepared by Reprecipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Xue-Hai(纪学海); FU,Hong-Bing(付红兵); XIE,Rui-Min(谢锐敏); XIAO,De-Bao(肖德宝); YAO,Jian-Nian(姚建年)

    2002-01-01

    Perylene nanoparticles with different sizes were prepared by reprecipitation method. It is found that the nanoparticles show size-dependent optical property. Electron diffraction patterns indicate that all the nanoparticles of different sizes are in crystalline state. The rapid growth of the nanoparticles during the agingg process could be slowed down effectively by the addition of cationic or anionic surfactants.

  5. Method of preparing a porous silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, R.; Tazelaar, F.W.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9300816 (A) Described is a method of preparing a porous silicon carbide suitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support. Porous carbon is provided with a catalyst which is suitable for catalysing gasification of carbon with hydrogen, and with a catalyst suitable for

  6. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  7. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  8. An Alternative Approach for Preparing and Standardizing Some Common Aqueous Reagents Used in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    A guide for instructors and laboratory assistants to prepare some common aqueous reagents used in an undergraduate laboratory is presented. Dilute reagents consisting of H[superscript +](aq), I[subscript 3][superscript-](aq), Ce[superscript 4+](aq), and Ag[superscript+](aq) were prepared by electrolytic oxidation of respective precursors.…

  9. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  10. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  11. Aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides. Methods of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Boiko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers all of the common methods for the syntheses of aromatic and heterocyclic perfluoroalkyl sulfides, a class of compounds which is finding increasing application as starting materials for the preparation of agrochemicals, pharmaceutical products and, more generally, fine chemicals. A systematic approach is taken depending on the mode of incorporation of the SRF groups and also on the type of reagents used.

  12. Silica Microcapsules Prepared by Interfacial Reaction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Fujiwara; K; Shiokawa; Y; Nakahara

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Silica spherical particles with hollow structure are directly prepared by interfacial reaction methods using W/O/W emulsion (schematic diagram in Fig.1)[1].Fig.1 Silica microcapsule formationThe mixing of W/O emulsion consisting of sodium silicate solution (inner water phase) and n-hexane solution (oil phase) to outer water phase dissolving NH4HCO3 or other salts affords silica microcapsules.The critical feature of this method is the direct formation of hollow structure.Therefore,the core com...

  13. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm–5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10–28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40–100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P microplastics, with widths similar to those observed in the natural environment, which could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the biological and ecological effects of microplastic debris in the environment. PMID:27694820

  14. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm–5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10–28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40–100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P microplastics, with widths similar to those observed in the natural environment, which could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the biological and ecological effects of microplastic debris in the environment.

  15. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction with an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 4147-4157 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600284 Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Shang Han Lun which was prescribed by Zhongjing Zhang during 150-219 AD. A novel quantitative analysis method was developed, based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of the 14 components in eight normal extraction samples of Yinchenhao decoction, with the aid of hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The present research could help hospital, factory and lab choose the best way to make Yinchenhao decoction with better efficacy.

  16. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  17. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  18. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  19. Hydrothermal method for preparing calcium phosphate monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Carrodeguas Raúl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hydrothermal route for preparing biphasic calcium phosphate monoliths is proposed. Firstly, a slurry of beta-tricalcium phosphate/ortho-phosphoric acid (b-TCP/H3PO4 is cast into the desired final shape and size to obtain a block composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD and b-TCP. This block is then treated in 1.0 M Na2HPO4 at 60 °C in order to hydrolyze the DCPD into Ca10-x(HPO4x(PO4 6-x(OH2-x (CDHA and Ca8H2(PO46 .5H2O (OCP. The result is a monolithic piece which preserves the initial shape and size, but which is composed instead of CDHA, OCP, and b-TCP. During the initial stage, when the pH is slightly alkaline, the product of DCPD hydrolysis is CDHA. However, when a neutral or slightly acidic pH is reached OCP is formed. Test samples processed by this method showed complete conversion of DCPD into CDHA and OCP after 112 h of hydrolysis, and with a compressive strength of 16.2 MPa, similar to cancellous bone.

  20. Largest Common Chemical Feature Subtree as a Virtual Screening Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Pedersen, Christian Storm; Thomsen, Rene

    We investigate the effectiveness of using a tree comparison based method to screen for drug candidates. Molecules are represented as trees in which ring systems are reduced to single nodes. These trees are compared to the tree of a selected known binder and the molecules are ranked according...... to the normalized size of their largest common subtree. The nodes of the molecular trees contains information about the atoms or ring systems they represent (e.g. charge and hydrogen donor/acceptor properties). In this way we can restrict which nodes are matched when calculating the size of the largest common...

  1. Paradigms and commonalities in atmospheric source term estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Young, George S.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Annunzio, Andrew J.; Vandenberghe, Francois; Haupt, Sue Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Modeling the downwind hazard area resulting from the unknown release of an atmospheric contaminant requires estimation of the source characteristics of a localized source from concentration or dosage observations and use of this information to model the subsequent transport and dispersion of the contaminant. This source term estimation problem is mathematically challenging because airborne material concentration observations and wind data are typically sparse and the turbulent wind field chaotic. Methods for addressing this problem fall into three general categories: forward modeling, inverse modeling, and nonlinear optimization. Because numerous methods have been developed on various foundations, they often have a disparate nomenclature. This situation poses challenges to those facing a new source term estimation problem, particularly when selecting the best method for the problem at hand. There is, however, much commonality between many of these methods, especially within each category. Here we seek to address the difficulties encountered when selecting an STE method by providing a synthesis of the various methods that highlights commonalities, potential opportunities for component exchange, and lessons learned that can be applied across methods.

  2. Application of Common Mid-Point Method to Estimate Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Al-Aadi, Imad

    2015-04-01

    3-D radar is a multi-array stepped-frequency ground penetration radar (GPR) that can measure at a very close sampling interval in both in-line and cross-line directions. Constructing asphalt layers in accordance with specified thicknesses is crucial for pavement structure capacity and pavement performance. Common mid-point method (CMP) is a multi-offset measurement method that can improve the accuracy of the asphalt layer thickness estimation. In this study, the viability of using 3-D radar to predict asphalt concrete pavement thickness with an extended CMP method was investigated. GPR signals were collected on asphalt pavements with various thicknesses. Time domain resolution of the 3-D radar was improved by applying zero-padding technique in the frequency domain. The performance of the 3-D radar was then compared to that of the air-coupled horn antenna. The study concluded that 3-D radar can be used to predict asphalt layer thickness using CMP method accurately when the layer thickness is larger than 0.13m. The lack of time domain resolution of 3-D radar can be solved by frequency zero-padding. Keywords: asphalt pavement thickness, 3-D Radar, stepped-frequency, common mid-point method, zero padding.

  3. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  4. Batter and method for preparing a pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount

  5. Batter and method for preparing a pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    This invention describes a batter that is suitable for preparing a pasta. The batter comprises water, a starch and a protein, whereby the weight ratio between the protein and the total amount of starch in the batter is represented by the symbol y and whereby the weight percentage of the total amount

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2010-01-01

    A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

  7. A review of common methods to convert morphine to methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When dosed appropriately on carefully chosen patients, methadone can be a very safe and effective choice in managing chronic pain. Many authors have discussed important issues surrounding patient selection, drug interactions, screening for QTc prolongation and monitoring. This article will focus on the dosing dilemma that exists after the patient is deemed an appropriate candidate for methadone and a conversion is necessary from another opioid. Despite many publications dedicated to addressing this challenging topic, there is no consensus on the most appropriate method for converting an opioid regimen to methadone. Given the lack of concrete guidance, clinicians in a community setting are likely to be faced with an increased challenge if there are no available pain specialists to provide clinical support. Common methods for converting morphine to methadone will be reviewed and two clinical patient scenarios used to illustrate the outcomes of applying the methods.

  8. Evolution of Hydrogen Storage Alloys Prepared by Special Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong; Zhang Ximin; Jing Hai; Li Chengdong; Xu Jun

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure characteristics and electrochemical properties of hydrogen storage alloys prepared by gas atomization, melt spinning and strip casting respectively were outlined.The advantages, disadvantages and research development of the above methods for preparing hydrogen storage alloys were explained.The strip casting is a new special means for preparing AB5 rare earth hydrogen storage alloys of high performance and low cost, and the study of the strip casting for preparing hydrogen storage alloys is presented specially.

  9. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  10. WEATHER DERIVATIVES: THE MOST COMMON PRICING AND VALUATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years , weather derivatives have become a common tool in risk management for many sectors. This has its roots in that there is no unique way to determine de value and price solutions that would be generally approved by market-participants, like in the case of the Black-Scholes formula for options on non-dividend-paying stocks is the source for a constant debate between academics and practitioners. One look for fair and truly correct prices, while the others search every-day applicable solutions. To be honest... this is somehow like alchemy. This paper has as purpose the examination of statistical characteristics of weather data, data clearing and filling techniques. The study will be referring to temperatures because that is the best analyzed phenomenon, being the most common. This was also heavily influenced by energy companies and energetic interests, because the degree days were of interest ever before weather derivatives were put for sale. Main ideas are explaining what ways of pricing and valuation are, put into perspective for this financial instrument, taking into consideration that the Black-Scholes Model is not suitable. Also here, we will present the pros and cons that we found for each method. The methods are: the Burn analysis, the index value simulation method (IVSM, the daily simulation method (DSM.On the hole, this paper wants to shed light the weather derivatives pricing methods a mix of insurance pricing and standard financial models. At the end we will prospect the discounting problem, by means of the Consumption based Capital Asset Pricing Model (CCAPM.

  11. γ-ray spectrometry results versus sample preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to recommended conditions two bio-samples, tea leave and flour, are prepared with different methods: grounding into powder and reducing to ash, then they were analyzed by γ ray spectrometry. Remarkable difference was shown between the measured values of tea samples prepared with these different methods. One of the reasons may be that the method of reducing to ash makes some nuclides lost. Compared with the "non-destructive"method of grounding into powder, the method of reducing to ash can be much more sensible to the loss of some nuclides. The probable reasons are discussed for the varied influences of different preparation methods of tea leave and flour samples.

  12. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  13. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  14. Land preparation techniques and vegetation type commonly determine soil conditions in a typical hilly watershed, Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Feng, Tianjiao; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-01

    more important driver for this layer compared with vegetation (37.2%). Land preparation affected the soil properties by abiotic factors (e.g., surface runoff and sediment transport), while vegetation influenced soil physical and chemical properties via biotic factors (e.g., canopy and root). 3) Fish-scale pits-Pinus tabulaeformis had the highest runoff coefficient (3.91%) and adverse grade tableland-Platycladus orientalis had the lowest (1.10%). The runoff coefficient of level bench-Caragana korshinskii, fish-scale pits-Platycladus orientalis, level ditch-Prunus armeniaca and adverse grade tableland-Pinus tabulaeformis were 3.02%, 2.59%, 2.42% and 1.58%, respectively. Level bench-Caragana korshinskii had the highest erosion modulus (0.036 t/ha) and adverse grade tableland-Pinus tabulaeformis showed the lowest (0.006 t/ha). Erosion modulus of fish-scale pits-Platycladus orientalis, level ditch-Prunus armeniaca and adverse grade tableland-Platycladus orientalis were 0.026 t/ha, 0.019 t/ha and 0.015 t/ha, respectively. Compared with control, the runoff coefficient could be reduced 37.7%, 31.9%, 44.3%, 60.5%, 18.2% and 63%, respectively. Erosion modulus could be reduced 77.8%, 62.9%, 82.6%, 84.7%, 53.9% and 76.3%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that land preparation techniques and vegetation type commonly determine soil conditions and that land preparation is a recommended method to improve and rehabilitate degraded ecosystems. Applications of land preparation to vegetation restoration in the fragile ecosystems were an effective way for preventing water loss and soil erosion. Considering site-specific land preparation-plant species combinations could be critical to ensure long-term land stabilization.

  15. Novel Method Of Preparing Vaccines | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invention from the NCI Cancer and Inflammation Program describes methods to prepare vaccines for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer and Inflammation Program seeks parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods of preparing vaccines.

  16. India: sterilization is common; women know little about other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Results and policy recommendations are reported from a recent study of contraceptive use dynamics among 4000 women in 50 villages of Karnataka, India. The study also included a 4-village anthropological component and provider observation, and specifically sought determinant factors of contraceptive use, non-use, method choice, and use patterns. The most common reason for non-use of contraceptives was the desire to have more children, followed by fear of side-effects, lack of knowledge, and familial opposition. Among users, almost 90% chose sterilization. 86% of respondents interested in future contraceptive control also chosen sterilization. Of concern, however, was the finding that a very high percentage of already sterilized women had little or no knowledge of other contraceptive methods. Overall, a strong desire for future contraceptive practice methods. Overall, a strong desire for future contraceptive practice was observed among women in the study. Most all respondents knew about sterilization, while only 60%, 42%, and 18% knew of the IUD, pill, and condom, respectively. Moreover, only few women were able to correctly describe the workings of these methods. Doctors, health workers, neighbors, relatives, and radio and television were finally cited as important sources of family planning information. The paper, therefore, urges greater emphasis of alternative family planning program. Health services and the mass media should be engaged in promoting these alternative methods, with efforts also made to allay illfound fears of method use and side effects. On a more broad scale, greater education and economic advancement will help to change attitudes and norms of birth spacing and family size.

  17. Evaluation of seamless ligation cloning extract preparation methods from an Escherichia coli laboratory strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okegawa, Yuki; Motohashi, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) is a simple and efficient method for DNA cloning without the use of restriction enzymes. Instead, SLiCE uses homologous recombination activities from Escherichia coli cell lysates. To date, SLiCE preparation has been performed using an expensive commercially available lytic reagent. To expand the utility of the SLiCE method, we evaluated different methods for SLiCE preparation that avoid using this reagent. Consequently, cell extracts prepared with buffers containing Triton X-100, which is a common and low-cost nonionic detergent, exhibited sufficient cloning activity for seamless gene incorporation into a vector.

  18. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step.......The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...

  19. Insect chromosomes preparing methods for genetic researches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... Key words: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome staining, g- banding, c – banding, ... accomplished by studying various aspects of the genetics ... is a private method in molecular cytogenetics, due to the.

  20. Equivalent common path method in large-scale laser comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingzhao; Li, Jianshuang; Miao, Dongjing

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale laser comparator is main standard device that providing accurate, reliable and traceable measurements for high precision large-scale line and 3D measurement instruments. It mainly composed of guide rail, motion control system, environmental parameters monitoring system and displacement measurement system. In the laser comparator, the main error sources are temperature distribution, straightness of guide rail and pitch and yaw of measuring carriage. To minimize the measurement uncertainty, an equivalent common optical path scheme is proposed and implemented. Three laser interferometers are adjusted to parallel with the guide rail. The displacement in an arbitrary virtual optical path is calculated using three displacements without the knowledge of carriage orientations at start and end positions. The orientation of air floating carriage is calculated with displacements of three optical path and position of three retroreflectors which are precisely measured by Laser Tracker. A 4th laser interferometer is used in the virtual optical path as reference to verify this compensation method. This paper analyzes the effect of rail straightness on the displacement measurement. The proposed method, through experimental verification, can improve the measurement uncertainty of large-scale laser comparator.

  1. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  2. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  3. New methods for preparing mercury-based ferrofluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Rasmussen, L.H.; Mørup, Steen

    1991-01-01

    Metallic ferrofluids based on magnetic particles in mercury have been produced by two new methods. Alloy particles of Fe-B, Fe-Co-B, Fe-Ni-B, and Co-B were prepared by reduction of the transition metal ions in aqueous solutions by NaBH4 and subsequently suspended in mercury. In one preparation...

  4. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  5. Preparation and method of study of fossil diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    to be exercised during the preparation of the samples A method for the preparation of strewn slides is then explained A detailed procedure for the study of diatom-strewn slides under the microscope, using the "England finder", is described, and a note on diatom...

  6. An improved method for the preparation of [C-11]verapamil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, TD; Maas, B; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an improved preparation of [C-11]verapamil by reaction of [C-11]methyl triflate with desmethylverapamil. The optimal reaction temperature, amount of precursor and reaction time were assessed. With this method [C-11]verapamil can be prepared with a reproducible radiochemical yiel

  7. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  8. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  9. The influence of preparation method on children's liking for vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how different preparation methods influence children’s liking for vegetables. Participants were children from three age groups (4–6 years N = 46; 7–8 years N = 25; 11–12 years N = 23) and young adults (18–25 years N = 22). The participants tasted and ranked six prepar

  10. [Comparison of different preparation methods of tanshinoneporous silica solid dispersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Su, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Porous silica was used as a carrier to prepare tanshinone solid dispersions (SDs). sThe effect of the spray drying method or the solvent method on the drug dissolution of SD was studied. The structure characteristics of SDs was analyzed by SEM, DSC,XPRD and FTIR. And in vitro dissolution was also investigated. The results showed that drugs were highly dispersed into SDs prepared by spray drying method and the solvent method in amorphous form. In addition, the results of the dissolution tested in vitro exhibited that the tanshinone I and tanshinone II A, accumulated dissolutions of SDs prepared using solvent achieved 80. 9% ,84. 6% and 86. 2% ,88. 7% within 45,60 min, respectively. And SDs prepared using spray-drying method were 92.7% ,95. 3% and 95. 8%, 97. 1% within 45,60 min, respectively. The tanshinone SDs were prepared successfully by spray drying method and solvent method. The SDs prepared by spray drying method was more conducive to improving the dissolution.

  11. Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoe Y.

    A variety of ceramics and polymers exists that can be used as bone substitute materials with desirable properties such as biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. A key feature missing in these bone substitutes, or scaffolds, is the ability to bear loads. This work explored two methods for solving this problem. The first used cancellous bone taken from bovine femoral bone to create a natural scaffold through a heat treating process that eliminated the organic components and sintered the bone minerals, known as hydroxyapatite, together. The strength and Young's modulus of the natural scaffold were greatly improved after polymer infiltration with polymethylmethacrylate. Unfortunately, compression testing revealed that there was not a good interfacial bond between the mineral and polymer phases. The second method employed a freeze-casting technique to create synthetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds that have an aligned lamellar microstructure. By varying the amount of hydroxyapatite in the initial slurry mixture and the cooling rate, synthetic scaffolds with a range of porosities and strengths was produced. The highest solid loading and fastest cooling rate produced a scaffold with a strength and modulus approaching that of cortical bone. Further study is required to produce a two phase composite that is chemically bonded together for optimal performance. The synthetic scaffolds, with their tunable mechanical properties and ease of fabrication, make them a promising material for a load-bearing bone substitute.

  12. Polymer blend compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-09-27

    A polymer blend material comprising: (i) a first polymer containing hydrogen bond donating groups having at least one hydrogen atom bound to a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, or an anionic version of said first polymer wherein at least a portion of hydrogen atoms bound to a heteroatom is absent and replaced with at least one electron pair; (ii) a second polymer containing hydrogen bond accepting groups selected from nitrile, halogen, and ether functional groups; and (iii) at least one modifying agent selected from carbon particles, ether-containing polymers, and Lewis acid compounds; wherein, if said second polymer contains ether functional groups, then said at least one modifying agent is selected from carbon particles and Lewis acid compounds. Methods for producing the polymer blend, molded forms thereof, and articles thereof, are also described.

  13. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  14. Lambda-Cyhalothrin Nanosuspension Prepared by the Melt Emulsification-High Pressure Homogenization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhong Pan; Bo Cui; Zhanghua Zeng; Lei Feng; Guoqiang Liu; Haixin Cui; Hongyu Pan

    2015-01-01

    The nanosuspension of 5% lambda-cyhalothrin with 0.2% surfactants was prepared by the melt emulsification-high pressure homogenization method. The surfactants composition, content, and homogenization process were optimized. The anionic surfactant (1-dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt) and polymeric surfactant (maleic rosin-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene ether sulfonate) screened from 12 types of commercially common-used surfactants were used to prepare lambda-cyhalothrin nanosuspension with ...

  15. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  16. Understanding common statistical methods, Part I: descriptive methods, probability, and continuous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Carl G; Patel, Manish M; Thomas, Jerry D; Miller, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Statistical methods are pervasive in medical research and general medical literature. Understanding general statistical concepts will enhance our ability to critically appraise the current literature and ultimately improve the delivery of patient care. This article intends to provide an overview of the common statistical methods relevant to medicine.

  17. Electrocatalysts using porous polymers and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Goenaga, Gabriel A.

    2016-08-02

    A method of producing an electrocatalyst article using porous polymers. The method creates a porous polymer designed to receive transition metal groups disposed at ligation sites and activating the transition metals to form an electrocatalyst which can be used in a fuel cell. Electrocatalysts prepared by this method are also provided. A fuel cell which includes the electrocatalyst is also provided.

  18. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Castro, Marcia C; Blossom, Jeffrey C; Bennett, Gary G; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude) difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com). Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748) collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705), 2% (n = 18) were tied and 3% (n = 25) were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4%) were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis). Six hundred thirteen (87.6%) of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude coordinates

  19. Alternative sample preparation methods for MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G.B.; Buchanan, M.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Czartoski, T.J. [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI), sample preparation has been a limiting step in the applicability of this important technique for mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. A number of variations on the original sample preparation method for have been described. The {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} method of MALDI sample preparation requires mixing a solution containing the analyte and a large excess of matrix, and allowing a small volume of this solution to dry on a probe tip before insertion into the mass spectrometer. The resulting sample can fairly inhomogeneous. As a result, the process of aiming the desorption laser at a favorable spot on the dried sample can be tedious and time-consuming. The authors are evaluating several approaches to MALDI sample preparation, with the goal of developing a faster and more reproducible method.

  20. A novel method for the preparation of electrophoretic display microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiao-Meng; He, Jing; Liu, Sheng-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Le, Yuan, E-mail: leyuan@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The electrophoretic display microcapsules were prepared by coaxial jet method aided by gas spray. • The positions of inner tube, liquid and gas flow rate of the process were investigated. • The size and shell thickness of the prepared microcapsules were controllable. • The prepared microcapsules had high coating ratio and exhibit reversible response to DC field. - Abstract: The narrow distributed electrophoretic display microcapsules containing electrophoretic ink were prepared using coaxial jet method aided by gas spray. Experimental results showed the size and shell thickness of the microcapsules could be controlled by adjusting flow rates of core and shell fluids as well as gas. The as-prepared white and red microcapsules, with average size of 100 and 200 μm respectively, had high coating ratio (above 90%) and exhibited reversible response to DC electric field. Compared with the approach of other microencapsulation methods, the new technique not only has a simple procedure but also provides a more effective way of size control. This novel method is expected to prepare microcapsules with potential application in the fields of electronic paper and other material science.

  1. Preparation of asymmetric gas separation membranes with high selectivity by a dual-bath coagulation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, J.A.; van 't Hof, J.A.; Reuvers, A.J.; Reuvers, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of gas separation membranes in a one-step procedure is presented, where common, non-volatile solvents can be used in the polymer solution. It concerns contacting of a polymer solution with two successive nonsolvent baths, whereby the first bath initiates the formatio

  2. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  3. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  4. Squalane and isosqualane compositions and methods for preparing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl; Schofer, Susan Jessica; Kanne, David B

    2013-11-19

    Provided herein are methods comprising catalytic dimerization of .beta.-farnesene to obtain squalane and/or isosqualane. Compositions comprising squalane and/or isosqualane are provided. In certain embodiments, squalane and isosqualane prepared by the methods provided herein can be useful for applications in cosmetic industry and/or in the lubricants industry.

  5. Squalane and isosqualane compositions and methods for preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Karl; Schofer, Susan Jessica; Kanne, David B

    2013-11-19

    Provided herein are methods comprising catalytic dimerization of .beta.-farnesene to obtain squalane and/or isosqualane. Compositions comprising squalane and/or isosqualane are provided. In certain embodiments, squalane and isosqualane prepared by the methods provided herein can be useful for applications in cosmetic industry and/or in the lubricants industry.

  6. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  7. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  8. an assessment of existing common traditional methods of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases are m are common in the rural communities where potable water supply coverage is ... Shige/la spp, and Vibrlo Cholerae were repoted to be ..... Khan M.U. Alum Potash in water to prevent cholera.-Lancet 1984 2: 1032 (Letter).

  9. Detection of C. difficile common antigen: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuliana Brunelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify and define a diagnostic algorithm for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection, a comparative study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory of “Maggiore della Carità” Hospital in Novara.We compared the system currently in use in the laboratory “TECHLAB C.difficile Quik Chek Complete (Inverness Medical, USA”, an immunoenzymatic assay for the simultaneous detection of C. difficile common antigen (GDH and Toxins A&B, with the new ImmunoCard Clostridium difficile GDH (Meridian Bioscience, USA, which identifies the C. difficile Common Antigen GDH. The results proved identical between the two assays: of 100 samples, 82 resulted negative with both tests, 18 were GDH positive with both tests. Out of the 18 GDH positives, 9 resulted positive for the Toxins portion of the TechLab test.

  10. Preparation of Nano/Micron Composite Materials by Process Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ai-feng; WEI Qi; JI; Yuan; HU Chuan-xin; YAO Jun-min

    2004-01-01

    This thesis put forward a method that controls the process of synthesizing nanomaterial to realize the composite of nanomaterial and micronmaterial. This thesis realizes the composite of nanomaterial and micronmaterial by adding micronmaterial during production of nanomaterial through sol-gel method, also introduces the technique and experiment's process preparation of nanocomposite material, and successfully prepared nanocomposite materials with nano-PbTiO3 covered on the surface of micron-Ni. According to the sample's SEM-pictures, the core-shell can be observed plate microstructure, and it is uniform, tight, full and good.

  11. Electrochemical slurry compositions and methods for preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Tristan; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Butros, Asli; Duduta, Mihai; Cross, III, James C.

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to semi-solid suspensions, and more particularly to systems and methods for preparing semi-solid suspensions for use as electrodes in electrochemical devices such as, for example batteries. In some embodiments, a method for preparing a semi-solid electrode includes combining a quantity of an active material with a quantity of an electrolyte to form an intermediate material. The intermediate material is then combined with a conductive additive to form an electrode material. The electrode material is mixed to form a suspension having a mixing index of at least about 0.80 and is then formed into a semi-solid electrode.

  12. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R C Vivekchand; A Govindaraj

    2003-10-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.

  13. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekchang, SRC; Govindaraj, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spect...

  14. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  15. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

  16. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahir S.

    2017-05-01

    In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a ( d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory.

  17. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose different templates, which are divided into hard template and soft template according to their different structures. In this paper, the effects of different types of templates on the morphology of nanomaterials during their preparation are investigated from two aspects: hard template and soft template, combined with the mechanism of action.

  18. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  19. [A method for DNA template preparation using a single embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Feng; Li, Hai-Feng; Song, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Jia-Hua

    2005-09-01

    We established a simple method for the preparation of DNA template from a single oocyte or early embryo by KOH/DTT-Triton X disintegration. The PCR amplification efficiency of DNA template prepared by this method was compared with that prepared by TE-proteinase K. Single oocyte, 2-cell embryo, 8-cell embryo, morula or blastocyst were separately treated by KOH/DTT-Triton X, then the DNA template was directly used to amplify mitochondrial DNA segment by PCR. The overall PCR success rate of the 3 pairs of primers was 100% (70/70), while the overall PCR success rate of single oocyte treated by TE-proteinase K was 92.9% (65/70). Difference between the two results was significant (PDNA template of a single early embryo. It needed only one cycle of PCR amplification to get clear aimed DNA stripe and the efficiency was high enough to meet the need of early embryonic genetic material detection.

  20. Facile Preparation Method for Inclusion Complexes between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    Several methods were used to investigate the possibility of preparing inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofurans (PTHF) via direct mixing. Potato amylose (M-v similar to 200 kg/mol) and synthetic amylose (M-n 42 kg/mol) were complexed with PTHF having different molecular weights

  1. Method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, C.; Van Langen, L.M.; Van Rantwijk, F.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles using a cross-linking agent. According to the invention, the enzyme particles are formed and subsequently cross-linked using a cross-linking agent having at least n reactive groups where N>=3 and a molecular weight of

  2. Method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, C.; Van Langen, L.M.; Van Rantwijk, F.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of preparing cross-linked enzyme particles using a cross-linking agent. According to the invention, the enzyme particles are formed and subsequently cross-linked using a cross-linking agent having at least n reactive groups where N>=3 and a molecular weight of >2,00

  3. METHOD OF PREPARING PuF$sub 4$

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, R.E.; Florin, A.E.

    1957-12-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium trifluoride. This is accomplished by contacting the trifluoride with hydrogen fluoride in the presence of oxygen. The preferred temperature for the reaction is in the neighborhood of 600 deg C and the preferred reactant mixture consists of HF mixed with from 5 to 20 volume% of O/sub 2/.

  4. Common themes, methods, and applications in multiscale science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, G.A. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    In 1993, under the leadership of Richard Slansky, the T-Division Director, an initiative was started to facilitate cross communications and interactions between a large number of different workers who were, from their own perspectives and with regard to their own challenges, in fact working on very difficult problems which involved multiple size and time scales. The realization of this common element had the potential for valuable mutual interaction. His initiative led initially to a competency development initiative and subsequently to a broadening recognition of the importance of multiscale science and a broadening application of it to problems and concerns inherent in significant fields of endeavor at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. One of the aspects of this effort was a series of meetings which emphasizes cross communication between the workers. It was realized early on that this cross communication would be fare more effective, considering the difficult technical nature and that the range of the material was well outside the area of specialization of individual members of the group, if notes were taken, written up, and disseminated. This report represents the collection of these notes.

  5. A New Method to Prepare Hydroxylapatite Coating of Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new method ( sintering method) to prepare hydroxylapatite coating of implants was developed. The coating was characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy with a Nicolet FTIR aparatus. The adhesion strength of coating to metal substrate were measured. The bone ingrowth of coated substrate was observed and clinical application of coated implants were reported in this paper. The comparison results of sintered coating and plasma sparied coating was discussed.

  6. A Novel Preparation Method of C-Terminal Glutamine Dipeptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shao-Song; LIU Yi; CHEN Ran; LI Jia-You; WU Xiao-Yan; JIAO Qing-Cai

    2006-01-01

    A novel synthesis method of dipeptides containing glutamine is reported. Protected L-amino acids were prepared by using inexpensive phthaloyl as the protecting group. Then the phthaloyl-L-amino acids were condensed with glutamine salts by the mixed anhydride method to afford phthaloyl dipeptides. Subsequently, the phthaloyl was removed from the dipeptides with hydrazine hydrate. As a result, optically pure glutamine-containing dipeptides were obtained in good yields.

  7. Preparation of drug nanoparticles by emulsion evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Mai Hoa; Dang Mau Chien [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 6 Community, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen Tai Chi; Nguyen Minh Triet; Le Ngoc Thanh Nhan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, 41 Dinh Tien Hoang, Ben Nghe Ward, 1 District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ltmhoa@vnuhcm.edu.vn

    2009-09-01

    Polymeric drug nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In this study, prepared the polymeric drug nanoparticles consist of ketoprofen and Eudragit E 100. The morphology structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions between the drug and polymer were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The size distribution was measured by means of Dynamic Light Scattering. The nanoparticles have an average size of about 150 nm. The incorporation ability of drugs in the polymeric nanoparticles depended on the integration between polymer and drug as well as the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  8. A novel method for preparation of Eudragit RL microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satturwar, P M; Mandaogade, P M; Dorle, A K

    2002-01-01

    A novel technique for the preparation of Eudragit RL microcapsules is described. The technique is based on the principle of solvent evaporation. Diclofenac sodium is used as a model drug for encapsulation. A solution of drug and Eudragit RL dissolved in acetone-isopropyl alcohol (1:1) is sprayed in liquid paraffin. The microcapsules obtained were uniform and free flowing particles. The release rate was more sustained by increasing the polymer concentration. The experimental procedure promises a rapid and convenient method for the preparation of Eudragit RL-microcapsules.

  9. Estimated Accuracy of Three Common Trajectory Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashnikov, Vitaliy P.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli P.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Metelskaya, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Three well-known trajectory statistical methods (TSMs), namely concentration field (CF), concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and potential source contribution function (PSCF) methods were tested using known sources and artificially generated data sets to determine the ability of TSMs to reproduce spatial distribution of the sources. In the works by other authors, the accuracy of the trajectory statistical methods was estimated for particular species and at specified receptor locations. We have obtained a more general statistical estimation of the accuracy of source reconstruction and have found optimum conditions to reconstruct source distributions of atmospheric trace substances. Only virtual pollutants of the primary type were considered. In real world experiments, TSMs are intended for application to a priori unknown sources. Therefore, the accuracy of TSMs has to be tested with all possible spatial distributions of sources. An ensemble of geographical distributions of virtual sources was generated. Spearman s rank order correlation coefficient between spatial distributions of the known virtual and the reconstructed sources was taken to be a quantitative measure of the accuracy. Statistical estimates of the mean correlation coefficient and a range of the most probable values of correlation coefficients were obtained. All the TSMs that were considered here showed similar close results. The maximum of the ratio of the mean correlation to the width of the correlation interval containing the most probable correlation values determines the optimum conditions for reconstruction. An optimal geographical domain roughly coincides with the area supplying most of the substance to the receptor. The optimal domain s size is dependent on the substance decay time. Under optimum reconstruction conditions, the mean correlation coefficients can reach 0.70 0.75. The boundaries of the interval with the most probable correlation values are 0.6 0.9 for the decay time of 240 h

  10. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  11. Preparation of natural brucite nanofibers by the dispersion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xu; Wen Ni; Wenping Li; Xingde Liu; Hailong Yang; Xiaoguang Yang

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of natural brucite nanofibers through dispersion by the wet process is described. The test results indicate that brucite fibers can be well dispersed by using sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (OT) as the dispersant at a dispersant/fiber mass ratio of 0.15:1, dispersing for 30 min at a water/solid mass ratio of 20:1. The prepared nanofibers were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is shown that the prepared single brucite nanofiber is around 30 run in diameter and the talus of the nonsingle brucite nanofibers is about 50-150 nm in diameter. Natural brucite mineral fibers were treated by the dispersion method to obtain nanomaterials. These fibers have significant advantages over artificial nanofibers both in yield and in cost.

  12. Facile Method for Preparation of Silica Coated Monodisperse Superparamagnetic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Hung Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a facile method for preparation of silica coated monodisperse superparamagnetic microsphere. Herein, monodisperse porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene microbeads were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization and subsequently sulfonated with acetic acid/H2SO4. The as-prepared sulfonated macroporous beads were magnetized in presence of Fe2+/Fe3+ under alkaline condition and were subjected to silica coating by sol-gel process, providing water compatibility, easily modifiable surface form, and chemical stability. FE-SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and TGA were employed to characterize the silica coated monodisperse magnetic beads (~7.5 μm. The proposed monodisperse magnetic beads can be used as mobile solid phase particles candidate for protein and DNA separation.

  13. Microfluidic Sample Preparation Methods for the Analysis of Milk Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Adami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In systems for food analysis, one of the major challenges is related to the quantification of specific species into the complex chemical and physical composition of foods, that is, the effect of “matrix”; the sample preparation is often the key to a successful application of biosensors to real measurements but little attention is traditionally paid to such aspects in sensor research. In this critical review, we discuss several microfluidic concepts that can play a significant role in sample preparation, highlighting the importance of sample preparation for efficient detection of food contamination. As a case study, we focus on the challenges related to the detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk and we evaluate possible approaches based on inertial microfluidics, electrophoresis, and acoustic separation, compared with traditional laboratory and industrial methods for phase separation as a baseline of thrust and well-established techniques.

