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Sample records for preparation building structural

  1. Modern frame structure buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    В. М. Першаков; Т. О. Петрова; К. М. Лисницька

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the design, construction and implementation of reinforced concrete frame structures with span 18, 21 m for agricultural production buildings, hall-premises of public buildings...

  2. Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R. Mullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated.

  3. Two Decades of Structure Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the Structure Building Framework, a simple framework for describing the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in discourse comprehension. Reviews the seminal work on which it is based (the first decade of structure-building research); and recounts the research conducted by the author to test the Structure Building…

  4. Structural rehabilitation of old buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, João; Varum, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The present book describes the different construction systems and structural materials and solutions within the main old buildings typologies, and it analyses the particularities of each of them, including mechanical properties, structural behaviour, typical damage patterns and collapse mechanisms. Common or pioneering intervention measures to repair and/or strengthen some of these structural elements are also reviewed.

  5. Building large structures in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, T.

    1976-01-01

    The building of large structures in space would be required for the establishment of a variety of systems needed for different forms of space utilization. The problems involved in the building of such structures in space and the approaches which can be used to solve these problems are illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concept for packaging, transporting, and assembling two representative large space structures. The structure of a radio-astronomy telescope 200 m in diam was felt to be representative of the many medium-size structures of the Shuttle era. A typical very large structure is represented by the supporting structure for the transmission system of a 5000-Mw space solar power station.

  6. Disproportionate Collapse in Building Structures.

    OpenAIRE

    JANSSENS, VICTORIA MARIA; O'DWYER, DERMOT WILLIAM

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Cork, Ireland The failure of the Ronan Point apartment tower focused interest in disproportionate collapse, and prompted the ?Fifth Amendment? to the UK Building Regulations which was introduced in 1970. From this point on structures were required to exhibit a minimum level of robustness to resist progressive collapse. These rules have remained relatively unchanged for over 40 years. This paper presents a review of the concepts relating to structural collapse, and the robustne...

  7. Preparing for Algebra by Building Fraction Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jessica; Dyson, Nancy I.; Hansen, Nicole; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are troublesome for many children, especially students with learning difficulties and disabilities in mathematics. To address this serious educational concern, this article recommends the use of number lines to build fraction sense. Math activities that center on the number line build fraction concepts as early as third grade. A number…

  8. Preparing teachers: building evidence for sound policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States; National Research Council

    2010-01-01

    "Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation...

  9. Data Preparation Process for the Buildings Performance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Travis; Dunn, Laurel; Mercado, Andrea; Brown, Richard E.; Mathew, Paul

    2014-06-30

    The Buildings Performance Database (BPD) includes empirically measured data from a variety of data sources with varying degrees of data quality and data availability. The purpose of the data preparation process is to maintain data quality within the database and to ensure that all database entries have sufficient data for meaningful analysis and for the database API. Data preparation is a systematic process of mapping data into the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES), cleansing data using a set of criteria and rules of thumb, and deriving values such as energy totals and dominant asset types. The data preparation process takes the most amount of effort and time therefore most of the cleansing process has been automated. The process also needs to adapt as more data is contributed to the BPD and as building technologies over time. The data preparation process is an essential step between data contributed by providers and data published to the public in the BPD.

  10. Structural systems for highrise buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Sobek, Werner

    1985-01-01

    The report was written in the United States under the first Fazlur R. Khan Fellowship in 1984 and it was completed in Germany afterwards. "Highrise Buildings" was selected by the author as the draft-title for the activities during the fellowship. Under this theme the author studied the single aspects of highrise buildings as for example planning methods, architectural considerations, structuraI systems. This was done by working at the offices of Skidmore, Owings and Herrill in Chicago and San...

  11. Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brondon M. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.

  12. Advanced analysis for structural steel building design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wai Fah CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The 2005 AISC LRFD Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings are making it possible for designers to recognize explicitly the structural resistance provided within the elastic and inelastic ranges of beha-vior and up to the maximum load limit state. There is an increasing awareness of the need for practical second-order analysis approaches for a direct determination of overall structural system response. This paper attempts to present a simple, concise and reasonably comprehens-ive introduction to some of the theoretical and practical approaches which have been used in the traditional and modern processes of design of steel building structures.

  13. Distinctive Structural and Non-Structural Building Defects and Failures in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sin Wen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the maintenance-free building may be a theoretical possibility, all buildings are subject to the vagaries of defects, failures, deterioration and variation. The examples of these problems are fungus growth, peeling paint, termite attack, dampness, defective rainwater goods, roof defects, harmful growth, settlement, foundation failure, roof collapse and others. There are a great number of building defects and failures arose and being reported officially by mass media, especially problems with educational buildings. Theoretically, all buildings tend to deteriorate over period of time due to aging or other factors, regardless the types of buildings. There are several main factors can be taken into account such as design fault, poor maintenance, poor workmanship, building age and location of building. This paper will discuss on distinctive structural and non-structural building defects and failures than frequently happened in educational buildings. This paper is noteworthy to render varies of problems generally faced by Malaysian educational buildings to the public. As such, the awareness among them can be raised or improved. Furthermore, the public will concern, especially the government authorities should emphasize the laws and regulations to enforce the safety of construction work as well as the procedure in giving approval to the occupation of educational buildings.

  14. Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mouchart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.

  15. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  16. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  17. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  18. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  19. 7 CFR 51.56 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings and structures. 51.56 Section 51.56... § 51.56 Buildings and structures. The packing plant buildings shall be properly constructed and... be sufficient light consistent with the use to which the particular portion of the building is...

  20. 25 CFR 247.7 - Can I build a structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I build a structure? 247.7 Section 247.7 Indians... FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.7 Can I build a structure? (a) You may not build any structures at the sites... been constructed at the sites. (c) In addition to these structures, you may camp in tents, tepees...

  1. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction.

  2. Triheterometallic Lanthanide Complexes Prepared from Kinetically Inert Lanthanide Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Tropiano, Manuel; Kenwright, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    . The photophysical properties of these heterotrimetallic complexes were investigated and are discussed by comparison with simpler, but related, heterodimetallic compounds. It was found that an aminonaphthalene unit inhibits the sensitisation of terbium, and that the spatial arrangement of the chromophores......Three molecular structures, each containing three different lanthanide(III) centres, have been prepared by coupling three kinetically inert lanthanide(III) complexes in an Ugi reaction. These 2 kDa molecules were purified by dialysis and characterised by NMR and luminescence techniques...

  3. Robustness Assessment of Building Structures under Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, much research has focused on the behaviour of structures following the failure of a key structural component. Particular attention has been given to sudden column loss, though questions remain as to whether this event-independent scenario is relevant to actual extreme events such as explosion. Few studies have been conducted to assess the performance of floor slabs above a failed column, and the computational tools used have not been validated against experimental results. The research program presented in this paper investigates the adequacy of sudden column loss as an idealisation of local damage caused by realistic explosion events, and extends prior work by combining the development of accurate computational models with large-scale testing of a typical floor system in a prototypical steel-framed structure. The floor system consists of corrugated decking topped by a lightly reinforced concrete slab that is connected to the floor beams through shear studs. The design is consistent with typical building practices in the US. The first test has been completed, and subsequent tests are currently being planned. This paper addresses the importance of robustness design for localized damage and includes a detailed description regarding how the research program advances the current state of knowledge for assessing robustness of compositely constructed steel-framed buildings.

  4. MODERN BUILDING STRUCTURES USED FOR MILITARY PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Domnica STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the technical aspects of the spherical spatial structures, focusing on the tensegrity building systems used for military purpose. The spherical spatial structures have been studied and used since antiquity. Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid were conducted extensive research on the concept of such type of structures. Regular pentagon has properties related to the value of the golden section, intuitively used by great architects and engineers since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, Leonardo Da Vinci created spatial objects using proportions based on the golden number, and later R. B. Fuller made the famous geodesic domes. The structures proposed by the authors are based on concepts related to the "golden section", on studies made on the regular pentagon, on the spatial volumes able to be inscribed in spheres and on the tensegrity systems. The proposed structures present some advantages related to the ease of mounting, to the volume covered, to the resistance to the environmental factors (snow, wind, earthquake, and so on. The paper presents the conclusions of the investigations on the components of the spatial structures and on the outcomes of their use.

  5. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL PREPARATION IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preparation is a constituent part of overall sports preparation. Conditional training might be defined as a process of improvement of a sportsman’s functional and motor abilities, morphological characteristics, health, as well as the required motor knowledge. Conditional preparation can be might be classified as: general, basic and situational conditional preparation. Programs of the conditional training might be classified as: developing, resuming, recovering, preventive and recovering ones. High level of the general physical preparation enables maximum demonstration of the physical abilities of a sportsman during the stage of improvement of the specific motor abilities. Good general preparation of a sportsman enables him to push beyond his functional limits in order to cope with heavy loads easier, which subsequently enables him to achieve top performance level. Basic conditional preparation assumes the development of the most important judo abilities. Specific conditional preparation is related directly to the execution of different structural elements under the conditional requirements. Situational conditional preparation enables integration of the tactical and conditional training.

  6. Magnetic sensor for building structural vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfonso; Morón, Carlos; Tremps, Enrique

    2014-02-05

    This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core) using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building.

  7. Magnetic Sensor for Building Structural Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso García

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a new displacement-to-frequency transducer based on the variation of a coil inductance when a magnetic core is partially or completely inserted inside. This transducer is based on a Colpitts oscillator due its low manufacturing price, behavior and immunity to noise. A tank circuit with a configuration in parallel was used because it can be employed at lower frequencies and it enables it to make a direct analysis. The sensor has a dynamic range equal to the length of the coil. The cores can exchange sensors (coils with its ferromagnetic core using the same electronic measuring system. In this way, with only an electronic circuit, the core sensor determines the measurement range. The obtained resolution is higher than 1/100,000, and the sensor also allows the measurement and knowing in real time the effect of vibration, thermal expansion, referred overload movements, etc.., that can occur in the structural elements of a building.

  8. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  9. Building Points - MO 2012 Stoddard Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  10. Building Points - MO 2012 Dunklin Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  11. Building Points - MO 2012 Scott Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  12. Building Points - MO 2012 Pemiscot Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  13. Building Points - MO 2012 New Madrid Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  14. Building Points - MO 2012 Mississippi Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  15. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  16. Utilization of structural steel in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

  17. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  18. Ethical Guidelines for Structural Interventions to Small-Scale Historic Stone Masonry Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Başarır, Hacer

    2015-12-01

    Structural interventions to historic stone masonry buildings require that both structural and heritage values be considered simultaneously. The absence of one of these value systems in implementation can be regarded as an unethical professional action. The research objective of this article is to prepare a guideline for ensuring ethical structural interventions to small-scale stone historic masonry buildings in the conservation areas of Northern Cyprus. The methodology covers an analysis of internationally accepted conservation documents and national laws related to the conservation of historic buildings, an analysis of building codes, especially Turkish building codes, which have been used in Northern Cyprus, and an analysis of the structural interventions introduced to a significant historic building in a semi-intact state in the walled city of Famagusta. This guideline covers issues related to whether buildings are intact or ruined, the presence of earthquake risk, the types of structural decisions in an architectural conservation project, and the values to consider during the decision making phase.

  19. Wind-resistant studies on tall buildings and structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of wind-resistant studies of our research team on tall buildings and structures. Wind tunnel tests were carried out on 27 typical tall building models by using wind pressure scanning and HFFB techniques. The characteristics of wind pressures and forces acting on these buildings were analyzed. Some results have been adopted in a Shanghai code for structural design of steel tall buildings. Interference effects on wind forces and wind pressures among two and three tall buildings were experimentally investigated with about 10000 testing conditions. Regression analyses of the interference factors under different parameter conditions were made and the main regression formulas are presented. Theoretical study on equivalent static wind loads of tall buildings and structures are then introduced. Especially,a new concept of "mode coupling factor" and a modified SRSS method for wind response and equivalent static wind load of complicated tall buildings and structures with consideration of multi mode contributions and their coupling effects are presented. Finally,practical applications of wind-resistant studies on tall building and structures,taking the Guangzhou New TV Tower as an example,are presented.

  20. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-01-01

    Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the b...

  1. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  2. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2007-04-29

    The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.