  14. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  15. Gravimetric method for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubino, Matthieu; De Souza, Rafael L

    2005-01-01

    A gravimetric method for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations was developed. Diclofenac is precipitated from aqueous solution with copper(II) acetate in pH 5.3 (acetic acid/acetate buffer). Sample aliquots had approximately the same quantity of the drug content in tablets (50 mg) or in ampules (75 mg). The observed standard deviation was about +/- 2 mg; therefore, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was approximately 4% for tablet and 3% for ampule preparations. The results were compared with those obtained with the liquid chromatography method recommended in the United States Pharmacopoeia using the statistical Student's t-test. Complete agreement was observed. It is possible to obtain more precise results using higher aliquots, for example 200 mg, in which case the RSD falls to 1%. This gravimetric method, contrary to what is expected for this kind of procedure, is relatively fast and simple to perform. The main advantage is the absolute character of the gravimetric analysis.

  16. Doped Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juguang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 was intensively researched especially for photocatalystic applications. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD method were reviewed, and some recent new experimental results were also presented in this paper. A new optical transmission method for evaluating the photocatalystic activity was presented. The main results are (1 PLD method is versatile for preparing oxide material or complex component films with excellent controllability and high reproducibility. (2 Anatase nitrogen-doped TiO2 films were prepared at room temperature, 200°C, and 400°C by PLD method using novel ceramic target of mixture of TiN and TiO2. UV/Vis spectra, AFM, Raman spectra, and photocatalystic activity for decomposition of methyl orange (MO tests showed that visible light response was improved at higher temperature. (3 The automatic, continuous optical transmission autorecorder method is suitable for detecting the photodecomposition dynamic process of organic compound.

  17. Evaluation of Common Maintenance Methods for Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma T. Ibraheem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With the increasing use and awareness of pavement management systems and the growing emphasis on asset management of pavement infrastructure, it is important to strengthen the maintenance components of these systems and particularly the preventive maintenance component. Iraqi Roads don’t receive an effective and proper maintenance during their service life until they reach the state of major failure that requires rehabilitation. Roads in Iraq are being lost. Approach: In this study, a study of the status of maintenance methods for road pavements in Iraq with special reference to flexible pavements is presented. For this purpose, open and closed questionnaires were executed in Baghdad to investigate the status of road pavement maintenance in Iraq. Road maintenance offices as (Ministry of construction and Housing, State Corporation for Roads and Bridges, Amanat Baghdad, Project office, were included in the questionnaire to arrive at the level of maintenance and techniques followed to maintain paved road in Iraq. Results: The interviews carried out reveal that maintenance in Iraq has secondary importance, apparently with no special budget allocated for such important works. In addition the maintenance methods and techniques followed do not comply the developments and modern techniques. Conclusion/Recommendations: Poor and miss-management of maintenance works and activities leading to delays and accumulation of failure in the highway network that require unusual expenditures to repair and maintain the accumulated damages. Also shortages in resources allocated for maintenance works and this leads to the diversion of significant portion of the allocated fund for maintenance works toward purchasing of new, or additional equipment to be used for the construction of new roads. It is strongly recommended to design a planning system for management pavement maintenance of road network in Iraq and develop a particular failure criterion

  18. Common Core Preparation in Special Education Teacher Education Programs: Beginning the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michelle R.; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were developed to encourage a common focus of instruction and evaluation in the areas of mathematics, reading/language arts, writing, speaking, and listening. As of 2011, all but five states have adopted CCSS for math and English Language Arts (ELA), with another adopting only the standards for ELA. With…

  19. Solvothermal method to prepare graphene quantum dots by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Renbing; Zhong, Suting; Wu, Juan; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Yewen; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Tianhe

    2016-10-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been synthesized by different chemical methods in recent years. For conventional chemical methods, it is inevitable to introduce a large amount of impurities in the preparation process. Long time of dialysis process increases the time cost extremely. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method for synthesizing GQDs with the application of hydrogen peroxide in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) environment, which completely avoids the use of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid to treat raw material and introduces no impurity in whole preparation process simultaneously for the first time. Pure GQDs can be obtained after evaporation/redissolution and filtration process with a strong blue emission at 15% quantum yield. This solvothermal method, not requiring dialysis process and complicated equipments, exhibits simple, eco-friendly and low time-cost properties. Besides high quantum yields, the as-prepared GQDs also show good photoluminescence stability in different pH conditions. The optical properties, morphology and structure of GQDs were studied by various equipments, implying potential application in biomedical fields and electronic device.

  20. Different Paths to a Common Goal: Preparing Students for Civic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delander, Brady; Millard, Maria

    2014-01-01

    While many Americans might agree on the importance of preparing young people for citizenship in a democracy, civic education has been in decline. Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress show students across all grade levels have a less-than-adequate grasp of the skills and knowledge necessary to engage as citizens. In…

  1. Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar'R4(O)Ar"R'.sub.4 M(CH.sub.2 Ph).sub.2 where Ar' is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar" is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R' are H or alkyl substituents (C.ltoreq.10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a "one-pot" procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb.sub.3 C.sup.+ B(Ar.sub.3.sup.F).sub.4 BAr.sub.3.sup.F or methyl alumoxane where Ar.sup.F is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene.

  2. Silver vanadium oxide cathode material and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, A.M.

    1993-06-22

    A method for making an electrochemical cell having the steps of admixing silver vanadium oxide with a conductive material and a binder and forming the admixture into a cathode, combining the cathode with a lithium metal anode; and combining an electrolyte with the anode and cathode, the method is described consisting of preparing the silver vanadium oxide by a chemical addition reaction consisting of admixing AgVO[sub 3] and V[sub 2]O[sub 5] in a 2:1 mole ratio heating the admixed AgVO[sub 3] and V[sub 3]O[sub 5] at a reaction temperature in the range of 300 C to 700 C for 5 to 24 hours. An electrochemical cell having a lithium metal anode, cathode and an electrolyte having a metal salt in a nonaqueous solvent comprising: the cathode including a crystalline silver vanadium oxide prepared by a chemical addition reaction.

  3. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article.

  4. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  5. Method for the preparation of photochromic insulating crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Boldu, Jose L.; Chen, Yok; Orera, Victor M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing reversible-photochromic magnesium oxide (MgO) crystals. Single crystals of MgO doped with both lithium (Li) and nickel (Ni) are grown by a conventional arc fusion method. The as-grown crystals are characterized by an amber coloration. The crystals lose the amber coloration and become photochromic when they are thermochemically reduced by heating at temperatures greater than 1000.degree. K. in a hydrogen atmosphere. Alternate irradiation with UV and visible light result in rejuvenation and bleaching of the amber coloration, respectively.

  6. A Novel Method to Prepare Potassium Sodium Titanate Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Dong WANG; Zhen Sheng JIN; Xian Ru PEI; Jian Jun YANG; Zhi Jun ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A novel method, i.e. molten salt method, was adopted to prepare potassium sodium titanate nanotubes. EDX results indicated that the ion-exchange reaction reached an equilibrium state at around 9 h. The 24 h ion-exchanged product maintained nano-tubular and its crystalline structure was consistent with that of Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 nanotubes. The nanotubes have a high specific surface area, possibly making this material a good candidate as controlled release materials,catalyst, electrode materials, etc..

  7. A method to minimize complications in endodontic access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikow, Robert; Cozzarelli-Moldauer, Gina; Keiner, Steven; Hardigan, Patrick C

    2008-06-01

    This article presents a method of avoiding some operative errors in endodontic-access cavity preparation. Utilizing the radiograph, a line representing the coronal extension of the image of the coronal two-thirds of the root canal(s) is drawn on the facial surface of the crown (Fig. 1). This line determines the proper angulation of the bur to facilitate entry into the pulp chamber in proper mesio-distal orientation, thereby reducing the likelihood of mesial and distal gouging and perforating. Marking the tooth to be treated prior to rubber-dam placement help in preventing treatment of an incorrect tooth. Two studies utilizing Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine (NSUCDM) second-year dental students (D-2), one utilizing University of Florida, College of Dentistry (UFCD) second year dental students (D2) and one utilizing NSUCDM Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) faculty and students were undertaken to evaluate the method. Evaluation was by endodontic teachers. Results indicate use of the line-drawing method may facilitate more ideal access cavities than those prepared without the method. Welch's t-test, chi-square test and estimating equations were employed. One study showed significant difference between control and test groups (p less than 045). All studies indicated a difference. Further testing of the method is indicated. This valuable tool should be considered for use in teaching and practice.

  8. Amniotic Membrane Extract Preparation: What is the Best Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirgholamreza Mahbod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare different preparation methods for a suitable amniotic membrane (AM extract containing a given amount of growth factors. Methods: In this interventional case series, we dissected the AM from eight placentas within 24 hours after delivery, under clean conditions. After washing and mixing, AM extracts (AMEs were prepared using pulverization and homogenization methods, and different processing and storing conditions. Main outcome measures were the amount of added protease inhibitor (PI, the relative centrifugal force (g, in-process temperature, repeated extraction times, drying percentage, repeated pulverization times, and the effect of filtering with 0.2 μm filters. Extract samples were preserved at different temperature and time parameters, and analyzed for hepatic growth factor (HGF and total protein using ELISA and calorimetric methods, respectively. Results: The extracted HGF was 20% higher with pulverization as compared to homogenization, and increased by increasing the PI to 5.0 μl/g of dried AM. Repeating centrifugation up to 3 times almost doubled the extracted HGF and protein. Storing the AME at −170° for 6 months caused a 50% drop in the level of HGF and protein. Other studied parameters showed no significant effect on the extracted amount of HGF or total protein. Conclusion: Appropriate extraction methods with an adequate amount of PI increases the level of extractable components from harvested AMs. To achieve the maximal therapeutic effects of AMEs, it is necessary to consider the half-life of its bioactive components.

  9. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst prepared by urea-matrix combustion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Jiao; Yeyong Ma; Fahai Cao

    2012-01-01

    Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3-TiO2 hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst samples prepared by a urea matrix combustion (UMxC) method,were evaluated in a stainless tubular fixed-bed reactor,with thiophene,benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene in xylene as model feedstocks.The samples were pre-sulfurized using a cyclohexane solution of 3% CS2 and then tested for the HDS reaction.The test results were compared with catalysts prepared by conventional methods involving sequential impregnation (SI) and co-impregnation (CI).The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD),laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 physisorption,showing that the UMxC catalyst had higher pore volume and surface area than those prepared by the CI and SI methods.The UMxC method increased metal loading and avoided formation of inert phase,e.g.,β-CoMoO4,for the HDS reaction,suggesting that UMxC method is superior to the conventional impregnation techniques.TiO2 promoter made particles on the catalyst surface closer and alleviated the interaction between molybdenum oxide and the support,and facilitated the formation of well-dispersed Co- and Mo-oxo species on catalyst surface,thus resulting in higher HDS catalytic activity than pure -γ-Al2O3 support without modifiers.Consequently,the addition of TiO2 obviously improved the HDS conversion of dibenzothiophene.

  10. A New Method for Preparation of Nanocrystalline Molybdenum Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Long-Hai; CUI Qi-Liang; ZHANG Jian; LI Xue-Fei; ZHOU Qiang; ZOU Guang-Tian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nanocrystalline molybdenum nitride (γ-Mo2N) with the cubic structure is prepared by the direct-current arc discharge method in N2 gas, using metal Mo or W rod as a cathode. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the product. It is found that the conversion of Mo to γ-Mo2N and affinity of Mo to N2 are determined by the nitrogen pressur e. Moreover, we compare the effect of Mo and W rod as a cathode for preparing γ-Mo2N. The average size of γ-Mo2N particles is about 5nm. The rapid quenching mechanism can be used to explain the formation of nanocrystalline γ-Mo2N.

  11. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  12. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  13. A New Method of Preparing Alkanethiol-Protected Gold Nanoparticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-ya; XU Qin; GUO Rong

    2003-01-01

    In a new two-phase system ( tetrahydrofuran/ saturated NaCl aqueous solution ) monolayer protected clusters ( MPCs ) were prepared. The AuCl-4 anion in saturated electrolyte aqueous solution was transferred into the organic phase of tetrahydrofuran by tetra-n-butylammoniun bromide ( ( C4 H9 )4 NBr )and was reduced quickly by sodium borohydride in the presence of alkanethiol. The functionalized MPCs were characterized by solubility , transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements of MPCs in CH2 Cl2 exhibited 7 pairs of reversible voltammetric waves within the potential range of - 1.0 to 1.0 V ( vs Ag/ AgCl ), which was ascribed to the quantized capacitance charging of nanoparticle double layers. All the results show that the new preparing method is feasible.

  14. Comparison of eight methods for the extraction of Bacillus atrophaeus spore DNA from eleven common interferents and a common swab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Rose

    Full Text Available Eight DNA extraction products or methods (Applied Biosystems PrepFiler Forensic DNA Extraction Kit; Bio-Rad Instagene Only, Bio-Rad Instagene & Spin Column Purification; EpiCentre MasterPure DNA & RNA Kit; FujiFilm QuickGene Mini80; Idaho Technologies 1-2-3 Q-Flow Kit; MoBio UltraClean Microbial DNA Isolation Kit; Sigma Extract-N-Amp Plant and Seed Kit were adapted to facilitate extraction of DNA under BSL3 containment conditions. DNA was extracted from 12 common interferents or sample types, spiked with spores of Bacillus atropheaus. Resulting extracts were tested by real-time PCR. No one method was the best, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types. Statistical analysis indicated that the PrepFiler method was the best method from six dry powders (baking, biological washing, milk, plain flour, filler and talcum and one solid (Underarm deodorant, the UltraClean method was the best from four liquids (aftershave, cola, nutrient broth, vinegar, and the MasterPure method was the best from the swab sample type. The best overall method, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types evaluated was the UltraClean method.

  15. A new method for liposome preparation using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Charcosset, Catherine; Fessi, Hatem

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel, scalable liposomal preparation technique suitable for the entrapment of pharmaceutical agents into liposomes. This new method is based on the ethanol-injection technique and uses a membrane contactor module, specifically designed for colloidal system preparation. In order to investigate the process, the influence of key parameters on liposome characteristics was studied. It has been established that vesicle-size distribution decreased with a decrease of the organic-phase pressure, an increase of the aqueous-phase flow rate, and a decrease of the phospholipid concentration. Additionally, special attention was paid on reproducibility and long-term stability of lipid vesicles, confirming the robustness of the membrane contactor-based technique. On the other hand, drug-loaded liposomes were prepared and filled with two hydrophobic drug models. High entrapment-efficiency values were successfully achieved for indomethacin (63%) and beclomethasone dipropionate (98%). Transmission electron microscopy images revealed nanometric quasispherical-shaped multilamellar vesicles (size ranging from 50 to 160 nm).

  16. A New method of preparing iso-hardness plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    1993-02-01

    A new approach has been used for the preparation of iso-hardness plots, which are very useful in the heat treating of metals and alloys. An alloy white iron containing ~6% Mn, ~5% Cr, and ~3% Cu was heat treated at 800,850,900,950,1000, and 1050 °C and soaked for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h, respectively, at each of these temperatures followed by air cooling. It was observed that, although the hardness varied linearly with soaking time, its variation with soaking temperature was nonlinear. This can be represented as: H = 98.285e2021.33/T + (0.037 - 0.316 × 10- 4 T) . t where H is Vickers hardness; T is soaking temperature in K; and t is soaking time in seconds. The variation in hardness has been discussed in light of microstructural changes that can take place upon heat treating. A three-dimensional plot of hardness, soaking temperature, and time was prepared based on the above equation. It revealed that the variation in hardness on heat treating can be represented as a surface instead of lines, where the change in the slope of the surface reflects the various transformations occurring in the alloy system. This iso- hardness plot, consisting of contours of constant hardness, has been prepared by projecting the above-mentioned surface on the soaking temperature- time plane. The method of selection of heat treating parameters based on this iso- hardness plot is discussed.

  17. [A simple and efficient method for preparation of plant RNAs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Yan-Feng; Wu, Yao; Wang, Sheng-Hua; Chen, Fang

    2006-05-01

    A new and efficient method for isolation of plant RNAs was developed by adding bentonite into extraction buffer in order to get rid of protein and restrain Rnase. The electrophoretic patterns of nucleic acids and absorbance at 230 nm, 260 nm and 280 nm in a UV-Vis spectrophotometer revealed the extraction with this method can obtain RNAs with good integrity and purity without any apparent DNA contamination from the plant materials rich in with polysaccharide and polyphenol like Jatropha curcas leaves, to which TRIZOL reagent, SDS-KAc solution and Guanidine isothiocyanate solution failed. Furthermore, the result of nuclear gene (18 S rRNA gene) amplified by RT-PCR indicated that the RNAs prepared with this method can meet the needs of most molecular biological experiments including gene cloning and expression analysis.

  18. Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Fibers by the Homogeneous Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the preparing process of hydroxyapatite fibers which were widely used as reinforcement for biomedical materials by homogeneous precipitation method.The needle-like hydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized in an aqueous system.They were transferred from precursors-dicalcium phosphate anhydrate and octacalcium phosphate crystals.The reaction conditions were well controlled in order to obtain crystals in given morphology.The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry(XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy(IR).They were verified to be hydroxyapatite crystals with needle-like in shape.

  19. A NOVEL METHOD TO PREPARE CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENEIMINE HOLLOW NANOSPHERES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel method to prepare crosslinked polyethyleneimine (CPEI) hollow nanospheres was reported.Uniform silica nanospheres were used as templates,3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) was immobilized on the surface of silica nanospheres as couple agent.Aziridine was initiated ring-opening polymerization with the amino groups in APS to form polyethyleneimine (PEI) shell layer.1,4-Butanediol diacrylate was utilized to crosslink PEI polymeric shell.The silica nanospheres in core were etched by hydrofluoric acid to obtain hollow CPEI nanospheres.The hollow nanospheres were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  20. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  1. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…

  2. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-01

    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  3. A guide to commonly used map projections prepared for use in HyperCard, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Vigil, Joe F.; Buchholz, Lauren

    1988-01-01

    This guide briefly describes and illustrates the characteristics of 17 map projections commonly used to present thematic data. By means of simple sketches of the basic grid system of longitude and latitude known as the Earth's graticule, the guide shows examples of the following categories of map projections: planes (azimuthal), cones, cylinders, and miscellaneous. The text gives examples of thematic maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey that use various projections. The guide was created as a HyperCard "stack" for use only on the Macintosh family of computers. The guide consists of descriptive material only and does not contain a program for creating map projections.

  4. Methods Used by Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy to Prepare Student Pharmacists for Careers in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seena L; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Clifford, Kalin M; Summa, Maria A; Willson, Megan N; Boyle, Jaclyn A; Peeters, Michael J

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives' perception of their student pharmacists' preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists.

  5. Methods Used by Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy to Prepare Student Pharmacists for Careers in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy-Boarman, Eliza A.; Clifford, Kalin M.; Summa, Maria A.; Willson, Megan N.; Boyle, Jaclyn A.; Peeters, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives’ perception of their student pharmacists’ preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists. PMID:28289296

  6. Integration of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Methods for Differentiating Ricin Preparation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunschel, David S.; Melville, Angela M.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Colburn, Heather A.; Victry, Kristin D.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-05-17

    The investigation of crimes involving chemical or biological agents is infrequent, but presents unique analytical challenges. The protein toxin ricin is encountered more frequently than other agents and is found in the seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis. Typically, the toxin is extracted from castor seeds utilizing a variety of different recipes that result in varying purity of the toxin. Moreover, these various purification steps can also leave or differentially remove a variety of exogenous and endogenous residual components with the toxin that may indicate the type and number of purification steps involved. We have applied three gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) based analytical methods to measure the variation in seed carbohydrates and castor oil ricinoleic acid as well as the presence of solvents used for purification. These methods were applied to the same samples prepared using four previously identified toxin preparation methods starting from four varieties of castor seeds. The individual data sets for seed carbohydrate profiles, ricinoleic acid or acetone amount each provided information capable of differentiating different types of toxin preparations across seed types. However, the integration of the data sets using multivariate factor analysis provided a clear distinction of all samples based on the preparation method and independent of the seed source. In particular the abundance of mannose, arabinose, fucose, ricinoleic acid and acetone were shown to be important differentiating factors. These complementary tools provide a more confident determination of the method of toxin preparation.

  7. Detection of Acetone Processing of Castor Bean Mash for Forensic Investigation of Ricin Preparation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wahl, Jon H.; Metoyer, Candace N.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2010-07-01

    The toxic protein ricin is of concern as a potential biological threat agent (BTA) Recently, several samples of ricin have been seized in connection with biocriminal activity. Analytical methods are needed that enable federal investigators to determine how the samples were prepared, to match seized samples to potential source materials, and to identify samples that may have been prepared by the same method using the same source materials. One commonly described crude ricin preparation method is acetone extraction of crushed castor beans. Here we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction and headspace analysis of crude ricin preparation samples to determine whether they were processed by acetone extraction. In all cases, acetone-extracted bean mash could be distinguished from un-extracted mash or mash extracted with other organic solvents. Statistical analysis showed that storage in closed containers for up to 109 days had no effect on acetone signal intensity. Signal intensity in acetone-extracted mash decreased during storage in open containers, but extracted mash could still be distinguished from un-extracted mash after 94 days.

  8. Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, A; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to prepare ginger powder using various drying methods and their nutritional evaluation was carried out. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was dried using shade, solar, oven and microwave drying methods. All the samples were ground in grinder to make fine powder. Sensory analysis indicated that acceptability of all types of ginger powders were in the range of 'liked very much' to 'liked moderately' by the panelists. The mean score obtained for colour was higher in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 8.20 as compared to oven dried (7.60), solar dried (7.70) and microwave dried ginger powder (7.80). Moisture content ranged from 3.55 % in solar dried ginger powder to 3.78 % in shade dried ginger powder. Slightly higher moisture content was found in shade dried ginger powder. Protein, crude fiber, fat and ash contents ranged from 5.02 to 5.82, 4.97 to 5.61, 0.76 to 0.90 and 3.38 to 3.66 %, respectively. β-carotene and ascorbic acid content was found maximum in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 0.81 mg/100 g and 3.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Polyphenol content was almost similar in all the samples whereas calcium was slightly higher in the shade dried ginger powder i.e., 69.21 mg/100 g. Results have shown that ginger powder prepared from various drying methods had good sensory and nutritional profile.

  9. Chitosan-Based Matrices Prepared by Gamma Irradiation for Tissue Regeneration: Structural Properties vs. Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, Maria Helena; Lancastre, Joana J H; Rodrigues, Alexandra P; Gomes, Susana R; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Ferreira, Luís M

    2017-02-01

    In the last decade, new generations of biopolymer-based materials have attracted attention, aiming its application as scaffolds for tissue engineering. These engineered three-dimensional scaffolds are designed to improve or replace damaged, missing, or otherwise compromised tissues or organs. Despite the number of promising methods that can be used to generate 3D cell-instructive matrices, the innovative nature of the present work relies on the application of ionizing radiation technology to form and modify surfaces and matrices with advantage over more conventional technologies (room temperature reaction, absence of harmful initiators or solvents, high penetration through the bulk materials, etc.), and the possibility of preparation and sterilization in one single step. The current chapter summarizes the work done by the authors in the gamma radiation processing of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan-based matrices for skin regeneration. Particular attention is given to the correlation between the different preparation conditions and the final polymeric matrices' properties. We therefore expect to demonstrate that instructive matrices produced and improved by radiation technology bring to the field of skin regenerative medicine a supplemental advantage over more conservative techniques.

  10. Efficient synthetic protocols for the preparation of common N-heterocyclic carbene precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Hans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot condensation of glyoxal, two equivalents of cyclohexylamine, and paraformaldehyde in the presence of aqueous HBF4 provided a straightforward access to 1,3-dicyclohexylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ICy·HBF4. 1,3-Dibenzylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IBn·HBF4 was obtained along the same lines. To synthesize 1,3-diarylmidazolium salts, it was necessary to isolate the intermediate N,N'-diarylethylenediimines prior to their cyclization. Although this additional step required more time and reagents, it led to a much more efficient overall process. It also proved very convenient to carry out the synthesis of imidazolinium salts in parallel to their imidazolium counterparts via the reduction of the diimines into diammonium salts. The critical assembly of the C2 precarbenic unit was best achieved with paraformaldehyde and chlorotrimethylsilane in the case of imidazolium derivatives, whereas the use of triethyl orthoformate under microwave irradiation was most appropriate for the fast and efficient synthesis of imidazolinium salts. This strategy was applied to the synthesis of six common N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, namely, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolium chloride (IMes·HCl, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IMes·HBF4, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolinium chloride (SIMes·HCl, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazolium chloride (IDip·HCl or IPr·HCl, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazolinium chloride (SIDip·HCl or SIPr·HCl, and 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl-4-methylphenylimidazolium chloride (IDip*·HCl or IPr*·HCl.

  11. Mucoadhesive microspheres prepared by interpolymer complexation and solvent diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Myung-Kwan; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

    2005-01-20

    Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared to increase gastric residence time using an interpolymer complexation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and a solvent diffusion method. The complexation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as a result of hydrogen bonding was confirmed by the shift in the carbonyl absorption bands of poly(acrylic acid) using FT-IR. A mixture of ethanol/water was used as the internal phase, corn oil was used as the external phase of emulsion, and span 80 was used as the surfactant. Spherical microspheres were prepared and the inside of the microspheres was completely filled. The optimum solvent ratio of the internal phase (ethanol/water) was 8/2 and 7/3, and the particle size increased as the content of water was increased. The mean particle size increased with the increase in polymer concentration. The adhesive force of microspheres was equivalent to that of Carbopol. The release rate of acetaminophen from the complex microspheres was slower than the PVP microspheres at pH 2.0 and 6.8.

  12. A quicker preparation method for autologous fibrin glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Kamiya, A

    1998-12-01

    To establish a quicker preparation procedure for cryoprecipitate (Cryo) from a patient's autologous plasma, to be used as fibrin glue, we examined the effects of various conditions on the concentrations and yields of coagulation factors in Cryo. Human plasma from healthy volunteers was divided and treated under various freezing, shaking and defrosting conditions. The concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen, fibronectin, and factor XIII in Cryo were then measured. Results were as follows: (1) concentrations and yields of plasma components in Cryo obtained from plasma stored at -20 degrees C were significantly higher than those in Cryo from plasma stored at -80 degrees C; (2) shaking at 70 cycles/min during the freezing process had a favorable effect on the concentrations and yields of coagulation factors in the Cryo; (3) a shaking thaw process in a cold water bath was a rapid method for obtaining adequate yields of coagulation factors; (4) shaking in the defrosting process did not affect the yields of coagulation factors. These results indicated that Cryo containing high concentrations of coagulation factors could be prepared easily and rapidly from a patient's autologous plasma (within 4-5 h).

  13. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  14. A comparison of two common sample preparation techniques for lipid and fatty acid analysis in three different coral morphotypes reveals quantitative and qualitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Jessica A; Rocker, Melissa M; Francis, David S

    2017-01-01

    Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a coral's condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis). Results revealed substantial amounts of organic material, including lipids, retained in the skeletons of all species following air-spraying, causing a marked underestimation of total lipid concentration using this method. Moreover, lipid class and fatty acid compositions between the denuded skeleton and sprayed tissue were substantially different. In particular, the majority of the total triacylglycerol and total fatty acid concentrations were retained in the skeleton (55-69% and 56-64%, respectively). As such, the isolated, sprayed tissue cannot serve as a reliable proxy for lipid quantification or identification in the coral holobiont. The in toto crushing method is therefore recommended for coral sample preparation prior to lipid analysis to capture the lipid profile of the entire holobiont, permitting accurate diagnoses of coral condition.

  15. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles (7 nm were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i modern, unprinted (blank paper, (ii modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations were used (≥1% w/v, corresponding to high static (θS ≈ 162° and low tilt (θt < 3° contact angles. To interpret these results, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was employed to observe the surface morphologies of the siloxane-nanoparticle films. Static contact angles, measured on surfaces that were prepared from dilute dispersions (particle concentration <1% w/v, increased with particle concentration and attained a maximum value (162° which corresponds to superhydrophobicity. Increasing further the particle concentration did not have any effect on θS. Colourimetric measurements showed that the superhydrophobic films had negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the treated papers. Furthermore, it is shown that the superhydrophobic character of the siloxane-nanoparticle films was stable over a wide range of pH.

  16. COMPARISON OF SAMPLE PREPARATION METHODS FOR CHIP-CHIP ASSAYS

    OpenAIRE

    O'Geen, Henriette; Nicolet, Charles M.; Blahnik, Kim; Green, Roland; Farnham, Peggy J.

    2006-01-01

    A single ChIP sample does not provide enough DNA for hybridization to a genomic tiling array. A commonly used technique for amplifying the DNA obtained from ChIP assays is linker-mediated PCR (LMPCR). However, using this amplification method, we could not identify Oct4 binding sites on genomic tiling arrays representing 1% of the human genome (ENCODE arrays). In contrast, hybridization of a pool of 10 ChIP samples to the arrays produced reproducible binding patterns and low background signals...

  17. Preparation of calcium stannate by modified wet chemical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何则强; 李新海; 刘恩辉; 侯朝辉; 邓凌峰; 胡传跃

    2003-01-01

    A modified wet chemical route for low-temperature synthesis of the calcium stannate CaSnO3, a potentialmaterial for dielectric applications is reported. Firstly, a precursor CaSn(OH)6 was prepared using tin tetrachloride,calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. Then the precursor was annealed at relatively low tem-perature of 600 ℃ to obtain CaSnO3. The phase identification, thermal behavior and surface morphology of the sam-ples were characterized by element analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis and deriva-tive thermo-gravimetric (DTG) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) in detail. The results show that CaSnO3 obtained by this method possesses a cubic perovskitestructure with average grain size of 5 μm.

  18. Studying the Efficiency of “Bilator-6” Complex Preparation Against Fungoid Diseases of Garden Strawberry and Common Barberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomichev Valeriy Tarasovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at studying the produced complex preparation “Bilator” characterized by multifunctional effect. Bilator is a nano-structured water solution of bischofite salts (MgCl2 subjected to electrochemical processing with the use of copper anode. In order to activate the efficiency of this solution at the level of a cellular membrane the authors propose the technology of its electrochemical processing as a result of which qualitative characteristics change: the solution turns heterogeneous where the substance is connected in the colloidal nanostructures (micelles representing neutral particles with the sizes of 20-250 nanometers. The colloidal (micellar form of solution structure eliminates coagulation processes, reduces the size of a gradient of osmotic pressure on border of a cell and, thereby, provides better delivery of active agents at cellular level. The structure of a cellular membrane, having the sizes of carrying-out channels of 30-40 nanometers, provides penetration into the cell only to those elements whose sizes do not exceed this range. It gives the chance to use each ingredient with maximum efficiency, facilitates their penetration and provides the synergism. The conducted research proved the efficiency of Bilator-6 preparation for protecting a common barberry and a garden strawberry from mealy dew. The data allowed to assume the positive influence of the preparation on intensity of blossoming of these plants.

  19. Method of 14C Sample Preparation for AMS Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xu-ran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out the application research of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, the principle of sample preparation were systematically studied and more attention was paid to improve the preparation process efficiently. The set of integrated system of sample preparation was built up on the research. The experimental results showed that the sample preparation scheme was able to meet the demand of AMS measurement.

  20. Miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Manami; Namera, Akira; Yashiki, Mikio; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-07-16

    A simple and miniaturized sample preparation method for determination of amphetamines in urine was developed using on-column derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine was directly applied to the extraction column that was pre-packed with Extrelut and sodium carbonate. Amphetamine (AP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine were adsorbed on the surface of Extrelut. AP and MA were then converted to a free base and derivatized to N-propoxycarbonyl derivatives using propylchloroformate on the column. Pentadeuterated MA was used as an internal standard. The recoveries of AP and MA from urine were 100 and 102%, respectively. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.50-50 microg/mL for AP and MA in urine. When urine samples containing two different concentrations (0.50 and 5.0 microg/mL) of AP and MA were determined, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were 1.4-7.7%. This method was applied to 14 medico-legal cases of MA intoxication. The results were compared and a good agreement was obtained with a HPLC method.

  1. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  2. North American (Panax quinquefolius and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Krebs Seida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardized ginseng extract has become the best-selling cold and flu remedy in Canada, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of ginseng in preventing common colds remains. Objective: To assess the efficacy of ginseng preparations for the prevention of common colds in healthy adults. Methods: Comprehensive bibliographic database, trial registry and grey literature searches were conducted up to December 2007. Randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing North American (Panax quinquefolius or Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng root extract to placebo or no treatment in healthy adults were included. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria and assessed methodological quality. Results: Five trials involving 747 participants were included. All five trials examined North American ginseng. The methodological quality of the trials varied widely. Ginseng preparations significantly reduced the total number of common colds by 25% compared to placebo (one trial; 95% CI: 5–45. There was a tendency toward a lower incidence of having at least one common cold or other acute respiratory infection (ARI in the ginseng group compared to the placebo group (five trials; relative risk: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48–1.02. Compared to placebo, ginseng significantly shortened the duration of colds or ARIs by 6.2 days (two trials; 95% CI: 3.4–9.0. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that ginseng reduces the incidence or severity of common colds. North American ginseng appears to be effective in shortening the duration of colds or ARIs in healthy adults when taken preventatively for durations of 8–16 weeks.

  3. Preparation and characterization of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by compression molding and slip casting methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Fangli; Wang Huanrui; Bai Yu; Yang Jianfeng

    2010-10-01

    Porous silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics were fabricated by compression molding and slip casting methods using petroleum coke as pore forming agent, and Y2O3–Al2O3 as sintering additives. Microstructure, mechanical properties and gas permeability of porous Si3N4 ceramics were investigated. The mechanical properties and microstructure of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by compression molding were better than those which were prepared by slip casting method, whereas slip casting method is suitable for the preparation of porous Si3N4 ceramics with higher porosity and excellent gas permeability.

  4. Sperm preparation: state-of-the-art-physiological aspects and application of advanced sperm preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralf Henkel

    2012-01-01

    For assisted reproduction technologies (ART),numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes.While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable,motile spermatozoa,with progress of ART,particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization.Conventional sperm preparation techniques,namely,swim-up,density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration,are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage,because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract.These processes only allow one male germ cell out of tens of millions to fuse with the oocyte.Sites of sperm selection in the female genital tract are the cervix,uterus,uterotubal junction,oviduct,cumulus oophorus and the zona pellucida.Newer strategies of sperm preparation are founded on:(i) morphological assessment by means of‘motile sperm organelle morphological examination (MSOME)'; (ii) electrical charge; and (iii) molecular binding characteristics of the sperm cell.Whereas separation methods based on electrical charge take advantage of the sperm's adherence to a test tube surface or separate in an electrophoresis,molecular binding techniques use Annexin V or hyaluronic acid (HA) as substrates.Techniques in this category are magnet-activated cell sorting,Annexin V-activated glass wool filtration,flow cytometry and picked spermatozoa for ICSI (PICSI) from HA-coated dishes and HA-containing media.Future developments may include Raman microspectrometry,confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy and polarization microscopy.

  5. A von Neumann Alternating Method for Finding Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Modifying von Neumann's alternating projections algorithm, we obtain an alternating method for solving the recently introduced Common Solutions to Variational Inequalities Problem (CSVIP). For simplicity, we mainly confine our attention to the two-set CSVIP, which entails finding common solutions to two unrelated variational inequalities in Hilbert space.

  6. The optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles prepared by bioreduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena Ortega, A.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Gayou, V. L.; Orduña Díaz, A.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, Marlon

    2013-11-01

    Nonlinear optical and electronic properties of nanosized metal particles have drawn considerable attention because of their strong and size-dependent plasmon resonance absorption. In a metal nanoparticle system such as gold dispersed in a transparent matrix, an absorption peak due to surface plasmon resonance is usually observed in the visible spectral region. Metal nanoparticles are of special interest as nonlinear materials for optical switching and computing because of their relatively large third-order nonlinearity (χ3) and ultrafast response time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the nonlinear optical properties of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. The samples were prepared by biosynthesis method using yeast extract as reducing agent and the nonlinear optical properties of the nanoparticles were investigated using a single beam Z-scan technique with a beam power of 20 mW and operated at wavelength of 514 nm. The reaction between metal ions and yeast extracts were monitored by UV-visible spectra of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different pH (3-6). The surface plasmon peak position was shifted from 528 nm to 573 nm, according to of pH variation 4 to 6. The average particle size was calculated by the absorption peak position using the Fernig method, from 42 to 103 nm. The z-scan curves showed a negative nonlocal nonlinear refractive index with a magnitude dependent on the nanoparticle size.

  7. Phytotoxicity of Ag nanoparticles prepared by biogenic and chemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rupasree; Majumder, Manna; Roy, Dijendra Nath; Basumallick, Srijita; Misra, Tarun Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are now widely used as antibacterial and antifungal materials in different consumer products. We report here the preparation of Ag NPs by neem leaves extract ( Azadirachta) reduction and trisodium citrate-sodium borohydride reduction methods, and study of their phytotoxicity. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Both neem-coated and citrate-coated Ag NPs exhibit surface plasmon around 400 nm, and their average sizes measured by AFM are about 100 and 20 nm, respectively. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these nanomaterials have been studied by simple pea seed germination and disk diffusion methods. It has been observed from the growth of root and shoot, citrate-coated Ag NPs significantly affect seedling growth, but neem-coated Ag NPs exhibit somehow mild toxicity toward germination process due to the nutrient supplements from neem. On the other hand, antifungal activity of neem-coated Ag NPs has been found much higher than that of citrate-coated Ag NPs due to the combined effects of antifungal activity of neem and Ag NPs. Present research primarily indicates a possible application of neem-coated Ag NPs as a potential fungicide.

  8. Analysis of protein carbonylation - pitfalls and promise in commonly used methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Wojdyla, K.; Nedic, O.

    2014-01-01

    . Several methods for measuring protein carbonylation have been implemented in different laboratories around the world. However, to date no methods prevail as the most accurate, reliable, and robust. The present paper aims at giving an overview of the common methods used to determine protein carbonylation...

  9. A fast method to prepare water samples for 15N analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化云; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    Automatic element analyser is often used to prepare organic matters tor 15N analysis. It is seldom used to prepare water samples. Water samples are conventionally dealt with by Kjeldahl-Rittenberg technique. But it requires tedious and labor-intensive sample preparation. A fast and reliable method is proposed in this paper to prepare water samples for 15N analysis.

  10. Undergraduate and Graduate Preparation in Educational Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of high stakes state testing in K-12 education and The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, with its focus on "scientifically-based research" (SBR), has opened new challenges for both undergraduate and graduate preparation programs in education. This address will report on how we are currently preparing our undergraduate and graduate…

  11. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  12. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  13. /dopamine films prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Prado-Prone, G.; Vergara-Aragón, P.; Garcia-Macedo, J.; Santiago, Patricia; Rendón, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine was encapsulated into nanoporous amorphous TiO2 matrix by sol-gel method under atmospheric conditions. A second sample was obtained by the addition of the crown-ether 15C5 in this previous sample. Thin films were spin-coated on glass wafers. No heat treatment was employed in both films. All films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and scanning electronic microscopy. Despite the films prepared with 15C5 were no calcined, a partial crystallization was identified. Anatase and rutile nanoparticles with sizes of 4-5 nm were obtained. Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on these films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination wavelengths at 320, 400, and 515 nm. It indicates an ohmic behavior. Photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density vs. the applied-electrical-field results. Amorphous film has bigger photovoltaic and photoconductive parameters than the partially crystalline film. Results observed in the present investigation prove that the nanoporous TiO2 matrix can protect the dopamine inhibiting its chemical instability. This fact modifies the optical, physical and electrical properties of the film, and is intensified when 15C5 is added.

  14. WO3 nanotubes prepared by a coaxial electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xingxing; Zhang, Xuebin; Hu, Jixiang; Wang, Yang; Liu, Jia; Wu, Haijun; Feng, Yi

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, WO3 nanotubes were prepared by a coaxial electrospinning method. Firstly, core-shell structured composite fibers were fabricated via coaxial electrospinning under the optimal electro-spinning parameters to get the best composite fibers with uniform diameters and smooth surface, which pure PVA being the core solution and PVA/AMT/alcohol being the shell one, respectively. Secondly, the composite fibers were calcined in air at 600 °C for 4 h to wipe out the pure PVA, leading to the formation of nanotubes. After sintering, the obtained WO3 nanotubes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD show that the resultant materials consist of pure tungsten trioxide (WO3) with good crystallinity, while FESEM and HRTEM images indicate that the materials are nanotubes with rough surface and consist of nanoparticles. The inner diameter and the wall thickness of nanotubes were calculated to be around 100 and 50 nm, respectively.

  15. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  16. Lambda-Cyhalothrin Nanosuspension Prepared by the Melt Emulsification-High Pressure Homogenization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanosuspension of 5% lambda-cyhalothrin with 0.2% surfactants was prepared by the melt emulsification-high pressure homogenization method. The surfactants composition, content, and homogenization process were optimized. The anionic surfactant (1-dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt and polymeric surfactant (maleic rosin-polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene ether sulfonate screened from 12 types of commercially common-used surfactants were used to prepare lambda-cyhalothrin nanosuspension with high dispersity and stability. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the nanosuspension were 16.01 ± 0.11 nm and 0.266 ± 0.002, respectively. The high zeta potential value of −41.7 ± 1.3 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles indicated the excellent physical and chemical stability. The method could be widely used for preparing nanosuspension of various pesticides with melting points below boiling point of water. This formulation may avoid the use of organic solvents and reduce surfactants and is perspective for improving bioavailability and reducing residual pollution of pesticide in agricultural products and environment.

  17. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Minoru; Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko; Nagayama, Norio

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor's technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  18. Identifying hidden common causes from bivariate time series: a method using recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method for inferring the existence of hidden common causes from observations of bivariate time series. We detect related time series by excessive simultaneous recurrences in the corresponding recurrence plots. We also use a noncoverage property of a recurrence plot by the other to deny the existence of a directional coupling. We apply the proposed method to real wind data.

  19. Global/local methods research using a common structural analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.

    1991-01-01

    Methodologies for global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.

  20. METHOD OF GENERATING COMMON CRYPTOGRAPHIC KEYS FOR LOOSLY COINCIDENT BINARY SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Pivovarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of forming a common secret binary sequence between using an open communication channel is considered. The method is not based on common unidirectional functions and results in iterative elimination of distinct bits in the initial binary sequences with a certain percentage of mismatches, intentionally made by subscribers themselves. The cryptanalysis technique of this method based on the use of the deviation of aprior distribution of probabilities of inverting bits in the original binary sequences of subscribers from uniform distribution is proposed. Part of the bits in the final secret sequence can be identified accurately enough.

  1. Methods and applications of 3-D wave equation common-azimuth prestack migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jiubing; WANG Huazhong; GENG Jianhua; MA Zaitian

    2007-01-01

    To tackle the difficulties of a 3-D full volum eprestack migration based on the double-square-root (DSR) one-way wave equation in practical applications, the common-azimuth migration approach is first discussed using dual-domain wave propagators under the theoretical frame of crossline common-offset migration. Through coor-dinate transforming, a common-azimuth prestack tau migra-tion technology that recursively continues the source and receiver wavefields and picks up the migrated results in the two-way vertical traveltime (tau) direction is developed.The migrations of synthetic data sets of SEG/EAGE salt model prove that our common-azimuth migration approaches are effective in both depth and tau domains. Two real data examples show the advantages of wave-theory based prestack migration methods in accuracy and imaging resolution over the conventional Kirchhoff integral methods.

  2. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Koning; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number of ‘modern’ sample-preparation techniques has been introduced, which have partly superseded their ‘classical’ counterparts. These novel techniques include off-line and on-line (sometimes semi- or f...

  3. Investigation of antibacterial properties silver nanoparticles prepared via green method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameli Kamyar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to investigate the influence of different stirring times on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol (PEG suspension. The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs were prepared by green synthesis method using green agents, polyethylene glycol (PEG under moderate temperature at different stirring times. Silver nitrate (AgNO3 was taken as the metal precursor while PEG was used as the solid support and polymeric stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of nanosilver was investigated against Gram–positive [Staphylococcus aureus] and Gram–negative bacteria [Salmonella typhimurium SL1344] by the disk diffusion method using Müeller–Hinton Agar. Results Formation of Ag-NPs was determined by UV–vis spectroscopy where surface plasmon absorption maxima can be observed at 412–437 nm from the UV–vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The peaks in the XRD pattern confirmed that the Ag-NPs possessed a face-centered cubic and peaks of contaminated crystalline phases were unable to be located. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that Ag-NPs synthesized were in spherical shape. The optimum stirring time to synthesize smallest particle size was 6 hours with mean diameter of 11.23 nm. Zeta potential results indicate that the stability of the Ag-NPs is increases at the 6 h stirring time of reaction. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum suggested the complexation present between PEG and Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs in PEG were effective against all bacteria tested. Higher antibacterial activity was observed for Ag-NPs with smaller size. These suggest that Ag-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and can be applied in medical field. Conclusions Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in PEG suspension under moderate temperature at different stirring times. The study clearly showed that the Ag-NPs with

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  5. Application of the Common Offset Seismic Reflection Method to Urban Active Fault Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Baojin; Ji Jifa; Xu Zhaofan; Yuan Hongke; Liao Xu; Bai Yun; Wan Bo

    2007-01-01

    The method and principle of common offset seismic surveys as well as the field data gathering and processing technique were introduced briefly. Through two urban active fault survey examples in Fuzhou and Shenyang, the efficiency and limitation of using the common offset seismic reflection technique to carry out urban active fault surveys were probed. The results show that this technique has the properties of high resolving power, better reconstruction of subsurface structures, and real-time analyzing and interpretation of investigation results on site. This method can be used to quickly locate objects under investigation accurately in the areas with thinner Quaternary overburdens and strong bedrock interface fluctuations.

  6. High Yield Preparation Method of Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of nanocellulose fibers (NFs is achieved through pretreating cellulose in a NaOH/urea/thiourea solution, and then defibrillating the fibers through ultrasonication, resulting in a high yield of 85.4%. Extensive work has been done to optimize the preparation parameters. The obtained NFs are about 30 nm in diameter with cellulose II crystal structure. They possess high thermal stability with an onset of thermal degradation at 270 °C and a maximum degradation temperature of 370 °C. Such NFs have potential applications in transistors and batteries with high thermal stability. NFs-H were obtained by homogenizing undefibrillated fibers separated from the preparation of NFs. NFs-H were also in cellulose II crystal form but with lower thermal stability due to low crystallinity. They can be applied to make highly transparent paper.

  7. Minerals and chosen heavy metals retention in immature common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds depending on the method of preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are a good source of protein, and are also abundant in carbohydrates, B-group vita­mins, dietary fibre and mineral compounds. Material and methods. This work evaluates the retention of ash, eleven minerals and two heavy metals in products obtained from two common bean cultivars harvested before reaching full maturity, with a diy mat­ter content of about 40%. Analyses were conducted on raw, blanched and cooked seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: two frozen and one canned (sterilized. The former com­prised two types of frozen product: one traditionally produced (blanching-freezing-frozen storage-cooking, the other a convenience, "ready-to-eat" product obtained using a modified method (cooking-freezing-frozen storage-defrosting-heating to consumption temperature in a microwave oven. Results. In cooked bean seeds of both cultivars, levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper were significantly lower, the only exception being the content of ash and sodium (due to added salt, than in blanched seeds; the changes in the remaining components were not so clear-cut and depended on the cultivar. Seeds frozen using the modified technology generally showed higher levels of the elements investigated than frozen products produced traditionally, with the exception of chromium, nickel and lead. Sterilized seeds had lower levels of ash, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper and chromium com­pared with both types of frozen product; retention levels of individual components depended on the cultivar examined. Conclusions. Compared with the traditionally produced frozen product, prepared for consumption, seeds after modified method of freezing (convenience food contained significantly higher levels of ash and all macroelements, regardless of the cultivar. Seeds preserved by sterilization, compared with frozen seeds (ei­ther method of production prepared for consumption

  8. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  9. A robust GWSS method to simultaneously detect rare and common variants for complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Feng Kao

    Full Text Available The rapid advances in sequencing technologies and the resulting next-generation sequencing data provide the opportunity to detect disease-associated variants with a better solution, in particular for low-frequency variants. Although both common and rare variants might exert their independent effects on the risk for the trait of interest, previous methods to detect the association effects rarely consider them simultaneously. We proposed a class of test statistics, the generalized weighted-sum statistic (GWSS, to detect disease associations in the presence of common and rare variants with a case-control study design. Information of rare variants was aggregated using a weighted sum method, while signal directions and strength of the variants were considered at the same time. Permutations were performed to obtain the empirical p-values of the test statistics. Our simulation showed that, compared to the existing methods, the GWSS method had better performance in most of the scenarios. The GWSS (in particular VDWSS-t method is particularly robust for opposite association directions, association strength, and varying distributions of minor-allele frequencies. It is therefore promising for detecting disease-associated loci. For empirical data application, we also applied our GWSS method to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data, and the results were consistent with the simulation, suggesting good performance of our method. As re-sequencing studies become more popular to identify putative disease loci, we recommend the use of this newly developed GWSS to detect associations with both common and rare variants.

  10. Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…

  11. U(Ⅳ) Preparation by Method of Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    U(Ⅳ) is prepared by electrolysis of U(Ⅵ) in nitric acid, as showed in Fig. 1. A circular-sheet osmotic film is fixed at the middle of electrolytic cell. Osmotic film can urge the electron transfering from one pole to another, but electrolyte

  12. Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position.

  13. A NEW METHOD TO PREPARE CHITOSAN MEMBRANE AS A BIOMEDICAL MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-ling Hu; Zheng-ping Fang; YingZhao; Cheng-wei Xu

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a new method to prepare chitosan membrane which could be used as a biomedical material.Addition of a fixation agent composed of alcohol, glycerol and potassium hydroxide can accelerate the sol-gel transformation process and hence shorten the preparation period. The present method takes about 6 h to get a flexible membrane with fine appearance. The physical and biological properties of the membrane were also investigated and compared with the membrane prepared by conventional method.``

  14. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz; Marcela Boro Veiros; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença; Anete Araújo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The ...

  15. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); T. Esko (Tõnu); G. Davies (Gail); T.H. Pers (Tune); P. Turley (Patrick); B. Benyamin (Beben); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); J.J. Lee (James J.); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Miller (Mike); O. Rostapshova (Olga); S. van der Lee (Sven); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Conley (Dalton); J. Derringer; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Franke (Lude); E.L. Glaeser (Edward L.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C. Hayward (Caroline); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J. Karjalainen (Juha); D. Laibson (David); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); S. Pinker (Steven); D.J. Porteous (David J.); D. Posthuma (Danielle); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.H. Smithk (Blair H.); J.M. Starr (John); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N.J. Timpsonm (Nicholas J.); M. Trzaskowskin (Maciej); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.E. Ward (Mary); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G.D. Smith; I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxyphenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education

  16. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2014-01-01

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated

  17. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D; Lee, James J; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E; Medland, Sarah E; Miller, Michael B; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L; Hansell, Narelle K; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H; Starr, John M; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G; Verhulst, Frank C; Ward, Mary E; Wright, Margaret J; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2014-01-01

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated

  18. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); T. Esko (Tõnu); G. Davies (Gail); T.H. Pers (Tune); P. Turley (Patrick); B. Benyamin (Beben); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); J.J. Lee (James J.); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Miller (Mike); O. Rostapshova (Olga); S. van der Lee (Sven); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Conley (Dalton); J. Derringer; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Franke (Lude); E.L. Glaeser (Edward L.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C. Hayward (Caroline); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J. Karjalainen (Juha); D. Laibson (David); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); S. Pinker (Steven); D.J. Porteous (David J.); D. Posthuma (Danielle); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.H. Smithk (Blair H.); J.M. Starr (John); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N.J. Timpsonm (Nicholas J.); M. Trzaskowskin (Maciej); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.E. Ward (Mary); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G.D. Smith; I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxyphenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education

  19. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Effect of the preparation method on the drug loading of alginate-chitosan microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alginate-chitosan (ALG-CHI microspheres obtained by polyelectrolyte complexation are pH-sensitive, biocompatible and adhesive, and are excellent candidates for the delivery of drugs, proteins and peptides in the human body. A wide variety of methods for the production of these polymeric complexes has been provided. The water-in-oil emulsion is a complex production method, but generally enhances the control of particle size and particle size distribution of the microspheres, extremely necessary for obtaining repeatable controlled release behavior. In this work, a novel and facile water-in-oil emulsion method for the ALG-CHI polyelectrolyte complexes is discussed. The method proposed produced ALG-CHI microspheres with improved morphology and enhanced drug loading in comparison with the aqueous medium method. The drug loading in the water-in-oil emulsion was over 30% higher than in the aqueous medium, an indication that the new method proposed the common drug leaching during the microspheres’ preparation is avoided, being an interesting alternative to encapsulate drugs of hydrophilic nature.

  1. A Model-Based Method to Design an Application Common Platform for Enterprise Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akira; Furuta, Hirohisa; Yamaoka, Takayuki; Seo, Kazuo; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper presents a model-based method to design a software platform, called an application common platform for developments of enterprise information systems. This application common platform(ACP) wraps existing reusable software assets to hide their details from application developers and provide domain level application programming interfaces, so that reusability of software assets and productivity of application improve. In this paper, we present a software architecture which organizes applications, ACP, and software assets and illustrate a development process of ACP. Especially, we show design rules to derive ACP design models from application design models and software assets design models. We also define metrics of reusability and productivity and evaluate the proposed method through real developments of enterprise information systems. As a result, the proposed method reduced 20% of development cost compared to estimation cost.

  2. Comparison of Methods for Adjusting Incorrect Assignments of Items to Subtests Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    2009-01-01

    A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare t

  3. Red Emitting Phosphor (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu3+ for PDP Prepared by Complex Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Red phosphor (Y, Gd)BO3:Eu3+ with grain shape, small size, non-agglomerate, high crystallinity and good photoluminescence (PL) intensity was prepared by a complex method that the precursor of the phosphor was prepared by co-precipitation method and the phosphor was prepared by combustion method. The SEM photos and the photoluminescence spectrum excited under VUV show that the morphology and luminescent properties of this phosphor are satisfied when an appropriate amount of urea was adopted as the combustion agent in the preparation procedure.

  4. Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Anthony C [Tucson, AZ; Rigali, Mark J [Carlsbad, NM; Sutaria, Manish P [Malden, MA; Artz, Gregory J [Tucson, AZ; Gafner, Felix H [Tucson, AZ; Vaidyanathan, K Ranji [Tucson, AZ

    2008-06-17

    Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.

  5. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  6. Preparation and studies of Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Geok Bee [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: tehgb@mail.utar.edu.my; Nagalingam, Saravanan [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jefferson, David A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    The sol-gel preparative method was employed to synthesise Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite. This method was attempted to achieve higher homogeneity of the final product. Samples of substituted ferrites were characterised by various experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, magnetometry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The microstructural changes induced by such substitution are also discussed.

  7. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  8. AGCD:a robust periodicity analysis method based on approximate greatest common divisor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YU‡; Pei-zhong LU

    2015-01-01

    Periodicity is one of the most common phenomena in the physical world. The problem of periodicity analysis (or period detection) is a research topic in several areas, such as signal processing and data mining. However, period detection is a very challenging problem, due to the sparsity and noisiness of observational datasets of periodic events. This paper focuses on the problem of period detection from sparse and noisy observational datasets. To solve the problem, a novel method based on the approximate greatest common divisor (AGCD) is proposed. The proposed method is robust to sparseness and noise, and is efficient. Moreover, unlike most existing methods, it does not need prior knowledge of the rough range of the period. To evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, comprehensive experiments on synthetic data are conducted. Experimental results show that our method can yield highly accurate results with small datasets, is more robust to sparseness and noise, and is less sensitive to the magnitude of period than compared methods.

  9. Preparation and Self-assembly of Zirconia Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Hui; HONG Zhang-Lian; YANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal method without any additives. This work focuses on the effect of preparation conditions such as the precursor preparation condition and crystallization time of nanocrystallite in autoclave on the properties of as-prepared products. The results indicated that the amount of tetragonal zirconia varied with the preparation conditions. It increased with the increase of the concentration of KOH solution in precursor producing process and reduced with the prolongation of crystallization time. At the same time, the particle size and morphology were also affected by the preparation conditions. In addition,the self-assembled spindle- like aggregates were observed in present works.

  10. Facile Method to Prepare Superhydrophobic and Water Repellent Cellulosic Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Karapanagiotis; Diana Grosu; Dimitra Aslanidou; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (7 nm) were dispersed in solutions of a silane/siloxane mixture. The dispersions were applied, by brush, on four types of paper: (i) modern, unprinted (blank) paper, (ii) modern paper where a text was printed using a common laser jet printer, (iii) a handmade paper sheet detached from an old book, and (iv) Japanese tissue paper. It is shown that superhydrophobicity and water repellency were achieved on the surface of the deposited films, when high particle concentrations ...

  11. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  12. Determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids using a Cr (III) enhanced chemiluminescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Lee, Sang Hak; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for identifying sulpiride in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids is presented. The method is based on increased chemiluminescence (CL) intensity of a luminol-H2O2 system in response to the addition of Cr (III) under alkaline conditions. The CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2-Cr (III) system was greatly enhanced by the addition of sulpiride and the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in a sample solution. Various parameters affecting the CL intensity were systematically investigated and optimized for determination of the sulpiride in a sample. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of sulpiride in the range of 0.068-4.0 µg/mL, with a good correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 8.50 × 10(-6) µg/mL and 2.83 × 10(-5) µg/mL, respectively. The method presented here produced good reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.70% (n = 7). The effects of common excipients and metal ions were studied for their interference effect. The method was validated statistically through recovery studies and successfully applied for the determination of sulpiride in pure form, pharmaceutical preparations and spiked human plasma samples. The percentage recoveries were found to range from 99.10 to 100.05% for pure form, 98.12 to 100.18% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.9 to 101.4% for spiked human plasma.

  13. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew [Port Jefferson, NY; Schonberger, Matthias [Mains, DE; Schieferstein, Hanno [Aabergen, DE; Fowler, Joanna S [Bellport, NY

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  14. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  15. Influence of preparation method on hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Monmaturapoj; C Yatongchai

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is extensively used in medical applications as an artificial bone because of its similarity to the natural components of human bones and for its excellent biocompatibility. The porous structure of HA ceramics is more generally used as a scaffold. Many techniques, which are performed under fluid system, have been applied to fabricate HA porous scaffolds. In this work, polymeric sponge technique was employed in the preparation of HA slurry appropriated for porous ceramic fabrication. Effort for strength improvement was made on porous HA ceramic in several aspects. The effect of HA/water, binder/plasticizer ratios and dispersant content on the rheological properties of HA suspension in combination with the addition of SiC and SiO2 on the compressive strength of porous bodies were investigated and discussed.

  16. Simplification of Template-free Method to Prepare Polyaniline Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Conducting polymer nanostructures (e.g.nanotubes or nanofibers) have received considerable attention owing their unique properties and promising applications in technology and nano-devices[1]. Conducting polymer nanostructures can be generally synthesized through "hard" and "soft" template method.Usually an external hard template in a "hard-template" method is required and the post-treatment of removing template is rather tedious."Soft-template" method is advantageous of omitting external...

  17. Preparation of Pt/C Catalyst with Solid Phase Reaction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Pt/C catalyst was prepared with solid phase reaction method (Pt/C(S)) for the first time. Its performances were compared with that prepared by the traditional liquid phase reaction method. The results demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of Pt/C catalyst with solid phase reaction method for methanol oxidation is higher than that with liquid phase reaction method. XRD and TEM measurements indicate that the Pt/C(S) possesses low crystalline extent and small particle size.

  18. Fragmentation of DNA affects the accuracy of the DNA quantitation by the commonly used methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlackova Tatiana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific applications and modern technologies, like non-invasive prenatal testing, non-invasive cancer diagnostic and next generation sequencing, are currently in the focus of researchers worldwide. These have common characteristics in use of highly fragmented DNA molecules for analysis. Hence, for the performance of molecular methods, DNA concentration is a crucial parameter; we compared the influence of different levels of DNA fragmentation on the accuracy of DNA concentration measurements. Results In our comparison, the performance of the currently most commonly used methods for DNA concentration measurement (spectrophotometric, fluorometric and qPCR based were tested on artificially fragmented DNA samples. In our comparison, unfragmented and three specifically fragmented DNA samples were used. According to our results, the level of fragmentation did not influence the accuracy of spectrophotometric measurements of DNA concentration, while other methods, fluorometric as well as qPCR-based, were significantly influenced and a decrease in measured concentration was observed with more intensive DNA fragmentation. Conclusions Our study has confirmed that the level of fragmentation of DNA has significant impact on accuracy of DNA concentration measurement with two of three mostly used methods (PicoGreen and qPCR. Only spectrophotometric measurement was not influenced by the level of fragmentation, but sensitivity of this method was lowest among the three tested. Therefore if it is possible the DNA quantification should be performed with use of equally fragmented control DNA.

  19. Survey of Existing and Promising New Methods of Surface Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    labor-intensive methods of applying protective coating system at ambient temperatures during or after fabrication. 3.2.16 Explosives The detonation of...34. Ingenieria Naval, Vol. 44, pp. 5, 1976. 45. Conn, A. F., and Rudy, S. L., “Parameters for Ship Hull Cleaning Using Cavitating Water Jet Method

  20. The four-principle formulation of common morality is at the core of bioethics mediation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2015-08-01

    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key to finding a resolution. I question the tacit assumption of non-normativity of the mediation method in bioethics by examining the various senses in which bioethics mediation might be non-normative or neutral. The major normative assumption of the mediation method is the existence of common morality. In addition, the four-principle formulation of the theory articulated by Beauchamp and Childress implicitly provides the normative content for the method. Full acknowledgement of the theoretical and normative assumptions of bioethics mediation helps clinical ethicists better understand the nature of their job. In addition, the need for a robust philosophical background even in what appears to be a purely practical method of mediation cannot be overemphasized. Acknowledgement of the normative nature of bioethics mediation method necessitates a more critical attitude of the bioethics mediators towards the norms they usually take for granted uncritically as valid.

  1. Crystallization Methods for Preparation of Nanocrystals for Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Glennon, Brian; Zhong, Jian; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Low water solubility of drug products causes delivery problems such as low bioavailability. The reduced particle size and increased surface area of nanocrystals lead to the increasing of the dissolution rate. The formulation of drug nanocrystals is a robust approach and has been widely applied to drug delivery system (DDS) due to the significant development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can be used to improve drug efficacy, provide targeted delivery and minimize side-effects. Crystallization is the main and efficient unit operation to produce nanocrystals. Both traditional crystallization methods such as reactive crystallization, anti-solvent crystallization and new crystallization methods such as supercritical fluid crystallization, high-gravity controlled precipitation can be used to produce nanocrystals. The current mini-review outlines the main crystallization methods addressed in literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were summarized and compared.

  2. Methods for the Preparation of Initiating and Delay Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-11-01

    invustigatod include lead azide, lead styphnate , barium styphnatc, lead 2:4 dinitrorcsorcinatc, lead 4:6 dinitrorosorcinatc. Examples arc given from...method (a) Granulated barium styphnatc (R.D. 1320B). By adding a mixture of magnesium styphnate and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose solutions to a solution...increase in proportion of colloid the number of constituent crystals greatly increases. Granulated barium styphnate is a very stable substance and its method

  3. Preparation of silica by sol-gel method using formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F.S. Lenza

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we obtained microporous and mesoporous silica gels by sol-gel processing. Tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS was used as precursor. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used as catalysts. In order to study the affect of formamide as drying additive, we used a molar ratio alkoxide/formamide of 1/1. The performance of formamide in obtaining crack-free gels was evaluated through monolithicity measurements. The structural evolution occurring in the interconnected network of the gels during thermal treatment was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, shrinkage and density measurements and nitrogen gas sorption. We noted that in the presence of formamide, the Si-O-Si bonds are stronger and belong to a more cross-linked structure. The samples obtained in the presence of formamide have larger pore volume and its pore structure is in the range of mesoporosity. The samples obtained without additive are microporous. Formamide allowed the preparation of crack-free silica gels stabilized at high temperatures.

  4. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  5. A novel method for preparing monodispersed polystyrene nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kaiyi; WANG Zhaoqun

    2007-01-01

    A preparation manner for monodispersed polystyrene(PS)nanoparticles polymerized by using a novel addition procedure of a monomer is suggested.In systems containing a smaller amount of surfactant compared with conventional microemulsion polymerization,the polymerization processes consists of three stages:adding dropwise the first part of the monomer for a few minutes at 80℃ and polymerizing for 1 h;adding collectively the residual part of the monomer and polymerizing at the same temperature for another 1 h;and then polymerizing at 85℃ for another 1 h.Based on discussions on the nucleation mechanism of particles in the polymerization system,the influences of monomer weight added dropwise,and amounts of initiator and emulsifier on the size and distribution of PS particles were investigated.PS nanoparticles with smaller diameter such as a number-average diameter of 18.7 nm and better monodispersity were obtained since the dropped styrene amount was suitable under 20wt-% emulsifier amount and 3wt-% initiator amount based on the monomer.

  6. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Layered Double Hydrotalcides/ /Polystyrene Nanocomposites Prepared by an in-situ Bubble Stretching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ting ZHENG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydrotalcides/polystyrene (LDHs/PS nanocomposites were produced by an in-situ bubble stretching (ISBS method and simple shear method; the effect of LHDs content on the dispersion and the mechanical properties of nanocomposites was studied. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM images indicated that the ISBS method leads to a high degree of dispersion of LDHs nanoparticles in PS matrix. Furthermore, it did not form a significant re-aggregation after defoaming by means of twin-screw extruder. Compared with the simple shear method, the un-notched impact strength and tensile strength of nanocomposites prepared by ISBS method were higher at the same amount of LDHs. The un-notched impact strength of the nanocomposites prepared by ISBS method reached a maximum value at the LDHs mass fraction of 5 % , the strength increased is 57.29 % greater than that of pure PS. The enhanced mechanical properties attributed to the effective dispersion of nanoscale LDHs by ISBS method. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6197

  7. Preparing Methods and Its Influencing Factors about Nanoparticles Based on Dendritic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the properties, structure and application of dendritic polymer, this paper analysed the methods of the preparation of nanoparticles using dendritic polymer, detailed preparation process, technical parameters and application effect about a single metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, sulfide and halide nanoparticles. The influencing factors of the preparation about nanoparticles were discussed, including the molecular algebra, the molar ratio of the metal ions to the dendritic polymer, and so on.

  8. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  9. Seedling quality of common sage (Salvia officinalis L. as affected by seedling production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalişkan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effects of four different seedling production methods (i.e., open seedbed, greenhouse seedbed, float system and modified float system on the seedling growth and quality of common sage. Sowing rates were 1 g per m2 in an open seedbed and a greenhouse seedbed system, whereas the sowing rate was one seed per cell in the float and modified float systems. Emergence period, seedling growth period, the fresh and dry weights of aerial parts of seedlings, the fresh and dry weights of roots, seedling height, root height and stem diameter were determined as agronomical observations and measurements. The greenhouse seedling method was found to be superior over the other methods

  10. Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

    2012-12-11

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

  11. A Convenient Method for the Preparation of Alkanolamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Ho Sik; Baek, Heung Soo; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ih Seop [R and D Center, AmorePacific Corporation, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We have developed an efficient and chemo-selective N-acylation method of amino alcohols by the treatment with mixed anhydrides generated from various acids and ethylchloroformate. The use of mixed anhydride afforded amine selectivity due to its relatively low electrophilicity. This method was suitable for the synthesis of alkanolamides containing acid or base-sensitive groups. Long chain alkanolamides have attracted considerable interest because of their intrinsic amphiphilic properties. They are frequently used as a surfactant for cosmetics and pharmaceutical use. In the course of the synthesis of alkanolamides, control of chemoselective amide formation over competing O-acylation of neighboring hydroxyl groups plays a key step. Several methods have been developed which include a few enzymatic synthesis and the reaction of carboxylic acid with amino alcohols by the aid of N-ethoxy-1-ethoxy-dihydroquinone (EEDQ) in ethanol reflux condition.

  12. Pin-Hole Free Perovskite Film for Solar Cells Application Prepared by Controlled Two-Step Spin-Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiar, A.; Rahmanita, S.; Inayatie, Y. D.

    2017-05-01

    Morphology of perovskite film is a key important for achieving high performance perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films are commonly prepared by two-step spin-coating method. However, pin-holes are frequently formed in perovskite films due to incomplete conversion of lead-iodide (PbI2) into perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. Pin-holes in perovskite film cause large hysteresis in current-voltage curve of solar cells due to large series resistance between perovskite layer-hole transport material. Moreover, crystal structure and grain size of perovskite crystal are also other important parameters for achieving high performance solar cells, which are significantly affected by preparation of perovskite film. We studied the effect of preparation of perovskite film using controlled spin-coating parameters on crystal structure and morphological properties of perovskite film. We used two-step spin-coating method for preparation of perovskite film with varied spinning speed, spinning time and temperature of spin-coating process to control growth of perovskite crystal aimed to produce high quality perovskite crystal with pin-hole free and large grain size. All experiment was performed in air with high humidity (larger than 80%). The best crystal structure, pin-hole free with large grain crystal size of perovskite film was obtained from film prepared at room temperature with spinning speed 1000 rpm for 20 seconds and annealed at 100°C for 300 seconds.

  13. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik;

    2005-01-01

    , which is the analysis of a large number of metabolites with very diverse chemical and physical properties. This work reports the leakage of intracellular metabolites observed during quenching yeast cells with cold methanol solution, the efficacy of six different methods for the extraction...... of intracellular metabolites, and the losses noticed during sample concentration by lyophilization and solvent evaporation. A more reliable procedure is suggested for quenching yeast cells with cold methanol solution, followed by extraction of intracellular metabolites by pure methanol. The method can be combined...

  14. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  15. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  16. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  17. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. Materials and Method: In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Ha...

  18. Comparative study of three commonly used continuous deterministic methods for modeling gene regulation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubitzky Werner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A gene-regulatory network (GRN refers to DNA segments that interact through their RNA and protein products and thereby govern the rates at which genes are transcribed. Creating accurate dynamic models of GRNs is gaining importance in biomedical research and development. To improve our understanding of continuous deterministic modeling methods employed to construct dynamic GRN models, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative study of three commonly used systems of ordinary differential equations: The S-system (SS, artificial neural networks (ANNs, and the general rate law of transcription (GRLOT method. These were thoroughly evaluated in terms of their ability to replicate the reference models' regulatory structure and dynamic gene expression behavior under varying conditions. Results While the ANN and GRLOT methods appeared to produce robust models even when the model parameters deviated considerably from those of the reference models, SS-based models exhibited a notable loss of performance even when the parameters of the reverse-engineered models corresponded closely to those of the reference models: this is due to the high number of power terms in the SS-method, and the manner in which they are combined. In cross-method reverse-engineering experiments the different characteristics, biases and idiosynchracies of the methods were revealed. Based on limited training data, with only one experimental condition, all methods produced dynamic models that were able to reproduce the training data accurately. However, an accurate reproduction of regulatory network features was only possible with training data originating from multiple experiments under varying conditions. Conclusions The studied GRN modeling methods produced dynamic GRN models exhibiting marked differences in their ability to replicate the reference models' structure and behavior. Our results suggest that care should be taking when a method is chosen for a

  19. [Methods for the rapid preparation of paraffin blocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmurun, R I

    1992-01-01

    Two accelerated chloroform-paraffin processings of materials with the use of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) irradiation in the stove "Electronica" as well as a combined method with US- and MW-irradiation are proposed to shorten drastically the duration of the prehistologic processing.