  3. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  4. Monitoring of Building Structure by Tiltsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Kopáčik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the dynamic monitoring of stability (tilt measurement of bearing pillar of high-rise building using the electronic measuring system. The electronic measuring system consists of Libela 2800 tilt sensor, input/output device for the AE 2DN tilt sensor, measuring amplifier and also the Spider8 analog/digital converter and the registration equipment (notebook. The basic part of uniaxial tilt sensor creates a frame, on which is among damping plates hung a pendulum (ferromagnetic kernel. The tilt value is determined on a principle of electromagnetic induction by changing the position of ferromagnetic kernel in the reel. The range of pendulum movement is ± 2,5 mm/m and the accuracy of the tilt determination is 0,001 mm/m. The monitored building represents, from the point of constructional view, a ferro-concrete rectangular sceleton, which consists of vertical bearing pillars, on which are guyed longitudinal and transverse girders. The building ground-plan is rectangular with the dimensions of 75 m (distance and 12 m (width. The building has two underground and six above the ground floors with constructional high of 3,40 m. Whole highth of the above ground part of building is 20,4 m. The pillar tilt was measured in the transverse direction of the building at the level of the second floor using the Libela 2800 electronic sensor. The sensor was situated on the metallic console (L-profile, which was assembled on a lateral side of the circuit bearing pillar at the highth of 8,3 m above the ground level. Together with the tilt monitoring, the outside air temperature in the close area of pillar was measured. The tilt measurement was carried out continuously for 168 hours with the recording frequency of 1 Hz (1 measurement/second. The file of the measured data with 603 950 records was reduced to the file with 1006 records, which corresponds to the record of the every tenth minute. The measured tilt values represent from the

  5. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  6. Building blocks for institutional preparation of CTL019 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Joseph; Waller, Edmund K; Qayed, Muna; Abhyankar, Sunil; Ericson, Solveig; Holman, Peter; Keir, Christopher; Myers, G Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an investigational immunocellular therapy that reprograms a patient's cytotoxic T cells to engage and eliminate malignant cells. CAR T-cell therapies targeting the CD19 antigen have demonstrated high efficacy in clinical trials for patients with B-cell malignancies and may potentially be available on a broader scale in the future. CAR T-cell therapy begins with the collection of a sufficient number of T cells from a patient's peripheral blood through leukapheresis. Several factors must be considered when patients undergo leukapheresis for CAR T-cell therapy, including age and prior therapies. The leukapheresis material is shipped to a manufacturing facility, followed by return of the CAR T cells to the treatment center. Careful coordination of a multidisciplinary team composed of physicians, nurses, pharmacists and other hospital personnel is critical for the proper care of the patient before, during and after CAR T-cell therapy. CAR T-cell therapy has been associated with adverse events (AEs) such as cytokine release syndrome, which requires rapid attention by the emergency department, intensive care unit and hospital pharmacy. In this review, we discuss several aspects of institutional preparation for leukapheresis, CAR T-cell infusion and AE management based on our experience with clinical trials of the CD19 CAR T-cell therapy CTL019. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Push-Over Analysis for Concrete Structures of Tall Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰江; 张佩军; 吕西林; 容柏生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, push-over analysis for tall concrete structures was made and a corresponding computer program was given.Several kinds of elements in the program were considered to meet the demand of tall buildings with complex structural type. These elements included beam-column element for beams and columns, single slice wall element and three vertical line element for walls, and tube-wall element for tubes. Computational example for verifying the models indicates that the result obtained by this method is identical with a well-known test result and the program can be used to search for the full process of structural reaction, even the softening stage of the structure. With this push-over analysis method, an actual tall building with complex structural type was analyzed, and the result has been put into practice of the structural design of the building.

  8. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  9. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  10. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  11. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  12. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play, howe...

  13. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  14. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  15. Structural response of steel high rise buildings to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Due to the significant vertical elevation and complexity of the structural system, high rise buildings may suffer from the effects of fire more than other structures. For this reason, in addition to evacuation strategies and active fire protection, a careful consideration of structural response...... to fire is also very important. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the characteristics of the structural system that could possibly reduce local damages or mitigate the progression of failures in case of fire. In this paper, a steel high rise building is taken as case study and the response...... of the building is investigated up to the crisis of the structure with respect to a standard fire in a lower and in a higher storey: the comparison of the fire induced failures at the different height allows highlighting the role played in the resulting collapse mechanisms by the beam-column stiffness ratio...

  16. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    2000-01-01

    to be prepared for repair and maintenance. Both of these components are insulation systems for flat roofs and low slope roofs; components where repair or replacement is very expensive if the roofing material fails in its function. The principle of both roofing insulation systems is that the insulation can...... in a different way for each component.Further development of building envelope components that through their design are prepared for repair and maintenance so that expensive repair and replacement may be avoided. Examples of components in need of such a design process could be internal insulation systems where......The dissertation consist of five parts:The purpose of the first part is to give the reader an introduction to the subjects of deterioration mechanisms, loss of function for building envelope components and prediction of service life for building envelope components.The purpose of the second part...

  17. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  18. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play......, however, an important role also for the enclosure, and climate and conceptual design procedures have been utilised to include these issues in early design phases. A current architectural trend proposes increasing complexity of the façades and in this context the paper proposes the application of folded...

  19. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... are one issue to consider in planning urban environment and densification of cities. Vibrations can be disturbing for humans but also for sensitive equipment in, for example, hospitals. In determining the risk for disturbing vibrations, the distance between the source and the receiver, the ground...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  20. Prediction of Noise Transmission in Lightweight Building Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    tool to predict the flanking transmission of air-borne and structure borne sound already at the design stage. However, lightweight building structures typically do not meet the requirements for ideal SEA subsystems and, therefore, applying the EN 12354 standard to lightweight building structures may...... papers are carried out as parametric studies in the commercial FE package ABAQUS. Finally, an experimental part, that focuses on the uncertainty and variation in wooden junctions, is included. Ten nominally identical plate/beam T-junctions are tested using experimental modal analysis, and the results...

  1. Forensic Building: Deterioration and Defect in Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic building is needed to examine the affected building structure components to assess the structural integrity. This paper highlights some of the studies involved on affected concrete structures in various building types where the non-destructive test (NDT and destructive tests. The structural integrity can be evaluated based on the extent of deterioration from the experimental results for instance the cause of the corrode reinforcements was due to inadequate concrete cover, whereas the failure of the concrete wall was due to structures’ under design which leads to the collapse of the wall. The condition of the floor slab that experience vibration was assessed from the Laser Doppler Vibrator test (LDV. Based on the test results the peak acceleration of the particular floor slab is higher.

  2. Structuring oil by protein building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke

    2017-01-01

    Over the recent years, structuring of oil into ‘organogels’ or ‘oleogels’ has gained much attention amongst colloid-, material,- and food scientists. Potentially, these oleogels could be used as an alternative for saturated- and trans fats in food products. To develop oleogel

  3. General problems of technical diagnosis of non-metal building structures in explotable buildings and erections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Shtengel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For successful realization of survey it is necessary to solve varioius technical and organizational problems. Each of them influence on completeness and reliability of information and thus, objectivity of conclusions about real state of structures and building as a whole, and also forecasting of its further exploitation. In the article the classification and brief analysis of these problems is given.

  4. D Visualization of a Timber Frame Historic Building: Partite Usage and its Impact on the Structural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, S.

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lifetime, historic buildings might be altered for different kind of usage for different purposes. If this new function or new usage requires utilization of the building in separate units, this separation might affect the historic building's functionality and structure and as a result its overall condition. Yorguc Pasa Mansion conservation project was prepared as a part of the Middle East Technical University (METU) Master's Program in Documentation and Conservation of Historic Monuments and Sites for the historic Yorguc Pasa Mansion. The mansion is a 19th century Ottoman Period timber frame building in Amasya, a Black Sea Region city in Turkey that has traces from different civilizations such as Hittites, Greeks, Romans and Ottomans. This paper aims to discuss the affects of the partite usage on structural conditions of timber frame buildings with the case study of Amasya Yorguc Pasa Mansion through the 3D visualized structural systems.

  5. FEM Updating of the Heritage Court Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, C. E.; Brincker, Rune; Dascotte, E.

    2001-01-01

    . The starting model of the structure was developed from the information provided in the design documentation of the building. Different parameters of the model were then modified using an automated procedure to improve the correlation between measured and calculated modal parameters. Careful attention......This paper describes results of a model updating study conducted on a 15-storey reinforced concrete shear core building. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the building were used to update a finite element model of the structure...... was placed to the selection of the parameters to be modified by the updating software in order to ensure that the necessary changes to the model were realistic and physically realisable and meaningful. The paper highlights the model updating process and provides an assessment of the usefulness of using...

  6. Structural approach for building reconstruction from a single DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Florent; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for building reconstruction from a single Digital Surface Model (DSM). It treats buildings as an assemblage of simple urban structures extracted from a library of 3D parametric blocks (like a LEGO set). First, the 2D-supports of the urban structures are extracted either interactively or automatically. Then, 3D-blocks are placed on the 2D-supports using a Gibbs model which controls both the block assemblage and the fitting to data. A Bayesian decision finds the optimal configuration of 3D-blocks using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler associated with original proposition kernels. This method has been validated on multiple data set in a wide-resolution interval such as 0.7 m satellite and 0.1 m aerial DSMs, and provides 3D representations on complex buildings and dense urban areas with various levels of detail.

  7. Analysis of the structural design process of the adaptive reuse of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of structural building engineering there is a market shift taking place as a result of the growing number of buildings that are listed as cultural heritage, secularization, the economic situation and the increasing office vacancy rate in Europe and the US. More and more structural engin

  8. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organised by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analysed using two different techniques: a non-parametric based on Fre...

  9. Wind-induced sound on buildings and structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploemen, J.C.F.; Nijs, L.; Pleysier, J.A.; Schipper, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind flow around buildings and structures has led to annoying noise levels at several occasions, especially in cases where tonal sound was produced. The human hearing is equipped to distinguish tonal or pulsating sound from random noise patterns, causing tonal or pulsating sound to be perceived as

  10. Structure Building Predicts Grades in College Psychology and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; Daniel, David B.; Jensen, Jamie L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing what skills underlie college success can allow students, teachers, and universities to identify and to help at-risk students. One skill that may underlie success across a variety of subject areas is structure building, the ability to create mental representations of narratives (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990). We tested if…

  11. Structure Building Predicts Grades in College Psychology and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; Daniel, David B.; Jensen, Jamie L.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing what skills underlie college success can allow students, teachers, and universities to identify and to help at-risk students. One skill that may underlie success across a variety of subject areas is structure building, the ability to create mental representations of narratives (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990). We tested if…

  12. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design...... of the base plate is studied for optimizing machinery installation. Furthermore, periodic mounts are optimized for the noise reduction. Finally, a modular model of a lightweight building is developed for design optimization of dimensions and connections of modules in the building for decreasing machinery...

  13. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    , architects and engineers are still hesitant to apply passive cooling techniques. The basic concept of night-time ventilation involves cooling the building structure overnight in order to provide a heat sink during the occupancy period. As this requires a sufficiently high temperature difference between...... a building energy simulation program (HELIOS), and the effect of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Besides climatic...... air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. Heat transfer during night-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room. The performance of night...

  14. Performance Comparison between Structural Element of Building Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Abdul Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Industrialized Building System (IBS was introduced in Malaysia in 1966, but it failed to establish itself on a continuous basis though there has been a sustained large market for residential projects even since. One of the reasons behind this shortcoming is the lack of scientific data on labor productivity that could convince policy maker. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop a standardized data collection methodology for measuring and comparing the conventional building system and IBS in term of labor productivity, crew size and cycle time. Labor productivity (man hours/m2 is defined as the man hours required to complete the structural element of one unit house. A total of 499 data points were obtained from seven residential projects constructed between January 2003 and April 2004. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA indicated that the labor productivity was significantly different between four structural building systems. The mean labor productivity for the conventional building system was 4.20 man hours/m2 followed by cast in-situ table form (2.70 man hours/m2, cast in-situ half tunnel form (1.88 man hours/m2 and pre-cast concrete system (1.33 man hours/m2. Further, the analysis of crew size indicated that the mean crew size of a conventional building system of 24 workers was significantly different from the IBS of 22 workers. However, the crew size within the IBS was found to be insignificant. The cycle time measured in days per house was found to be significantly different between structural building systems with the conventional building system of 4.9 days, cast in-situ table form of 3.9 days, cast in-situ half tunnel form of 2.9 days and pre-cast concrete system for 2.3 days. The labor productivity obtained from this study could be used as a preliminary guideline for a client or consultant to identify the most appropriate building system for executing a construction project and determining the labor requirement in the construction

  15. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  16. Structural evaluation of existing plutonium buildings and auxiliary structures at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Existing plutonium handling and storage buildings at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant were evaluated for their structural resistance to seismic, tornado, and extreme wind loadings and the impact of tornado-driven missiles. This report presents the summary results of the study for all the buildings included in the study and makes preliminary general recommendations for upgrading where needed. Detailed analyses and backup calculations performed for the several buildings are presented in separate reports.