  20. Separation of interleukins by a preparative chromatofocusing-like method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkarsh, S P; Russoman, E A; Roy, S K

    1993-02-12

    A chromatofocusing-like method used in the large-scale separation of deamidated from amidated recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (amino acids 117-271), derived from Escherichia coli, is described. Two major protein species having isoelectric points (pI) of approximately 5.3 and 5.1 were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a sulfopropyl strong cation-exchange column. Unlike standard chromatofocusing technique, this method does not use carrier ampholytes during gradient separation of proteins, nor does it employ increased ionic strength for protein elution, the usual method for performing standard ion-exchange chromatography. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the protein with a pI of 5.3 revealed an Asn residue at position 32 as predicted by the cDNA sequence. The pI 5.1 species showed an Asp residue at the same position as a result of deamidation of Asn. This method was also used in the large-scale separation of N-Met from des-Met recombinant human interleukin-1 beta.

  1. Preparing Students for Flipped or Team-Based Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Clark, Michele; Restall, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching methods such as Flipped Learning and Team-Based Learning require students to pre-learn course materials before a teaching session, because classroom exercises rely on students using self-gained knowledge. This is the reverse to "traditional" teaching when course materials are presented during a lecture, and students are…

  2. A simple and rapid nucleic acid preparation method for reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... detergent (0.5% Triton XL-80 N) buffers, vortexed for 3 min and then 2.5 µl of this aliquots was used in. RT-PCR. ... 2003). However, successful application of these methods .... used non-ionic detergents, and have involved a multitude .... potato S carlavirus (PVS) revealed by analysis of RT-PCR-amplified.

  3. Imaging of complex basin structures with the common reflection surface (CRS) stack method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyoli, Elive; Gajewski, Dirk; Hübscher, Christian

    2004-06-01

    Common reflection surface (CRS) stack technology is applied to seismic data from certain areas of the Donbas Foldbelt, Ukraine, after conventional seismic methods gave unsatisfactory results. On the conventionally processed post-stack migrated section the areas of interest already showed clear features of the basin structure, but reflector continuity and image quality were poor. It was our objective to improve the image quality in these areas to better support the geological interpretation and the model building. In contrast to the standard common mid-point (CMP) stack, in which a stacking trajectory is used, the CRS method transforms pre-processed multicoverage data into a zero-offset section by summing along stacking surfaces. The stacking operator is an approximation of the reflection response of a curved interface in an inhomogeneous medium. The primary advantage of the data-driven CRS stack method is its model independence and the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio of the stacked sections through a stacking reflection response along traces from more than one CMP gather. The presented results show that the multifold strength of the CRS stack is of particular advantage in the case of complex inverted features of Devonian-Carboniferous sediments in the Donbas Foldbelt data. We observe that in these areas where the confidence level for picking and interpretation of the stacking velocity model is low, imaging without a macrovelocity model gives improved results, because errors due to wrong or poor stacking velocity models are avoided.

  4. Water-equivalent solid sources prepared by means of two distinct methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Potiens Junior, Ademar, E-mail: koskinas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory at IPEN is involved in developing radioactive water-equivalent solid sources prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide using two distinct methods for polymerization. One of them is the polymerization by high dose of {sup 60}Co irradiation; in the other method the solid matrix-polyacrylamide is obtained from an aqueous solution composed by acrylamide, catalyzers and an aliquot of a radionuclide. The sources have been prepared in cylindrical geometry. In this paper, the study of the distribution of radioactive material in the solid sources prepared by both methods is presented. (author)

  5. Preparation of thermally stable nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Parthiban, S; Elayaraja, K; Girija, E K; Yokogawa, Y; Kesavamoorthy, R; Palanichamy, M; Asokan, K; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2009-12-01

    Thermally stable hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of malic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done on the synthesized powders. These analyses confirmed the sample to be free from impurities and other phases of calcium phosphates, and were of rhombus morphology along with nanosized particles. IR and Raman analyses indicated the adsorption of malic acid on HAp. Thermal stability of the synthesized HAp was confirmed by DTA and TGA. The synthesized powders were thermally stable upto 1,400 degrees C and showed no phase change. The proposed method might be useful for producing thermally stable HAp which is a necessity for high temperature coating applications.

  6. Electron microscopy of flatworms standard and cryo-preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvenmoser, Willi; Egger, Bernhard; Achatz, Johannes G; Ladurner, Peter; Hess, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has long been indispensable for flatworm research, as most of these worms are microscopic in dimension and provide only a handful of characters recognizable by eye or light microscopy. Therefore, major progress in understanding the histology, systematics, and evolution of this animal group relied on methods capable of visualizing ultrastructure. The rise of molecular and cellular biology renewed interest in such ultrastructural research. In the light of recent developments, we offer a best-practice guide for users of transmission EM and provide a comparison of well-established chemical fixation protocols with cryo-processing methods (high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, HPF/FS). The organisms used in this study include the rhabditophorans Macrostomum lignano, Polycelis nigra and Dugesia gonocephala, as well as the acoel species Isodiametra pulchra.

  7. Noble metal superparticles and methods of preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing

    2016-07-12

    A method comprises heating an aqueous solution of colloidal silver particles. A soluble noble metal halide salt is added to the aqueous solution which undergoes a redox reaction on a surface of the silver particles to form noble metal/silver halide SPs, noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs on the surface of the silver particles. The heat is maintained for a predetermined time to consume the silver particles and release the noble metal/silver halide SPs, the noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or the noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs into the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is cooled. The noble metal/silver halide SPs, the noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs are separated from the aqueous solution. The method optionally includes adding a soluble halide salt to the aqueous solution.

  8. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

    1995-01-31

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

  9. Solid oxide cell stack and method for preparing same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A method for producing and reactivating a solid oxide cell stack structure by providing a catalyst precursor in at least one of the electrode layers by impregnation and subsequent drying after the stack has been assembled and initiated. Due to a significantly improved performance and an unexpected...... voltage improvement this solid oxide cell stack structure is particularly suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolysing cell (SOEC) applications....

  10. Materials and methods for the preparation of nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talapin, Dmitri V.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Lee, Jong-Soo; Jiang, Chengyang

    2016-05-24

    Disclosed herein is an isolable colloidal particle comprising a nanoparticle and an inorganic capping agent bound to the surface of the nanoparticle, a solution of the same, a method for making the same from a biphasic solvent mixture, and the formation of structures and solids from the isolable colloidal particle. The process can yield photovoltaic cells, piezoelectric crystals, thermoelectric layers, optoelectronic layers, light emitting diodes, ferroelectric layers, thin film transistors, floating gate memory devices, imaging devices, phase change layers, and sensor devices.

  11. Ultrasonic method for the preparation of organic porphyrin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Motlagh, Mohamad Mehdi; Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Kachousangi, Marziye Javaheri

    2009-01-12

    We report the synthesis and optical properties of organic porphyrin nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and good dispersibility. Nanoparticles were produced by a combination of precipitation and sonication, termed the "ultrasonic method". The resulting [tetrakis(para-chlorophenyl)porphyrin]TClPP nanoparticles were stable in solution without precipitation for at least 30 days. No self aggregation of the constituent porphyrin chromophores was observed. The TClPP nanoparticles exhibited interesting optical properties, particularly a large bathochromic shift in the absorption spectra.

  12. Methods of preparing polyimides and artifacts composed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor); Wilcoxson, Anthony L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods of converting essentially unpolymerized precursors into polyimides in which the precursors are exposed to microwave radiation. Preheating, thermal post-curing, and other techniques may be employed to promote the development of optimum properties; and reinforcements can be employed to impart strength and rigidity to the final product. Also disclosed are processes for making various composite artifacts in which non-polymeric precursors are converted to polyimides by using the techniques described above.

  13. Methods for Preparing Nanoparticle-Containing Thermoplastic Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Mark B. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    High quality thermoplastic composites and composite laminates containing nanoparticles and/or nanofibers, and methods of producing such composites and laminates are disclosed. The composites comprise a thermoplastic polymer and a plurality of nanoparticles, and may include a fibrous structural reinforcement. The composite laminates are formed from a plurality of nanoparticle-containing composite layers and may be fused to one another via an automated process.

  14. Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, Ryan J.; Boggs, Bryan; Self, Kyle; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Gorer, Alexander; Weiss, Michael J.; Miller, John H.; Mohanta, Samaresh

    2015-12-01

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.

  15. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  16. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  17. A Rapid Synthetic Method for the Preparation of Two Tris-Cobalt(III) Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Donald C.; Rillema, D. Paul

    1989-01-01

    Reports a method of preparation for tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(III) that will shorten the preparation time by approximately 3 hours. Notes the time for synthesis and isolation of compound one was 1 hour (yield 38 percent) while compound two took 50 minutes (yield 71%). (MVL)

  18. Magnetic Properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared with the Layered Precursor Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; HOU Zhi-Ling; LI Feng; QI Xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ We prepare NiZnFe2O4 soft magnetic ferrites with different molar ratios with the layered precursor method and investigate their magnetic properties.In the layered precursor,metal ions are scattered on the layer plate in a certain way on account of the effect of lowest lattice energy and lattice orientation.After high temperature calcinations,spinel ferrites with uniform structural component and single magnetic domain can be obtained,and the magnetic property is improved greatly.NiZnFe2O4 ferrites prepared have the best specific saturation magnetization of 79.15 emu.g-1,higher than that of 68 emu.g-1 prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and that of 59 emu.g-1 prepared by the emulsion-gel method.Meanwhile the coercivity of NiZnFe2O4 ferrites prepared by layered precursor method is 14 kA.m-1,lower than that of 50emu.g-1 prepared by the co-precipitation method and that of 59 emu.g-1 prepared by the emulsion-gel method.

  19. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejabhiram Yadavalli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  20. Novel method for preparation of PEMFC electrodes by the electrospray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, R.; Soler, J.; Daza, L. [Dpto. Combustibles Fosiles, CIEMAT Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-10

    A novel method based on the electrospray technique has been developed for the preparation of electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The material obtained was characterized by different techniques, which showed both morphological and structural improvements that contribute to a better catalyst utilization compared to conventional methods. These facts were corroborated after manufacturing several membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with electrodes prepared by three different methods. MEAs obtained by means of the electrospray technique exhibited three times higher power density than those prepared by the impregnation method ones and eight times higher than MEAs made with electrodes prepared by the spray technique with platinum loadings of 0.5mgcm{sup -2}. Moreover, the power density obtained was twice better than a commercial E-TEK. This technique can be scaled up and becomes a volume production method using a low-cost process. (author)

  1. Influence of preparation method on performance of a metal supported perovskite catalyst for combustion of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟彦青; 熊杰明; 李翠清; 徐新; 罗国华

    2010-01-01

    A different method was employed for the preparation of a metal supported perovskite catalyst for the catalytic combustion of methane.The prepared metallic catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),and also by ultrasonic and thermal shock tests and catalytic activity.It was found that the process factors during the preparation,e.g.the preparation of the catalyst precursor and the coating slurry,the calcination te...

  2. 41 CFR 301-72.1 - Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? 301-72.1 Section 301-72.1 Public Contracts... Transportation § 301-72.1 Why is common carrier presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation? Travel by common carrier is presumed to be the most advantageous method of transportation because...

  3. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    2015-12-29

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  4. Relative accuracy of three common methods of parentage analysis in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Hugo B; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Berumen, Michael L

    2013-02-01

    Parentage studies and family reconstructions have become increasingly popular for investigating a range of evolutionary, ecological and behavioural processes in natural populations. However, a number of different assignment methods have emerged in common use and the accuracy of each may differ in relation to the number of loci examined, allelic diversity, incomplete sampling of all candidate parents and the presence of genotyping errors. Here, we examine how these factors affect the accuracy of three popular parentage inference methods (colony, famoz and an exclusion-Bayes' theorem approach by Christie (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010a, 10, 115) to resolve true parent-offspring pairs using simulated data. Our findings demonstrate that accuracy increases with the number and diversity of loci. These were clearly the most important factors in obtaining accurate assignments explaining 75-90% of variance in overall accuracy across 60 simulated scenarios. Furthermore, the proportion of candidate parents sampled had a small but significant impact on the susceptibility of each method to either false-positive or false-negative assignments. Within the range of values simulated, colony outperformed FaMoz, which outperformed the exclusion-Bayes' theorem method. However, with 20 or more highly polymorphic loci, all methods could be applied with confidence. Our results show that for parentage inference in natural populations, careful consideration of the number and quality of markers will increase the accuracy of assignments and mitigate the effects of incomplete sampling of parental populations.

  5. Analysis of comparative efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli using two common plasmid vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Basu, Supratim; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2009-10-01

    The efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli DH5Qalpha train, induced by several cations like Mg2+, Mn2+ Rb+ and especially Ca2+, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were compared using the two commonly used plasmid vectors pCAMBIA1201 and pBI121. The widely used calcium chloride (CaCl2) method appeared to be the most efficient procedure, while rubidium chloride (RbCl) method was the least effective. The improvements in the classical CaCl2 method were found to further augment the transformation efficiency (TR)E for both the vectors like repeated alternate cycles of heat shock, followed by immediate cold, at least up to the third cycle; replacement of the heat shock step by a single microwave pulse and even more by double microwave treatment and administration of combined heat shock-microwave treatments. The pre-treatment of CaCl2-competent cells with 5% (v/v) ethanol, accompanied by single heat shock also triggered the (TR)E, which was further enhanced, when combined heat shock-microwave was applied. The minor alterations or improved approaches in CaCl2 method suggested in the present study may thus find use in more efficient E. coli transformation.

  6. Relative accuracy of three common methods of parentage analysis in natural populations

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-12-27

    Parentage studies and family reconstructions have become increasingly popular for investigating a range of evolutionary, ecological and behavioural processes in natural populations. However, a number of different assignment methods have emerged in common use and the accuracy of each may differ in relation to the number of loci examined, allelic diversity, incomplete sampling of all candidate parents and the presence of genotyping errors. Here, we examine how these factors affect the accuracy of three popular parentage inference methods (colony, famoz and an exclusion-Bayes\\' theorem approach by Christie (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010a, 10, 115) to resolve true parent-offspring pairs using simulated data. Our findings demonstrate that accuracy increases with the number and diversity of loci. These were clearly the most important factors in obtaining accurate assignments explaining 75-90% of variance in overall accuracy across 60 simulated scenarios. Furthermore, the proportion of candidate parents sampled had a small but significant impact on the susceptibility of each method to either false-positive or false-negative assignments. Within the range of values simulated, colony outperformed FaMoz, which outperformed the exclusion-Bayes\\' theorem method. However, with 20 or more highly polymorphic loci, all methods could be applied with confidence. Our results show that for parentage inference in natural populations, careful consideration of the number and quality of markers will increase the accuracy of assignments and mitigate the effects of incomplete sampling of parental populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A method for automatically constructing the initial contour of the common carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Omran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a novel method to automatically set the initial contour that is used by the Active contours algorithm.The proposed method exploits the accumulative intensity profiles to locate the points on the arterial wall. The intensity profiles of sections that intersect the artery show distinguishable characterstics that make it possible to recognize them from the profiles of sections that do not intersect the artery walls. The proposed method is applied on ultrasound images of the transverse section of the common carotid artery, but it can be extended to be used on the images of the longitudinal section. The intensity profiles are classified using Support vector machine algorithm, and the results of different kernels are compared. The extracted features used for the classification are basically statistical features of the intensity profiles. The echogenicity of the arterial lumen, and gives the profiles that intersect the artery a special shape that helps recognizing these profiles from other general profiles.The outlining of the arterial walls may seem a classic task in image processing. However, most of the methods used to outline the artery start from a manual, or semi-automatic, initial contour.The proposed method is highly appreciated in automating the entire process of automatic artery detection and segmentation.

  8. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  9. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  10. Composite oxygen electrode and method for preparing same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a composite oxygen electrode, comprising - a porous backbone structure comprising two separate but percolating phases, the first phase being an electronic conducting phase, the second phase being an oxide ion conducting phase; and - an electrocatalytic layer...... on the surface of said backbone structure, wherein said electrocatalytic layer comprises first and second nanoparticles, wherein the first and second particles are randomly distributed throughout said layer. The present invention further comprises a method of producing the above composite electrode, comprising...... the steps of: - forming a porous backbone structure comprising two separate but percolating phases, the first phase being an electronic conducting phase, the second phase being an oxide ion conducting phase; and - applying an electrocatalytic layer on the surface of said backbone structure, wherein said...

  11. ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Kiggans, J O; Stracener, Dan

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

  12. Preparation of ITO Nanoparticles by Liquid Phase Coprecipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanlai Ding

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoscale indium tin oxide (ITO particles are synthesied by liquid phase coprecipitation method under given conditions with solution of indium chloride, tin chloride, and ammonia. The absolute ethyl alcohol or deionized water was used as solvent and the dodecylamine or hexadecylamine surfactant was used as a dispersant in the reaction system. The sample powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM. Based on the transmission electron micrograph, the influences of the two different solvents and the two different dispersants on the nanoparticle size and dispersion were studied, respectively. The results showed that the ITO particles are finely crystallized body-centered cubic structure. The particle size has distributed in 30 nm to 90 nm.

  13. Comparison of atomic force microscopy interaction forces between bacteria and silicon nitride substrata for three commonly used immobilization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; Busscher, Henk J; Norde, Willem; De Vries, Joop; Dijkstra, René J B; Stokroos, Ietse; Van Der Mei, Henny C

    2004-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for mapping the surface morphology of biological specimens, including bacterial cells. Besides creating topographic images, AFM enables us to probe both physicochemical and mechanical properties of bacterial cell surfaces on a nanometer scale. For AFM, bacterial cells need to be firmly anchored to a substratum surface in order to withstand the friction forces from the silicon nitride tip. Different strategies for the immobilization of bacteria have been described in the literature. This paper compares AFM interaction forces obtained between Klebsiella terrigena and silicon nitride for three commonly used immobilization methods, i.e., mechanical trapping of bacteria in membrane filters, physical adsorption of negatively charged bacteria to a positively charged surface, and glutaraldehyde fixation of bacteria to the tip of the microscope. We have shown that different sample preparation techniques give rise to dissimilar interaction forces. Indeed, the physical adsorption of bacterial cells on modified substrata may promote structural rearrangements in bacterial cell surface structures, while glutaraldehyde treatment was shown to induce physicochemical and mechanical changes on bacterial cell surface properties. In general, mechanical trapping of single bacterial cells in filters appears to be the most reliable method for immobilization.

  14. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  15. Development and Validation of a Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Multicompound Pharmaceutical Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreyra, Carola; Ortiz, Cristina; Bertorello, M. M. De

    2000-01-01

    A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic assay was carried out for the simultaneous determination of two out of three active principles present in a pharmaceutical preparation. This method was developed to assess the quality of the product.

  16. V-amylose structural characteristics, methods of preparation, significance, and potential applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obiro, WC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available , and postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. Various aspects of V-amylose structure, methods of preparation, factors that affect its formation, and the significance and potential applications of the V-amylose complexes are reviewed....

  17. Simple method for preparation of nanostructure on microchannel surface and its usage for enzyme-immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Kaneno, Jun; Uehara, Masato; Fujii, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hazime; Maeda, Hideaki

    2003-03-07

    We developed a novel preparation method of nanostructure on the microchannel surface formed by sol-gel like simple treatment with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is suitable for a highly efficient enzyme-immobilized microchannel reactor.

  18. Aqueous Plasma Pharmacy: Preparation Methods, Chemistry, and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Jessica M.; McCall, James R.; Bzdek, Justin P.; Johnson, Derek C.; Hybertson, Brooks M.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma pharmacy is a subset of the broader field of plasma medicine. Although not strictly defined, the term aqueous plasma pharmacy (APP) is used to refer to the generation and distribution of reactive plasma-generated species in an aqueous solution followed by subsequent administration for therapeutic benefits. APP attempts to harness the therapeutic effects of plasma-generated oxidant species within aqueous solution in various applications, such as disinfectant solutions, cell proliferation related to wound healing, and cancer treatment. The subsequent use of plasma-generated solutions in the APP approach facilitates the delivery of reactive plasma species to internal locations within the body. Although significant efforts in the field of plasma medicine have concentrated on employing direct plasma plume exposure to cells or tissues, here we focus specifically on plasma discharge in aqueous solution to render the solution biologically active for subsequent application. Methods of plasma discharge in solution are reviewed, along with aqueous plasma chemistry and the applications for APP. The future of the field also is discussed regarding necessary research efforts that will enable commercialization for clinical deployment. PMID:28428835

  19. Effects of common seagrass restoration methods on ecosystem structure in subtropical seagrass meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Amanda S; Fourqurean, James W

    2014-06-01

    Seagrass meadows near population centers are subject to frequent disturbance from vessel groundings. Common seagrass restoration methods include filling excavations and applying fertilizer to encourage seagrass recruitment. We sampled macrophytes, soil structure, and macroinvertebrate infauna at unrestored and recently restored vessel grounding disturbances to evaluate the effects of these restoration methods on seagrass ecosystem structure. After a year of observations comparing filled sites to both undisturbed reference and unrestored disturbed sites, filled sites had low organic matter content, nutrient pools, and primary producer abundance. Adding a nutrient source increased porewater nutrient pools at disturbed sites and in undisturbed meadows, but not at filled sites. Environmental predictors of infaunal community structure across treatments included soil texture and nutrient pools. At the one year time scale, the restoration methods studied did not result in convergence between restored and unrestored sites. Particularly in filled sites, soil conditions may combine to constrain rapid development of the seagrass community and associated infauna. Our study is important for understanding early recovery trajectories following restoration using these methods.

  20. Method for Preparation and Electroporation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Melinda R; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    For bacterial species that are not known to be naturally competent, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, electroporation is an efficient method for introducing genetic material into the cell. The technique utilizes electrical pulses to transiently permeabilize bacterial cell membranes, which allows for the passage of plasmid DNA across the membranes. Here, we describe methods for preparing electrocompetent S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells and outline a procedure for electroporation of the prepared competent cells.

  1. Comparison and optimization of the method for Cry1Ac protoxin preparation in HD73 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zi-shan; YANG Su-juan; SHU Chang-long; SONG Fu-ping; ZHOU Xue-ping; ZHANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    Bacil us thuringiensis is one of the most widely used bioinsecticides, and cry gene is the major insecticidal gene. Because Cry1Ac protein shows strong toxicity against many lepidopteran species, it has been applied widely in spraying products and transgenic Bt-crops. The preparation of Cry protoxin is the ifrst step in the very important processes of understanding the insecticidal mechanism, resistance screening, and biosafety assessments. The media for crystal production and the method for Cry protoxin preparation were varied, however, it was not clear which was better for preparing a larger amount of Cry protoxin. In this paper, three media for crystal production and the method for Cry1Ac protoxin preparation from HD73 strain were compared to ifnd an efifcacious way to prepare a large number of Cry1Ac protoxin. The results showed that the 1/2 LB (Luria-Bertani) medium was the ideal medium for crystal production, because the total yield of Cry1Ac protoxin in 300 mL 1/2 LB medium was (112.38±5.64) mg, the highest one among three media;the repeated crystal solubilization method was better for the preparation of the Cry protoxin comparing with the continuous crystal solubilization method. It wil be a reference for other Cry protoxin preparation, especial y for larger number.

  2. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  3. Effect of Preparation Methods of Bi2O3 Nanoparticles on their Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Peng; DU Yao-guo; XU Zi-li

    2004-01-01

    Bi2O3 nanoparticles were prepared by means of ammonia precipitation, polyol mediated methods and microemulsion chemical method. The structure and properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles, having been submitted to a heat-treatment test at 750 ℃, were characterized by means of XRD, BET, XPS and UV-Vis absorption techniques. The photocatalytic oxidation reactions of benzene, toluene and xylene were used as the model reaction to measure the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles, respectively. The results show that the crystallite size of Bi2O3 prepared with different methods and calcined at 750 ℃ were 50.6, 38.5 and 31.5 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of Bi2O3 nanoparticles prepared with the microemulsion chemical method was higher than that of the particles prepared with the polyol mediated method; and that of the particles prepared with the micromulsion chemical method was the highest among the three. The degradation rates of the three pollutants xylene, toluene and benzene decreased in sequence.

  4. Preparation and characterization of rodent intestinal microsomes: Comparative assessment of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damre Anagha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestine plays an important role in the first-pass metabolism of orally ingested xenobiotics as a result of expression of both Phase I and Phase II metabolic enzymes, together with associated transporters. Intestinal microsomes thus can be used to study susceptibility of compounds to metabolism in vitro. The present study was undertaken to have a comparative assessment between different methods of preparation of rodent intestinal microsomes. Mouse and rat intestinal microsomes were prepared by two methods, in method A intestines were homogenized, while in method B mucosal cells were scrapped followed by homogenization. Further, microsomes were prepared by centrifugation (10000xg followed by ultra centrifugation (100000xg of the homogenates. The prepared microsomes were characterized for protein concentration using Bradford′s method and CYP450 content using carbon monoxide bubbling method. The protein concentration and CYP450 content in microsomes prepared by method B was significantly higher than method A. In conclusion, superior quality intestinal microsomes can be obtained from rodents by using scrapped intestinal mucosal cells as compared to the intestinal homogenates.

  5. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  6. Developing Common Set of Weights with Considering Nondiscretionary Inputs and Using Ideal Point Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kiani Mavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is used to evaluate the performance of decision making units (DMUs with multiple inputs and outputs in a homogeneous group. In this way, the acquired relative efficiency score for each decision making unit lies between zero and one where a number of them may have an equal efficiency score of one. DEA successfully divides them into two categories of efficient DMUs and inefficient DMUs. A ranking for inefficient DMUs is given but DEA does not provide further information about the efficient DMUs. One of the popular methods for evaluating and ranking DMUs is the common set of weights (CSW method. We generate a CSW model with considering nondiscretionary inputs that are beyond the control of DMUs and using ideal point method. The main idea of this approach is to minimize the distance between the evaluated decision making unit and the ideal decision making unit (ideal point. Using an empirical example we put our proposed model to test by applying it to the data of some 20 bank branches and rank their efficient units.

  7. Assessment of Commonly Used Cleaning Methods on the Anatomical Structure of Archaeological Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Abdelkader Mohamed HAMED

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to diagnose and evaluate the effect of commonly used cleaning methods in Egypt on the anatomical structure of archaeological wood samples. Beech wood samples, which were taken from anonymous mashrabia, have been cleaned mechanically and chemically, then a scanning electron microscope (SEM study was undertaken, to monitor any significant structural changes in wood samples due to cleaning processes. SEM data, however, show that cleaning procedures, both mechanical and chemical, affect the anatomical structure of wood, and do not achieve the best result. The main problem is that the effect of reagents cannot be easily removed from the wood structure. Ethyl alcohol proved to have the minimal effect on the wood structure in this study.

  8. Spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma through derivatization with 2-cyanoacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, M Rasul; Khan, M Naeem; Shah, Sultan

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of sulpiride in pharmaceutical preparations and human plasma. The developed method is based on the derivatization reaction of 2-cyanoacetamide with sulpiride in 30% ammonical solution. The fluorescent derivatized reaction product exhibited maximum fluorescence intensity at 379 nm after excitation at 330 nm. The optimum conditions for derivatization reactions were studied and the fluorescence intensity versus concentration plot was found to be linear over the concentration range 0.2-20.0 µg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9985. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.82 and 2.73 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The effects of common excipients and co-administered drugs were also studied. The accuracy of the method was checked using the standard addition method and percent recoveries were found to be in the range of 99.00-101.25% for pharmaceutical preparations and 97.00-97.80% for spiked human plasma. The method was successfully applied to commercial formulations and the results obtained for the proposed method were compared with a high-performance liquid chromatography reference method and statistically evaluated using the Student's t-test for accuracy and the variance ratio F-test for precision. A reaction pathway was also proposed.

  9. The Impact of Test Dimensionality, Common-Item Set Format, and Scale Linking Methods on Mixed-Format Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk-Gübes, Nese; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of dimensionality, common-item set format, and different scale linking methods on preserving equity property with mixed-format test equating. Item response theory (IRT) true-score equating (TSE) and IRT observed-score equating (OSE) methods were used under common-item nonequivalent groups design.…

  10. Advantages and applicability of commonly used homogenisation methods for climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sara; Caineta, Júlio; Henriques, Roberto; Soares, Amílcar; Costa, Ana Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Homogenisation of climate data is a very relevant subject since these data are required as an input in a wide range of studies, such as atmospheric modelling, weather forecasting, climate change monitoring, or hydrological and environmental projects. Often, climate data series include non-natural irregularities which have to be detected and removed prior to their use, otherwise it would generate biased and erroneous results. Relocation of weather stations or changes in the measuring instruments are amongst the most relevant causes for these inhomogeneities. Depending on the climate variable, its temporal resolution and spatial continuity, homogenisation methods can be more or less effective. For example, due to its natural variability, precipitation is identified as a very challenging variable to be homogenised. During the last two decades, numerous methods have been proposed to homogenise climate data. In order to compare, evaluate and develop those methods, the European project COST Action ES0601, Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME), was released in 2008. Existing homogenisation methods were improved based on the benchmark exercise issued by this project. A recent approach based on Direct Sequential Simulation (DSS), not yet evaluated by the benchmark exercise, is also presented as an innovative methodology for homogenising climate data series. DSS already proved to be a successful geostatistical method in environmental and hydrological studies, and it provides promising results for the homogenisation of climate data. Since DSS is a geostatistical stochastic approach, it accounts for the joint spatial and temporal dependence between observations, as well as the relative importance of stations both in terms of distance and correlation. This work presents a chronological review of the most commonly used homogenisation methods for climate data and available software packages. A short description and classification is

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ghee (clarified butter also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method. Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mmFNx0160 m, ID of 0.25 mm. The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

  12. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal.

  13. Preparation of Parium Titanates With Different Particle Size Distribution Using Modified Pechini Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jaafer Abed AL-Jabar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanates is one of the most important ceramics that are widely used in the electronic industry because of its high dielectric constant, its ferroelectricity, and its piezoelectric properties. In the current study, five different batches of barium titanate powders were prepared by modifiedpechini method using the barium chloride and the titanium chloride as a starting materials in order to obtain different particle size distributions.SEM, TGA, DTA, XRD, FTIR, and other techniques have been used to characterize the prepared samples.XRD results suggested that the synthesized BaTiO3has a tetragonal phase.SEM images of the prepared samples reveala polyhedron shapes, on average, also it show that there are markedinfluence of the reactant concentration on the average size of the grains,where the samples prepared from higher solution concentration tend to possess larger grain size compared to that prepared from low concentration.

  14. Novel Epoxy Resin/SiO2 Nanocomposites Preparation Method Based on Diminutive Bubbles Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Peng; ZHAO Xue-zeng; CHEN Fang; WANG Wei-jie; BAI Yong-ping

    2006-01-01

    To obtain suspended dispersion of nano-particles in liquid without any dispersant, a novel epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposites preparation method based on diminutive bubbles explosion is presented. And, corresponding nanocomposites preparation system was designed. The preparation system applies compressed gas as transmission medium to carry nanomaterials into epoxy resin solution. The compressed gas with nanomaterials turns into diminutive bubbles distributing in epoxy resin/SiO2. The great pressure difference between inner and outer-bubbles led to bubbles inflation and explosion. During the bubble inflation, bubble oscillation may generate. The stretching rate may reach 106 s-1, which favors more homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. During the bubbles explosion the released energy and the explosion shock waves disperse the nanoparticles into epoxy resin solution. By using the preparation system, epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared. The SiO2 dispersed into epoxy as the configuration of 15 nm - 30 nm particles.

  15. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyestuffs using TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by sonoelectrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Derya, E-mail: deryatekin@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical method. • More regular TiO{sub 2} nanotubes diameters prepared by sonoelectrochemical method. • Obtained nanotubes were used in the photocatalytic degradation of Orange G dye. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by sonoelectrochemical method showed 10% faster degradation of Orange G dye compared with the one by electrochemical method. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti plates by conventional electrochemical technique as well as by an emerging sonoelectrochemical technique. Scanning electron miscroscope (SEM) analysis showed that ultrasound assisted anodization yielded more ordered and controllable TiO{sub 2} tube banks with higher tube diameter. The photocatalytical activities of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were tested in the photocatalytical degradation of Orange G dye. The results showed that sonoelectrochemically prepared TiO{sub 2} tubes exhibited 10% higher photocatalytic performance than the electrochemical prepared ones, and more than 18% higher activity than the other TiO{sub 2} samples.

  17. Optimized extract preparation methods and reaction conditions for improved yeast cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform technology to help satisfy the growing demand for simple, affordable, and efficient protein production. In this article, we describe a novel CFPS platform derived from the popular bio-manufacturing organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing the CFPS reaction conditions we were able to achieve active firefly luciferase synthesis yields of 7.7 ± 0.5 µg mL(-1) with batch reactions lasting up to 2 h. This duration of synthesis is the longest ever reported for a yeast CFPS batch reaction. Furthermore, by removing extraneous processing steps and eliminating expensive reagents from the cell-free reaction, we have increased relative product yield (µg protein synthesized per $ reagent cost) over an alternative commonly used method up to 2000-fold from ∼2 × 10(-4) to ∼4 × 10(-1)  µg $(-1) , which now puts the yeast CPFS platform on par with other eukaryotic CFPS platforms commercially available. Our results set the stage for developing a yeast CFPS platform that provides for high-yielding and cost-effective expression of a variety of protein therapeutics and protein libraries.

  18. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.

  19. Should the mass of a nanoferrite sample prepared by autocombustion method be considered as a realistic preparation parameter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Adel Maher; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr

    2017-02-01

    Detectable variations in structural, elastic and magnetic properties have been reported depending on the mass of the cobalt nanoferrite sample prepared by citrate autocombustion method. Heat released during the autocombustion process and its duration are directly proportional to the mass to be prepared, and is thus expected to affect both the crystallite size and the cation distribution giving rise to the reported variations in microstrain, magnetization, and coercivity. Formation of a pure spinel phase has been validated using X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Crystallite sizes obtained from Williamson-Hall (W-H) method range from 28-87 nm, being further supported by images of high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Saturation magnetization and coercivity deduced from M-H hysteresis loops show a clear correlation with the cation distribution, which was proposed on the basis of experimentally obtained data of XRD, VSM, and IR. Elastic parameters have been estimated using the cation distribution and FTIR data, with a resulting trend quite opposite to that of the lattice parameter.