  17. Multi functional roof structures of the energy efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern architectural concepts, which are based on rational energy consumption of buildings and the use of solar energy as a renewable energy source, give the new and significant role to the roofs that become multifunctional structures. Various energy efficient roof structures and elements, beside the role of protection, provide thermal and electric energy supply, natural ventilation and cooling of a building, natural lighting of the indoor space sunbeam protection, water supply for technical use, thus according to the above mentioned functions, classification and analysis of such roof structures and elements are made in this paper. The search for new architectural values and optimization in total energy balance of a building or the likewise for the urban complex, gave to roofs the role of "climatic membranes". Contemporary roof forms and materials clearly exemplify their multifunctional features. There are numerous possibilities to achieve the new and attractive roof design which broadens to the whole construction. With such inducement, this paper principally analyze the configuration characteristics of the energy efficient roof structures and elements, as well as the visual effects that may be achieved by their application.

  18. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  19. Direct Georeferencing of Uav Data Based on Simple Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM). LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS) or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP) data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building's wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an effective tool

  20. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  1. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  2. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R

    2007-05-15

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future.

  3. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAV DATA BASED ON SIMPLE BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV data acquisition is more flexible compared with the more complex traditional airborne data acquisition. This advantage puts UAV platforms in a position as an alternative acquisition method in many applications including Large Scale Topographical Mapping (LSTM. LSTM, i.e. larger or equal than 1:10.000 map scale, is one of a number of prominent priority tasks to be solved in an accelerated way especially in third world developing countries such as Indonesia. As one component of fundamental geospatial data sets, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable detailed spatial planning. However, the accuracy of the products derived from the UAV data are normally not sufficient for LSTM as it needs robust georeferencing, which requires additional costly efforts such as the incorporation of sophisticated GPS Inertial Navigation System (INS or Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU on the platform and/or Ground Control Point (GCP data on the ground. To reduce the costs and the weight on the UAV alternative solutions have to be found. This paper outlines a direct georeferencing method of UAV data by providing image orientation parameters derived from simple building structures and presents results of an investigation on the achievable results in a LSTM application. In this case, the image orientation determination has been performed through sequential images without any input from INS/IMU equipment. The simple building structures play a significant role in such a way that geometrical characteristics have been considered. Some instances are the orthogonality of the building’s wall/rooftop and the local knowledge of the building orientation in the field. In addition, we want to include the Structure from Motion (SfM approach in order to reduce the number of required GCPs especially for the absolute orientation purpose. The SfM technique applied to the UAV data and simple building structures additionally presents an

  4. Preparation of Nickel Materials with Fractal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A way of manufacturing nickel material with fractal structure has been studied. Some algae with natural fractalstructure were used as the basic substrates. The nickel was coated on the substrates by both electroless depositionand electrodeposition. After elimination of the foundational algae by erosion, dissolution etc, the pure nickel materialswith fractal structure were obtained. At last, the specific surface area was analyzed by BET analyses and the fractaldimension of the nickel material was calculated by means of box-counting technique. The comparison of fractaldimension between Ni structure and natural algae was also given.

  5. Occupants' satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul Nizam; Egbu, C O; Zawawi, Emma Marinie Ahmad; Karim, Saipol Bari Abd; Woon, Chen Jia

    2015-05-01

    It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace's building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants' level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants' satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of "user satisfaction" and "degree of importance." The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants' satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building's appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants' satisfaction.

  6. Preliminary Dynamic Siol-Structure-Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wagenblast

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this analysis package is to document a preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation of a simplified design concept of the Wade Handling Building (WHB). Preliminary seismic ground motions and soil data will be used. Loading criteria of the WHB System Design Description will be used. Detail design of structural members will not be performed.. The results of the analysis will be used to determine preliminary sizes of structural concrete and steel members and to determine whether the seismic response of the structure is within an acceptable level for future License Application design of safety related facilities. In order to complete this preliminary dynamic evaluation to meet the Site Recommendation (SR) schedule, the building configuration was ''frozen in time'' as the conceptual design existed in October 1999. Modular design features and dry or wet waste storage features were intentionally excluded from this preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation. The document was prepared in accordance with the Development Plan for the ''Preliminary/Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b), which was completed, in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''.

  7. A novel preparation procedure of future weather datasets for building performance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Chuang, Kai-Han

    2014-05-01

    a given future period under certain climate change scenarios should be identified. The GCMs provided by the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) were used to calculate these changes of every accounted meteorological elements that need to be morphed. Since these GCMs may deviates substantially, one might choose an appropriate GCM prior to the morphing procedure. Therefore, to identify the GCM that project well against actual local climate trends, principle component analysis (PCA) was introduced. First principle component of each GCM predicted weather data as well as the observed data from the same period were obtained by PCA. Afterwards, root mean square deviation (RMSD) was used to identify the GCM that suits local trends. The results show that the morphed TMYs agree well with the observed data during the validation process, revealing that the proposed procedure of future weather preparation for building simulation is reliable and also feasible. Hourly future weather datasets for the purpose of building performance simulation for northern and southern Taiwan with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios covering three future timeframes (i.e. 2030s, 2050s, 2080s) were established and discussed herein.

  8. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  9. The building block approach to airborne pod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan D.

    2011-05-01

    The certification and testing of new airborne structures is a costly undertaking. This paper presents which measures can be taken to limit the cost and certification required in order to improve the capabilities of the current airborne as-sets, by applying a building block approach to the design and certification of airborne pod structures. A simple way of improving aircraft capabilities is by adding external pod structures, which has been performed for many applications over many years. However, this paper describes a truly modular approach, in which a typical airborne pod structure may be reconfigured to many various roles, with only limited re-certification requirements. Using existing or general aerodynamic shapes, the basic outer shape for the external store is defined, which is then combined with a modular substructure which can accommodate a large variety of electronic and/or optical sensors. This also allows the airborne pod structure to perform several intelligence collecting operations during the same sortie, thereby limiting the time spent near the danger area. The re-use of existing substructure modules reduces the cost and leadtime of the design phase allowing for a rapid entry into service. The modular design, relying on proven interface systems between the building blocks, significantly reduces risk involved in new programs. The certification process is also discussed in order to optimize the use of the pod structure modularity and certification requirements in order to simplify the certification task, by drawing similarity to existing designs. Finally the paper covers how modularity is implemented in new composite pod designs with stealth capabilities.

  10. 30 CFR 57.4530 - Exits for surface buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exits for surface buildings and structures. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4530 Exits for surface buildings and structures. Surface buildings or structures in which persons work shall have a sufficient number...

  11. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  12. Preparation and characterization of phase change material for thermal energy storage in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tommy Y.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the developing of novel form-stable composite phase change material (PCM) by incorporation of paraffin into lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The macro-encapsulated Paraffin-lightweight aggregate is a chemical compatible, thermal stable and thermal reliable PCM material for thermal energy storage applications in buildings. The 28 days compressive strength of NWAC using PCM-LWA is 33 - 53 MPa, which has an opportunity for structural purpose. Scanning electronic microscopic images indicated the paraffin can be held inside the porous structure of the aggregate. Thermal performance test showed that the cement paste panel with composite PCM can reduce the indoor temperature.

  13. Ambient Response Analysis of the Heritage Court Tower Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Heritage Court Building structure is presented. The work is a part of a blind test organized by Professor Carlos Ventura, University of British Columbia. The response data were analyses using two different techniques: a non-parametric based...... on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm. Both techniques identified 11 modes under 10 HZ. One case of three close modes and one case of two close modes were identified. For all...

  14. Preparation and Structure of Rainbow Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xing

    2003-01-01

    Rainbow piezoelectric ceramics are a new type of stress-biased, oxide-reduced composite ferroelectric ceramics, which have a special dome structure. The have shown excellent properties such as ultra-high displacement under an applied electric field and enhanced load-bearing capability. In this article, their manufacture,structures and properties were discussed in detail by combining experiments and theory analysis. The resuts show that the optimal conditions for producing Rainbow samples from PLZT ceramics were determined to be 900℃ for 1 to 1.5 hours. A number of different phases have been found in the reduced layer of Rainbow ceramics by XRD analyses . The phases found include metallic lead and other oxide phases , such cs PbO , ZrO2 and TiO2 . The original PLZT phase was not observed. The reduced layer was transgranularly fractured while the unreduced ceramic was intergranularly fractured. Two kinds of fracture types can be seen at the interface , which denotes the different degrees of reduction. It is shown that the Pb grains ( about 0.2 μm ) constitute a continuous phase in the reduced layer, which accounts for the good electrical condnctivity.

  15. IRT in the investigation of buildings and historic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2004-04-01

    Although, the efficiency of IRT (infrared thermography) as a NDT & E technique in the literature it is well documented, in the investigation of historic structures, where a restoration or conservation treatment can cause irreversible damage to the structure, it is considered to be of most importance. IRT is a non-destructive investigation technique that can be widely used due to the outstanding advantages that offers in a number of applications and specifically in the assessment of structural materials and techniques. In the present work, both IRT approaches, passive and active, were used, depending on the application, for the investigation of traditional-historical materials and structures. IRT was applied on restoration and traditional-historic materials and structures for the evaluation of conservation interventions (materials and techniques) concerning cleaning of architectural surfaces, restoration of masonries by repair mortars, as well as the disclosure of tesserae on plastered mosaic surfaces. For this reason, diagnostic studies on historical sites and structures took place. Wherever necessary, the emissivity values of the investigated materials were taken into account, after their determination in the laboratory on representative samples. Furthermore, in order to obtain useful information from the IRT surveys various properties (thermal, optical, physical) of the examined materials were taken into account. The outcome of this work provides strong evidence that IRT is an effective technique for the evaluation of historic buildings and sites.

  16. Preparation of arrays of long carbon nanotubes using catalyst structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Arendt, Paul; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Xiefie

    2016-03-22

    A structure for preparing an substantially aligned array of carbon nanotubes include a substrate having a first side and a second side, a buffer layer on the first side of the substrate, a catalyst on the buffer layer, and a plurality of channels through the structure for allowing a gaseous carbon source to enter the substrate at the second side and flow through the structure to the catalyst. After preparing the array, a fiber of carbon nanotubes may be spun from the array. Prior to spinning, the array can be immersed in a polymer solution. After spinning, the polymer can be cured.

  17. 25 CFR 171.405 - Can I build my own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I build my own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure? 171.405 Section 171.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... own structure or take over responsibility of a BIA structure? You may build a structure on our...

  18. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doglioni, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the behavior of structures yet to come, and to be able to forecast it in part. This process brought some building contrivances to perfection, as exclusive and enduring features of Venice, overcoming changes in style and architectural layout, till they grew into essential elements of a whole and adaptable “device”. This writing is meant for a concise interpretation of this device, which is the result of some research works carried out at Venice IUAV University.

    En este texto, se describen sintéticamente algunas peculiaridades de la edificación residencial de Venecia, analizando su relación con el abanico de problemas estructurales que caracterizan el comportamiento estructural del edificio a lo largo del tiempo. Se aventura la hipótesis que las construcciones venecianas y, en particular, algunos de sus detalles, concebidos específicamente para la laguna donde se enclava, han sido objeto de una adaptación evolutiva a través de la observación de los problemas estructurales de los edificios precedentes. Los alarifes venecianos aprendieron a tener en cuenta el comportamiento estructural posterior del edificio, que previeron en cierta medida. Este proceso ha llevado a perfeccionar algunos detalles constructivos exclusivos de Venecia que han perdurado en el tiempo, que han resistido impertérritos a mutaciones de estilo y de configuración arquitectónica, hasta constituir elementos esenciales de un aparato indivisible y adaptable cuya interpretaci

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Giro-Paloma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample and Micronal® DS 5008 X (BASF samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES capacities were 111.73 J·g−1 and 99.3 J·g−1 for M-2 and Micronal® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus (E, load at maximum displacement (Pm, and displacement at maximum load (hm, concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC’s emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC’s generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal® DS 5008 X.

  20. Use of clinoptilolite for the immobilization of heavy metal ions and preparation of autoclaved building composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozgawa, W., E-mail: mozgawa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Krol, M.; Pichor, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-09-15

    The work presents the results of application of natural clinoptilolite for immobilization of heavy metal cations (Ag{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+}) from aqueous solutions and uses zeolite to prepare autoclaved building composites. Sorption has been conducted on sodium form of natural clinoptilolite originated from Poland. Clinoptilolite (sodium form containing heavy metal cations) has been applied to obtain new building materials which have good physical properties. Samples produced by autoclaving process showed relatively low bulk density (about 1.35 g/cm{sup 3}). The compressive strength depended on the amount of CaO in the initial mixture. Its maximum value was about 40 MPa. The influence of heavy metal cations on the compressive strength values was insignificant (except for the Cr{sup 3+} ions). However, all the cations modified the microstructure and the ordered state of C-S-H phase. Efficiency of Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions immobilization on the mineral matrix was shown. In the work, results of IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observations and technological investigations are presented.

  1. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  2. Preparation of Ionic Silsesquioxanes with Regular Structures and Their Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Kaneko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with our recent studies on the preparation of ionic silsesquioxanes (SQs with regular structures. Cationic ladder-like polySQs (PSQs with hexagonally stacked structures were successfully prepared by the sol-gel reactions of amino group-containing organotrialkoxysilanes in strong acid aqueous solutions. Self-organization of an ion pair (a salt prepared from the amino group in the organotrialkoxysilane and an acid is the key factor for the formation of such regular structures of the PSQs. It is also reported that the control of the conformational structure of the PSQs was performed by the introduction of the chiral moieties. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the of acid-catalysts and the structures of SQs prepared by the hydrolytic condensation of amino group-containing organotrialkoxysilane, that is, the use of the superacid aqueous solution resulted in the formation of cage-like octaSQ, while the ladder-like PSQs with hexagonally stacked structures were formed from the strong acid aqueous solutions under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, anion-exchange behaviors of the cationic ladder-like PSQ were investigated with various organic and inorganic compounds, such as anionic surfactants, a polymer, and layered clay minerals, to obtain the functional hybrid materials.

  3. Playing with structures at the nanoscale: designing catalysts by manipulation of clusters and nanocrystals as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnello, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Gorte, Raymond J

    2013-12-02

    The purpose of this Concept is to highlight some of the most recent and promising methods for the preparation of tailored catalysts by designing and preparing the component building blocks and by assembling them in a controlled fashion. We want to emphasize how rational design and synthesis of catalysts must be coupled to precise catalytic and structural characterization of the systems in an ideal feedback loop. New catalyst design and preparation techniques, dictated by information about the active sites that the specific application requires, are frequently available. The building blocks for developing these novel catalysts include colloidal methods for the preparation of uniform nanostructures, physical methods for rational assembly of the building blocks (Langmuir-Blodgett, liquid-air self-assembly), and development of rational interactions between the building blocks for enhanced activity of the assemblies. These methods, which apply techniques normally used in other fields of nanotechnology to catalysis, offer exciting opportunities to help improve currently available catalytic systems in terms of activity, stability and selectivity.

  4. How Pedagogy 2.0 Can Foster Teacher Preparation and Community Building in Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hardman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how one teacher educator used action research methodology to investigate the feasibility of using Web 2.0 technology to build a virtual professional learning community (PLC in special education to support the preparation of highly qualified special education teachers. Study participants included 218 pre-service and in-service teachers who joined the virtual PLC over a four-year period. Data were collected using two Web 2.0 tools, wiki and Ning, and analyzed to evaluate the degree to which the virtual community met the essential characteristics of a PLC. The results showed that 200 of the 218 graduate students who joined the PLC as graduate students continued their membership after graduation but participated in community work as observers only, rarely if ever contributing anything to community growth and development. The implication of the results are discussed with respect to the importance of preparing teachers for service in today’s modern 21st Century academically diverse, inclusive learning communities.

  5. Protection Measures for Buildings Based on Coordinating Action Theory of Ground, Foundation and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of coordinating action of building ground, foundation and structure, this paper presents a modified method for calculating additional stresses on buildings in mining areas by considering the joint effect of curvature deformation and horizontal deformation on buildings. It points out that for buildings over the coal pillar, it is advisable to soften the intermediate ground of buildings when they are affected by mining. For buildings over the goaf, it is preferable to soften the ground at both ends of buildings. In order to enhance the ability of a building to resist tensile deformation, the key measure is to reinforce the bottom foundation of the building. In addition, the concept of "angle of break of building" is proposed. It is because of this angle that the protecting coal pillar is left, which is a better solution than prevailing solutions The findings provide a more scientific basis for mining under buildings.

  6. Artificial Metalloproteins Exploiting Vacant Space: Preparation, Structures, and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Satoshi; Ueno, Takafumi; Watanabe, Yoshihito

    Molecular design of artificial metalloproteins is one of the most attractive subjects in bioinorganic chemistry. Protein vacant space has been utilized to prepare metalloproteins because it provides a unique chemical environment for application to catalysts and to biomaterials bearing electronic, magnetic, and medical properties. Recently, X-ray crystal structural analysis has increased in this research area because it is a powerful tool for understanding the interactions of metal complexes and protein scaffolds, and for providing rational design of these composites. This chapter reviews the recent studies on the preparation methods and X-ray crystal structural analyses of metal/protein composites, and their functions as catalysts, metal-drugs, etc.

  7. Structure and Interactions of Isolated Biomolecular Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Mattanjah

    2006-03-01

    We investigate biomolecular building blocks and their clusters with each other and with water on a single molecular level. The motivation is the need to distinguish between intrinsic molecular properties and those that result from the biological environment. This is achieved by a combination of laser desorption and jet cooling, applied to aromatic amino acids, small peptides containing those, nucleobases and nucleosides. This approach is coupled with a number of laser spectroscopic techniques, including resonant multi-photon ionization, spectral hole burning and infra-red ion-dip spectroscopy. We will discuss examples illustrating how information can be obtained on spatial structure of individual biomolecules, including peptide conformations and details of DNA base-pairing.

  8. Building Integrated Ontological Knowledge Structures with Efficient Approximation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of ontologies builds knowledge structures which brings new understanding on existing terminologies and their associations. With the steady increase in the number of ontologies, automatic integration of ontologies is preferable over manual solutions in many applications. However, available works on ontology integration are largely heuristic without guarantees on the quality of the integration results. In this work, we focus on the integration of ontologies with hierarchical structures. We identified optimal structures in this problem and proposed optimal and efficient approximation algorithms for integrating a pair of ontologies. Furthermore, we extend the basic problem to address the integration of a large number of ontologies, and correspondingly we proposed an efficient approximation algorithm for integrating multiple ontologies. The empirical study on both real ontologies and synthetic data demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approaches. In addition, the results of integration between gene ontology and National Drug File Reference Terminology suggest that our method provides a novel way to perform association studies between biomedical terms.

  9. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical prebonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  10. A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao

    2006-01-01

    The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.

  11. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the Cookson Doors Company, which had run the Center for many decades. The building was

  12. Sample Preparation Report of the Fourth OPCW Confidence Building Exercise on Biomedical Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udey, R. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Corzett, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alcaraz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Following the successful completion of the 3rd biomedical confidence building exercise (February 2013 – March 2013), which included the analysis of plasma and urine samples spiked at low ppb levels as part of the exercise scenario, another confidence building exercise was targeted to be conducted in 2014. In this 4th exercise, it was desired to focus specifically on the analysis of plasma samples. The scenario was designed as an investigation of an alleged use of chemical weapons where plasma samples were collected, as plasma has been reported to contain CWA adducts which remain present in the human body for several weeks (Solano et al. 2008). In the 3rd exercise most participants used the fluoride regeneration method to analyze for the presence of nerve agents in plasma samples. For the 4th biomedical exercise it was decided to evaluate the analysis of human plasma samples for the presence/absence of the VX adducts and aged adducts to blood proteins (e.g., VX-butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and aged BuChE adducts using a pepsin digest technique to yield nonapeptides; or equivalent). As the aging of VX-BuChE adducts is relatively slow (t1/2 = 77 hr at 37 °C [Aurbek et al. 2009]), soman (GD), which ages much more quickly (t1/2 = 9 min at 37 °C [Masson et al. 2010]), was used to simulate an aged VX sample. Additional objectives of this exercise included having laboratories assess novel OP-adducted plasma sample preparation techniques and analytical instrumentation methodologies, as well as refining/designating the reporting formats for these new techniques.

  13. Preparation, thermal performance and application of shape-stabilized PCM in energy efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Lin, K.P.; Di, H.F.; Jiang, Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Building Science and Technology; Yang, B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) is a kind of novel PCM. It has the following salient features: large apparent specific heat for phase change temperature region, suitable thermal conductivity, keeping shape stabilized in the phase change process and no need for containers. The preparation for such kind material was investigated and its thermophysical properties were measured. Some applications of such material in energy efficient buildings (e.g., in electric under floor space heating system, in wallboard or floor to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing of a day in winter) were studied. Some models of analyzing the thermal performance of the systems were developed, which were validated with the experiments. The following conclusions are obtained: (1) the applications of the novel PCM we put forward are of promising perspectives in some climate regions; (2) by using different paraffin, the melting temperature of shape-stabilized PCM can be adjusted; (3) the heat of fusion of it is in the range of 62-138 kJ kg{sup -1}; (4) for PCM floor or wallboard to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing in a day in winter, the suitable melting temperature of PCM should be a little higher than average indoor air temperature of the room without PCM for the period of sunshine; (5) for the electric under-floor space heating system, the optimal melting temperature can be determined by simulation; (6) PCM layer used in the aforementioned application should not be thicker than 2 cm; (7) the models developed by us are helpful for applications of shape-stabilized PCM in buildings. (author)

  14. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.26 - Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX-19-28).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous building and structures (account XX-19-28). 1242.26 Section 1242.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.26 Miscellaneous building and structures (account...

  17. The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

  18. How to Build Your Network? A Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moskvina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Creating new ties in a social network facilitates knowledge exchange and affects positional advantage. In this paper, we study the process, which we call network building, of establishing ties between two existing social networks in order to reach certain structural goals. We focus on the case when one of the two networks consists only of a single member and motivate this case from two perspectives. The first perspective is socialization: we ask how a newcomer can forge relationships with an existing network to place herself at the center. We prove that obtaining optimal solutions to this problem is NP-complete, and present several efficient algorithms to solve this problem and compare them with each other. The second perspective is network expansion: we investigate how a network may preserve or reduce its diameter through linking with a new node, hence ensuring small distance between its members. We give two algorithms for this problem. For both perspectives the experiment demonstrates that a small number of...

  19. Direct Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions on Structured Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jianing; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Mohan, Hari Krishna Salila Vijayalal; Zhou, Jinyuan; Kim, Young-Jin; Zheng, Lianxi

    2016-12-01

    Leveraging the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) intramolecular junctions (IMJs) in innovative nanodevices and next-generation nanoelectronics requires controllable, repeatable, and large-scale preparation, together with rapid identification and comprehensive characterization of such structures. Here we demonstrate SWNT IMJs through directly growing ultralong SWNTs on trenched substrates. It is found that the trench configurations introduce axial strain in partially suspended nanotubes, and promote bending deformation in the vicinity of the trench edges. As a result, the lattice and electronic structure of the nanotubes can be locally modified, to form IMJs in the deformation regions. The trench patterns also enable pre-defining the formation locations of SWNT IMJs, facilitating the rapid identification. Elaborate Raman characterization has verified the formation of SWNT IMJs and identified their types. Rectifying behavior has been observed by electrical measurements on the as-prepared semiconducting-semiconducting (S-S) junction.

  20. Structure of silicon oxide films prepared by vacuum deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshio; Kaito, Chihiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Naiki, Toshio

    1985-05-01

    The structure of thin silicon oxide films 5 nm in thickness, which were prepared by electron beam evaporation of SiO 2 glass onto a NaCl substrate, has been examined by high resolution electron microscopy and diffraction. Although the films which were prepared with substrate temperatures ranging from room up to 400°C gave rise to amorphous haloes, lattice fringes in areas 1-2 nm in extent were, however, seen in the micrographs. It is shown that the film is composed of α-quartz micro-crystallites. Crystals of α-cristobalite with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared at a substrate temperature of 500°C. At a substrate temperature of 600°C, β-cristobalite crystals with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared. The structural changes due to the substrate temperature were attributed to incorporation of sodium atoms from the substrate into the SiO 2 film.

  1. Agent Types and Structures based on Analysis of Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1997-01-01

    Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented.......Based on an anaysis of building design an initial division of design agent into five classes: information collectors, generators, modifiers amd evaluators is presented....