  20. PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL USE METHOD IN COMMON GATEWAY INTERFACE PROGRAM ON THE DACS SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Odagiri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world of the Internet, Web Servers such as Apache and Internet Information Server (IIS weredeveloped to exchange information among client computers having different Operation System. They haveonly the function of displaying static information such as HTML files and image files into the Web Browser.However, when the information is updated, the administrator updates it by manual operation. In somecases, because it is necessary to update several places about the same information, the work load becomeshigh than it is assume and update error and update omission may occur. These problems were solved byuse of a Common Gateway Interface (CGI program such as a bulletin board system and a Blog system.However, these programs opened to Internet have often no user authentication mechanism and no accesscontrol mechanism. That is, they have the problem that user can access it freely only by getting the URLand inputting it to a Web Browser. Therefore, in this paper, we show a method to add the userauthentication and access control mechanism for them. It is called virtual use method of CGI and isrealized in the case of introducing the Destination Addressing Control System (DACS Scheme, which is akind of Policy Based Network Management Scheme (PBNM. As the result, this kind of the CGI programcan be used in the organization with the above two functions..

  1. Investigation of a novel common subexpression elimination method for low power and area efficient DCT architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M F; Reza, A W; Kanesan, J; Ramiah, H

    2014-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  2. Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  3. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  4. Preparation and characterization of WO3 from ammonium paratungstate via hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiancai; Cao Xiaohua; Wang Wenjuan; Yang Yifeng; Rao Guohua

    2006-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide powder has been prepared from ammonium paratungstate via hydrothermal method using orthogonal and mono-level design of experiments.The effects of preparation process on particle size,specific surface area,crystal form and crystalline morphology of the tungsten trioxide was investigated by TEM and XRD etc.It was found that the optimum conditions of the preparation are hydrothermal crystallization for 8 h at 180℃,followed by vacuum drying at 45℃ and calcination at 500℃ for 2 h.The blank reference experiment shows that hydrothermal crystallization treatment favors the formation of hexagonal tungsten trioxide,and the tungsten trioxide powder sample prepared by this method has a high degree of crystallinity.

  5. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhen Li; Chao Wu; Yanyan Liu; Tiebing Liu; Zheng Jiao; Minghong Wu

    2008-11-01

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and morphology of prepared PbSe nanoparticles were analysed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results indicated that the obtained materials were cubic nanocrystalline PbSe with an average grain size of 30 nm. The optical properties of prepared PbSe nanocrystalline were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The possible mechanism of the PbSe grain growth by electron beam irradiation method is proposed.

  6. Effect of preparation method of metal hydride electrode on efficiency of hydrogen electrosorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giza, Krystyna [Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology; Drulis, Henryk [Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research PAS, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    The preparation of negative electrodes for nickel-metal hydride batteries using LaNi{sub 4.3}Co{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} alloy is presented. The constant current discharge technique is employed to determine the discharge capacity, the exchange current density and the hydrogen diffusion coefficient of the studied electrodes. The electrochemical performance of metal hydride electrode is strongly affected by preparation conditions. The results are compared and the advantages and disadvantages of preparation methods of the electrodes are also discussed.

  7. A method for preparation of IgA from bovine mammary secretions.

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing purified IgA from bovine mammary secretions is described. Whey was initially fractionated by gel filtration and fractions containing IgA were pooled, concentrated and digested with pepsin. The digest was rechromatographed on the same type of gel twice and the resulting IgA preparation tested for purity by an enzyme immunoassay procedure. Five different preparations tested were found to contain no measureable IgM or IgG2 and 0.8% to 1.1% IgG1 on a weight basis. If colost...

  8. Effect of surfactants on the properties of hydrotalcites prepared by the reverse micelle method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgado, Patricia H., E-mail: h.holgado@usal.es; Holgado, María J., E-mail: holgado@usal.es; San Román, María S., E-mail: sanroman@usal.es; Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es

    2015-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. The layer cations were Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in all cases and the interlayer anion was carbonate. We have studied the effect of the surfactant used (with linear chains of different lengths, or cyclic) and the effect of the pH on the properties of the solids formed. These have been characterized by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction, FT-IR and Vis–UV spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the samples prepared at pH 9 are more crystalline than those prepared at pH 11 and their crystallite sizes are always larger than for samples prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size, probably because the water pool vesicle where the crystallite grows is larger due to sterical hindrance of the organic chains. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure with Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations in the layers have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. Different surfactants were used at different pH synthesis. Samples prepared at pH 9 are higher crystalline than those prepared at pH 11. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size. - Highlights: • Hydrotalcites were prepared by the micelles reverse method. • Straight alkyl or cyclic chain surfactants were used. • All hydrotalcites are well crystallized at pH = 9 and 11. • The crystallite size depends on the linear/cyclic nature of the surfactant chain.

  9. Programmatic-methodical providing of preparation of student commands on basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troyan V.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic directions of perfection of sporting preparation of student team are considered on basketball. The terms of effective education of personality of student are selected. The positive and subzero aspects of forms of physical preparation of sportsmen are rotined. The ways of rational development and use of natural capabilities of sportsman are certain in his professional and public activity. It is presented programmatic-methodical providing of training process of student commands in the institutes of higher of Russia.

  10. Preparation of Silica by Alkaline-Heating and Precipitation Method from Corn Straw Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Xudong Chen; Ming Xie; Huaibin Wang; Yingxi Xue; Zhengqi Li

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of silica by an alkaline-heating and precipitation method from corn straw ash (CSA) obtained from a biomass power plant was the focus of this study. Sodium hydroxide was used as the silica extraction reagent, and H2SO4 was the precipitator. The concentration of sodium hydroxide solution was confirmed to have a significant influence on the production of sodium silicate from CSA. The optimum technological parameters for the preparation of sodium silicate and the suitable paramet...

  11. Characterization and catalytic properties of mesoporous CuO/SBA-16 prepared by different impregnation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CuO/SBA-16 catalysts were prepared by two different routes - the conventional impregnation method and the modified impregnation method with pH adjustment.These catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),N2 physisorption and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) measurements which reveal that the cubic cagelike (Im3m) pore structure of the parent SBA-16 molecule sieves was well maintained throughout the synthesis.After introduction of Cu,a different CuO dispersion exists on these catalysts.The CuO/SBA-16 prepared by modified impregnation method has a single highly dispersed CuO which is considered as a highly efficient species for hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2.CuO/SBA-16 prepared by the conventional impregnation method shows the presence of bulk CuO species which is undesirable for this reaction.

  12. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  13. Preparation and characterization of bismuth ruthenate pyrochlore via solid state reaction and sol-gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuree Sansernnivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores, potential cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells(ITSOFCs, were prepared via solid-state and sol-gel method. Effects of the preparation routes and conditions on the phase and microstructures of the materials were investigated in this study using XRD and SEM. The study showed that the preparation method and the adding sequence of the starting meterials have a significant effect on the crystal phase and the particle size obtained. Sol-gel synthesis could yield a material with only pyrochlore structure, i.e. Bi2Ru2O7, while the solid state method yielded powder with a small amount of the secondary RuO2 phase. The sol-gel synthesis resulted in materialswith a finer particle size (~0.3-1.0 μm compared to powder synthesized via the solid state reaction method.

  14. Preparation Methods for Improving PEEK’s Bioactivity for Orthopedic and Dental Application: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Almasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in the use of polyether ether ketone (PEEK for orthopedic and dental implant applications due to its elastic modulus close to that of bone, biocompatibility, and its radiolucent properties. However, PEEK is still categorized as bioinert due to its low integration with surrounding tissues. Many studies have reported on methods to increase the bioactivity of PEEK, but there is still one-preparation method for preparing bioactive PEEK implant where the produced implant with desirable mechanical and bioactivity properties is required. The aim of this review is to present the progress of the preparation methods for improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods.

  15. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  16. 常用稳定同位素制剂的浓集及应用%Concentration and Application of Common Stable Isotopes Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李公亮; 周涛; 才月新; 米亚静; 杜雪媛; 吴灵美

    2011-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE) has accomplished state science and technology support plan topic《 research and development of high purity organic reagent corn unit using for research and commonness key technology》. 54Fe、65Cu、64 Zn、67 Zn、207 Pb and 85Rb、87Rb were separated using electromagnetic method. And the abundances of them archived: 90% , 99. 6% , 96% , 81 % , 90% , 99% and 98%. The level of these isotopes preparation has reached overseas product standard. Some of them have been used in the production of science research and rubidium clock production for satellite navigation. It established technology base for material domestic production of special stable isotopes in China.%中国原子能科学研究院(简称原子能院)利用电磁法完成了国家科技支撑计划课题《科研用高纯有机试剂核心单元物质及共性关键技术的研制与开发》,利用电磁法有效分离了54Fe、65Cu、64Zn、67Zn、207Pb以及85Rb、87Rb同位素制剂,其丰度分别达到:90%、99.6%、96%、81%、90%、99%、98%.其中部分同位素试剂达到国外产品标准,部分已经应用在我国科研生产及全球卫星导航定位系统中.

  17. Liquid precursor for deposition of indium selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-22

    Liquid precursors containing indium and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and method of depositing a liquid precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  18. MULTIAGENT TECHNOLOGIES’ METHOD IN MANAGING BUSINESS-PROCESSES OF THE TECHNICAL PREPARING FOR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Pavlenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The method of managing the process of the extended productions technological preparation is given. The method is used for integrating the automated systems of industrial assignment of  CAD/CAM/SAPP and ERP systems.

  19. Solid dispersion application in pharmaceutical technology: Methods of preparation and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Medarević, Đorđe; Ibrić, Svetlana; Đuriš, Jelena; Đurić, Zorica

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of newly synthesized drugs exhibit low aqueous solubility, leading to poor bioavailability. Therefore, improving drug solubility and dissolution rate became one of the greatest challenges during formulation development. Solid dispersions formulation is one of the commonly investigated techniques for improving solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are dispersions of one or more drugs in an inert carrier (matrix) in the solid state prepared by melting, solvent, ...

  20. Preparation of Highly Purified Stearidonic Acid from Echium Oil via an Enzymatic Method Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nam Ho; Oh, Se-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can be obtained from plant origin oils and it can be a good source of PUFA for vegetarians. SDA can be easily converted to longer PUFA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Highly purified stearidonic acid (SDA) was prepared successfully from echium oil via an enzymatic method combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography. In the 1(st) step, SDA enrichment was accomplished using Candida rugosa lipase and 39.5% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction. Subsequently, the 1(st) reaction mixture was used for the 2(nd) enzymatic esterification without any separation process. The 2(nd) esterification was conducted for further SDA enrichment in a packed-bed reactor using Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and the SDA content increased in a very short residence time. Ethanol was selected as an appropriate alcohol to react as an acyl receptor, and the other conditions for SDA enrichment were optimized at 20°C of temperature, and 1:4 of molar ratio (i.e., fatty acid to ethanol). Under these conditions, 51.6% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction after a residence time of 15 min. Finally, highly purified SDA (purity, >99%) was obtained by prep-HPLC using the SDA-rich fraction obtained from the two-step lipase-catalyzed esterification.

  1. Extended Application of the Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Parameter Perturbation Method in the Common Land Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; HUO Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    An extension of the conditional nonlinear optimal parameter perturbation (CNOP-P) method is applied to the parameter optimization of the Common Land Model (CoLM) for the North China Plain with the differential evolution (DE) method.Using National Meteorological Center (NMC) Reanalysis 6-hourly surface flux data and National Center for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy (NCEP/DOE)Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II (AMIP-II) 6-hourly Reanalysis Gaussian Grid data,two experiments (I and II) were designed to investigate the impact of the percentages of sand and clay in the shallow soil in CoLM on its ability to simulate shallow soil moisture.A third experiment (III) was designed to study the shallow soil moisture and latent heat flux simultaneously.In all the three experiments,after the optimization stage,the percentages of sand and clay of the shallow soil were used to predict the shallow soil moisture in the following month.The results show that the optimal parameters can enable CoLM to better simulate shallow soil moisture,with the simulation results of CoLM after the double-parameter optimal experiment being better than the single-parameter optimal experiment in the optimization slot.Furthermore,the optimal parameters were able to significantly improve the prediction results of CoLM at the prediction stage.In addition,whether or not the atmospheric forcing and observational data are accurate can seriously affect the results of optimization,and the more accurate the data are,the more significant the results of optimization may be.

  2. Leaf mechanical resistance in plant trait databases: comparing the results of two common measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrico, Lucas; Díaz, Sandra; Westoby, Mark; Rice, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    The influence of leaf mechanical properties on local ecosystem processes, such as trophic transfer, decomposition and nutrient cycling, has resulted in a growing interest in including leaf mechanical resistance in large-scale databases of plant functional traits. 'Specific work to shear' and 'force to tear' are two properties commonly used to describe mechanical resistance (toughness or strength) of leaves. Two methodologies have been widely used to measure them across large datasets. This study aimed to assess correlations and standardization between the two methods, as measured by two widely used apparatuses, in order to inter-convert existing data in those global datasets. Specific work to shear (W(SS)) and force to tear (FT) were measured in leaves of 72 species from south-eastern Australia. The measurements were made including and excluding midribs. Relationships between the variables were tested by Spearman correlations and ordinary least square regressions. A positive and significant correlation was found between the methods, but coefficients varied according to the inclusion or exclusion of the midrib in the measurements. Equations for prediction varied according to leaf venation pattern. A positive and significant (r = 0·90, P resistance data obtained with both methodologies could be pooled together into a single coarser variable, using the equations provided in this paper. However, more detailed datasets of FT cannot be safely filled in with estimations based on W(SS), or vice versa. In addition, W(SS) values of green leaves can be predicted with good accuracy from W(SS) of rehydrated leaves of the same species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A basis of common approach to the development of universal steganalysis methods for digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla А. Kobozeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new common approach to the organization of steganalysis in digital images is developed. New features of formal parameters defining the image are identified, theoretically grounded and practically tested. For the first time characteristics of mutual disposition of the left and right singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular value of the matrix (block of matrix of an image and the vector composed of the singular values obtained as a result of normal singular decomposition of the matrix (block matrix are obtained. It is shown that for the majority of the blocks of the original image (regardless of the storage format — lossy, lossless the angle between the left (right singular vector and the vector composed of singular numbers is determined by the angle between the n-optimal vector and the standard space basis of the corresponding dimension. It is shown that the discovered feature is violated for the mentioned formal parameters in the disturbed image. This is an indicator of integrity violation, particularly steganotransformation, and it can be used to develop new universal steganalysis methods and algorithms. Their efficiency does not depend on the specifics of steganoalgorithm used for insertion of additional information.

  4. Principle of Virtual Use Method in Common Gateway Interface Program on the DACS Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Odagiri, Kazuya; Ishii, Naohiro; Takizawa, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In the world of the Internet, Web Servers such as Apache and Internet Information Server (IIS) were developed to exchange information among client computers having different Operation System. They have only the function of displaying static information such as HTML files and image files into the Web Browser. However, when the information is updated, the administrator updates it by manual operation. In some cases, because it is necessary to update several places about the same information, the work load becomes high than it is assume and update error and update omission may occur. These problems were solved by use of a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program such as a bulletin board system and a Blog system. However, these programs opened to Internet have often no user authentication mechanism and no access control mechanism. That is, they have the problem that user can access it freely only by getting the URL and inputting it to a Web Browser. Therefore, in this paper, we show a method to add the user authenti...

  5. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Esko, Tõnu; Davies, Gail; Pers, Tune H.; Turley, Patrick; Benyamin, Beben; Chabris, Christopher F.; Emilsson, Valur; Johnson, Andrew D.; Lee, James J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Miller, Michael B.; Rostapshova, Olga; van der Lee, Sven J.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Amin, Najaf; Conley, Dalton; Derringer, Jaime; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Franke, Lude; Glaeser, Edward L.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hayward, Caroline; Iacono, William G.; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; Jaddoe, Vincent; Karjalainen, Juha; Laibson, David; Lichtenstein, Paul; Liewald, David C.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McMahon, George; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pinker, Steven; Porteous, David J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Smith, Blair H.; Starr, John M.; Tiemeier, Henning; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Uitterlinden, André G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ward, Mary E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Davey Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Plomin, Robert; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2014-01-01

    We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory. PMID:25201988

  6. Preparation and magnetic properties of Fe2O3 microtubules prepared by sol-gel template method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chuanbo; ZHANG Cunrui; WANG Wenyan; LI Qiaoling

    2010-01-01

    Fe(OH)3 precursor sol was prepared by a sol-gel method.The precursor sol was dipped onto the absorbent cotton,and gel was formed on the absorbent cotton template after the volatilization of moisture.Fe2O3 microtubules were synthesized after the process of self-propagation or calcination.The phase,morphology,and particle diameter of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and the magnetic properties of the samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The external diameters of Fe2O3 microtubules ranged between 8 and 13 μm,and the wall thicknesses ranged between 0.5 and 2 μm The type of the calcination method plays a significant role in developing the Fe2O3 phase and the variation in the magnetic properties in the sol-gel template complexing method.γ-Fe2O3 was synthesized by a self-propagation method.However,α-Fe2O3 was synthesized after calcination at 400℃ for 2 h.The coercivity of the samples synthesized by calcination at 400℃ for 2 h after self-propagation was found to increase significantly,thereby presenting hard magnetic properties.

  7. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  8. An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachroo Aardra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks.

  9. Making vaccines more acceptable--methods to prevent and minimize pain and other common adverse events associated with vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R M; Swan, A; Adegbenro, A; Ludington, S L; Wollan, P C; Poland, G A

    2001-03-21

    The growing abundance of highly immunogenic vaccines has arrived with a burden of pain, distress, and common adverse reactions that in turn may interfere with parental compliance and aggravate anti-vaccine sentiment. In a study of 150 children in each of 2 age-groups, we found that approximately 20% of the subjects suffered serious distress or worse. During the procedural phase, approximately 90% of the 15-to-18 month old children and 45% of the 4-to-6 year old children showed serious distress or worse. To address non-adherence with pediatric vaccine schedules, we must consider all of the possible issues that might prevent a parent from taking a child to a health care provider for vaccination. In that same study we identified useful predictors for both preparatory and procedural distress - predictors that might be used in identifying children who might benefit from preventive interventions. Vaccine providers might consider a variety of interventions. Attitude, empathy, instruction, and practice have all been shown to have a salutatory effect upon pain and anxiety with medical procedures in general and specifically with vaccinations. Distraction has also been found to be an effective method for distress and pain prevention in children. More formal methods of clinical hypnosis which combine a deep state of relaxation with focused imagery and suggestion have also been found to be effective in helping children and adolescents prepare for, cope with, and tolerate the pain and anxiety associated with medical procedures. So-called 'sugar nipples' delivering small amounts of sucrose orally at the time of a painful procedure in an infant has been not been shown to decrease vaccination pain and studies on refrigerant topical anesthetics are mixed. Studies have found a eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine (EMLA) effective in providing adequate local anesthesia in children, but it suffers from problems in practical application. Studies with various injection

  10. Catalytic properties of Cu/Co/Zn/Zr oxides prepared by various methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin Shi; Wei Chu; Siyu Deng; Huiyuan Xu

    2008-01-01

    The new Cu-Co based (Cu/Co/Zn/Zr) catalysts for higher-alcohol synthesis were prepared using coprecipitation method, plasma enhanced method and reverse coprecipitation method under ultrasound irradiation. The catalysts were investi-gated by the means of BET, SEM, XRD, H2-TPR and XPS. Catalytic properties of the catalysts prepared by various methods were examined using CO hydrogenation reaction. It was found that plasma enhanced method and reverse coprecipitation method under ultrasound irradiation were both effective in enhancing the catalytic properties of Cu/Co/Zn/Zr mixed oxides. The small particle size, high dispersion of active components, the improvement of specific surface area and surface contents of active phases could account for the excellent performance of the experimental Cu/Co/Zn/Zr catalysts.

  11. PREPARATION OF MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES USING NiO CATALYST SYNTHESIZED BY HYDROTHERMAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.J. Zhu; Y.L. Chen; X.M. Xue; Y.M. Chen; C.Y. Wu; T.C. Kuang; S.H. Li; H. Y. Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The Ni(OH)2/SiO2 binary colloid was prepared using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and (C2H5 O)4SiO4 as starting materials and was used to form NiO/SiO2 composite powder by hydrothermal method and desiccant method in open air respectively. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized respectively by chemical vapor deposition using the NiO/SiO2 catalyst prepared by different methods. The phase and morphology of the catalysts and the morphology, output yield and purity of MWCNTs were compared by XRD, TEM and SEM. The results show that the catalyst powder prepared by hydrothermal method, compared with that by desiccant method, is smaller, better dispersion and has stronger catalytic activity. Pure MWCNTs with smaller tube diameter and narrow range could be obtained at a high yield using that NiO/SiO.2 powder prepared by hydrothermal method as catalyst.

  12. The structural properties of barium cobalt hexaferrite powder prepared by a simple heat treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Chetna, E-mail: chetna.chauhan@nirmauni.ac.in [Electrical Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad-382 481. Gujarat. India (India); Jotania, Rajshree, E-mail: rbjotania@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmeabad – 380009. Gujarat. India (India)

    2016-05-06

    The W-type barium hexaferrite was prepared using a simple heat treatment method. The precursor was calcinated at 650°C for 3 hours and then slowly cooled to room temperature in order to obtain barium cobalt hexaferrite powder. The prepared powder was characterised by different experimental techniques like XRD, FTIR and SEM. The X-ray diffractogram of the sample shows W-and M phases. The particle size calculated by Debye Scherrer formula. The FTIR spectra of the sample was taken at room temperature by using KBr pallet method which confirms the formation of hexaferrite phase. The morphological study on the hexaferrite powder was carried out by SEM analysis.

  13. A facile cost-effective method for preparing robust self-cleaning transparent superhydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Jie; Chang, Wenkai; Fan, Xiaoliang; Li, Chunyan; Shi, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports an easy method to prepare transparent superhydrophobic coating by two-step spray-coating method. In order to improve robustness, PDMS oligomers were used to bond the SiO2 nanoparticle/fluoroalkylsilane composite coating to the substrate. The transmittance of coated glass was above 80 % for wavelengths larger than 500 nm. Moreover, the prepared coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning properties in either air or oil environment. Furthermore, this coating retained superhydrophobic properties after three cycles of abrasion test or strong acid/base attack. Therefore, this robust self-cleaning transparent superhydrophobic coating may have a wide range of practical applications in the optical industry.

  14. Preparation of ZnO crystal by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method to prepare ZnO crystal was put forward. The preparation process was studied and the mechanism of this method was also discussed. The results show that the sol particles will aggregate when being dehydrated and will form into hard compact gel body through the hard agglomeration between particles. This dry gel is a hard compact agglomeration composed of the first sol particles. At high sintering temperature, the small compacted particles will easily grow up and form a fine ZnO crystal.

  15. Evaluation of roll compaction as a preparation method for hydroxypropyl cellulose-based matrix tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imjak Jeon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll compaction was applied for the preparation of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC-based sustained-release matrix tablets. Matrix tablets made via roll compaction exhibited higher dosage uniformity and faster drug release than direct-compacted tablets. HPC viscosity grade, roll pressure, and milling speed affected tablet properties significantly. Roll compaction seems to be an adequate granulation method for the preparation of HPC-based matrix tablets due to the simplicity of the process, less handling difficulty from HPC tackiness as well as easier particle size targeting. Selecting the optimum ratio of plastic excipients and the particle size of starting materials can however be critical issues in this method.

  16. Preparation of yttria-stabilized zirconia films for solid oxide fuel cells by electrophoretic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Sato, Keiji; Mizuhara, Yukako; Takita, Yusaku (Oita Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-06-01

    The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was applied for the preparation of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Dense YSZ films with uniform thickness can be readily prepared by EPD method. When the planar SOFC was fabricated by using La[sub 0.6]Sr[sub 0.4]MnO[sub 3] as a cathode and electroless plating Pt as an anode, the open circuit voltage and the maximum power density attained were 1.03 V and 1.87 W cm[sup -2], respectively. (author).

  17. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  18. A Fast Air-dry Dropping Chromosome Preparation Method Suitable for FISH in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas

    2015-12-16

    Preparation of chromosome spreads is a prerequisite for the successful performance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Preparation of high quality plant chromosome spreads is challenging due to the rigid cell wall. One of the approved methods for the preparation of plant chromosomes is a so-called drop preparation, also known as drop-spreading or air-drying technique. Here, we present a protocol for the fast preparation of mitotic chromosome spreads suitable for the FISH detection of single and high copy DNA probes. This method is an improved variant of the air-dry drop method performed under a relative humidity of 50%-55%. This protocol comprises a reduced number of washing steps making its application easy, efficient and reproducible. Obvious benefits of this approach are well-spread, undamaged and numerous metaphase chromosomes serving as a perfect prerequisite for successful FISH analysis. Using this protocol we obtained high-quality chromosome spreads and reproducible FISH results for Hordeum vulgare, H. bulbosum, H. marinum, H. murinum, H. pubiflorum and Secale cereale.

  19. A capillary zone electrophoresis method to detect conformers and dimers of antithrombin in therapeutic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Saller, François; Abdou, Youmna Mohamed; Zeau, Pascal; Plantier, Jean-Luc; Urbain, Rémi; Borgel, Delphine; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a human plasma glycoprotein that possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the native (active) form of AT is unstable and undergoes conformational changes, leading to latent, cleaved, and heterodimeric forms. The presence of these alternative forms mostly inactive can highly impact the quality and therapeutic activity of pharmaceutical AT preparations. We developed a capillary zone electrophoresis method, based on a neutral polyethylene oxide-coated capillary and a buffer close to physiological conditions, enabling the separation of more than eight forms of AT. Several peaks were identified as native, latent, and heterodimeric forms. The CZE method was reproducible with intraday relative standard deviations less than 0.5 and 2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The method was applied to the comparison of AT preparations produced by five competitive pharmaceutical companies, and statistical tests were performed. Important differences in the proportion of each form were highlighted. In particular, one AT preparation was shown to contain a high quantity of heterodimer, and two preparations contained high quantities of latent form. In addition, one AT preparation exhibited additional forms, not yet identified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available CuO-CeO2 systems have been proposed as a promising catalyst for low temperature diesel-soot oxidation. CuO-CeO2 catalysts prepared by various methods were examined for air oxidation of the soot in a semi batch tubular flow reactor. The air oxidation of soot was carried out under tight contact with soot/catalyst ratio of 1/10. Air flow rate was 150 ml/min, soot-catalyst mixture was 110 mg, heating rate was 5 0C/min. Prepared catalysts were calcined at 500 0C and their stability was examined by further heating to 800 0C for 4 hours. It was found that the selectivity of all the catalysts was nearly 100% to CO2 production. It was observed that the activity and stability of the catalysts greatly influenced by the preparation methods. The strong interaction between CuO and CeO2 is closely related to the preparation route that plays a crucial role in the soot oxidation over the CuO-CeO2 catalysts. The ranking order of the preparation methods of the catalysts in the soot oxidation performance is as follows: sol-gel > urea nitrate combustion > Urea gelation method > thermal decomposition > co-precipitation. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 27th June 2010, Revised: 7th August 2010; Accepted: 13rd October 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2011. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 15-21. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/822 | View in 

  1. Characterization of Sr{beta}-alumina prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal; Seo, Dae Jong; Park, Seung Bin

    2004-06-15

    Eu{sup 2+} doped {beta}-alumina, Sr{sub 1-x}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} Eu{sub x}{sup 2+} (x=0.01-0.07) were successfully prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis techniques with the same precursor materials. Sr{beta}-alumina doped with Eu{sup 2+} (SrMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) prepared from sol-gel method showed three photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 390, 418 and 459 nm after excitation wavelength at 254 nm and one PL peak at 461 nm when excitation was at 365 nm. The same powder was prepared from spray pyrolysis technique showed the six PL peaks at 323, 397, 415, 443, 480 and 508 nm after excitation at 254 nm. Also two PL peaks at 440 and 480 nm were observed after the excitation at 365 nm. These PL peaks were dependent on the excitation wavelength. The effect of different annealing temperatures of sol-gel powders, preparation conditions of spray pyrolysis powders and reduction atmospheres of both sol-gel and spray pyrolysis powders of various compositions of Eu{sup 2+} doped Sr{beta}-alumina were also studied. Both the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and PL techniques and comparison between the two preparation methods. Sol-gel prepared powder had eight times higher PL intensity and brightness than the spray pyrolysis prepared powder. The suggested good composition of Sr{beta}-alumina is Sr{sub 0.93}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sub 0.07} for both sol-gel and spay pyrolysis methods.

  2. A Standardized Method for the Preparation of a Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Mazaki, Yuichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    The gas phase of cigarette smoke is important from the viewpoint of human health, because it can pass through alveolar epithelium and enter the circulation. There is no standard method for the preparation of a gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE), although CSE is widely used for research instead of whole cigarette smoke. We have established a standard method for the preparation of CSE. One cigarette per trial is continuously combusted under a reduced pressure generated by an aspiration pump with a velocity of 1.050 L/min: the main stream of the smoke is passed through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, and subsequently, bubbled through a glass ball filter (pore size, 20-30 µm) into 15 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To express the concentration of CSE, a virtual tar concentration is introduced, which is calculated assuming that tar trapped on the Cambridge filter is dissolved in the PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original virtual tar concentration≤15 mg/mL) show similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations. CSEs prepared from various brands of cigarettes and by different smoking regimes (continuous and puff smoking) show similar cytotoxic potency if the virtual tar concentrations are the same. In conclusion, using the standardized method for CSE preparation in combination with the virtual tar concentration, it becomes possible to simply and rapidly prepare standard CSEs with defined concentrations from any brand of cigarettes, which are toxicologically equivalent to CSE prepared by puff smoking.

  3. Implementation of the common phrase index method on the phrase query for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Triyah; Zaman, Badrus; Werdiningsih, Indah

    2017-08-01

    As the development of technology, the process of finding information on the news text is easy, because the text of the news is not only distributed in print media, such as newspapers, but also in electronic media that can be accessed using the search engine. In the process of finding relevant documents on the search engine, a phrase often used as a query. The number of words that make up the phrase query and their position obviously affect the relevance of the document produced. As a result, the accuracy of the information obtained will be affected. Based on the outlined problem, the purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation of the common phrase index method on information retrieval. This research will be conducted in English news text and implemented on a prototype to determine the relevance level of the documents produced. The system is built with the stages of pre-processing, indexing, term weighting calculation, and cosine similarity calculation. Then the system will display the document search results in a sequence, based on the cosine similarity. Furthermore, system testing will be conducted using 100 documents and 20 queries. That result is then used for the evaluation stage. First, determine the relevant documents using kappa statistic calculation. Second, determine the system success rate using precision, recall, and F-measure calculation. In this research, the result of kappa statistic calculation was 0.71, so that the relevant documents are eligible for the system evaluation. Then the calculation of precision, recall, and F-measure produces precision of 0.37, recall of 0.50, and F-measure of 0.43. From this result can be said that the success rate of the system to produce relevant documents is low.

  4. Mullite long fibres prepared by sol-gel method using water solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Yasohama, S.; Hayashi, S.; Yasumori, A. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Materials

    1997-12-31

    Mullite long fibres, which are a candidate for high temperature applications were prepared by sol-gel method from water solvent systems. They were synthesized from three different combinations of raw materials as follows: (1):Al(O{sub 1}C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}, Al-nitrate and Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} (TEOS), (2):Al metal, Al-chloride and TEOS, (3):Al metal, Al-nitrate and TEOS. In the methods (1) and (2), very fine SiO{sub 2} aerosol particles were also used partially replacing TEOS. The prepared solutions were condensed and examined the spinability by a hand drawing method. Dense and crack free mullite fibres were prepared from the methods (1) and (3) by firing up to 1100 C. Whereas the fibres prepared from the method (2) were less SiO{sub 2} than mullite composition and were porous by the firing due to evaporation of residual Cl ions at high temperature. (orig.) 10 refs.

  5. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  6. A New Method for Preparing Superconducting MgB2 Films from Diborane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿生; 傅兴华; 张正平; 杨健

    2002-01-01

    We report on a new preparation method for magnesium diboride (MgB2) films by chemical vapour deposition(CVD) from diborane (B2H6). It is a two-step ex situ approach, with the precursor boron films grown by CVD from B2H6 at 460°C, followed by a post-annealing process in magnesium (Mg) vapour at 830°C. The prepared MgB2 thin films on Al2O3 polycrystalline substrates have an onset transition temperature of 35K and a zeroresistance temperature of about 24K. Well-crystallized MgB2 grains have clearly been observed in the SEM images and confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The advantages of the proposed method are the feasibility to prepare large-area superconducting films and the compatibility with semiconductor technology.

  7. Biodegradable and magnetic core-shell composite particle prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Horiishi, Nanao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The present paper describes optimization of preparation conditions of a core-shell composite particle, and its heat generation by alternating magnetic fields. The composite particles are prepared with a modified emulsion solvent diffusion method, which is combined with Pickering emulsion stabilized by magnetic nanoparticles. In this method, the magnetic nanoparticles act as an emulsifier, and its amount and size are crucial to morphology of the composite particles. The magnetic nanoparticles of 8-9 nm would be strongly adsorbed at a liquid-liquid interface rather than the larger nanoparticles. At the optimized concentration of the magnetic nanoparticle’s suspension for the preparation, small and uniform composite particles are obtained since the amount of the nanoparticles is enough to prevent coalescence of droplets during the formation of the composites. The heat generation by alternating magnetic fields emerged certainly. This result suggests the composite particles have a property as a heat-generating carrier for hyperthermia treatment.

  8. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ke Tseng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition, which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  9. Preparation of CdS nanoparticles by hydrothermal method in microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Jinxin; ZHAO Gaoling; HAN Gaorong

    2007-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles with good crystallinity were prepared by hydrothermal method in microemulsion composed of polyoxyethylene laurylether/water/cyclohexane/butanol.The structure and the size of the CdS nanoparticles were analyzed by TEM and XRD.The UV-Vis optical absorption of the samples was also investigated.The results show that hydrothermal treatment is an effective method to prepare CdS nanoparticles of hexagonal structure at lower temperature.The particles were in dimensional uniformity.The diameter of the CdS nanoparticles decreased with the increase of the molar ratio of water to surfactant.The minimum diameter of the CdS nanoparticles prepared in this work was about 10 nm.Obvious blue shift appeared in the UV-Vis absorption spectra.

  10. Preparation of polymeric nanoparticles containing corticosteroid by a novel aerosol flow reactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerikäinen, Hannele; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2003-09-16

    Polymeric drug-containing nanoparticles were prepared using a novel aerosol flow reactor method. The polymeric drug-containing nanoparticles prepared consist of a poorly water soluble corticosteroid, beclomethasone dipropionate, and polymeric materials Eudragit E 100 or Eudragit L 100. The novel method used in this study allows synthesis of nanoparticles directly as dry powders. The nanoparticles can contain various ratios of drug and polymer, and the use of any additional stabilisation materials is avoided. In this study, nanoparticles with different drug-to-polymer ratios were prepared. Particle size and morphology, crystallinity, and thermal behaviour were determined as a function of particle composition. It was found that all the nanoparticles produced, regardless of particle composition, had geometric number mean diameters of approximately 90 nm, and were spherical showing smooth surfaces. The drug was molecularly dispersed in the amorphous polymeric matrix of the nanoparticles, and drug crystallisation was not observed when the ambient temperature was below the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  11. Evaluation of preparation methods for MS-based analysis of intestinal epithelial cell proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Bendixen, Emøke

    2015-01-01

    The gut epithelium formed between an organism and the environment plays an essential role in host–microbe interactions, yet remains one of the least characterized mammalian tissues. Especially the membrane proteins, which are critical to bacterial adhesion, are understudied, because these proteins...... are low in abundance, and large amounts of sample is needed for their preparation and for undertaking MS-based analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different methods for isolation and preparation of pig intestinal epithelial cells for MS-based analysis of the proteome. Samples were...... of ease and speed of sample preparation, as well as protein recovery. In comparison, more gentle methods where intestinal epithelial cells are harvested by shaking are more time consuming, result in lower protein yield, and are prone to increased technical variation due to multiple steps involved....