  2. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  3. Rigidly framed earth retaining structures thermal soil structure interaction of buildings supporting unbalanced lateral earth pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Aboumoussa, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Structures placed on hillsides often present a number of challenges and a limited number of economical choices for site design. An option sometimes employed is to use the building frame as a retaining element, comprising a Rigidly Framed Earth Retaining Structure (RFERS). The relationship between temperature and earth pressure acting on RFERS, is explored in this monograph through a 4.5 year monitoring program of a heavily instrumented in service structure. The data indicated that the coefficient of earth pressure behind the monitored RFERS had a strong linear correlation with temperature. The study also revealed that thermal cycles, rather than lateral earth pressure, were the cause of failure in many structural elements. The book demonstrates that depending on the relative stiffness of the retained soil mass and that of the structural frame, the developed lateral earth pressure, during thermal expansion, can reach magnitudes several times larger than those determined using classical earth pressure theories....

  4. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  5. Elaborately prepared hierarchical structure titanium dioxide for remarkable performance in lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghua; Luo, Dong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered to be a promisingly alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries and thus attracted wide research interest. But, its practical application in lithium-ion batteries is seriously impeded by low capacity and poor rate capability. In the present work, the electrochemical performance of TiO2 is significantly improved by elaborately fabricating hierarchical structures. These as-prepared four hierarchical structure TiO2 assembled by different building blocks (TO2-2 h, TO2-6 h, TO2-18 h and TO2-24 h) all exhibit impressed performance. More importantly, the TO2-6 h constructed by curved nanosheets exhibits the best performance, delivering a capacity of 231.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2C after 200 cycles, and capacities of 187.1 and 129.3 mAh g-1 at 1 and 10C after even 1200 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that design and fabrication of hierarchical structure is an effective strategy for significantly improving the electrochemical performance of TiO2 electrodes, and the electrochemical performance of hierarchical structure TiO2 is heavily dependent on its building blocks. It is suggested that thus excellent electrochemical performance may make TiO2-6 h a promising anode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries with high capacity, good rate capability and long life.

  6. Preparation of porous carbon particle with shell/core structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous carbon particles with a shell/core structure have been prepared successfully by controlled precipitation of the polymer from droplets of oil-in-water emulsion, followed by curing and carbonization. The droplets of the oil phase are composed of phenolic resin (PFR, a good solvent (ethyl acetate and porogen (Poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA. The microstructure was characterized in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The obtained carbon particles have a capsular structure with a microporous carbon shell and a mesoporous carbon core. The BET surface area and porous volume are calculated to be 499 m2g-1 and 0.56 cm3g-1, respectively. The effects of the amount of porogen (PMMA, co-solvent (acetone and surfactant on the resultant structure were studied in detail.

  7. The School Leadership Program Communication Hub: Building Actionable Knowledge about Improving Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myran, Steve; Sanzo, Karen; Clayton, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Recent critics of university-based educational leadership preparations programs have alleged that the programs are out of touch with the contemporary practices of PK-12 school leaders. These complaints about preparation programs have resulted in new and innovative ways to prepare leaders, including the federally funded United States Department of…

  8. [Preparation and structural analysis of diatomite-supported SPFS flocculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-li; Fang, Hui-li; Jiang, Shao-jie; Yang, Chun; Ma, Jiang-ya; Zhang, Zhao-qing

    2011-07-01

    In the presetn study, polymerized ferric sulphate (PFS) flocculant was prepared and tested. In the preparation of PFS flocculant, industrial by-product ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) was reused as the main material. By composition with diatomite and drying up at certain temperature in vacuum drying oven, solid PFS flocculant was produced. Structural characteristics of the new flocculant product were examined through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that by compositing with diatomite, new group bridging emerged in the structure of PFS, which made the bond of groups stronger. In addition, part of the metalic contents in diatomite was polymerized with PFS, the product of which was polymerized ferric complex. Furthermore, the absorbing and agglomerating capacity of the diatomite carrier was significant. Considering the factors listed above, the new solid polymerized ferric sulphate (SPFS) flocculant was characterized with a larger molecule structure and enhanced absorbing, bridging and rolling sweep capacities. Through orthogonal experiment, optimum conditions of synthesis were as follows: the ratio of FeSO4.7H2O/diatomite in weight was 43/1, the reaction time is 1 h and the reaction temperature is 55 degrees C. By wastewater treatment experiment, it was found that the synthetic products showed good flocculation performance in the treatment of domestic sewage, the removal of COD was 80.00% and the removal of turbidity was 99.98%.

  9. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t

  10. Building emergency public information structures for response: Lessons learned from New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    For an effective response, emergency public information operations should be structured to facilitate the provision of timely, accurate, accessible information to the public. A frequent challenge in building a public information structure is identifying the potential staff to allow the operation to get big enough, fast enough. A plan for managing public information operations should define roles to fulfil basic functions (responding to media enquiries, writing materials, disseminating information, media and social media monitoring, community engagement and identifying and addressing rumours). This paper will offer tips for developing a plan and concept of operations for quickly assembling and maintaining public information operations. It will also describe the public information principles implemented during recent incidents in New York City, including the 2015 visit of Pope Francis to New York City. Having a coordinated, flexible model; a trained network of public information officers who are ready to staff public information roles as needed; and a structure that embeds social media into overall public information operations, will leave public information officers and their organisations more prepared to deal with the challenges and opportunities of communicating with the public during emergencies of varying types and sizes.

  11. Vibrations in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a quantification of the changes in vibration level that can be expected in a lightweight multi-storey wooden building due to reduced connection stiffness or added nonstructural mass. Firstly, the impact of changes in the floor-to-wall connections is examined. Secondly, a study...... is performed regarding variations of the vibration level due to different placements of nonstructural mass inside the building. The analyses are carried out by means of a modular three-dimensional finite-element model. Each floor and wall panel is modelled in high detail, including door and window openings...

  12. 50 CFR 260.99 - Buildings and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suspended over exposed food in any step of preparation shall be of the safety type or otherwise protected to... openings. The use of chemical compounds such as cleaning agents, insecticides, bactericides, or...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  14. Metal-oxide based nanoobjects: reactivity, building blocks for polymeric structures and structural variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Roy, Soumyajit

    2002-12-01

    From the unique 'library' of molybdenum-oxide based building blocks/fragments under reducing conditions in aqueous solution a huge variety of nanoobjects, allowing specific reactions at well-defined positions, can be generated. This enables us to perform a new type of nanochemistry. Examples include the well-known molecular big-wheel of the type {Mo176} and big-ball of the type {Mo132} including their derivatives which are considered here. In addition, the by far largest structurally well-characterised cluster having 368 molybdenum atoms with the shape of a lemon is outlined and discussed. The bibliography includes 71 references.

  15. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  16. Preparation, structural, and calorimetric characterization of bicomponent metallic photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Udod, I.; Khayrullin, I. I.; Baughman, R. H.; Zakhidov, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    We report preparation and characterization of novel bicomponent metal-based photonic crystals having submicron three-dimensional (3D) periodicity. Fabricated photonic crystals include SiO2 sphere lattices infiltrated interstitially with metals, carbon inverse lattices filled with metal or metal alloy spheres, Sb inverse lattices, and Sb inverse lattices filled with Bi spheres. Starting from a face centered SiO2 lattice template, these materials were obtained by sequences of either templating and template extraction or templating, template extraction, and retemplating. Surprising high fidelity was obtained for all templating and template extraction steps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the structure and the effects of the structure on calorimetric properties. To the best of our knowledge, SAXS data on metallic photonic crystals were collected for first time.

  17. Preparation, structural, and calorimetric characterization of bicomponent metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, M.E.; Baughman, R.H.; Zakhidov, A.A. [The University of Texas at Dallas, NanoTech Institute, Richardson, TX (United States); Murthy, N.S. [University of Vermont, Department of Physics, Burlington, VT (United States); Udod, I. [Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Fairfield, NJ (United States); Khayrullin, I.I. [eMagin Corporation, Hopewell Junction, NY (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We report preparation and characterization of novel bicomponent metal-based photonic crystals having submicron three-dimensional (3D) periodicity. Fabricated photonic crystals include SiO{sub 2} sphere lattices infiltrated interstitially with metals, carbon inverse lattices filled with metal or metal alloy spheres, Sb inverse lattices, and Sb inverse lattices filled with Bi spheres. Starting from a face centered SiO{sub 2} lattice template, these materials were obtained by sequences of either templating and template extraction or templating, template extraction, and retemplating. Surprising high fidelity was obtained for all templating and template extraction steps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the structure and the effects of the structure on calorimetric properties. To the best of our knowledge, SAXS data on metallic photonic crystals were collected for first time. (orig.)

  18. Magnetization of Steel Building Materials and Structures in the Natural Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Čermáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the physical basis of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials and shows their relationships with external geomagnetic field. It graphically processes the experimental data detected by an HMR magnetometer. Taking into account the natural geomagnetic field under the effects of steel U profiles, variations of the natural geomagnetic field in a steel structure building are indicated and the potential existence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS in these types of buildings is pointed out. 

  19. Systemic Thinking on the Building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoshanLi; MinghuiQian

    2004-01-01

    Taking into consideration the characteristics of nowadays society, this paper has advanced the systemic thinking on the building of Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure. After pointing out, the principles of optimization between theoretic structure and executive structure, this paper has brought forward the Enterprises' "Three Cycle" Integration Structure and its inherent relationship among each cycle.

  20. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  1. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Warren Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  2. Building Footprints - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Footprints are structure footprints generated as polygons from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure points, the...

  3. Methods for designing building envelope components prepared for repair and maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The dissertation consist of five parts:The purpose of the first part is to give the reader an introduction to the subjects of deterioration mechanisms, loss of function for building envelope components and prediction of service life for building envelope components.The purpose of the second part is to describe, compare and criticise the standards, guides and methods dealing with service life prediction which are currently available. The standards are not the only available information regardi...

  4. Approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Natalya; Minaev, Nikolay; Filushina, Kristina; Gusakov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the development of approaches to optimum selection of space-planning and structural solutions of low-rise buildings for different kinds of territories. The aim of the study is to develop a system of criteria that influence the choice of optimum space-planning and structural solutions of buildings and structures aimed at enhancement of capital investment efficiency, energy and resource efficiency and creating comfortable living conditions for people. Developed solutions can be applied during implementation of investment construction projects of low-rise housing at different kinds of territories based on the local building materials.

  5. Designed biodegradable hydrogel structures prepared by stereolithography using poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(D,L-lactide)-based resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Tetsu M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2010-11-20

    Designed three-dimensional biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(D,L-lactide) hydrogel structures were prepared for the first time by stereolithography at high resolutions. A photo-polymerisable aqueous resin comprising PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA-based macromer, visible light photo-initiator, dye and inhibitor in DMSO/water was used to build the structures. Porous and non-porous hydrogels with well-defined architectures and good mechanical properties were prepared. Porous hydrogel structures with a gyroid pore network architecture showed narrow pore size distributions, excellent pore interconnectivity and good mechanical properties. The structures showed good cell seeding characteristics, and human mesenchymal stem cells adhered and proliferated well on these materials.

  6. Eurocodes and the structural safety of existing buildings - Considering the publication of the Dutch NEN 8700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1992 there have been a number of proposals to renew calculation methods available to assess the structural safety of existing buildings. But without operational results. Upon publication of the Eurocodes NL decided to renew and to include them in the Dutch building regulations. The question wa

  7. Eurocodes and the structural safety of existing buildings - Considering the publication of the Dutch NEN 8700

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1992 there have been a number of proposals to renew calculation methods available to assess the structural safety of existing buildings. But without operational results. Upon publication of the Eurocodes NL decided to renew and to include them in the Dutch building regulations. The question

  8. Preparation, structural analysis, and properties of tenoxicam cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jagdishwar R; Carlton, Robert A; Needham, Thomas E; Chichester, Clinton O; Vogt, Frederick G

    2012-10-15

    Cocrystals of tenoxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are screened, prepared, and characterized in this study. Nine tenoxicam cocrystals were identified using solvent-drop grinding (SDG) techniques. Structural characterization was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry, and multinuclear solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Thermal analysis, PXRD, and 1D SSNMR are used to detect solvates and phase mixtures encountered in SDG cocrystal screening. 2D SSNMR methods are then used to confirm cocrystal formation and determine structural aspects for selected cocrystals formed with saccharin, salicylic acid, succinic acid, and glycolic acid in comparison to Forms I and III of tenoxicam. Molecular association is demonstrated using cross-polarization heteronuclear dipolar correlation (CP-HETCOR) methods involving (1)H and (13)C nuclei. Short-range (1)H-(13)C CP-HETCOR and (1)H-(1)H double-quantum interactions between atoms of interest, including those engaged in hydrogen bonding, are used to reveal local aspects of the cocrystal structure. (15)N SSNMR is used to assess ionization state and the potential for zwitterionization in the selected cocrystals. The tenoxicam saccharin cocrystal was found to be similar in structure to a previously-reported cocrystal of piroxicam and saccharin. The four selected cocrystals yielded intrinsic dissolution rates that were similar or reduced relative to tenoxicam Form III.

  9. VIBRATION OF FRAME BUILDING STRUCTURES CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  10. Power systems and electromagnetic safety in of powerful utility buildings and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. Запорожець

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  Researching of origin terms of electromagnetic contaminations from the unbalanced currents and leak currents in the industrial networks of electric supply of structures and buildings saturated energy.

  11. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube-building polychaete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Rabaut, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Borsje, B.W.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study how organism traits and population densities of ecosystem engineering species, in combination withenvironmental factors, affect the formation and erosion rates of biogeomorphological structures, and focus on thewidely distributed marine tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega, which live

  12. System identification of a building alone with the effect of dynamic soil-structure interaction eliminated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Yukio [Kajima Corp., Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Yano, Tatsuo [Kajima Corp., Nuclear Power Department, Tokyo (Japan); Iguchi, Michio [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Kitada, Yoshio [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    High-rigidity and heavy buildings such as reactor buildings usually have large soil-structure interaction effect in its dynamic response. In such cases, spectrum ratio of the top of the building to the bottom for horizontal motion gives different result from the dynamic characteristics of the building under fixed-base condition because the effect of the rocking motion of the base is not eliminated. This paper presented a new method for such problems; applied it to a ground blast vibration, microtremors and forced vibration test results; and transfer functions of the building for fixed-base condition were obtained. The proposed method can be applied when the exciter is set at the upper part of the buildings. (author)

  13. Technical, economic and environmental investigation of using district heating to prepare domestic hot water in Chinese multi-storey buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2016-01-01

    utilizes the industrial waste heat to prepare DHW via the DH network. A building model of a multi-storey building in Beijing was developed to investigate the technical feasibility. An economic evaluation was made using net present value to compare the annualized cost for individual water heaters and flat......The development of DH (District Heating) is an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient strategy in China. Currently, the vast majority of DH systems are SH (Space Heating) only and do not provide DHW (Domestic Hot Water). DHW is mainly produced by individual water heaters due to the cost......-effective issues of the centralized DHW systems. From the perspective of long-term development, DHW produced via DH systems would be more sustainable because DH is an important precondition for an environmental safe use of domestic waste fuels. This paper presents an approach that uses flat stations meanwhile...

  14. probabilistic approach to structural appraisal of a building during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Abstract. Probabilistic assessment methods are very attractive as they allow a systematic treatment of ... predict the reliability of concrete in a structure under construction, a case study of Laboratory ... Structural quality is a function of human ...

  15. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Perry Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  16. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  17. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  18. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  19. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  20. Building Footprints - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  1. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  2. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  3. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Iron Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  4. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Madison Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  5. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Perry Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  6. Building Footprints - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  7. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Iron Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  8. Building Footprints - MO 2012 Madison Structure Footprints (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized polygons on all roofed structures larger than standard domicile structure size at a scale of 1:2000 using...

  9. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  10. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  11. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R; Praveen, P

    2014-07-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  12. Coordination polymer core/shell structures: Preparation and up/down-conversion luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingmei; Xu, Hualan; Xiao, Chen; Shuai, Min; Chen, Weimin; Zhong, Shengliang

    2016-10-01

    Coordination polymer (CP) core-shell nanoparticles with Gd-based CP (GdCP) as core and Eu-based CP (EuCP) as shell have been successfully prepared. Allantoin was employed as the organic building block without the assistance of any template. The composition, size and structure of the core-shell nanospheres were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG). Results show that the resultant cores are uniform nanospheres with diameter of approximately 45nm, while the diameters of the core-shell nanospheres are increased to approximately 60nm. The core-shell products show enhanced luminescence efficiency than the core under 980nm laser excitation and decreased down-conversion luminescence when excited at 394nm.

  13. An Efficient Seismic Analysis Procedure for Torsionally Coupled Multistory Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEBİ, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified methodology of analysis for the seismic response of 3-dimensional irregular high-rise buildings on a rigid footing resting on the surface of a linear elastic half-space is formulated. An efficient method using modal decomposition and carried out in the frequency domain by using the fast Fourier transform to obtain the structural response of torsionally asymmetric buildings, including soil-structure interaction effects, is presented. Applying this algorithm...

  14. Composite structures of steel and concrete beams, slabs, columns, and frames for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out the basic principles of composite construction with reference to beams, slabs, columns and frames, and their applications to building structures. It deals with the problems likely to arise in the design of composite members in buildings, and relates basic theory to the design approach of Eurocodes 2, 3 and 4.The new edition is based for the first time on the finalised Eurocode for steel/concrete composite structures.

  15. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Polystyrene-Rectorite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Peng-fei; Liu Li-ming; Zhang Ming; Zhang Shao-ping; Wang Bo; Wang Shao-jie

    2003-01-01

    The polystyrene/rectorite nanocomposites were prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene containing dispersed organophilic rectorite. The structures and thermal properties of these hybrids have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. It was found that exfoliation of rectorite in polystyrene (PS) matrix was achieved. The average free-volume radius in the PS/clay nanocomposites is generally same as that in PS. Along with increment of rectorite contents, the interface between rectorite and polystyrene matrix increases, and the free-volume concentration decreases obviously. And the polystyrene nanocomposites have higher thermal decomposition temperature than pure PS.

  16. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Polystyrene-Rectorite Nanocornposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangPeng-fei; LiuLi-ming; ZhangMlng; ZhangShao-ping; WangBo; WangShao-jie

    2003-01-01

    The polystyrene/reetorite nanocomposites were prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene containing dispersed organophilic rectorite. The structures and thermal properties of these hybrids have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and thermal gmvimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. It was found that exfoliation of reetorite in polystyrene (PS) matrix was achieved. The average free-volume radius in the PS/clay nanocomposites is generally same as that in PS. Along with increment of reetorite contents, the interface between reetorite and polystyrene matrix increases, and the free-volume concentration decreases obviously. And the polystyrene nanocomposites have higher thermal deeomrosition temoemture than oure PS.

  17. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Electronic business in the Building-Construction (BC) industry: Preparing for the new Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.; Böhms, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the objectives and initial results of the European 5th Framework eConstruct project (IST-10303). The aim of eConstruct is to develop, implement, apply and disseminate an XML vocabulary (bcXML) for the European Building-Construction (BC) industry. This new Communication Technology

  19. HYPERSTATIC STRUCTURE MAPPING MODEL BUILDING AND OPTIMIZING DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gening; GAO Youshan; ZHANG Xueliang; YANG Ruigang

    2007-01-01

    Hyperstatic structure plane model being built by structural mechanics is studied. Space model precisely reflected in real stress of the structure is built by finite element method (FEM) analysis commerce software. Mapping model of complex structure system is set up, with convenient calculation just as in plane model and comprehensive information as in space model. Plane model and space model are calculated under the same working condition. Plane model modular construction inner force is considered as input data; Space model modular construction inner force is considered as output data. Thus specimen is built on input data and output data. Character and affiliation are extracted through training specimen, with the employment of nonlinear mapping capability of the artificial neural network. Mapping model with interpolation and extrapolation is gained, laying the foundation for optimum design. The steel structure of high-layer parking system (SSHLPS) is calculated as an instance. A three-layer back-propagation (BP) net including one hidden layer is constructed with nine input nodes and eight output nodes for a five-layer SSHLPS. The three-layer structure optimization result through the mapping model interpolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis, and seven layers structure through the mapping model extrapolation contrasts with integrity re-analysis. Any layer SSHLPS among 1~8 can be calculated with much accuracy. Amount of calculation can also be reduced if it is applied into the same topological structure, with reduced distortion and assured precision.

  20. Fuzzy logic control of the building structure with CLEMR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Cheng; Xu, Zhao-Dong; Huang, Xing-Huai; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2013-04-01

    The semi-active control technology has been paid more attention in the field of structural vibration control due to its high controllability, excellent control effect and low power requirement. When semi-active control device are used for vibration control, some challenges must be taken into account, such as the reliability and the control strategy of the device. This study presents a new large tonnage compound lead extrusion magnetorheological (CLEMR) damper, whose mathematical model is introduced to describe the variation of damping force with current and velocity. Then a current controller based on the fuzzy logic control strategy is designed to determine control currents of the CLEMR dampers rapidly. A ten-floor frame structure with CLEMR dampers using the fuzzy logic control strategy is built and calculated by using MATLAB. Calculation results show that CLEMR dampers can reduce the seismic responses of structures effectively. Calculation results of the fuzzy logic control strategy are compared with those of the semi-active limit Hrovat control structure, the passive-off control structure, and the uncontrolled structure. Comparison results show that the fuzzy logic control strategy can determine control currents of CLEMR dampers quickly and can reduce seismic responses of the structures more effectively than the passive-off control strategy and the uncontrolled structure.

  1. Input data for the natural fire design of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Cajot, L.-G.; Schleich, J.-B.; Joyeux, D.; Kruppa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, structural fire safety design is based on conventionally rather than on physically based thermal actions. This certainly holds for the international standards in the field, see e.g. [1]. Therefore, the release of Eurocode 1, part 2-2: "Actions on structures exposed to fire" [2], shoul

  2. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Correlation Technique to Monitor Structural Damage of Old Buildings under External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of buildings to resist external excitation is an important factor to consider for the structural design of buildings. When subject to external excitation, a building may suffer a certain degree of damages, and its residual capacity to resist external excitation cannot be evaluated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method combined with parameter evaluation available in system identification is used to evaluate the structural capacity to resist external excitation. The results reveal possible building latent safety problems so that timely structural reinforcement or dismantling of the building can be initiated to alleviate further damages. The results of experiments using the proposed method conform to the results obtained using the conventional method, but this method is more convenient and rapid than the latter in the subsequent procedure of data processing. If only the frequency change is used, the damages suffered by the building can be detected, but the damage location is not revealed. The interstory drift mode shape (IDMS based on the characteristic of story drift has higher sensitivity than the approximate story damage index (ADSI method based on modal frequency and vibration type; however, both indices can be used to determine the degree and location of building damages.

  3. Structural system identification of buildings by a wave method based on a layered Timoshenko beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mahdi; Todorovska, Maria I.

    2014-03-01

    A layered Timoshenko beam (TB) model of a high-rise building is presented and applied to system identification of a full-scale building from recorded seismic response. This model is a new development in a wave method for earthquake damage detection and structural health monitoring being developed by the authors' research group. The method is based on monitoring changes in the wave properties of the structure, such as the velocity of wave propagation vertically through the structure. This model is an improvement over the previously used layered shear beam (SB) model because it accounts for wave dispersion caused by flexural deformation present in addition to shear. It also accounts for the rotatory inertia and the variation of the building properties with height. The case study is a 54-story steel frame building located in downtown Los Angeles. Recorded accelerations during the Northridge earthquake of 1994 are used for system identification of the NS response. The model parameters are identified by matching, in the least squares sense, the model and observed impulse response functions at all levels where motion was recorded. The model is then used to compute the building vertical phase and group velocities. Impulse responses computed by deconvolution of the recorded motions with the roof response are used, which represent the building response to a virtual source at the roof. The better match of transfer-function amplitudes of the fitted TB model than of previously fitted SB model indicates that the layered TB model is a better physical model for this building.

  4. Building bridges between cellular and molecular structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Brandt, Robert; Butcher, Sarah J; Collinson, Lucy; Gault, David; Grünewald, Kay; Hecksel, Corey; Huiskonen, Juha T; Iudin, Andrii; Jones, Martin L; Korir, Paul K; Koster, Abraham J; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Lawson, Catherine L; Mastronarde, David; McCormick, Matthew; Parkinson, Helen; Rosenthal, Peter B; Saalfeld, Stephan; Saibil, Helen R; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Solanes Valero, Irene; Subramaniam, Sriram; Swedlow, Jason R; Tudose, Ilinca; Winn, Martyn; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2017-07-06

    The integration of cellular and molecular structural data is key to understanding the function of macromolecular assemblies and complexes in their in vivo context. Here we report on the outcomes of a workshop that discussed how to integrate structural data from a range of public archives. The workshop identified two main priorities: the development of tools and file formats to support segmentation (that is, the decomposition of a three-dimensional volume into regions that can be associated with defined objects), and the development of tools to support the annotation of biological structures.