  12. Electrochemical methods for corrosion testing of Ce-based coating prepared on AA6060 alloy by dip immersion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip-immersion is simple and cost-effective method for the preparation of Ce-based conversion coatings (CeCCs, a promising alternative to the toxic chromate coatings, on the metal substrates. In this work CeCCs were prepared on Al-alloy AA6060 from aqueous solution of cerium chloride at room temperature. Effect of immersion time and post-treatment in phosphate solution on the microstructure and corrosion properties of the coatings was studied. The longer immersion time, the thicker but nonhomogeneous and cracked CeCCs. The post-treatment contributed to the sealing of cracks, as proven by an increase in corrosion resistance compared with as-deposited coatings. CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated showed much better corrosion protection than those prepared at short deposition time. A detailed EIS study was undertaken to follow the evolution of corrosion behaviour of CeCCs with time of exposure to aggressive chloride environment (3.5 % NaCl. For the sake of comparison, the EIS properties of bare AA6060 were also investigated. A linear voltammetry was performed to complete the study. Results confirmed a formation of protective CeCCs on AA6060 surface. However, even CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated provided a short term protection in aggressive environment, due to the small thickness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i br. III 45012

  13. G-CNV: A GPU-based Tool for Preparing Data to Detect CNVs with Read Depth Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eManconi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Copy Number Variations (CNVs are the most prevalent types of structural variations (SVs in the human genome and are involved in a wide range of common human diseases. Different computational methods have been devised to detect this type of SVs and to study how they are implicated in human diseases. Recently, computational methods based on high throughputsequencing (HTS are increasingly used. The majority of these methods focus on mapping short-read sequences generated from a donor against a reference genome to detect signatures distinctive of CNVs. In particular, read-depth based methods detect CNVs by analyzing genomic regions with significantly different read-depth from the other ones. The pipeline analysis of these methods consists of four main stages: i data preparation, ii data normalization, iii CNV regions identification, and iv copy number estimation. However, available tools do not support most of the operations required at the first two stages of this pipeline. Typically, they start the analysis by building the read-depth signal from pre-processed alignments. Therefore, third-party tools must be used to perform most of the preliminary operations required to build the read-depth signal.These data-intensive operations can be efficiently parallelized on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. In this article we present G-CNV, a GPU-based tool devised to perform the common operations required at the first two stages of the analysis pipeline. G-CNV is able to filter low quality read sequences, to mask low quality nucleotides, to remove adapter sequences,to remove duplicated read sequences, to map the short-reads, to resolve multiple mapping ambiguities, to build the read-depth signal, and to normalize it. G-CNV can be efficiently used as a third-party tool able to prepare data for the subsequent read-depth signal generation and analysis. Moreover, it can also be integrated in CNV detection tools to generate read-depth signals.

  14. A surfactant-thermal method to prepare four new three-dimensional heterometal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Junkuo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a surfactant-thermal method to prepare four new 3-D crystalline heterometal-organic frameworks (HMOFs). The results indicate that our new strategy for growing crystalline materials in surfactant media has great potential for the synthesis of novel MOFs with various structures. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. A novel method of preparing metallic Janus silica particles using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qiuyan; de Vries, Marcel H; Picchioni, Francesco; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a novel fabrication method to prepare metallic Janus silica particles by embedding nanosized silica particles on a spherical polystyrene (PS) substrate in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2), followed by labelling with gold nanoparticles on the exposed part of the

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation Method for Multiphase Porous Functional Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    An optimum method is proposed to prepare thin foil transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae of multiphase porous functional ceramics: prefilling the pore space of these materials with an epoxy resin prior to focused ion beam milling. Several advantages of epoxy impregnation are demonstrate...

  17. A novel method of preparing metallic Janus silica particles using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qiuyan; de Vries, Marcel H; Picchioni, Francesco; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a novel fabrication method to prepare metallic Janus silica particles by embedding nanosized silica particles on a spherical polystyrene (PS) substrate in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2), followed by labelling with gold nanoparticles on the exposed part of the sil

  18. Preparation Methods and Applications of CuO-CeO2 Catalysts: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-CeO2 catalytic systems are getting popular for catalyzing very actively the various reactions of environmental, commercial and other importance. In recent years, many methods have been in use for the preparation of versatile CuO-CeO2 catalysts. Reviewing the useful preparation methods of such catalysts is thus the need of the time in view of the globally increasing interest towards all the low temperature redox reactions. This article presents a short review on seventeen different preparation methods of the copperceria catalysts, followed by critical discussions on the related redox properties and advancements accomplished with respect to their application aspect, including a systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature in a well-concievable tabular form. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 14th January 2010, Revised: 31st January 2010, Accepted: 1st February 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2010. Preparation Methods and Applications of CuO-CeO2 Catalysts: A Short Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (1: 7-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.7125.7-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.7125.7-30 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7125

  19. Preparation Methods and Applications of CuO-CeO2 Catalysts: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Rattan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-CeO2 catalytic systems are getting popular for catalyzing very actively the various reactions of environmental, commercial and other importance. In recent years, many methods have been in use for the preparation of versatile CuO-CeO2 catalysts. Reviewing the useful preparation methods of such catalysts is thus the need of the time in view of the globally increasing interest towards all the low temperature redox reactions. This article presents a short review on seventeen different preparation methods of the copperceria catalysts, followed by critical discussions on the related redox properties and advancements accomplished with respect to their application aspect, including a systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature in a well-concievable tabular form. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 14th January 2010, Revised: 31st January 2010, Accepted: 1st February 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2010. Preparation Methods and Applications of CuO-CeO2 Catalysts: A Short Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (1: 7-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.1.774.7-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.1.774.7-30

  20. A method for preparation of IgA from bovine mammary secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K

    1986-04-01

    A method for preparing purified IgA from bovine mammary secretions is described. Whey was initially fractionated by gel filtration and fractions containing IgA were pooled, concentrated and digested with pepsin. The digest was rechromatographed on the same type of gel twice and the resulting IgA preparation tested for purity by an enzyme immunoassay procedure. Five different preparations tested were found to contain no measureable IgM or IgG2 and 0.8% to 1.1% IgG1 on a weight basis. If colostral whey was digested with pepsin prior to chromatography, the IgA preparations contained 1.1% to 2% IgG1 and no measureable IgM and IgG2. The procedure provides a reasonably easy method of eliminating most of the contaminating IgG1 (dimeric) and allows preparation of quantities of IgA for immunochemical studies and standardization of serological techniques.

  1. Development and Physicochemical Characterization of Sirolimus Solid Dispersions Prepared by Solvent Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Emami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was preparation and characterization of sirolimus solid dispersions by solvent evaporation technique to improve its dissolution properties. Methods: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, Poloxamer 188 and Cremophore RH40 were used to prepare the solid dispersions of sirolimus. In vitro dissolution study using USP type I apparatus, were performed in distilled water (containing SLS 0.4% for pure sirolimus, physical mixtures, Rapamune and prepared solid dispersions. The characterization of solid dispersions was performed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results: More than 75% of sirolimus was released within 30 minutes from all prepared solid dispersions. The dissolution rate of all prepared solid dispersion powders were more than physical mixtures. The absence of sirolimus peak in the DSC spectrum of solid dispersions indicated the conversion of crystalline form of sirolimus into amorphous form. The results from FT-IR spectroscopy showed that there was no significant change in the FT-IR spectrum of solid dispersions indicating absence of well-defined interaction between drug and carriers. Conclusion: It was concluded that solid dispersion method, using PVP, Poloxamer 188 and Cremophore RH40 can improve dissolution rate of sirolimus.

  2. A simple improved desolvation method for the rapid preparation of albumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanban-Esfahlan, Ali; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2016-10-01

    The current study tried to establish a simple and fast method for the preparation of BSA and HSA nanoparticles, based on an improved desolvation procedure under the aspect of a controllable particle size around 100nm for drug delivery applications. The Procedure used for the nanoparticles preparation was simplified by using a designed apparatus for controlling the addition of ethanol and it was used instead of conventional tubing pump which enabled the preparation of nanoparticles under defined conditions. By using EDC as cross-linker instead of glutharaldehyde, the time of nanoparticles preparation procedure was reduced to 3h. Several factors of the preparation process, such as the volume of the albumin solution, desolvating agent volume, the amount of cross-linker, the presence of salts and protein concentration were evaluated. Nanoparticles with smaller size were obtained under experimental conditions without the presence of salts or the use of buffers, 250mg of protein/4ml water, 5mg cross-linker, the addition of 4 and 8ml ethanol by using the designed apparatus to the HSA and BSA solution, respectively. By using this improved method, BSA and HSA nanoparticles of the size around 100nm and polydispersity below 0.2 were obtained.

  3. Effect of different tumbling marination methods and time on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe combined effects of tumbling marination methods (Vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; Vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8 and 10 h on quality characteristics of prepared boneless pork chops were investigated. The results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly increased the pH, product yield, cohesiveness, resilience, sensory tenderness and overall flavor (p<0.05 compared with IT method, and CT method also significantly decreased the pressing loss, cooking loss, shear force value (SFV, hardness and chewiness (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increasing from 4 h to 10 h, the product yield and sensory attributes of prepared pork chops increased at first and then decreased, whereas the pressing loss, cooking loss, SFV, hardness and chewiness decreased at first and then increased. Additionally, an interaction between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed. These results suggested that CT method of 8 h obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops, which should be adopted.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystalline MgO by surfactant assisted precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Mehran, E-mail: rezaei@kashanu.ac.ir [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajenoori, Majid; Nematollahi, Behzad [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed different morphologies compared with the sample prepared without surfactant. {yields} MgO prepared with surfactant showed a plate-like shape. {yields} Refluxing temperature and time and the surfactant to metal molar ratio affect the textural properties of MgO. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area was prepared by a simple precipitation method using pluronic P123 triblock copolymer (Poly (ethylene glycol)-block, Poly (propylene glycol)-block, Poly (ethylene glycol)) as surfactant and under refluxing conditions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET) and scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that the refluxing time and temperature and the molar ratio of surfactant to metal affect the structural properties of MgO, because of the changes in the rate and extent of P123 adsorption on the prepared samples. The results showed that the addition of surfactant is effective to prepare magnesium oxide with high surface area and affects the morphology of the prepared samples. With increasing the P123/MgO molar ratio to 0.05 the pore size distribution was shifted to larger size. The sample prepared with addition of surfactant showed a plate-like shape which was completely different with the morphology of the sample prepared without surfactant. The formation of nanoplate-like MgO was related to higher surface density of Mg ions on the (0 0 1) plane than that on the other planes of the Mg(OH){sub 2} crystal. The (0 0 1) plane would be blocked preferentially by the adsorbed P123 molecules during the growing process of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoentities and the growth on the (0 0 1) plane would be markedly restricted, and the consequence is the generation of nanoplate-like MgO. In addition, increase in refluxing temperature and time

  5. Study of preparation of BG/HA gradient coating on titanium alloy by electrophoretic deposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-ming; HAN Qing-rong; LI Shi-pu; XU Chuan-bo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a gradient bioactive coating made from modified bioglass (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by electrophoretic deposition method(EPD)on the surface of titanium alloy. Strong bonding between the matrix and BG/HA gradient coating was got by sintering. Crystal composition of the coating was analyzed by XRD. The characteristics of surface and cross section of the coating were observed by SEM. Adhesive strength of the coating was tested by pull method. The optimizing technological parameters were determined.

  6. Methods for preparation of nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manoharan, Mohan; Martins Loureiro, Sergio Paulo; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2013-04-16

    Disclosed here are methods for the preparation of optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates. The optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates may be used as one or more of quantum-splitting phosphor, visible-light emitting phosphor, vacuum-UV absorbing phosphor, and UV-emitting phosphor. Also disclosed herein are discharge lamps comprising the optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates provided by these methods.

  7. Influence of particle size and preparation methods on the physical and chemical stability of amorphous simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fang; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Tian, Fang

    2009-01-01

    molecular mobility and higher chemical degradation than CM. Therefore, the current study demonstrated that QC and CM have obvious differences in both physical and chemical properties. It was concluded that care should be taken when choosing preparation methods for making amorphous materials. Furthermore......, particle size, a factor that has often been overlooked when dealing with amorphous materials, was shown to have an influence on physical stability of amorphous simvastatin.......This study investigated the factors influencing the stability of amorphous simvastatin. Quench-cooled amorphous simvastatin in two particle size ranges, 150-180 microm (QC-big) and amorphous simvastatin (CM) were prepared, and their physical and chemical...

  8. Study on Modification of Ultra-Stable Zeolite Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weilin; Zhou Lingping; Shen Shimin; Li Zheng; Zhu Yuxia; Tian Huiping; Long Jun

    2007-01-01

    The ultra-stable zeolite DASY-0.0 was prepared by hydrothermal method in commercial scale.Its structure was further modified via the treatment for cleaning of pores(CP).The zeolite samples before and after CP treating were analyzed and characterized by XRF,XRD,NMR,IR,BET and DTA.The results showed that,in comparison with the conventional ultra-stable zeolite DASY-0.0 prepared by the hydrothermal process,the CP-modified zeolite SOY0 exhibited a higher relative crystallinity.a larger surface area and pore volume,a higher thermal stability and contained less amorphous non-framework Al.

  9. A Comparative Study of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events Following Use of Common Bowel Preparations Among a Colonoscopy Screening Population: Results from a Post-Marketing Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, Kathryn; Farraye, Francis A; Knight, Tyler; Colman, Sam; Cleveland, Mark vB; Pelham, Russell W

    2016-10-01

    Colonoscopy may be one of the most frequent elective procedures in older adults and is associated with a low occurrence of complications. However, reduction of risks attributable to the bowel preparation may be achieved with the use of effective and safer products. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) associated with SUPREP(®) [oral sulfate solution (OSS)] and other common prescription bowel preparations (non-OSS). This real-world, observational study used de-identified health insurance claims and laboratory results to identify TEAEs in the 3 months following screening colonoscopy in adults with a prescription for a bowel preparation in the prior 60 days. The unadjusted and adjusted (controlling for patient risk factors) cumulative incidences of TEAEs were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Poisson regression, respectively. Among patients ≥45 years, the overall cumulative incidence was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the OSS cohort than in the non-OSS cohort (unadjusted: 2.31 vs. 2.89 %; adjusted: 1.61 vs. 1.95 %), with significantly lower acute cardiac conditions (1.56 vs. 1.90 %; p < 0.001), renal failure/other serious renal diseases (OSS: 0.21 %, non-OSS: 0.32 %; p < 0.001), and serum electrolyte abnormalities (OSS: 0.39 %, non-OSS: 0.49 %; p = 0.017). There were no significant differences between cohorts in death, seizure disorders, aggravation of gout, and ischemic colitis. Results were similar in the adjusted cumulative incidences. In actual use, the overall cumulative incidence of TEAEs was significantly lower in the OSS cohort, demonstrating that OSS is as safe as, or possibly safer than, non-OSS prescription bowel preparations.

  10. Determination of active substances in multicomponent veterinary preparations of antiparasitic action by HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecka, Wanda; Kulik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of an HPLC method enabling the identification and determination of the content of selected compounds occurring in multicomponent veterinary preparations used in parasitic diseases. The studied compounds included: pyrantel embonate, fenbendazole, praziquantel, epsiprantel and febantel. Using the developed HPLC method, a good separation of the above compounds was achieved. The regression analysis has shown linearity of the method in the required concentration range. The determination of the compounds mentioned and statistical evaluation of the results have demonstrated that the method is characterized by a good selectivity and high precision.

  11. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  12. STRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT AND TEMPERATURE FIELD SIMULATION OF PREPARING NANOPOWDER BY EVAPORATION-CONDENSATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Bao; Y.Yin; T.G.Liu; Z.Y.Yang

    2008-01-01

    A new apparatus, with a segregable conical water cooling condenser, which is heated by an electric arc using the evaporation-condensation method to prepare carbon-coated nanopowder, has been developed by the authors. Numerical simulation of the temperaturc field is done by the ANSYS software, and temperature in the reaction vessel is measured with the help of an experiment, to verify the simulation result. Influence of the temperature field in the reaction vessel, on the process of preparing nanopowder is then discussed simply. It is shown that the segrcgable conical water cooling condenser and carbon-coated surface process can be used to prepare steady carbon-coated metal nanopowder, at a lower cost and higher yield rate than the traditional structure. Simulation of the temperature field in the apparatus shows that the arc heating method can form a temperature field in the apparatus, which is quite favorable for nanopowder formation. Experiments show that the rational parameters using this apparatus, with the arc heating method to prepare carbon-coated nanopowder are electricity 60-100 A and arc length 5-8 mm.

  13. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R.A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we completed a project on the comparison of macrostickies measurement methods. Based on the success of the project, we decided to embark on this new project on comparison of microstickies measurement methods. When we started this project, there were some concerns and doubts principally due to the lack of an accepted definition of microstickies. However, we...

  14. Optimization of solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by a single emulsification-solvent evaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Pooja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the data related to the research article “Characterization, biorecognitive activity and stability of WGA grafted lipid nanostructures for the controlled delivery of rifampicin” (Pooja et al. 2015 [1]. In the present study, SLN were prepared by a single emulsification-solvent evaporation method and the various steps of SLN preparation are shown in a flow chart. The preparation of SLN was optimized for various formulation variables including type and quantity of lipid, surfactant, amount of co-surfactant and volume of organic phase. Similarly, effect of variables related to homogezation, sonication and stirring processes, on the size and surface potential of SLN was determined and optimized.

  15. Properties of nanocrystalline copper prepared by vacuum-warm-compaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Guang; LIU Wei; YANG Tian-zu; TANG Yong-jian

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Cu with average grain size of 22.8-25.3 nm was prepared by vacuum-warm-compaction method. Scanning electronic microscope, HMV-2 type microhardness tester, X-ray diffractometer, and 6157 type electrometer were used to determine the microstructure, microhardness and electrical resistivity of as-prepared nanocrystalline Cu, respectively. The results show that the microhardness of nanocrystalline Cu increases with larger pressure, longer duration of pressure or higher temperature. The highest microhardness of nanocrystalline Cu is 3.8 GPa, which is 7 times higher than that of coarse-grained copper. The electrical resistivity of as-prepared specimens is (1.2-1.4)×10-7 Ω·m at temperature 233-293 K, which is 5-6 times higher than that of the coarse-grained copper.

  16. Analysis and discussion of different methods of artificial ice-high specimen preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuJuan Zhang; Wei Ma; ZhiZhong Sun; HaiMin Du

    2014-01-01

    Because ice-high foundation soil is widely distributed in permafrost regions, the correct preparation of ice-high specimens is of critical interest in engineering design for foundation stability. Past research has shown that the uniaxial compression strength of ice-high frozen soils changes as the ice or total water content increases;the differences of different methods of specimen preparation are analyzed here and the advantages and disadvantages of them are presented. It is confirmed that the role of crushed ice is significantly different from that of naturally frozen ice in frozen soils, and the size and amount of crushed ice will influence the strength and deformation mechanism of frozen soils. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that when a ice-high specimen is artificially prepared, the ice should be frozen through natural means and not be replaced with crushed ice.

  17. Electrochemical Li-storage Properties of Nanosized FeSb2 Prepared by Solvothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIE; Xinbing ZHAO; Gaoshao CAO; Mingjian ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Li-storage intermetallic compound FeSb2 was prepared by solvothermal method and was studied as a promising anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The electrochemical Li-storage performances of this intermetallic anode were evaluated in a two-electrode cell Li/LiPF6 (EC+-DMC)/FeSb2.It was found that the particle size of FeSb2 powder is in nanoscale and this intermetallic anode exhibited enhanced cycling behavior comparing to its microscaled counterpart prepared by levitation-melting/ball-milling route.

  18. Approximation Methods for Common Fixed Points of Mean Nonexpansive Mapping in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Gu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Let X be a uniformly convex Banach space, and let S, T be a pair of mean nonexpansive mappings. In this paper, it is proved that the sequence of Ishikawa iterations associated with S and T converges to the common fixed point of S and T.

  19. Approximation Methods for Common Fixed Points of Mean Nonexpansive Mapping in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a uniformly convex Banach space, and let be a pair of mean nonexpansive mappings. In this paper, it is proved that the sequence of Ishikawa iterations associated with and converges to the common fixed point of and .

  20. Potato common scab: a review of the causal pathogen, management practices, screening methods, and host resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato common scab is a widespread disease in which scab-like lesions develop on tubers. The disease is caused by pathogenic Streptomyces species, which synthesize the phytotoxin thaxtomin. The txtAB operon, responsible for thaxtomin production, can be used as a marker to identify strains of the bac...

  1. Preparation of Bentonite Supported Nano Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts by Electrostatic Self-assembly Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; SHI Huisheng; LI Yan

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly method (ESAM) was used to prepare bentonite supported-nano titanium dioxide photocatalysts.The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Methyl orange was used to estimate the photocatalytic activity of the materials.The effects of the calcination temperature and silane dosage on the photocatalytic activity of the samples were investigated.The experimental results show that the bentonite facilitates the formation of anatase and restrains the transformation of anatase to rutile.Part of nano-size TiO2 particles insert into the galleries of bentonite.The photocatalysts exhibit a synergistic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis on methyl orange.Photocatalysts prepared by ESAM method exhibit higher photocatalytic activity and better recycle ability than those of the traditional method.

  2. A new method for preparation of template DNA for PCR from special plant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple method for preparation of template DNA suitable for PCR amplification from herbarium sampies and plant tissues rich in byproducts, e.g. polysaccharides, tannins, polyphenolic, and terpenoids compounds, is described. The total DNA from regular extraction procedure is absorbed by a small amount of glass powder and the final precipitation of glass powder is used directly as a template for PCR. Taking six plant taxa, including the herbarium specimens of Lythraceae collected from Namibia in 1957 and the silicon-dried leaf tissue from mangrove plants (Rhizophoraceae and Combretaceae) rich in by-products as exampies, the PCR products, including nrDNA ITS regions and cpDNA rbcL gene, amplified following the regular and new methods respectively are compared. Our method provides a simple, rapid and economic approach to purify and prepare template DNA for PCR from special plant materials.``

  3. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, A M; Sargazi, M [Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzae, A A; Feizi, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: A.M.DAVARPANAH@hamoon.usb.ac.ir

    2008-08-15

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, H{sub c} = 0.12 and B{sub s} = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  4. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A. M.; Mirzae, A. A.; Sargazi, M.; Feizi, M.

    2008-08-01

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, Hc = 0.12 and Bs = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  5. Recent advances in sample preparation techniques and methods of sulfonamides detection - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Stanislava G; Kochuk, Elena V; Apyari, Vladimir V; Tolmacheva, Veronika V; Zolotov, Yury A

    2014-11-19

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 70 years, and their residues in foodstuffs and environmental samples pose serious health hazards. For this reason, sensitive and specific methods for the quantification of these compounds in numerous matrices have been developed. This review intends to provide an updated overview of the recent trends over the past five years in sample preparation techniques and methods for detecting SAs. Examples of the sample preparation techniques, including liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, are given. Different methods of detecting the SAs present in food and feed and in environmental, pharmaceutical and biological samples are discussed.

  6. Drying Using Supercritical Fluid Technology as a Potential Method for Preparation of Chitosan Aerogel Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Rana M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Bayan, Mohammad F; Al Bustami, Rana T; Alnaief, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Supercritical fluid technology offers several advantages in preparation of microparticles. These include uniformity in particle size, morphology, and drug distribution without degradation of the product. One of the recent advantages is preparation of porous aerogel carrier with proper aerodynamic properties. In this study, we aimed to prepare chitosan aerogel microparticles using supercritical fluid (SCF) technology and compare that with microparticles produced by freeze drying (FD). Loading the prepared carriers with a model drug (salbutamol) was also performed. Comparisons of the particle properties and physicochemical characterizations were undertaken by evaluating particle size, density, specific surface area, and porosity. In vitro drug release studies were also investigated. The effect of many variables, such as molecular weight of chitosan oligomers, concentrations of chitosan, and concentrations of tripolyphosphate on the release, were also investigated. Chitosan aerogels were efficiently produced by SCF technology with an average particle size of 10 μm with a tapped density values around 0.12 g/mL, specific surface area (73-103) m(2)/g, and porosity (0.20-0.29) cc/g. Whereas, microparticles produced by FD method were characterized as cryogels with larger particle size (64 microns) with clear cracking at the surface. Sustained release profile was achieved for all prepared microparticles of salbutamol produced by the aforementioned methods as compared with pure drug. The results also demonstrates that chitosan molecular weight, polymer concentration, and tripolyphosphate concentration affected the release profile of salbutamol from the prepared microparticles. In conclusion, SCF technology was able to produce chitosan aerogel microparticles loaded with salbutamol that could be suitable for pulmonary drug delivery system.

  7. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 2, Sample preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program.

  8. A Simple and Rapid Method for Standard Preparation of Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Noya, Yoichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Hoshi, Akimasa; Nepal, Prabha; Harada, Takuya; Horiguchi, Mika; Hatate, Chizuru; Kuge, Yuji; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations ≤15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar ≥20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are ≤15 mg/ml. PMID:25229830

  9. Polymer-virus core-shell structures prepared via co-assembly and template synthesis methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTHIWANGCHAROEN; Nisaraporn; PREVELIGE; Peter; E.Jr

    2010-01-01

    Bionanoparticles(BNPs),consisting of virus and virus-like assemblies,have attracted much attention in the biomedical field for their applications such as imaging and targeted drug delivery,owing to their well-defined structures and well-controlled chemistries.BNPs-based core-shell structures provide a unique system for the investigation of biological interactions such as protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions.However,it is still a challenge to prepare the BNPs-based core-shell structures.Herein,we describe(i) co-assembly method and(ii) template synthesis method in the development of polymer-BNPs core-shell structures.These two methods can be divided into three different systems.In system A,different polymers including poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P2VP),poly(4-vinylpyridine)(P4VP) and poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)(PCL-b-P2VP) can form a raspberry-like structure with BNPs.In system B,polystyrene(PS) spheres end capped with free amine and BNPs can form a core-shell structure.In System C,layer-by-layer(LBL) method is used to prepare positive charged PS particles,which can be used as a template to form the core-shell structures with BNPs.These two methods may open a new way for preparing novel protein-based functional materials for potential applications in the biomedical field.

  10. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Printed Composite Scaffolds Prepared with Different Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlązak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal method for composites preparation as an input to rapid prototyping fabrication of scaffolds with potential application in osteochondral tissue engineering is still needed. Scaffolds in tissue engineering applications play a role of constructs providing appropriate mechanical support with defined porosity to assist regeneration of tissue. The aim of the presented study was to analyze the influence of composite fabrication methods on scaffolds mechanical properties. The evaluation was performed on polycaprolactone (PCL with 5 wt% beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP scaffolds fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM. Three different methods of PCL-TCP composite preparation: solution casting, particles milling, extrusion and injection were used to provide material for scaffold fabrication. The obtained scaffolds were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, x-ray micro computed tomography, thermal gravimetric analysis and static material testing machine. All of the scaffolds had the same geometry (cylinder, 4×6 mm and fiber orientation (0/60/120°. There were some differences in the TCP distribution and formation of the ceramic agglomerates in the scaffolds. They depended on fabrication method. The use of composites prepared by solution casting method resulted in scaffolds with the best combination of compressive strength (5.7±0.2 MPa and porosity (48.5±2.7 %, both within the range of trabecular bone.

  11. Effect of method of preparation on pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloshe Shrikant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone HCl is an antidiabetic agent with poor aqueous solubility. Inclusion complexes of pioglitazone HCl were prepared with β-cyclodextrin using various methods (physical mixing, kneading method, co-precipitation. The main aim of the present invention is to study the effect of the method of preparation on the dissolution profiles of pioglitazone HCl-β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes . The phase solubility profile of pioglitazone HCl with β-cyclodextrin was classified as AL-type and stability constant with 1:1 molar ratio was 115.45, calculated from the phase solubility diagram. Formation of the inclusion complex between pioglitazone HCl and β-cyclodextrin was confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The dissolution profile of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of pioglitazone HCl alone and its physical mixtures. The dissolution rate of the pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex prepared by the co-precipitation method was six times higher when compared with the pure drug. The method of complexation of pioglitazone HCl in β-CD increased the dissolution rate of the drug in the following order: Coppt > KM > PM >Drug.

  12. Invert emulsion: Method of preparation and application as proper formulation of entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Yacoub A

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the technique used for preparing the invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) then, selecting the most proper formulation of invert emulsion for being used as a carrier formulation of entomopathogenic fungi. It also describes the method used for testing the efficacy of the formulated fungi as biocontrol agents of targeted insects. Detailed examples demonstrating the efficacy of formulated strains of entomopathogenic fungi against certain species of insect pests were included in the present article. The techniques and methods described in this article are reproducible and helpful in enhancing the effectiveness of formulated fungi against wide range of targeted insects in comparison with the unformulated form of these fungi. Also, these techniques and methods can be used effectively in crop protection and in the integrated pest management programs. Finally, it is important to indicate that the ingredients used for preparation of the invert emulsion have no environmental side-effects or health risks since these ingredients are safe to use and can be used in manufacturing of cosmetics or as food additives.•Description of method used for preparation of invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) and selecting the most stable and non-viscous emulsion.•Description of technique used for introducing the entomopathogenic fungi into the selected stable and non-viscous invert emulsion.•Description of method for testing the efficacy of introduced entomopathogenic fungus into the selected invert emulsion against targeted insects with detailed examples on the efficacy testing.

  13. Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rasagiline in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Evrim Kepekci Tekkeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents three simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Rasagiline (RSG in pharmaceutical preparations. The determination procedures depend on the reaction of RSG with chloranilic acid for method A, tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone for method B, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane for method C. The colored products were quantitated spectrophotometrically at 524, 535, and 843 nm for methods A, B, and C, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were optimized. Linearity ranges of the methods with good correlation coefficients (0.9988–0.9996 were observed as 25–300 µg mL−1, 25–350 µg mL−1, and 50–500 µg mL−1 for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The formation of products takes place through different mechanisms. The sites of interaction were confirmed by elemental analysis using IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The validation of the methods was carried out in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. No interference was observed from concomitants usually present in dosage forms. The methods were applied successfully to the determination of RSG in pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Assessment of medical students' proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Catherine A; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students' ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students' confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  15. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Ulman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%. Many students (87.6% felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  16. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Ulman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%. Many students (87.6% felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  17. An enzyme-based DNA preparation method for application to forensic biological samples and degraded stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Coult, Natalie; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2012-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from forensic samples typically uses either an organic extraction protocol or solid phase extraction (SPE) and these methods generally involve numerous sample transfer, wash and centrifugation steps. Although SPE has been successfully adapted to the microdevice, it can be problematic because of lengthy load times and uneven packing of the solid phase. A closed-tube enzyme-based DNA preparation method has recently been developed which uses a neutral proteinase to lyse cells and degrade proteins and nucleases [14]. Following a 20 min incubation of the buccal or whole blood sample with this proteinase, DNA is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ready. This paper describes the optimization and quantitation of DNA yield using this method, and application to forensic biological samples, including UV- and heat-degraded whole blood samples on cotton or blue denim substrates. Results demonstrate that DNA yield can be increased from 1.42 (±0.21)ng/μL to 7.78 (±1.40)ng/μL by increasing the quantity of enzyme per reaction by 3-fold. Additionally, there is a linear relationship between the amount of starting cellular material added and the concentration of DNA in the solution, thereby allowing DNA yield estimations to be made. In addition, short tandem repeat (STR) profile results obtained using DNA prepared with the enzyme method were comparable to those obtained with a conventional SPE method, resulting in full STR profiles (16 of 16 loci) from liquid samples (buccal swab eluate and whole blood), dried buccal swabs and bloodstains and partial profiles from UV or heat-degraded bloodstains on cotton or blue denim substrates. Finally, the DNA preparation method is shown to be adaptable to glass or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices with little impact on STR peak height but providing a 20-fold reduction in incubation time (as little as 60 s), leading to a ≥1 h reduction in DNA preparation time.

  18. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  19. Preparation of magnesium hydroxide nanoflowers from boron mud via anti-drop precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xi [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Blue Sky Technology Corporation, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Hongwen, E-mail: mahw@cugb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Xiaoqian [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Zhouqing [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Blue Sky Technology Corporation, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We use the anti-drop precipitation method for synthesis of magnesium hydroxide. • Boron mud which is solid waste from a borax factory is used as the magnesium source. • The magnesium hydroxide nanoflowers are prepared in a short time. • The as-prepared magnesium hydroxide can be used as an effective flame retardant. - Abstract: Using boron mud as the starting material, the flower-like magnesium hydroxide (MH) has been successfully prepared via anti-drop precipitation method. The effect of NH{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O concentration, aging time, and surfactant on the morphology of MH was investigated. The optimum precipitation conditions are dropping MgSO{sub 4} solution in 5% NH{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O solution, with 3% polyethylene glycol as surfactant, aging for 30 min. XRD, SEM, FI-IR, and TG/DTA have been employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. XRD reveals that MH with high purity has the brucite structure. SEM images show that the flower-like MH exists in the form of mono-disperse well uniform spherical aggregation with diameter of 3–5 μm. TG/DTA shows a total percentage of weight loss 33.6% with a well-defined endothermic peak near 381.3 °C corresponding to the decomposition of MH. Furthermore, it reports that the extremely fast primary nucleation is of significance for crystal growth of MH.

  20. A method for top down preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka; Kannangara, Yasun Y; Lin, Yuan; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-03-01

    A method of top down preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and nanofibers is proposed. Chitin nanofibrils (chitin NFs) were prepared using ultrasonic assisted method from crab shells with an average diameter of 5 nm and the length less than 3 μm as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These chitin nanofibers were used as the precursor material for the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles and nanofibers. The degree of deacetylation of these prepared chitosan nanostructures were found to be approximately 98%. In addition these chitosan nanostructures showed amorphous crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that chitosan nanoparticles were roughly spherical in nature and had diameters less than 300 nm. These larger particles formed through self-assembly of much smaller 25 nm particles as evidenced by the TEM imaging. The diameter and the length of the chitosan nanofibers were found to be less than 100 nm and 3 μm respectively. It is envisaged that due to the cavitation effect, the deacetylated chitin nanofibers were broken down to small pieces to form seed particles. These seed particles can then be self-assembled to form larger chitosan nanoparticles.

  1. CVD Method for Carbon Nanotubes Preparation Based on Orthogonal Experiment Using C3H6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xunwen; JIANG Fang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential applications in many fields, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is an effective method for CNTs preparation. By CVD, the catalytic pyrolysis temperature, pyrolysis time and the size of the raw gas lfow have a great inlfuence on yield rate of CNTs and their form. In this paper, the orthogonal experiment analysis method is used for studying the inlfuence factors of yield rate of CNTs. Research results show that, in the suitable temperature range of preparing CNTs, there is relatively more CNTs with excellent morphology, otherwise, if the temperature is too low, the growth of CNTs will not be sufifcient; if the temperature is too high, then CNTs will be generated with excessive defects; with longer growth time of suitable pyrolysis of CNTs, higher yield of CNTs will be obtained; CNTs morphology with reaction time is not proportional; too low or too high raw gas lfow rate is not conducive to the growth of CNTs. We have found the optimum conditions for the CNTs preparation: pyrolysis temperature 680℃, pyrolysis time 35 min, propylene lfow rate of 180 mL/min. The results have a reference value for the preparation of CNTS and their composites.

  2. Enhanced dissolution of meloxicam from orodispersible tablets prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd Elbary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was formulation, development and evaluation of meloxicam orodispersible tablets. ODTs were prepared by two methods including sublimation technique where different subliming agents like camphor, menthol and thymol were used with Ac-Di-Sol as a superdisintegrant. Each subliming agent was used in three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% w/w. Tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. Meloxicam ODTs were also prepared by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of meloxicam containing a matrix former, a sugar alcohol, and a collapse protectant. In addition, different disintegration accelerators were tested (each in 1% w/v including PVP K25, PVP K90, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, PEG 400, tween 80 and tween 20. The prepared ODTs from two methods were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, drug content, friability, hardness, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution study. The best formulation was subjected to stability testing for 3 months at temperatures 40 °C and 75% relative humidity and at 60 °C. All formulations showed disintegration time ranging from 1 to 46 s. All the prepared formulae complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements of the drug contents. T17 gave the best in vitro disintegration and dissolution results. ODT formula T17 has shown no appreciable changes with respect to physical characters, meloxicam content and dissolution profiles when stored at elevated temperatures. In conclusion the results of this work suggest that orodispersible tablets of meloxicam with rapid disintegration time, fast drug release and good hardness can be efficiently and successfully formulated by employing freeze drying and sublimation methods.

  3. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  4. Preparation of glucose oxidase electrode containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles by the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 唐芳琼; 袁金锁; 江龙

    1995-01-01

    The influences of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and the contents of glucose oxidase(GOD)upon the response current of enzyme electrode have been investigated by using the sol-gel method,in whichpolyvinylbutyryl(PVB)was used as a matrix.The influenoe of enzymatic activity was measured byelectrochemical method.Experimental data demonstrated that hydrophobic SiO2 particles can immobilizeenzyme well,providing a good and simple method for preparing high quality GOD biosensor.The mechanismhas been discussed.

  5. Optimized methods for preparation of 6I-(ω-sulfanyl-alkylene-sulfanyl-β-cyclodextrin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bednářová

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A general high-yielding method for the preparation of monosubstituted β-cyclodextrin derivatives which have attached a thiol group in position 6 is described. The thiol group is attached through linkers of different lengths and repeating units (ethylene glycol or methylene. The target compounds were characterized by IR, MS and NMR spectra. A simple method for their complete conversion to the corresponding disulfides as well as a method for the reduction of the disulfides back to the thiols is presented. Both, thiols and disulfides are derivatives usable for well-defined covalent attachment of cyclodextrin to gold or polydopamine-coated solid surfaces.

  6. XAFS analysis of unsupported $MoS_{2}$ catalysts prepared by two methods

    CERN Document Server

    Matsubayashi, N; Imamura, M; Yoshimura, Y; Nishijima, A; Calais, C; Geantet, C

    1999-01-01

    Structural analysis by XAFS method was applied to two kinds of unsupported molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Assuming a structural model consisting of crystalline and non-crystalline parts, curve fitting analysis was performed for the $9 catalysts. The residual XAFS after subtraction of the crystalline contribution showed that the structure of the non-crystalline part was significantly different between the catalysts prepared by the two methods. It was suggested that $9 EXAFS would give the average size of the micro-domains, while other methods such as TEM and TPR would give the size of macro- domains. (6 refs).

  7. Incorporation of ovalbumin into ISCOMs and related colloidal particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Berger, Bianca; Rades, Thomas

    2004-07-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation of a model antigen, fluorescently labelled ovalbumin (FITC-OVA), into various colloidal particles including immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), liposomes, ring and worm-like micelles, lamellae and lipidic/layered structures that are formed from various combinations of the triterpene saponin Quil A, cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) following hydration of PE/cholesterol lipid films with aqueous solutions of Quil A. Colloidal dispersions of these three components were also prepared by the dialysis method for comparison. FITC-OVA was conjugated with palmitic acid (P) and PE to produce P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA, respectively. Both P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA could be incorporated in all colloidal structures whereas FITC-OVA was incorporated only into liposomes. The incorporation of PE-FITC-OVA into all colloidal structures was significantly higher than P-FITC-OVA (P < 0.05). The degree of incorporation of protein was in the order: ring and worm-like micelles < liposomes and lipidic/layered structures < ISCOMs and lamellae. The incorporation of protein into the various particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method was similar to those for colloidal particles prepared by the dialysis method (provided both methods lead to the formation of the same colloidal structures). In the case of different colloidal structures arising due to the preparation method, differences in encapsulation efficiency were found (P < 0.05) for formulations with the same polar lipid composition. This study demonstrates that the various colloidal particles formed as a result of hydrating PE/cholesterol lipid films with different amounts of Quil A are capable of incorporating antigen, provided it is amphipathic. Some of these colloidal particles may be used as effective vaccine delivery systems.

  8. Novel structural and magnetic properties of Mg doped copper nanoferrites prepared by conventional and wet methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab. (1), Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Afify, H.H.; El Zawawia, I.K.; Azab, A.A. [Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Nanoferrites of the general formula Cu{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 0{<=}x{<=}0.6 were prepared by standard ceramic and wet methods. The structure was studied by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The density and lattice constant were calculated and reported. The particle size of the prepared nanoferrites ranged from 8.7 to 41.1 nm. It was found that the lattice parameter decreases with increasing cation substitution of Mg{sup 2+} due to the difference of ionic radius and atomic mass. The dc magnetic susceptibility was measured out using Faraday's method. The magnetic hysteresis measurement was performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic constants such as Curie temperature, effective magnetic moment, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and corecivicty were obtained and reported. The magnetic constants decrease with increasing Mg{sup 2+}, except the remanent magnetization which increased. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of Mg{sup 2+} on structural and magnetic properties of copper ferrite prepared by the different methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To determine which method gives the smallest particle size and optimize the physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To determine which sample is suitable for different applications.

  9. Catalytic Activity of Ceria-Zirconia Nanostructured Materials Prepared via Reversed Microemulsion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Single-phase homogeneous Ce1- xZrxO2 solid solutions with various compositions were synthesized using the reversed microemulsion method. The structural properties and performance of Ce1- x ZrxO2 were studied using XRD, BET,SEM, HRTEM, TPR and CO oxidation measurements. The results show that in the range of x = 0.4 ~ 0.5 and x = 0.6 ~1.0, the solid solutions posses the cubic and the tetragonal phase structure, respectively. Solids obtained by the reversed microemulsion method were more homogeneous on the whole range of composition. XRD investigations of the prepared materials did not show segregation of cerium or zirconium oxides. Highly uniform nanosize solid solution particles of ceria-ziroxidation measurements indicate that the performance of the CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides is strongly related to the composition and structure of the oxides. Enhancement of the activity was found for the catalyst prepared by reversed microemulsion method as compared to the sample prepared by sol-gel method.

  10. Determination of bosentan in pharmaceutical preparations by linear sweep, square wave and differential pulse voltammetry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atila, Alptug; Yilmaz, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, simple, fast and reliable cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods were developed and validated for determination of bosentan in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods were based on electrochemical oxidation of bosentan at platinum electrode in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M TBACIO4. The well-defined oxidation peak was observed at 1.21 V. The calibration curves were linear for bosentan at the concentration range of 5-40 µg/mL for LSV and 5-35 µg/mL for SWV and DPV methods, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision values for bosentan were less than 4.92, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 6.29%. The mean recovery of bosentan was 100.7% for pharmaceutical preparations. No interference was found from two tablet excipients at the selected assay conditions. Developed methods in this study are accurate, precise and can be easily applied to Tracleer and Diamond tablets as pharmaceutical preparation.

  11. Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

    2012-07-01

    Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P 2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce.

  12. Evaluation of methods to prepare samples of leafy green vegetables for preenrichment with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew Patrick; Gill, Vikas Singh; Irvin, Kari Anne; Wang, Hua; Hammack, Thomas Seyliard

    2012-02-01

    Three sample preparation procedures, soak, stomach, and blend, were evaluated using the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method with eight types of leafy green produce. In the soak method, test portions were added to lactose broth without homogenization; in the stomach method, test portions were stomached with lactose broth; and in the blend method, test portions were blended with lactose broth. Twenty artificially contaminated test portions were analyzed with each procedure in individual experimental trials. The number of test portions identified as positive were compared among the procedures. Statistically significant differences were identified with Fisher's exact two-tailed F test (P < 0.05). Where differences did occur (P < 0.05), the soak procedure was the most effective or was at least as effective as homogenization by either blending or stomaching. Statistically significant differences most frequently occurred with romaine lettuce and cabbage; for these items, blending was significantly less effective than the soak procedure. Overall, for all of the produce types examined, results showed that the soak procedure was more effective than either of the homogenization procedures in recovering Salmonella from leafy green produce. Of the 540 test portions examined by each sample preparation method, 344 were positive for the presence of Salmonella by soaking, 293 by stomaching, and 232 by blending. We recommend that the soak procedure replace homogenization for the analysis of leafy green produce because the soak procedure is more productive than homogenization by either blending or stomaching of the leafy green produce types as reported herein.

  13. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ritodrine hydrochloride and its application to pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, H D; Manju, B

    2001-08-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ritodrine hydrochloride (RTH) in both pure and dosage forms. The methods are based on the interaction of diazotised p-nitroaniline (DPNA) and sulphanilic acid (DSNA) with RTH in an alkaline medium. The resulting azo dyes are measured at 480 nm (for the DPNA method) and at 440 nm (for the DSNA method) and are stable for more than 1 h. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. A study of the effect of commonly associated excipients and additives do not interfere with the determinations. Statistical analysis of results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate.

  14. A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of ranitidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Çakar, Mahmut Bülent

    2012-08-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of ranitidine in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on derivatization of ranitidine with 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F). The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. The validation characteristics included linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The method is linear over the range of 40-1200 ng/mL. The recoveries were ranged from 98.97 to 99.43%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of ranitidine in commercially available tablets. The results were compared with those obtained by reference method using t and F-tests.

  15. Sample Preparation and Staining Methods for Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins from Animal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Czegledi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics in animal science as well as in other biological sciences is a significant tool in the post-genomic era. In proteomic studies the presence and relative abundance of expressed proteins of a cell, tissue or biological fluid is studied. Recently, the whole genome of more and more domestic animal species is known, but genes and the transcribed mRNA have no direct effect on biological systems as they are regulated by proteins, which explain the importance of proteomics. The most common tool in proteomic approach is the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE, when proteins are separated by their isoelectric point followed by their mass separation as a second dimension. In this study authors used different sample preparation and protein staining methods on meat,  liver and blood plasma and carried out 2D PAGE experiments. The most appropriate sample preparation methods are described in this paper. We concluded that depletion of major proteins in plasma is required but not necessary for meat and liver samples.

  16. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job.

  17. Mesoporous Si-MCM-48 membrane prepared by pore-filling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous MCM-48 membranes were prepared on asymmetric zirconia tubular support with an average pore size of 0.2 μm by hydrothermal method.The support should be pretreated with H2O as a pore-filling substance to prevent the sol solution from infiltrating into the support pores.The SEM showed that the MCM-48 membrane was composed of tightly-connected spherical crystal.The single gas N2 and H2 permeation experiments confirm that crack-free membrane could be prepared by pore-filling method.N2 permeance of MCM-48 membrane,synthesized by secondary growth,can reach 5.66×10-7 mol/Pa·s·m2,and the H2/N2 separation factor was 3.47 under trans-membrane pressure of 0.05 MPa.

  18. Cytotoxicity of Light-Cured Dental Materials according to Different Sample Preparation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Joo; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-01-01

    Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions. Composite and bonding resins were used and divided into four groups according to sample preparation method: uncured; directly cured samples, which were cured after being placed on solidified agar; post-cured samples were polymerized before being placed on agar; and “removed unreacted layer” samples had their oxygen-inhibition layer removed after polymerization. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an agar diffusion test, MTT assay, and confocal microscopy. Uncured samples were the most cytotoxic, while removed unreacted layer samples were the least cytotoxic (p cytotoxicity. Clinicians should remove unreacted monomers on the resin surface immediately after restoring teeth with light-curing resin to improve the restoration biocompatibility. PMID:28772647

  19. Preparation and characterization of nanotube Li-Ti-O by molten salt method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xianru; WANG Xiaodong; ZHANG Shunli; ZHANG Jingwei; YANG Jianjun; JIN Zhensheng

    2007-01-01

    Nanotube Li-Ti-O compound with high surface (198.6m2.g-1) was prepared by a method involving the treatment of nanotube Na2Ti2Os" H2O in molten LiNO3 and characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM),energy-dispersive spectra (EDS),X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTG).Results show that the nanotube Li-Ti-O compound prepared by this method involves two crystal phases:spinel Li2Ti2O4and anatase LixTiO2 (x<0.1).Li+ exhibits different Lils binding energy in the two crystal phases.In ambient air,the Li-Ti-O compound adsorbs water easily,and the chemically adsorbed water is difficult to remove below 400℃.

  20. Nanoparticles containing ketoprofen and acrylic polymers prepared by an aerosol flow reactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerikäinen, Hannele; Peltonen, Leena; Raula, Janne; Hirvonen, Jouni; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2004-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of interactions between a model drug and various acrylic polymers on the physical properties of nanoparticles prepared by an aerosol flow reactor method. The amount of model drug, ketoprofen, in the nanoparticles was varied, and the nanoparticles were analyzed for particle size distribution, particle morphology, thermal properties, IR spectroscopy, and drug release. The nanoparticles produced were spherical, amorphous, and had a matrix-type structure. Ketoprofen crystallization was observed when the amount of drug in Eudragit L nanoparticles was more than 33% (wt/wt). For Eudragit E and Eudragit RS nanoparticles, the drug acted as an effective plasticizer resulting in lowering of the glass transition of the polymer. Two factors affected the preparation of nanoparticles by the aerosol flow reactor method, namely, the solubility of the drug in the polymer matrix and the thermal properties of the resulting drug-polymer matrix.

  1. Influence of PVP in magnetic properties of NiSn nanoparticles prepared by polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobadilla, L.F., E-mail: lbobadilla@iciq.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Centro mixto Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Av. Americo Vespucio, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia, C. [Physics Department, Bogazici University, North Campus KB 331-O, Bebek/Istambul (Turkey); Delgado, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sanz, O. [Grupo de Ingenieria Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal, 3, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Romero-Sarria, F.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Centro mixto Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Av. Americo Vespucio, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The influence of PVP on the magnetic properties of NiSn nanoparticles prepared by polyol method has been studied. NiSn nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior although there is a ferromagnetic contribution due to particles agglomerated below the blocking temperature. The particle size is controlled by the addiction of PVP in varying amounts. The addition of PVP also favours the particles isolation, narrow the particle size distribution and decrease the interparticle interaction strength increasing the superparamagnetic contribution. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni{sub x}Sn{sub y} alloys nanoparticles have been prepared by polyol method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSn nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PVP addition favours the particles isolation.

  2. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles showing upconversion luminescence through simple chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjana, R.; Subha, P. P.; Markose, Kurias K.; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India-682022 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Upconversion luminescence is an interesting area while considering its applications in a vast variety of fields. Rare earth ions like erbium is the most studied and efficient candidate for achieving upconversion. Erbium and ytterbium co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared through co-precipitation method. A strong red emission has been obtained while exciting with 980 nm laser. Dependence of luminescence emission colour on ytterbium concentration has been studied.

  3. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  4. A UV-Raman spectrometry method for quality control of anticancer preparations: Results after 18 months of implementation in hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardella, Flore; Beck, Morgane; Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre; Becker, Guillaume; Boulanger, Coralie; Perello, Laurent; Gairard-Dory, Anne; Gourieux, Bénédicte; Ubeaud-Séquier, Geneviève

    2016-02-29

    In France, chemotherapy preparation units of hospital pharmacy compound cytotoxic infusion bags adapted to each patient. The narrow therapeutic index of these preparations led us to implement qualitative and quantitative control for patients' safety. To this aim, we calibrated an equipment combining UV-vis spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy (QC Prep+) and monitored 14 different molecule-solvent combinations over a 18 months period. This rapid and specific method allowed the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1 mL sample tests in less than 2 min. On 5742 anticancer preparations, we obtained accepted results with more than 99.4% solvent identification, 99.6% drug identification and only 1.52% of preparations not matching quantitative specifications (±15% of theoretical concentration). This quantitative control enabled us to pinpoint some critical points of production for two of the most common preparations. We thus updated the procedures of reconstitution and preparation, increasing the quality of final product. UV-Raman spectrometry is thus an effective tool to control chemotherapy infusions and to improve good practices of preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DC resistivity of Ni-Zn ferrites prepared by oxalate precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, T.J. [Department of Physics, K.R.P. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Islampur 415409 (India)], E-mail: pshindetj@yahoo.co.in; Gadkari, A.B. [Department of Physics, G.K.G. College, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Vasambekar, P.N. [Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Polycrystalline ferrites with general formula Ni{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) were prepared by oxalate precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. All compositions show cubic Spinel structure. Lattice constant increases with increase in zinc content, obeying Vegard's law. The physical densities are about 98.14% of their X-ray density. Average crystallite size lies in the range 27.59-31.49 nm. Infrared studies show two absorption bands near about 400 cm{sup -1} and 600 cm{sup -1} for octahedral and tetrahedral sites, respectively. The resistivity of all the samples was studied. It is observed that the resistivity of nickel-zinc ferrites prepared by oxalate precipitation method is higher than that prepared by ceramic and citrate precursor method. It is attributed to greater homogeneity and smaller grain size. Activation energy in paramagnetic region is higher than that of ferrimagnetic region.

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene over nanosized TiO2 prepared by solvothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized TiO2 particles were prepared by solvothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor, ethanol and water as solvents, and a facile immobilization method of nanosized TiO2 particles on woven glass fabric was developed. The samples obtained under various preparation conditions were characterized by means of thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The results show that the cube-shape of TiO2 prepared by solvothermal method has good crystallinity of (101) surface, higher thermal stability and large specific surface area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that the immobilized TiO2 film was uniformly distributed and clung to the substrate firmly. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts was tested using photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The results show that the TiO2 calcined after solvothermal treatment suffers from lower specific surface area, and hence decreases its photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 by solvothermal treatment with or without calcination in degradation 400 mg/m3 benzene are 3.7 and 4.1 times as high as catalyst without solvothermal treatment, respectively.

  7. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  8. A simple sample preparation method for measuring amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Chong; Hou, Zi-Li; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2013-02-01

    A simple sample preparation method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). A 400-μL plasma sample was placed directly into the HF-CF-UF device, which consisited of a slim glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. After centrifugation at 1.25 × 10(3) g for 10 min, the filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber and 20 µL was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20 µg/mL (r = 0.9996) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.025 µg/mL. The average recovery and absolute recovery were 99.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 3.1% for three concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 10 µg/mL). The sample preparation process was simplified. Only after a single centrifugal ultrafiltration can the filtrate be injected directly into HPLC. The present method is simple, sensitive and accurate. It could be effective for the analysis of biological samples with high protein contents, especially for the biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs that use traditional isolation techniques for sample preparation such as the protein precipitation method.

  9. A facile method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped nanocrystalline BaFCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Zhiqiang [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra (ADFA), Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A. [School of Physics and Electron Microscope Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Riesen, Hans, E-mail: h.riesen@adfa.edu.au [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, UNSW Canberra (ADFA), Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile co-precipitation method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaFCl. • Reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} by zinc granular under nitrogen flow. • Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of the as-prepared BaFCl:Eu{sup 2+}. • Temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaFCl. - Abstract: A facile method for the preparation of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaFCl is reported. The method is based on the co-precipitation of aqueous solutions of BaCl{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}F to yield BaFCl. The doping by europium in the 2+ oxidation state is realized by the reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} employing granular zinc in the BaCl{sub 2} solution under nitrogen. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy have been used to confirm the BaFCl phase and photoluminescence, in the temperature range of 2.5–290 K, and room-temperature cathodoluminescence spectra have been measured to characterize the Eu{sup 2+} ions in the sample.

  10. Photoluminescence enhancement of YAG:Ce3+ phosphor prepared by co-precipitation-rheological phase method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xinyu; LONG Zhen; YANG Youming; NIE Huaping; GUO Yanwei; CAI Yufa

    2012-01-01

    YAG:Ce3+ phosphor was prepared by a novel co-precipitation-rheological phase method.The resulting YAG:Ce3+ phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescent emission spectra.By using acetic acid as solvent,YAG:Ce3+ powder with small particle size (≤2 μm) was obtained at a relatively lower sintering temperature of 1400 ℃.With the content of acetic acid increasing,small particles dissolved and disappeared,but larger particles grew up and changed its shape from spherical to partially rectangular.Meanwhile,the emission intensity of the sample prepared by co-precipitation-rheological phase method was about 43% higher than that of the sample prepared by co-precipitation method.It was assumed that the significant improvement of luminescence was mainly because the rheological phase presented a better diffusion environment,and therefore,a better homogeneity of activators of Ce3+.

  11. Faraday effect of bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Situ; Sato, Takafumi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Metastable bismuth iron garnet (BIG, an abbreviation of Bi3Fe5O12), one kind of garnet-type ferrites, is known to manifest very large Faraday rotation as well as low optical absorption in the visible to infrared region. We report on successful synthesis of thin film composed of single-phase BIG epitaxially grown on single-crystalline gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd3Ga5O12, GGG) substrate by using mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which is an emerging technique for preparation of thin films. The crystal structure, surface morphology, and magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of the resultant thin films have been explored. The BIG thin film has a relatively flat surface free from roughness compared to those prepared by other vapor deposition methods. Saturation magnetization is about 1620 G at room temperature, which is close to that expected from the ideal magnetic structure of BIG. The maximum value of Faraday rotation angle reaches 54.3 deg/µm at a wavelength of 424 nm. This value is rather large when compared with those reported for BIG thin films prepared by other techniques. The wavelength dependence of Faraday rotation angle is analyzed well in terms of the crystal electric field (CEF) level schema. Our result suggests that the mist CVD method is a simple and effective technique to synthesize BIG thin film with excellent magneto-optical properties.

  12. In vitro characteristics of liposomes and double liposomes prepared using a novel glass beads method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Kenji; Kato, Yoshinori; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    A novel preparative method for liposomes and double liposomes (DL) using glass beads was superior to a glass-filter method developed previously. Lipid dissolved in chloroform was poured into a kjeldahl flask with glass beads (BZ-04, 0.350-0.500 mm phi; BZ-3, 2.794-3.962 mm phi; or BZ-6, 5.613-6.680 mm phi), and the organic solvent was evaporated. The lipid layer that formed on the glass beads was hydrated with 1.5 ml of the suspension of inner liposomes at a temperature above the phase transition temperature of the lipids employed, and was agitated vigorously. Erythrosine (ER) was used as a model drug. The size of liposomes prepared by the glass beads method depended on the size of the glass beads. The size of the liposomes became smaller as glass beads with a smaller size were used. A high encapsulation efficiency was observed when glass bead blends consisting of two different sizes were used. Large sizes (BZ-3/BZ-6) had a tendency to show high encapsulation efficiency and size also played an important role in the formation of liposomes. DL formation inhibited the release of ER and DL formative efficiency was markedly improved by means of the glass beads method. These findings suggested that the glass beads method developed in this study conferred a high drug loading and a high DL formation on liposomes compared with ordinary methods.

  13. Disinfection studies on TiO2 thin films prepared by a sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambala, Venkata Subba Rao; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-02-01

    Transparent anatase TiO2 nanometer thin films were prepared by dip-coating on soda-lime glass plates via the sol-gel method. The un-calcined and the calcined films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, Nano-indentation (hardness and Young's modulus), UV-vis spectrometry, thickness and hydrophilicity (contact angle measurements). The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was evaluated by performing disinfection studies on the Gram-negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus Aureus, a Gram-positive organism. The photocatalytic activity for both groups of organisms was studied in saline and nutrient broth. The leakage of potassium from the bacteria was observed parallel to cell viability. The activity of the sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films were compared under UV lamps and natural day light (ND) lamps with Degussa P-25 TiO2 thin films prepared on soda-lime glass using a polymer support and the commercial self-cleaning glass (SC). The sol-gel prepared thin films which were annealed at 450 degrees C, show highest photocatalytic activity, the slowest conversion rate from hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state, light-induced hydrophilicity, and also higher disinfection activities compared to P-25 films and commercial self-cleaning glass. The films also show excellent activities when continuously reused for more than a month.

  14. Multiple unit gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a new preparation method for low density microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new preparation method for low density foam-based, floating microparticles and to demonstrate the systems' performance in vitro. Major advantages of the novel preparation technique include: (i) short processing times, (ii) no exposure of the ingredients to high temperatures, (iii) the possibility to avoid toxic organic solvents, and (iv) high encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. Floating microparticles consisting of polypropylene foam powder, model drug [chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), diltiazem HCl, theophylline or verapamil HCl] and polymer [Eudragit RS or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] were prepared by soaking the microporous foam carrier with an organic solution of drug and polymer and subsequent drying. The effects of various formulation and processing parameters on the resulting in vitro floating behaviour, internal and external particle morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release and physical state of the incorporated drug were studied. Good in vitro floating behaviour was observed in most cases and a broad variety of drug release patterns could be achieved by varying the drug loading and type of polymer. Interestingly, PMMA-based microparticles showed incomplete drug release with verapamil HCl. This restriction could be overcome by forming the free base of the drug prior to microparticle preparation. In contrast to the salt, the free base acted as a plasticizer for PMMA, resulting in sufficiently high diffusion coefficients and, consequently, complete drug release. The low density microparticles were compressed into rapidly disintegrating tablets in order to provide an administrable oral dosage form.

  15. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadian S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simin Asadian,1 Alireza Khatony,1 Gholamreza Moradi,2 Alireza Abdi,1 Mansour Rezaei,3 1Nursing and Midwifery School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Introduction: An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. Methods: In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients’ body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. Results: There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (P<0.001. Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between the temperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%. Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132, left (P=0.18 and right (P=0.318 tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00, and axillary (P=1.00 methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. Conclusion: The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left for

  16. Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods:For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results:Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions:This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients’ sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits.

  17. Evaluation of commonly used tear sampling methods and their relevance in subsequent biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    *Rentka, Aniko; *Koroskenyi, Krisztina; Harsfalvi, Jolan; Szekanecz, Zoltan; Szucs, Gabriella; Szodoray, Peter; Kemeny-Beke, Adam

    2017-09-01

    The human precorneal tear film is a special body fluid, since it is a complex mixture of proteins, lipids, small bioactive molecules, and their concentrations and relative distribution represent not only the metabolic state of the ocular surface but also the systemic and local homeostasis of the outer eye and the human body. This suggests that biochemical analysis of the precorneal tear film composition may provide a non-invasive tool for diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression or treatment efficacy in human medicine. However, collecting tears is demanding, and obtaining reproducible and unaltered samples is challenging because of the small sample volumes of tears. Several methods are available for tear collection as a preparatory step of precorneal tear film analysis, and the collection method used has to be assessed since it has a critical impact on the effectiveness of the assays and on the quality of the results. Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, it is not easy to choose the appropriate collecting method for tear collection. To overcome these limitations various methods have been recommended by different authors for special aspects of specific tests. The aim of our review was to evaluate tear sampling methods with regard to our ongoing biochemical analysis. *Contributed equally.

  18. Structural alignment of proteins by a novel TOPOFIT method, as a superimposition of common volumes at a topomax point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Valentin A.; Abyzov, Alexej; Leslin, Chesley M.

    2004-01-01

    Similarity of protein structures has been analyzed using three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation patterns derived from the backbone representation. It has been found that structurally related proteins have a common spatial invariant part, a set of tetrahedrons, mathematically described as a common spatial subgraph volume of the three-dimensional contact graph derived from Delaunay tessellation (DT). Based on this property of protein structures, we present a novel common volume superimposition (TOPOFIT) method to produce structural alignments. Structural alignments usually evaluated by a number of equivalent (aligned) positions (Ne) with corresponding root mean square deviation (RMSD). The superimposition of the DT patterns allows one to uniquely identify a maximal common number of equivalent residues in the structural alignment. In other words, TOPOFIT identifies a feature point on the RMSD Ne curve, a topomax point, until which the topologies of two structures correspond to each other, including backbone and interresidue contacts, whereas the growing number of mismatches between the DT patterns occurs at larger RMSD (Ne) after the topomax point. It has been found that the topomax point is present in all alignments from different protein structural classes; therefore, the TOPOFIT method identifies common, invariant structural parts between proteins. The alignments produced by the TOPOFIT method have a good correlation with alignments produced by other current methods. This novel method opens new opportunities for the comparative analysis of protein structures and for more detailed studies on understanding the molecular principles of tertiary structure organization and functionality. The TOPOFIT method also helps to detect conformational changes, topological differences in variable parts, which are particularly important for studies of variations in active/ binding sites and protein classification. PMID:15215530

  19. Influence of the preparation method on the structure, optical and photocatalytic properties of nanosized ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancheva, M., E-mail: mancheva@svr.igic.bas.bg [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Uzunov, I.; Iordanova, R. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Papazova, K. [University of Sofia, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, James Bourchier 1 Blvd., 1164, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-08-15

    Mechanochemical activation is the most commonly applied approach for improving the photocatalytic properties of commercial zinc oxide. Here we show that ZnO obtained by two-pathway decomposition of basic zinc carbonate also possesses a very good photocatalytic activity. Nanosized ZnO powders were successfully prepared by thermal and mechanochemical decomposition of Zn{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, precipitated under soft conditions. The precursor and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and B.E.T method. The morphology of the ZnO was observed by SEM analysis. The optical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared zinc oxides were also investigated and compared with commercial ZnO. The band gaps of the thermal and mechanochemical obtained ZnO nanopowders are 3.22 and 3.04 eV, respectively. The degree of decomposition of Malachite Green under UV and visible irradiations in the presence of ZnO prepared by both methods reached levels above 90%. Better catalytic activity was found for the visible region. It was established that the process follows second order kinetics. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of nanosized ZnO from hydrozincite by thermal and mechanochemical route. • ZnO powders possess high photocatalytic activity under UV and visible irradiation. • The degree of decomposition of Malachite Green is more than 90% for the both ZnO's. • The photodecomposition of MG under UV/Vis irradiation follows second order kinetics.

  20. 鲤鱼冻血细胞培养及染色体制备条件优化研究%Optimum Conditions Research on Frozen Blood Cell Cultivation and Chromosome Preparation of Common Carp( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晶; 张桂贤; 李运东; 刘青; 陈维伟

    2012-01-01

    鱼类染色体制备方法中,外周血淋巴细胞培养法远远优于PHA体内注射法,使用冻血省力省功。由于外周血培养需要一定的条件和技术。该文就鲤鱼血液保存方法、细胞培养温度、秋水仙素处理浓度及滴加时间、低渗温度、固定处理次数等条件进行分析,得到较好的鲤鱼全血细胞培养及染色体标本制备方法,可为鲤鱼分子细胞遗传的后续研究奠定基础。%Among fish chromosomes preparation methods ,the peripheral blood lymphocyte cuhure method is far superior to the PHA shots in the body.Frozen blood is easier to get ,but peripheral blood cultivation need some conditions and techniques. This experiment analyzed the common carp blood conservation techniques,cell culture temperature,concentrations of colchicine and adding-time,hypotonic treatment temperature,fixed processing times and so on.It got a good carp complete blood incubation and chromosome preparation methods,which laid the foundation of the follow-up molecular cytogenetics research of carp.

  1. An alternative method of endotracheal intubation of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A A; Leach, M C; Flecknell, P A

    2012-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation was carried out in 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). A commercially available tilting stand and a Miller laryngoscope blade were used to visualize the larynx. Anaesthesia was induced with alphaxalone (10.6 ± 1.6 mg/kg intramuscularly, followed by 3.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg intravenously). The diameter of the proximal trachea easily fitted an endotracheal tube made from readily available material (a 12 G 'over the needle' catheter). Once the tip of the endotracheal tube was at the level of the vocal folds, the tube had to be gently rotated through a 180° angle in order to pass through the larynx into the trachea. Assessment of the dimensions of the larynx and trachea, and comparison with external anatomical features of the animals (n = 10) showed that the length of the trachea could be predicted by multiplying the craniosacral length of the marmoset by a factor of 0.42.

  2. Modeling Parkinson's disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Ahn, Jae-Bum; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied, popular New World monkey and is used widely in reproductive biology, neuroscience, and drug development, due to its comparative ease of handling, high reproductive efficiency, and its unique behavioral characters. In this review, we discuss the marmoset models in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a neurological movement disorder primarily resulting from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons with clinical features of tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and akinesia. The most common PD models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine to study the pathogenesis and to evaluate novel therapies. Following the systemic or local administration of these neurotoxins, the marmosets with very severe Parkinson's symptoms are recommended to be placed in an intensive care unit with artificial feeding to increase survival rate. All procedures with MPTP should be conducted in a special room with enclosed cages under negative-pressure by trained researchers with personal protection. Behavioral tests are conducted to provide an external measure of the brain pathology. Along with several biomarkers, including α-synuclein and DJ-1, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate the functional changes associated with PD. With the recent growing interest in potential and novel therapies such as stem cell and gene therapy for PD in Korea, the marmoset can be considered as a suitable non-human primate model in PD research to bridge the gap between rodent studies and clinical applications.

  3. Transitioning to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Experiences and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swars, Susan Lee; Chestnutt, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored elementary teachers' (n = 73) experiences with and perspectives on the recently implemented Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSS-Mathematics) at a high-needs, urban school. Analysis of the survey, questionnaire, and interview data reveals the findings cluster around: familiarity with and preparation…

  4. A non-destructive selection method for faster growth at suboptimal temperature in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, E.; Oeveren, J.C. van; Jansen, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A non-destructive method has been developed to select common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants whose growth is less effected at a suboptimal temperature. Shoot weight was determined at a suboptimal (14°C) and optimal temperature (20°C), 38 days after sowing and accessions identified with a signifi

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Estradiol-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Using Homogenization-Solvent Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dinarvand

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inherent shortcomings of conventional drug delivery systems containing estrogens and the potential of nanoparticles (NPs have offered tremendous scope for investigation. Although polymeric NPs have been used as drug carriers for many active agents, the use of appropriate polymer and method of NP preparation to overcome different challenges is very important. Materials and methods: Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA NPs containing estradiol valerate were prepared by the modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Several parameters including the drug/polymer ratios in range of 2.5-10%, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA in concentration of 0-4% as stabilizer and internal phase volume and composition were examined to optimize formulation. The size distribution and morphology of the NPs, encapsulation efficacy and in vitro release profile in phosphate buffer medium (pH 7.4 during 12 hrs were then investigated. Results: The NPs prepared in this study were spherical with a relatively mono-dispersed size distribution. By adjustment of the process parameters, the size and the drug encapsulation efficacy as well as the drug release kinetics can be optimally controlled. The mean particle size of the best formula with encapsulation efficiency of 100% was 175 ± 19, in which release profile was best fitted to Higuchi's model of release which showed that release mechanism was mainly controlled by diffusion of the drug to the release medium. Conclusion: According to the size and surface properties of the prepared particles, it may be concluded that they are a good formulation for non-parenteral routes of administration.

  6. A novel ultrasonication method in the preparation of zirconium impregnated cellulose for effective fluoride adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, M; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, N

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we propose for the first time a novel ultrasound assisted methodology involving the impregnation of zirconium in a cellulose matrix. Fluoride from aqueous solution interacts with the cellulose hydroxyl groups and the cationic zirconium hydroxide. Ultrasonication ensures a green and quick alternative to the conventional time intensive method of preparation. The effectiveness of this process was confirmed by comprehensive characterization of zirconium impregnated cellulose (ZrIC) adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The study of various adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction validated the method.