  5. Building Points - MO 2014 Barton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  6. Building Points - MO 2014 Camden Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  7. Building Points - MO 2014 Dade Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  8. Building Points - MO 2014 Clark Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  9. Building Points - MO 2014 Audrain Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  10. Building Points - MO 2014 Bates Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  11. Building Points - MO 2014 Benton Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  12. Building Points - MO 2014 Butler Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  13. Building Points - MO 2014 Christian Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  14. Building Points - MO 2011 Lincoln Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  15. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Francois Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  16. Building Points - MO 2012 Revised Boone Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff provided project management and worked with the Mid-MO RPC to locate "structures" within their region. MSDIS staff identified and located all “binary”...

  17. Building Points - MO 2012 St. Genevieve Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  18. Building Points - MO 2011 Warren Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  19. Building Points - MO 2011 Montgomery Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MSDIS staff identified and located all ?binary? structures and compiled them into a spatial database. Annual review and maintenance of the database will occur with...

  20. Building Points - MO 2012 Perry Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  1. Building Points - MO 2012 Cape Girardeau Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  2. Building Points - MO 2012 Iron Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  3. Building Points - MO 2012 Madison Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  4. Building Points - MO 2012 Bollinger Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed categorized points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  5. Building Points - MO 2014 Andrew Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Staff at the Geographic Resources Center placed attributed points on all roofed structures visible at a scale of 1:2000 using MSDIS-DOQQ 2008 2-foot aerial imagery...

  6. Preparing FCS Professionals for a Multilingual Society: Building Community through the Experiences of Multilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…

  7. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  8. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF EXISTING MID-RISE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İNEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Turkey has been hit by devastating earthquakes and remarkable number of reinforced concrete buildings has been damaged in the high seismicity regions of our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings that are major part of building stock of our earthquake-prone country, according to recent Turkish Earthquake Code. 4- and 7-story buildings were selected to represent mid-rise building stock. After determining the structural parameters, each building was subjected to pushover analysis and the capacity curves were obtained. Earthquake performance of each building was determined in the light of their capacity curves according to the recent Turkish Earthquake Code.

  9. Automatic Generation of Structural Building Descriptions from 3D Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochmann, Sebastian; Vock, Richard; Wessel, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    scans to derive high-level architectural entities like rooms and doors. Starting with a registered 3D point cloud, we probabilistically model the affiliation of each measured point to a certain room in the building. We solve the resulting clustering problem using an iterative algorithm that relies......We present a new method for automatic semantic structuring of 3D point clouds representing buildings. In contrast to existing approaches which either target the outside appearance like the facade structure or rather low-level geometric structures, we focus on the building’s interior using indoor...

  10. Optimization of time-delayed feedback control of seismically excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-ping LI; Wei-qiu ZHU; Zu-guang YING

    2008-01-01

    An optimization method for time-delayed feedback control of partially observable linear building structures subjected to seismic excitation is proposed. A time-delayed control problem of partially observable linear building structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is formulated and converted into that of completely observable linear structure by using separation principle. The time-delayed control forces are approximately expressed in terms of control forces without time delay. The control system is then governed by Ito stochastic differential equations for the conditional means of system states and then transformed into those for the conditional means of modal energies by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems. The control law is assumed to be modal velocity feedback control with time delay and the unknown control gains are determined by the modal performance indices. A three-storey building structure is taken as example to illustrate the proposal method and the numerical results are confirmed by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Analysis of the influence of the block in the dynamic properties of domestic buildings with masonry structure

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Vicente, Enrique; Sánchez Sánchez, José; Rodríguez León, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. The modal analysis of a building, performed by finite element method, is usually made in a building isolated model. In the case of traditional buildings with masonry structure, this simplification can be very unrealistic, particularly in the case of buildings with shared party walls. The influence of the adjacent buildings, in the modal results of domestic masonry buildin...

  12. Preparation of Styrene-acrylate Latex Used in Ultra-low VOC Building Internal Wall Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lijun; WU Fengqin; ZHUANG Xinyu; YANG Jian; LI Rongxian

    2008-01-01

    Styrene-acrylate latex with high glass transition temperature(Tg),low minimum film forming temperature(MFT)and good stability was prepared via core-shell emulsion polymerization.With semicontinuous process,high conversion rate of monomer and low gel rate were achieved.The weight ratio of core monomer to shell monomer was approximately 1.35.It is found that many factors such as emulsifiers,initiators,reaction temperature,pH value and polymerization technology have influences on the permormance of styrene-acrylate latex.The prepared latex was characterized by TEM and FTIR.The obtained latex with T of20.57℃,MFT of 5.0℃,and good stability,had good stability of film forming.

  13. Preparation and Crystal Structure of Acetyl Hemerocallin and Structural Revision of Hemerocallin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ze; WU Jie; ZHU Yu; DU Chen-xia; CHANG Jun-biao; XIE Jing-xi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To revise the structure of hemerocallin,an active and toxic compound isolated from the roots of Hemerocallis fulva,which was first reported in 1974 based on the chemical and spectral data.Methods The structure of acetyl hemerocallin was determined through the acetyl derivative preparing and X-ray diffraction.Results The title compound acetyl hemerocallin (1) has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction method.X-ray analysis revealed that the two naphthalene rings in compound 1 were significantly twisted with an average dihedral angle of 44.1°.The two acetate groups in each naphthalene ring adopted anti-parallel conformation.In addition,the π-π stacking interactions were found in the crystal structure,the molecules were linked into a supramolecular network,and the crystal structure was stabilized.Conclusion The structure of hemerocallin is identified as 2,2'-bi(1,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-acetylnaphthalene) (3).

  14. Cumulative and Segmented Learning: Exploring the Role of Curriculum Structures in Knowledge-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The present article extends Basil Bernstein's theorisation of "discourses" and "knowledge structures" to explore the potential of educational knowledge structures to enable or constrain cumulative learning, where students can transfer knowledge across contexts and build knowledge over time. It offers a means of overcoming…

  15. Quick assessment tool for assurance of structural safety in the building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Jansen, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    From forensic investigation it is known that many structural failures can be attributed to human errors and organizational factors. To provide project leaders with information on the current state of factors in the building process influencing structural safety, we developed a quick assessment tool.

  16. Bilberry xyloglucan - novel building blocks containing ß-xylose within a complex structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Jong, de L.E.; Kabel, M.A.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bilberries are known to have one of the most complex xyloglucan structures described in the plant kingdom until now. To characterise this structure, xyloglucans were enzymatically degraded and the oligosaccharides obtained were analysed. More than 20 different building blocks were found to make up t

  17. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design ...

  18. 3D engineered fiberboard : a new structural building product

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    To help meet the need for sustainable forest management tools, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory is developing an economically viable process to produce three-dimensional structural fibreboard products that can utilize a wide range of lignocellulosic fibres contained in the forest undergrowth and in underutilized timber. This will encourage the public and private...

  19. Electric-Arc Plasma Installation for Preparing Nanodispersed Carbon Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. STEFANOV; D. GARLANOV; G. VISSOKOV

    2008-01-01

    An electric-arc plasma installation operated in the hidden anode arrangement is constructed and used for the preparation of carbon nanostructures. A contracted plasma arc gen-erated by a plasma torch using an inert gas is used as heat source. The average mass temperature of arc is higher than 104 K, while its power density, which is directly transferred onto the electrode (anode), is ~ 2 kW/mm2. The anode contact area formed on the electrode moves against the arc by way of shifting the electrode and is hidden completely in the interior of plasma gas stream moving towards it. As a result of both the direct plasma attack and the opposite movement of streams in the hidden anode contact area, a temperature higher than 6000 K is reached. Thus, intensive vaporization takes place, which forms a saturated plasma-gas-aerosol phase of the initial material of electrode (anode). This gas phase is mixed in and carried by the plasma stream. Over that mixed plasma stream, a controlled process of quenching (fixation) is carried out by twisted turbulent fluid streams. After the fixation, the resultant carbon nano-structures are caught by a filter and collected in a bunker.

  20. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Wikman, Stefan; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed.

  1. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  2. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as in...

  3. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed. - Highlights: • The mechanical properties of SS316L made by selective laser melting fulfill RCC-MR. • SLM SS316L consists hierarchical structures of high heterogeneity. • Silicon rich oxide nano-inclusions are formed unexpectedly during SLM process. • Cellular structure and oxide nano-inclusions strengthen SLM SS316L.

  4. Preparation and structure characteristics of nano-Bi2O3 powders with mixed crystal structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    The nano-Bi2 O3 powders were prepared by a chemical precipitation method with Bi(NO3)3, H NO3 and NaOH as reactants. The structural characteristics and morphology of nano-Bi2O3 powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that under the optimum condition that 300 g/L Bi(NO3)3 reacts at 90 ℃ for 2 h, the Bi2O3 powders with 60 nm on the average and 99.5% in purity are obtained. The prepared nano-Bi2 O3 powders contain a mixed crystal structure of monoclinic and triclinic in stead of traditional structure of monoclinic α-Bi2 O3. And the mixed crystal structure is stable in air. The reason for the appearance of the mixed crystal structure may be that the ionic radius ratio of Bi3+ to O2- changes easily during the formation of nano-Bi2 O3 particles by a chemical precipitation method.

  5. Building a Data Store with the Dynamic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Artamonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of approaches to data warehouse construction based on relational and NoSQL solutions and lists the limitations of the relational approach to data mining. The contradiction between data presentation in the real subject domain and the model of data presentation in the relational and NoSQL approaches is revealed. The revealed contradiction is related to the temporality of the values of individual data attributes, the variability of the composition of these attributes, and structure of connections between them. A new logical model of the data warehouse with dynamic structure is proposed. The model is based on the concept of the object as a container for properties storage. Each property of the object includes the property name and two property values without reference and with reference, that are relevant at a given time. The reference property value points to an object whose name is interpreted as the value of the property at a given time. A formal description of the model with allocation of the necessary functionality to manipulate objects and their properties (selectors, predicates, constructors is given and the necessary control structures are introduced. Substantiation of the proposed model, called an OP-model is given on the basis of compliance with the logical ER data model. It is proved that any ER data model can be implemented in the OP-model. At the same time, the advantages of the OP-model are indicated, they are associated with the possibility of changing connections between entities due to changes in the reference value at a particular time. The potential for scalability of data warehouse due to the unique identification of each object is noted. 

  6. Seismic design or retrofit of buildings with metallic structural fuses by the damage-reduction spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shuchuan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the structural fuse has become an important issue in the field of earthquake engineering. Due to the trilinearity of the pushover curve of buildings with metallic structural fuses, the mechanism of the structural fuse is investigated through the ductility equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system, and the corresponding damage-reduction spectrum is proposed to design and retrofit buildings. Furthermore, the controlling parameters, the stiffness ratio between the main frame and structural fuse and the ductility factor of the main frame, are parametrically studied, and it is shown that the structural fuse concept can be achieved by specific combinations of the controlling parameters based on the proposed damage-reduction spectrum. Finally, a design example and a retrofit example, variations of real engineering projects after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures using buckling restrained braces as the structural fuses.

  7. Uncertainties in predicting structure-borne sound power input into buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B M

    2013-05-01

    There has been a steady development of methods of measurement and prediction of structure-borne noise in buildings, particularly over the last two decades. In proposing and evaluating these methods, a major consideration has been the likely trade-off between accuracy and simplicity. Structure-borne sound transmission is a more complicated process than airborne sound transmission, but practitioners seek methods of prediction for the former, which are as straightforward as for the latter. In this paper a description is given of a study of multi-contact sources in buildings. The study concentrates on measurement and calculation procedures for sources and calculation procedures for receiver structures, particularly lightweight building elements. Although the study is not exhaustive, the findings point to the limitations of simplified methods, specifically the uncertainties likely as a result of reducing the data sets and computational effort, and the discrepancies resulting from simplifying assumptions.

  8. Towards composite spheres as building blocks for structured molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Pellicane, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    In order to design a flexible molecular model that mimics the chemical moieties of a polyatomic molecule, we propose the ‘composite-sphere’ model that can assemble the essential elements to produce the structure of the target molecule. This is likened to the polymerization process where monomers assemble to form the polymer. The assemblage is built into the pair interaction potentials which can ‘react’ (figuratively) with selective pieces into various bonds. In addition, we preserve the spherical symmetries of the individual pair potentials so that the isotropic Ornstein-Zernike equation (OZ) for multi-component mixtures can be used as a theoretical framework. We first test our approach on generating a dumbbell molecule. An equimolar binary mixture of hard spheres and square-well spheres are allowed to react to form a dimer. As the bond length shrinks to zero, we create a site-site model of a Janus-like molecule with a repulsive moiety and an attractive moiety. We employ the zero-separation (ZSEP) closure to solve the OZ equations. The structure and thermodynamic properties are calculated at three isotherms and at several densities and the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The close agreement achieved demonstrates that the ZSEP closure is a reliable theory for this composite-sphere fluid model. Contribution to the George Stell Memorial Issue.