  7. Ruthenium disulfide thin films prepared by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoxin; JIN Zhengguo; ZHAO Juan; BU Shaojing

    2004-01-01

    RuS2 thin films were prepared by the cost-effective chemical method-successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The structural, optical, and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, and electrical resistivity methods. The results indicate that the films are homogeneous and dense; the structure of the as-deposited fdms is amorphous and they crystallize after annealed at 500°C for 30 min. The band gap of the as-deposited films is found to be 1.85 eV, and the electrical resistivity of them is in the order of 105 Ω.cm.

  8. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low-temperature combustion method and its characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Prithviraj Swamy; S Basavaraja; Vijayanand Havanoor; N V Srinivas Rao; R Nijagunappa; A Venkataraman

    2011-12-01

    The barium ferrite particles were prepared using a self-propagating low-temperature combustion method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a fuel. The process was investigated with simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). The crystalline structure, morphology and the magnetic properties of the barium ferrite particles were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SQUID susceptometer. The results show that the ignition temperature of PEG is lower compared with other combustion methods and gives nanocrystalline barium ferrite.

  9. Numerical simulation of the preparation of semi-solid metal slurry with damper cooling tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In semi-solid forming process, preparing the slurry with rosette or globular microstructure is very important. A new approach named the damper cooling tube method (DCT), to produce the semi-solid metal slurry, has been introduced. To optimize the technical parameters in designing the apparatus, the finite volume method was adopted to simulate the flow process. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries were also considered. The effects of the technical parameters on the slurry properties were studied in detail.

  10. Stereoselective organocatalytic oxidation of alcohols to enals: a homologation method to prepare polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobei; Zhang, Yinan; Wan, Huixin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shilei

    2016-02-28

    A novel method for organocatalytic oxidation through oxidative enamine catalysis was developed with excellent compatibility for the direct syntheses of enals from simple saturated alcohols. By using this amine-catalyzed IBX-oxidation, a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic substituted enals were successfully generated in high yields and exclusively stereoselective E-geometry. Moreover, varying the solvents and/or the loading amounts of IBX allowed for the selective oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes. Importantly, the homologous application of this method provided a selective and efficient way of preparing various highly sensitive conjugated polyene frameworks, which are enriched in natural products.

  11. An Approach for Preparation of Porous Silicon/Rare Earth Hybrid——Immersion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoxia; CHEN Ning; SHI Jianxin; GONG Menglian; ZHANG Jianhua; WANG Di

    2009-01-01

    A simple but effective doping method,immersion method,was presented.Rare earth complexes[Na_3Tb(DPA)_3·9H_2O and Na_3Eu(DPA)_3·9H_2O]were introduced into porous silicon(PS),where H_2DPA is 2,6-dicarboxy pyridine acid.Rare earths were proved to dope into PS effectively by photoluminescence(PL)and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS).And the prepared hybrid samples of PS/RE were found to emit intense room-temperature red and green luminescence while the luminescence of porous silicon are almost thoroughly quenched.

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Jer Jeng; Yi-Lun Wung; Liann-Be Chang; Lee Chow

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films ...

  13. EFFECT OF BULL AND SPERM PREPARATION METHOD ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION OF BUFFALO OOCYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. JAMIL, H. A. SAMAD, Z. I. QURESHI, N. REHMAN AND L. A. LODHI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare fertilization rates following oocyte exposure to spermatozoa from different buffalo bulls, using three sperm preparation methods i.e. percoll density gradient, swim-up (modified Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium and TALP medium and sodium citrate washing prior to co-incubation with oocytes. Buffalo oocytes were aspirated from ovarian follicles within 1.5 to 2 hours after slaughter. They were matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 20% oestrus buffalo serum drops under mineral oil in CO2 incubator at 39C for 24 hours. Matured oocytes were transferred to the fertilization droplets and inseminated with 1x106 capacitated sperms prepared by different experimental methods. Data collected on recovered sperm motility immediately after treatment and 24 hours after incubation (at 37C and cleavage rate of co-incubated oocytes were subjected to statistical analysis. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05 in semen samples prepared by swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium compared to other experimental techniques. Bull wise comparison showed significantly higher (P<0.05 motility in bull B1 (50.50 ± 5.92%, followed by bull B2 (46.46 ± 5.99% and B3 (45.96 ± 5.79%. Fertilization rate was also significantly (P<0.05 higher for spermatozoa prepared by Swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium (63.75 ± 2.81%, followed by sodium citrate (26.70 ± 5.08%, swim-up TALP (29.14 ± 3.74% and Percoll gradient density (23.89 ± 3.88%. Fertilization rate was significantly higher (P<0.05 in oocytes inseminated with semen from bull B1 (43.43 ± 8.59%, followed by B2 (33.38 ± 9.95% and B3 (30.80 ± 9.56%. The results of present study indicate that bulls and sperm preparation methods differ in their contribution to in vitro fertilization rate. Further studies are suggested to ascertain the factors responsible for such specific effects.

  14. A New Method for Common Calibration of Sun-Sky-Lunar Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaitao; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Donghui; Xu, Hua; Xie, Yisong; Li, Li; Chen, Xingfeng; Ma, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A new calibration method is introduced to transfer extraterrestrial calibration coefficients to the moon measurements for a new sun-sky-lunar photometer, trade name CE318-T from CIMEL. The new transfer method has no relationship with lunar phase, therefore, the precision of the results is improved, and error analysis suggests that the uncertainty of the transferred method is about 2.2-2.6%, smaller than the lunar Langley calibrations. At the same time, the calibration time is also saved. The Sun-Sky-Lunar photometer numbered #1202 and located on the roof of Institute of remote sensing and digital earth (RADI) in Beijing was used in this study. The extraterrestrial calibration coefficients were got by using Langley calibration performed at Ali with a height of 5053 m above sea level in Tibet. The new lunar calibration coefficients were obtained with the new transfer method. And then the nocturnal AODs were calculated, which are well consistent with the daytime observations. The differences between two AODs obtained with transferred calibration coefficients and lunar Langley method were also compared in this paper. In this study, Lidar observation results was also presented to compare with the lunar observations, the results show that the nocturnal AODs have the same variation tendency with the Lidar observations.

  15. Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

    This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

  16. Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

    This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

  17. Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Lamivudine and Zidovudine in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Bromocresol Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Evrim Kepekci Tekkeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method has been established for the quantitation of lamivudine (LVD and zidovudine (ZVD in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction between the investigated drug substances and bromocresol purple (BCP producing ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers which are suitable for chloroform extraction. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was measured at 424 nm in chloroform. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. Linearity ranges were found to be 25–250 μg mL−1 for LVD-BCP and 50–300 μg mL−1 for ZVD-BCP. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients in pharmaceutical formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The results were compared statistically with those obtained by the HPLC method reported in the literature. According to the results, the proposed method can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis.

  18. Autoclave method for rapid preparation of bacterial PCR-template DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmon, Keith E; Steadman, Dewey D; Durkin, Sarah; Baldwin, Amy; Jeffrey, Wade H; Sheridan, Peter; Horton, Rene; Shields, Malcolm S

    2004-02-01

    An autoclave method for preparing bacterial DNA for PCR template is presented, it eliminates the use of detergents, organic solvents, and mechanical cellular disruption approaches, thereby significantly reducing processing time and costs while increasing reproducibility. Bacteria are lysed by rapid heating and depressurization in an autoclave. The lysate, cleared by microcentrifugation, was either used directly in the PCR reaction, or concentrated by ultrafiltration. This approach was compared with seven established methods of DNA template preparation from four bacterial sources which included boiling Triton X-100 and SDS, bead beating, lysozyme/proteinase K, and CTAB lysis method components. Bacteria examined were Enterococcus and Escherichia coli, a natural marine bacterial community and an Antarctic cyanobacterial-mat. DNAs were tested for their suitability as PCR templates by repetitive element random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The autoclave method produced PCR amplifiable template comparable or superior to the other methods, with greater reproducibility, much shorter processing time, and at a significantly lower cost.

  19. Microleakage in conservative cavities varying the preparation method and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abdallah Atoui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess microleakage in conservative class V cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion or turbine and restored with self-etching or etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Forty premolars were randomly assigned to 4 groups (I and II: air abrasion; III and IV: turbine and class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces. Conditioning approaches were: groups I/III - 37% phosphoric acid; groups II/IV - self-priming etchant (Tyrian-SPE. Cavities were restored with One Step Plus/Filtek Z250. After finishing, specimens were thermocycled, immersed in 50% silver nitrate, and serially sectioned. Microleakage at the occlusal and cervical interfaces was measured in mm and calculated by a software. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Marginal seal provided by air abrasion was similar to high-speed handpiece, except for group I. There was SIGNIFICANT difference between enamel and dentin/cementum margins for to group I and II: air abrasion. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system promoted a better marginal seal. At enamel and dentin/cementum margins, the highest microleakage values were found in cavities treated with the self-etching adhesive system. At dentin/cementum margins, high-speed handpiece preparations associated with etch-and-rinse system provided the least dye penetration. CONCLUSION: Marginal seal of cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion was different from that of conventionally prepared cavities, and the etch-and-rinse system promoted higher marginal seal at both enamel and dentin margins.

  20. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I.-Lin; Li, Lin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 μm and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  1. Preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble antioxidant curcumin by antisolvent precipitation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Tan, I-Lin; Li Lin, E-mail: mlli@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antioxidant, curcumin, by fabricating its nanoparticles with two methods: antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) and evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN). For APSP, process parameters like flow rate, stirring speed, solvent to antisolvent (SAS) ratio, and drug concentration were investigated to obtain the smallest particle size. For EPN, factors like drug concentration and the SAS ratio were examined. The effects of these process parameters on the supersaturation, nucleation, and growth rate were studied and optimized to obtain the smallest particle size of curcumin by both the methods. The average particle size of the original drug was about 10-12 {mu}m and it was decreased to a mean diameter of 330 nm for the APSP method and to 150 nm for the EPN method. Overall, decreasing the drug concentration or increasing the flow rate, stirring rate, and antisolvent amount resulted in smaller particle sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested lower crystallinity of curcumin particles fabricated. The solubility and dissolution rates of the prepared curcumin particles were significantly higher than those the original curcumin. The antioxidant activity, studied by the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, was greater for the curcumin nanoparticles than the original curcumin. This study demonstrated that both the methods can successfully prepare curcumin into submicro to nanoparticles. However, drug particles prepared by EPN were smaller than those by APSP and hence, showed the slightly better solubility, dissolution rate, and antioxidant activity than the latter.

  2. Choledochoduodenostomy in the Management of Common Duct Stones or Associated Pathology – An Obsolete Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Castro Mendes de Almeida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Choledochoduodenostomy (CDD has been reported as a more effective treatment of CBD stones than T-tube drainage but it is regarded as a last resort or obsolete therapeutic method due to fears of higher mobidity, cholangitis, “sump” syndrome and liver dysfunction. We aimed to assess the aforementioned issues analyzing prospectively our experience from 1976 through Dec.92.

  3. Testing common stream sampling methods for broad-scale, long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Archer; Brett B. Roper; Richard C. Henderson; Nick Bouwes; S. Chad Mellison; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated sampling variability of stream habitat sampling methods used by the USDA Forest Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management monitoring program for the upper Columbia River Basin. Three separate studies were conducted to describe the variability of individual measurement techniques, variability between crews, and temporal variation throughout the summer...

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Microcapsule Containing Volatile Oil of Herba Schizonepetae by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立国; 欧阳霄雯; 倪力军; 史万忠

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules of volatile oil containing Herba Schizonepetae (VOHS) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method to improve the drug loading and reduce the amount of pharmaceutical excipients. Orthogonal assay was applied to optimize the preparation condition of microcapsulation, and the results illustrated that the ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC) to VOHS influenced the property of VOHS microcapsule significantly. GC-MS analysis indicated that some volatile components with low concentration in VOHS were lost after microencapsulation. The microcapsules prepared with optimum condition had good fluidity, and the holes on the surface of the microcapsules contributed to the release of VOHS. The particles of the microcapsule conformed to a normal distribution with the diameter of 45-220 µm. In the simulated intestinal fluid containing 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, pulegone in VOHS microcapsule showed a certain degree of slow release. Compared withβ-cyclodextrin method, the microencapsulation used in the present work could reduce the amount of excipients and increase the drug loading. It was beneficial to reduce the dose of Chinese medicines containing volatile oils.

  5. High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-03-02

    Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology.

  6. Different preparation methods and characterization of magnetic maghemite coated with chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojnik Podrepsek, Gordana; Knez, Zeljko; Leitgeb, Maja, E-mail: maja.leitgeb@um.si [University of Maribor, Laboratory for Separation Processes and Product Design, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (Slovenia)

    2013-06-15

    The preparation of maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro- and nanoparticles coated with chitosan, used as carriers for immobilized enzymes, was investigated. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the presence of ammonium. They were coated with chitosan by the microemulsion process, suspension cross-linking technique, and covalent binding of chitosan on the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. The methods distinguished the concentration of chitosan, concentration of acetic acid solution, concentration of a cross-linking agent, temperature of synthesis, pH of the medium, and time of synthesis. {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nanoparticles coated with chitosan prepared after three preparation methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction granulometry, and X-ray diffractometry. These positive attributes demonstrated that these magnetic micro- and nanoparticles coated with chitosan may be used as a promising carrier for further diverse biomedical applications.

  7. Effect of humidity on microstructure and properties of YBCO film prepared by TFA-MOD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lianhong; LI Tao; GU Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial YBCO superconducting films were deposited on the single crystal LaAlO3. (001) substrate by metal organic deposition method. All YBCO films were fired at 820 ℃ in humidity range of 2.6%-19.7% atmosphere. Microstructure of YBCO thin films was ana-lyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Superconducting properties of YBCO films were measured by four-probe method. XRD results showed that the second phase (such as BaF2)and a-axis-oriented grains existed in the films prepared at 2.6% humidity condition; a-axis-oriented grains increased in the film prepared at higher than 4.2% humidity condition; almost pure c-axias-oriented grains existed in the films fired at 4.2% humidity condition. Morphologies of the YBCO films showed that all films had a smooth and crack-free surface. YBCO film prepared at 4.2% humidity condition showed Jc value of 3.3 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field.

  8. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry(LCCE), Faculty of Science, Material Science Department, University of Batna, 05000 (Algeria); Fessi, Hatem [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Zine, Nadia [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Agusti, Géraldine [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Errachid, El-Salhi [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Elaissari, Abdelhamid, E-mail: elaissari@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH{sub 4} reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH{sub 4} reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  9. Effect of preparation methods and optical band gap of ZnO nanomaterials on photodegradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Laila I.; El-Molla, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Marwa M.; Mahmoud, Hala R.; Naghmash, Mona A.

    2016-08-01

    Improving of photo-oxidative efficiency of ZnO has become of importance to meet the requirements of environmental protection. In this research, ZnO nanomaterials prepared by three different methods (thermal decomposition, precipitation and sol-gel-combustion using metal nitrate and different fuels (urea, oxalic acid and citric acid)). Various molar ratios of citric acid to salt used as variable parameter (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50). These nanomaterials were characterized by studying their structural, morphological, surface and optical properties. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Remazol Red RB-133 (RR) under UV-light irradiation. The obtained results showed that the photocatalytic efficiency was affected by preparation method, type and ratio of fuel to salt. The optimum is a gel precursor containing zinc nitrate and citric acid prepared in the molar ratio of 1. The highly active nanomaterial was applied for photocatalytic degradation of mixtures of two dyes - (RR) and Methylene Blue (MB).

  10. Magnetite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method in different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aphesteguy, J.C., E-mail: caphestegu@fi.uba.ar [LAFMACEL-INTECIN, Facultad de Ingeniería, UBA, Paseo Colón 850, C1063EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Universidad del País Vasco UPV-EHU, Dept. Electricidad y Electronica, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Ural Federal University, Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Celis, J.P. de [National Technology University (UTN), Facultad Regional Avellaneda, Department of Chemistry (Argentina); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Schegoleva, N.N. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, Ekaterinburg 620044 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of pure magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared in an aqueous solution (sample M−I) and in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (sample M−II) by the co-precipitation method. The structure and magnetic properties of both samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic (M−H) and microwave measurements (FMR). The mean average particle diameter and particle size distribution was evaluated by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller techniques (BET). The Quantitative chemical analysis of iron was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) technique. The MNPs prepared in aqueous solution show a higher grain than those prepared in the water-ethyl alcohol mixture. The type of phase structure in both cases can be defined as “defective spinel”. The shape of the majority of M−I MNPs is octahedral. The shape of the majority of M−II MNPs is cubic. The specific surface area of MNPs was as high as 14.4 m{sup 2}/g for M−I sample and 77.8 m{sup 2}/g for sample M–II. The obtained saturation magnetization values of 75 emu/g (M−I) and 68 emu/g (M−II) are consistent with expected values for magnetite MNPs of observed sizes. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements confirmed that MNPs of both types are magnetically homogeneous materials. FMR lines' position and line widths can be understood by invoking the local dipolar fields, deviations from sphericity, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and stresses. M−I sample shows sizeable zero field microwave absorption which is absent in the M−II case. The differences in microwave behaviour of M−I and M−II MNPs can be used in the design of microwave radiation absorbing multilayers. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared in two different conditions. • Specific surface area of sample prepared in water- ethanol mix is

  11. Photocatalytic properties of titanate nanotube powders prepared by alkaline hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sun-Jae; Kim, Byung Hoon; Chung, Minchul; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Kim, Sang-Chai; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the photocatalytic activities of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) synthesized using different methods and compares them with that of P25. Rhodamine B was selected as the organic compound to be decomposed by the microwave/UV/photocatalyst hybrid process. The as-prepared TNT had titanate crystalline structure, whereas the TNT calcined at 723 K was phase-transformed into anatase structure. When the as-prepared TNT was ion-exchanged using HCl, Na+ content was reduced from 8.36 wt% to 0.03 wt%. The ion-exchanged TNT showed the highest photocatalytic activity among the TNTs tested in this study, but it was lower than that of P25.

  12. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  13. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  14. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  15. Effect of PVP Additive on Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Razmjouee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP additive on microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies in different synthesis conditions showed the formation of cobalt ferrite and cobalt oxide. Comparing IR spectrum of PVP additive, sol prepared before hydrothermal process and C-0.1PVP3, 190 obtained by FTIR spectroscopy indicated the formation of bond between PVP and surface of metallic hydroxide and cobalt ferrite particles, which prevented them from growing and coarsening. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the morphology of samples. According to vibration sample magnetometer (VSM results, as PVP amount increases from 0.1 to 0.3 volume percent, coercive field increases from 298 to 684 Oe and saturation magnetization decreases from 58 to 51 emu/g.

  16. A novel method for preparation of hollow and solid carbon spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boyang Liu; Dechang Jia; Jiancun Rao; Qiangchang Meng; Yingfeng Shao

    2008-10-01

    Hollow and solid carbon spheres were prepared by the reaction of ferrocene and ammonium carbonate in a sealed quartz tube at 500°C. The morphology and microstructure of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The carbon spheres are amorphous and their diameters range from 0.8–2.8 m. The shell thickness of the hollow carbon spheres is not uniform and ranges from 100–180 nm. It is suggested that ammonium carbonate is crucial for the formation of carbon spheres and its amount also influences the morphology of the product. The method may be suitable for large scale preparation of carbon spheres.

  17. IN-VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE MICROBALLOONS PREPARED BY THE EMULSION SOLVENT DIFFUSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Jain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Microballoons floatable on JPXIII No.1 solution were developed as a dosage formcapable of floating in the stomach. Microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solventdiffusion method using enteric acrylic and other polymers with drug in a mixture ofdichloromethane and ethanol. It was found that preparation temperature determined theformation of cavity inside the microsphere and the surface smoothness, determining thefloatability and the drug release rate of the microballoons. The correlation between thebuoyancy of microballoons and their physical properties, e.g. apparent density androundness of microballoons were elucidated. The drug loading efficiency ofmicroballoons was also determined. The optimum loading amount of metformin in themicroballoons was found to impart ideal floatable properties to the microballoons. Byfitting the data into zero order, first order and Highuchi model it was concluded that therelease followed zero order release.

  18. In-Vitro characterization of gastroretentive microballoons prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microballoons floatable on JPXIII No.1 solution were developed as a dosage form capable of floating in the stomach. Microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method using enteric acrylic and other polymers with drug in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microsphere and the surface smoothness, determining the floatability and the drug release rate of the microballoons. The correlation between the buoyancy of microballoons and their physical properties, e.g. apparent density and roundness of microballoons were elucidated. The drug loading efficiency of microballoons was also determined. The optimum loading amount of metformin in the microballoons was found to impart ideal floatable properties to the microballoons. By fitting the data into zero order, first order and Highuchi model it was concluded that the release followed zero order release.

  19. In-vitro characterization of gastroretentive microballoons prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Akash; Jain, Dinesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Microballoons floatable on JPXIII No.1 solution were developed as a dosage form capable of floating in the stomach. Microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method using enteric acrylic and other polymers with drug in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol. It was found that preparation temperature determined the formation of cavity inside the microsphere and the surface smoothness, determining the floatability and the drug release rate of the microballoons. The correlation between the buoyancy of microballoons and their physical properties, e.g. apparent density and roundness of microballoons were elucidated. The drug loading efficiency of microballoons was also determined. The optimum loading amount of metformin in the microballoons was found to impart ideal floatable properties to the microballoons. By fitting the data into zero order, first order and Highuchi model it was concluded that the release followed zero order release.

  20. Monoliths: A Review of the Basics, Preparation Methods and Their Relevance to Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeeran Govender

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been conducted on monolithic catalysts for various applications. Strategies toward coating monoliths are of equal interest and importance. In this paper, the preparation of monoliths and monolithic catalysts have been summarized. More specifically, a brief explanation for the manufacturing of ceramic and metallic monoliths has been provided. Also, different methods for coating γ-alumina, as a secondary support, are included. Techniques used to deposit metal-based species, zeolites and carbon onto monoliths are discussed. Furthermore, monoliths extruded with metal oxides, zeolites and carbon are described. The main foci are on the reasoning and understanding behind the preparation of monolithic catalysts. Ideas and concerns are also contributed to encourage better approaches when designing these catalysts. More importantly, the relevance of monolithic structures to reactions, such as the selective oxidation of alkanes, catalytic combustion for power generation and the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide, has been described.

  1. Surface treatment of nickel substrate for the preparation of BSCCO film through sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Huazhe, E-mail: hzyang@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Yu Xiaoming [Institute of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ji Yang [Stomatology Department of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang, 110840 (China); Qi Yang, E-mail: qiyang@imp.neu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-03-15

    A modified degreasing-oxidization process was devised and settled to treat the surface of nickel (Ni) substrates, and BSCCO films were prepared on the treated NiO/Ni substrates by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy were adopted to clarify the function of different treatment on phase formation and wettability of NiO/Ni substrates. Differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry analysis were adopted to confirm the desirable heat treatment process. XRD and scanning electron microscopy were adopted to investigate the phase constituent and surface morphology of BSCCO films. Results demonstrate that both the surface wettability of the substrate to sol and the lattice matching between the substrate and BSCCO can be improved through the modified treatment, which are favorable for the preparation of BSCCO films.

  2. A new method of preparing fiber-optic DNA biosensor and its array for gene detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of preparing fiber-optic DNA biosensor and its arrayfor the simultaneous detection of multiple genes is described. The optical fibers were first treated with poly-l-lysine, and then were made into fiber-optic DNA biosensors by adsorbing and immobilizing the oligonucleotide probe on its end. By assembling the fiber-optic DNA biosensors in a bundle in which each fiber carried a different DNA probe, the fiber-optic DNA biosensor array was well prepared. Hybridization of fluorescent- labeled cDNA of p53 gene, N-ras gene and Rb1 gene to the DNA array was monitored by CCD camera. A good result was achieved.

  3. Processing surface sizing starch using oxidation, enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasonic treatment methods--Preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Tobias; Kiessler, Birgit; Radosta, Sylvia; Arndt, Tiemo

    2016-03-15

    The surface application of starch is a well-established method for increasing paper strength. In surface sizing, a solution of degraded starch is applied to the paper. Two procedures have proved valuable for starch degradation in the paper mill: enzymatic and thermo-oxidative degradation. The objective of this study was to determine achievable efficiencies of cavitation in preparing degraded starch for surface application on paper. It was found that ultrasonic-assisted starch degradation can provide a starch solution that is suitable for surface sizing. The molecular composition of starch solutions prepared by ultrasonic treatment differed from that of starch solutions degraded by enzymes or by thermo-oxidation. Compared to commercial degradation processes, this resulted in intensified film formation and in greater penetration during surface sizing and ultimately in a higher starch content of the paper. Paper sized with ultrasonically treated starch solutions show the same strength properties compared to commercially sized paper.

  4. Preparing technical text for translation: A comparison between International English and methods for simplifying language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buican, I.; Hriscu, V.; Amador, M.

    1994-07-01

    For the past four and a half years, the International Communication Committee at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a set of guidelines for writing technical and scientific documents in International English, that is, English for those whose native language is not English. Originally designed for documents intended for presentation in English to an international audience of technical experts, the International English guidelines apply equally well to the preparation of English text for translation. This is the second workshop in a series devoted to the topic of translation. The authors focus on the advantages of using International English, rather than various methods of simplifying language, to prepare scientific and technical text for translation.

  5. A quantitative and qualitative method to control chemotherapeutic preparations by Fourier transform infrared-ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process.

  6. Emission of Eu3+in sol-gel oxyfluoride glass materials obtained by different preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Żądło; B. Szpikowska-Sroka; L. Żur; R. Czoik; W.A. Pisarski

    2014-01-01

    Silica glasses doped with Eu3+ions prepared by sol-gel methods were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to verify the nature of the studied systems. Excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+ ions in sol-gel glass materials were detected. Red-to-orange luminescence intensity ratios R/O related to integrated intensities of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transitions and luminescence lifetimes for 5D0 state of Eu3+ions were determined. The results indicated that spectroscopic parameters for Eu3+ions strongly de-pended on reagents and their relative ratios used for sol-gel glass preparation.

  7. EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF PREPARATION OF RYE GRAIN ON ITS MICROSTRUCTURE AND SAFETY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the main issues in the baking industry is currently the development and introduction of new products increased nutritional value. By promising area of enrichment products include the use of whole grains. Currently pressing issue is expanding the range of bakery products by applying the functional orientation of the whole grain rye. Expand the range of bread from a mixture of rye and wheat flour can be due to the use of whole grain rye. German company "Irex" developed a method of preparing a mixture of products from rye and wheat flour with the addition of acidified whole rye "Saftkorn." The experiment was conducted microstructure definition, content of toxic elements (cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic and microbiological indicators rye "Saftkorn" and "Avanguard". The microstructure and grain safety performance prepared in different ways. The difference in the microstructure of rye "Saftсorn" (Germany and "Аvangard" (Russia. Proven that their microbiological parameters were within acceptable limits.

  8. Preparation of ITO transparent conductive film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hua; REN Dong-yan

    2006-01-01

    The ITO transparent conductive films were prepared on substrate of quartz glass by sol-gel method. The raw materials were nitrate indium, acetylacetone and the dopant of anhydrous chloride (SnCl4). The process from gel to crystalline film and the microstructure of the films were investigated by DTA-TG, XRD and SEM. The influence of preparation processes on the electricity performance of the films was also studied by four-probe apparatus. The results show that the crystallization process of ITO xerogel completes when the heat treatment temperature reaches 600 ℃. The ITO films possesses on vesicular structures accumulated by spherical particles, and both heat treatment temperature and cooling rate have important effects on the resistivity ofITO films.

  9. New spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of nizatidine in bulk form and in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasakal, Ayça; Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2013-08-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for determination of nizatidine in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction between nizatidine and 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride in carbonate buffer, pH 10.5, to yield a highly fluorescent derivative peaking at 513 nm after excitation at 367 nm. Various factors affecting the fluorescence intensity of nizatidin-dansyl derivative were studied and conditions were optimized. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The fluorescence concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 25-300 ng/mL. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated as 11.71 and 35.73 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. Effect of preparation temperature and cycling voltage range on molten salt method prepared SnO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, MV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We prepared nano-sized tin (IV) oxide (SnO(sub2)) via molten-salt technique: heating a mixture of tin tetrachloride, lithium nitrate and lithium chloride at 280 °C in air. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission scanning...

  11. Immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration. A review of their biologic activities and comparison of various preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H

    1994-01-01

    procedures are employed by different commercial suppliers of immunoglobulins, and from the literature it appears that various important biologic functions, e.g., opsonic activity, complement fixation, and Fc-receptor function, are subject to alterations during the preparation. The best preservation...

  12. Method of Measuring Common-Mode Current Conversion Coefficient for Estimating Variation in Radiated Emission from Printed Circuit Board Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the measurement of the common-mode current conversion coefficient for a microstrip line with solid and slotted ground planes by using a VNA with a BCI probe. The radiated emissions estimated by the common-mode current conversion coefficient are further compared with those obtained by the FAC measurements. Furthermore, the proposed method was used to estimate radiated emissions from a microstrip bandpass filter. For all of the case studies, results of electromagnetic (EM simulation demonstrate the validity of the measurement results by the proposed method. Highly promising for use in EMI measurement application, the proposed method can estimate the radiated emissions by miniaturized microstrip components on a PCB when pre-tested for compliance with EMI regulations.

  13. John Locke's "new method of making common-place-books": tradition, innovation and epistemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 1676, the English physician and philosopher John Locke published a new method of commonplacing. He had developed this method and, in particular, a new approach to organizing and indexing the entries, in the course of 25 years of personal note-taking and it proved quite influential. This paper presents the three major approaches to commonplacing as practiced by physicians and other scholars before Locke--the systematic or textbook approach, the alphabetical approach and the sequential or index-based approach--and it analyzes the ways in which Locke himself applied them in his own commonplace books. In comparison with established approaches, his new method offered a maximum degree of flexibilitywhile facilitating the later retrieval of notes and minimising waste of space and paper. Thanks to these features, it was particularly well suited for physicians and natural philosophers who were interested in the infinite variety of natural particulars rather than in elegant quotes on a very limited set of classical topics. In conclusion, the potential epistemic impact of commonplacing on early modern medicine and natural philosophy is discussed, in particular its importance for contemporary debates about species and disease entities and for the emergence of the notion of "facts"!

  14. Common Deficiencies in Existing Methods for Reconstructing High-Resolution Temperature Fields During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Kaplan, A.; Zorita, E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperatures during the last millennium vary significantly in their estimates of decadal-to-centennial variability. Although several estimates are based on spatially-resolved climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods, comparisons have been limited to mean Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Spatial skill is explicitly investigated for four CFR methods using pseudoproxy experiments derived from two millennial-length coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations. The adopted pseudoproxy network approximates the spatial distribution of a widely used multi-proxy network and the CFRs target annual temperature variability on a 5-degree latitude-longitude grid. Results indicate that the spatial skill of presently available large-scale CFRs depends on proxy type and location, target data, and the employed reconstruction methodology, although there are widespread consistencies in the general performance of all four methods. While results are somewhat sensitive to the ability of the AOGCMs to resolve ENSO and its teleconnections, important areas such as the ocean basins and much of the Southern Hemisphere are reconstructed with particularly poor skill in both model experiments. New high-resolution proxies from poorly sampled regions may be one of the best means of improving estimates of large-scale CFRs of the last millennium.

  15. The heritability of the functional connectome is robust to common nonlinear registration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafzalla, George W.; Prasad, Gautam; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Faskowitz, Joshua; Jahanshad, Neda; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Wright, Margaret J.; Braskie, Meredith N.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear registration algorithms are routinely used in brain imaging, to align data for inter-subject and group comparisons, and for voxelwise statistical analyses. To understand how the choice of registration method affects maps of functional brain connectivity in a sample of 611 twins, we evaluated three popular nonlinear registration methods: Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs), Automatic Registration Toolbox (ART), and FMRIB's Nonlinear Image Registration Tool (FNIRT). Using both structural and functional MRI, we used each of the three methods to align the MNI152 brain template, and 80 regions of interest (ROIs), to each subject's T1-weighted (T1w) anatomical image. We then transformed each subject's ROIs onto the associated resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans and computed a connectivity network or functional connectome for each subject. Given the different degrees of genetic similarity between pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins, we used structural equation modeling to estimate the additive genetic influences on the elements of the function networks, or their heritability. The functional connectome and derived statistics were relatively robust to nonlinear registration effects.

  16. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIO2-SILICONE NANOCOMPOSITE OBTAINED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOIZHAIGANOVA Meruyert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is attractive for the nanocomposite preparation due to its unique advantages such as low temperature processing, high homogeneity of final products and its capability to generate materials with controlled surface properties. The preparation of TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite by sol–gel method, which is efficient at producing thin, transparent multi-component oxide layers, was considered due to its possible application as finishing coating on leather. In this study the preparation and characterization of TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite were investigated. TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite was prepared from titanium n-butoxide (TBO and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS catalyzed with acid. The chemical structure of the composite was evaluated by means of Raman spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM was employed to characterize the surface properties of composite films. In summary, the colloidal TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite solution was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel method. The turbidity value of the TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite solution was 12.7 ntu. The TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite was mildly acidic with a pH value of 5.2. It was determined that the viscosity of the TiO2– Silicone nanocomposite solution was approximately equal to 1-3 mPa.s. The particles sizes were approximately 5.4 nm, with the coatings being approximately 0.06 µm in thickness. From the results obtained it was revealed that the TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite can be used as coating in leather fninshing process.

  17. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  18. Study of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang-Qiu; Yu Guo-Jian; Wang Ying; Wei Fu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that a series of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films are prepared by using sol-gel method. The effects of raw material composition and the calcinate temperature on magnetic properties of them are investigated. The NiCuZn ferrite powders are prepared by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method and subsequently heated at 700 ℃~1000 ℃. The results show that NiCuZn ferrite powders with single spinel phase can be formed after heat-treating at 750 ℃. Powders obtained from Nio.4Cuo.2Zno.4Fe1.9O4 gel have better magnetic properties than those from gels with other composition. After heat-treating at 900 ℃ for 3 h, coercivity Hc and saturation magnetization Ms are 9.7 Oe (1 Oe = 80 A/m) and 72.4 emu/g, respectively. Different from the powders, NiCuZn films produced on Si (100) from the Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe2O4 gel formed at room temperature possess high properties. When heat-treating condition is around 600 ℃ for 6 min, samples with low Hc and high Ms will be obtained. The minimal Hc is 16.7 Oe and Ms is about 300 emu/cm3. In comparison with the films prepared through long-time heat treating, the films prepared through short heat-treating time exhibits better soft magnetic properties.

  19. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  20. Comparative study of the coprecipitation methods for the preparation of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepaldi Eduardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Coprecipitation is the method most frequently applied to prepare Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs. Two variations of this method can be used, depending on the pH control conditions during the precipitation step. In one case the pH values are allowed to vary while in the other they are kept constant throughout coprecipitation. Although research groups have their preferences, no systematic comparison of the two variations of the coprecipitation method is available in the literature. On this basis, the objective of the present study was to compare the properties of LDHs prepared using the two forms of pH control in the coprecipitation method. The results showed that even though coprecipitation is easier to perform under conditions of variable pH values, materials with more interesting properties, from the point of view of technological applications, are obtained at constant pH. Higher crystallinity, smaller particle size, higher specific surface area and higher average pore diameter were found for materials obtained by coprecipitation at constant pH, when compared to the materials obtained at variable pH.