  9. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Design, Construction, and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the seismic retrofit of a multiple building structure belonging to the Hospital Centre of Avellino (Italy. At first, the paper presents the preliminary investigations, the in situ measurements and laboratory tests, and the seismic assessment of the existing fixed-base structures. Having studied different strategies, base isolation proved to be the more appropriate, also for the possibility offered by the geometry of the building to easily create an isolation interface at the ground level. The paper presents the design project, the construction process, and the details of the isolation intervention. Some specific issues of base isolation for seismic retrofitting of multiple building structures were lightened. Finally, the seismic assessment of the base-isolated building was carried out. The seismic response was evaluated through nonlinear time-history analysis, using the well-known Bouc-Wen model as the constitutive law of the isolation bearings. For reliable dynamic analyses, a suite of natural accelerograms compatible with acceleration spectra of Italian Code was first selected and then applied along both horizontal directions. The results were finally used to address some of the critical issues of the seismic response of the base-isolated multiple building structure: accidental torsional effects and potential poundings during strong earthquakes.

  10. Nanoemulsions: Preparation, Structure, Functional Properties and their Antimicrobial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Shams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, due to the interest of healthy lifestyle demand for research on novel methods of increasing the shelf-life of food products without the necessity of using preservatives has extended rapidly in the world. Ability of nanoemulsions to improve global food quality has attracted great attention in food preservation. This is as a result of a number ofattributes peculiar to nanoemulsions such as optical clarity, ease ofpreparation, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. This review discusses the potential food applications of nanoemulsions as vehicles for the delivery of antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, the preparation, structure, and functional properties of nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial effects on foodborne pathogens and biofilms will be reviewed in detail. Antimicrobial nanoemulsions are formulated from the antimicrobial compounds that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for use in foods.Results and Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions is nonspecific, unlike that of antibiotics, thus they have a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus, enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV, and herpes simplex, fungi (e.g., Candida, Dermatophytes, and spores (e.g., anthrax at concentrations that are nontoxic in animals (while limiting the capacity for the generation of resistance and kill pathogens by interacting with their membranes. This physical kill-on-contact mechanism significantly reduces the possibility of the emergence of resistant strains. In general, more research is needed to improve the application processes of antimicrobial nanoemulsion, especially sensory aspects, to be appropriate for each product.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  11. Atomic structure and handedness of the building block of a biological assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loquet, Antoine; Habenstein, Birgit; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-12-26

    Noncovalent supramolecular assemblies possess in general several unique subunit-subunit interfaces.The basic building block of such an assembly consists of several subunits and contains all unique interfaces. Atomic-resolution structures of monomeric subunits are typically accessed by crystallography or solution NMR and fitted into electron microscopy density maps. However, the structure of the intact building block in the assembled state remains unknown with this hybrid approach. Here, we present the solid-state NMR atomic structure of the building block of the type III secretion system needle. The building block structure consists of a homotetrameric subunit complex with three unique supramolecular interfaces. Side-chain positions at the interfaces were solved at atomic detail. The high-resolution structure reveals unambiguously the helical handedness of the assembly, determined to be right-handed for the type III secretion system needle.Additionally, the axial rise per subunit could be extracted from the tetramer structure and independently validated by mass-per-length measurements.

  12. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  13. Building classroom and organizational structure around positive cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Badr F.; Corbo, Joel C.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Little, Angela; Zaniewski, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students-especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program and fall/spring seminar courses. We describe Compass's cultural values, discuss how community members are introduced to and help shape those values, and demonstrate how a single set of values informs the structure of both our classroom and organization. We emphasize that all members of the Compass community participate in, and benefit from, our cultural values, regardless of status as student, teacher, or otherwise.

  14. Building Classroom and Organizational Structure Around Positive Cultural Values

    CERN Document Server

    Albanna, Badr F; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R; Little, Angela; Zaniewski, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    The Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students-especially those from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. Compass fosters a diverse, collaborative student community by providing a wide range of services, including a summer program and fall/spring seminar courses. We describe Compass's cultural values, discuss how community members are introduced to and help shape those values, and demonstrate how a single set of values informs the structure of both our classroom and organization.We emphasize that all members of the Compass community participate in, and benefit from, our cultural values, regardless of status as student, teacher, or otherwise.

  15. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  16. Prediction of Noise Transmission in Lightweight Building Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    groups, where one group shows pass band/stop band behavior, while the other has a nearly uniform distribution of modes. The suggested approach for SEA adaptation is to consider a ribbed plate as two SEA subsystems: One that contains modes related to waves traveling in the direction orthogonal to the ribs......, while the other subsystem contains modes related to waves traveling parallel to the rib stiffeners. The investigations utilize Monte Carlo simulations to examine the behavior of nominally identical plates. Next, two papers that utilize the Finite-Element Method, focusing on aspects of modeling ribbed...... full three-dimensional, solid continuum finite-elements. When using structural elements such as beams and shells, couplings may be modeled as either line or point coupling. However, when utilizing full three-dimensional, solid finite-elements, the scenario is not that simple. The investigations of both...

  17. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  18. Structural design of a two storey office building and production facility

    OpenAIRE

    Nučič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The Graduation Thesis shows the process of structural analysis and design of key elements of the steel structure. The building has a rectangular floor shape, dimensions of 12.10 m and 32.20 m. Building height is 9.50 m. Construction is a two storey facility. On the ground floor is planed production and storage unit, on the first floor there would be offices. The project is designed in accordance with the valid European standards Eurocodes and related Slovenian national annex. Design of struct...

  19. METHOD AND DEVICE FOR REMOVING AN IONIC IMPURITY FROM BUILDING STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing an ionic impurity from building structures comprising the steps of: forming at least one electrode unit (2, 3) by mixing a clay compound with an ion exchange component; placing at least one anode (4) and at least one cathode (5) at the same or separate......). The invention further relates to a device for removing an ionic impurity from building structures, the device including electrode units (2, 3) consisting of at least one electrode being an anode) (4) or a cathode (5) and at least one buffer component arranged in a poultice (8) including an ion exchange...

  20. Computational prediction and control of energy consumption for heating in building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Petra; Vala, Jiří

    2017-07-01

    The significance of reasonable prediction and control of energy consumption in building structures follows from the natural requirements of the development of new materials, structures and technologies, as well as from the formal ones from European directives. This paper presents the method based on the generalized multiplicative Fourier decomposition, applied to a model of a building as certain thermal system. The design of the computational algorithm highlights the important contribution of solar radiation, as well as the design and control of the heating equipments. One illustrative numerical example shows the results of the practical implementation of this algorithm in the MATLAB environment.

  1. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  2. Behaviour of AR glass fibre for building structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miravete, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The AR glass reinforcement fibres were designed to resist the alkalis from the concrete. This is the main reason for its utilisation as a short-fibre-reinforcement of mortar and concrete for the last decades. Originally, the AR glass fibre sizing was not compatible with synthetic resins, so that this type of reinforcement was applied exclusively to mortar and concrete matrices. Recently, due to the developments of sizing, which are compatible with synthetic resins, the AR- glass fibres may be used as reinforcement of organic matrix composite materials, broadening the range of structural applications. The mechanical properties of AR glass fibre and organic matrix composite materials will be studied in this paper. First, the behaviour of this material under stress corrosion will be analysed. Their mass loss will be compared to E, C, and boron free glass fibres. Second, an experimental study dealing with 3P test bending and short beam ofAR glass fibre/polyester will de described with the goal of obtaining their Young modulus and tensile and interlaminar shear strengths. Finally, these experimental results will be compared to E glass fibre/polyester and several conclusions about their structural applications will be drawn.

    El vidrio AR y su presentación en forma de fibras de refuerzo, fue diseñado para ser inerte a los álcalis de los cementos. Por este motivo se viene utilizando desde hace varias décadas como refuerzo de morteros y hormigones en forma de fibra corta. El ensimaje que estas fibras de vidrio de refuerzo A R presentaba en su origen no era compatible con resinas de tipo sintéticas, por lo que el refuerzo era exclusivo para cementos y hormigones fuera cual fuera la aplicación, formato o proceso productivo. Recientemente, gracias al desarrollo específico de ensimajes especiales acordes a las fibras de vidrio AR ha aparecido la misma tipología de vidrio AR como refuerzo en forma de fibra continua compatible con resinas sint

  3. Preparing Minority Populations for Emergencies: Connecting to Build a More Resilient Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Collaborative Emergency Management: Better Community Organising , Better Public Preparedness and Response,” Disasters 32, no. 2 (2008): 239–262. 43 Jennison... authority relying on informal structures of knowledge and reverent power of stakeholders within the 184...environment like many others that creates a “middle man” to connect to the stakeholder/citizen to the government authority . These programs emphasize sharing

  4. Preparation and Physical Properties of One-Dimensional Structures: Bap(Fe2S4)q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnea, J. S.; Steinfink, H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the structure, preparation, and physical properties of a series of compounds characterized by structures formed from sublattices which have incommensurate repeat distances in one or two directions. (Author/CS)

  5. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce F [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  6. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS AND THEIR XENON ADSORPTION PROPERTIES (Ⅰ)-PREPARATION AND PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of sisal based activated carbon fibers were prepared with steam activation attemperature from 750 ℃ to 900 ℃. Their pore structures were characterized through their nitrogenadsorption isotherms at 77K using different theories. The results showed that t-plot method andDR-plot method could suitably be used to characterize the mesopore structure and the multi-stagedistribution of pore size of activated carbon fibers. It also showed that the pore size widens with theincrease of activation temperature.

  7. Action for sustainability: preparing an African plan for sustainable building and construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available perspectives on structural adjustment. Trenton, N.J. and Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press Inc. Museveni, Y. (2004) during the Conference for African Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, 18 May, 2004, Kampala, Uganda, quoted.... Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 375-393 DBSA (2003) Development Report 2003. Johannesburg: Development Bank of Southern Africa. Dlamini-Zuma, N. (2005) Opening Statemnt by the Minister of Foreign Affiars of the Republic of South Africa, at the South Africa...

  8. POLYMER AND CEMENT MORTARS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of polymer-cement mortars for their application in construction and repair of buildings and structures is presented. The main properties of known polymer-cement mortars used for this purpose are described. The advantages of application of polymer-cement mortars as repair materials are shown.

  9. Influence of Structural Periodicity on Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Wooden Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a nuisance to people, and buildings should therefore be designed to prevent propagation of sound and vibration in the audible frequency range as well as the range of frequencies relevant to whole-body vibrations of humans. In heavy structures made of concrete and masonry, a source...

  10. Optimal design of snow avalanche passive defence structure using reliability approach to quantify buildings vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, P.; Bertrand, D.; Eckert, N.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    To protect elements at risk (humans, roads, houses, etc.) against snow avalanches, civil engineering structures, such as dams or mounds, are used. The design of such defence structures is done following a deterministic approach which considers European regulation. The minimization of expected total losses is an interesting alternative that generalizes cost-benefit approach to a continuous decision variable. For this purpose, not only the hazard magnitude but also the buildings vulnerability must be evaluated carefully. The aim of this work is therefore to combine state of the art sub-models for the probabilistic description of avalanche flows and the numerical evaluation of damages to buildings. We defined the risk as the expectation of the cost consequences of avalanches activity. Disposal consequences are quantified thanks to reliability methods. In this formulation, the accuracy of both the hazard estimation and the vulnerability calculation has to be consistent according to precision and computational costs. To do so, a numerical approach has been developed to evaluate the physical vulnerability of concrete buildings submitted to avalanche loadings. The ensuing application illustrates our approach. A reinforced concrete slab is considered to model the building with a finite element method. Reliability approach enables to produce a response spectrum of the structure against avalanche impact. Finally, vulnerability curves are built. Outcomes of the risk calculation are examined to find sensitivity on the optimal design of snow defence structures.

  11. Guide to quickly build high-quality three-dimensional models with a structured light range scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Quan; Liang, Jin

    2016-12-20

    In literature, there are many reports about how to build high-precision, high-speed, and/or flexibly structured light range scanners. Whereas, there are few papers reported about how to implement the scanning to reach the full potential of the scanners when digitizing various objects. In this paper, some scanning strategies adopted by the structured light range scanner XJTUOM are introduced. In order to build high-quality three-dimensional (3D) models for various applications, such as 3D inspection, if necessary, the object surface is prepared in advance by an application of coating spray. Then, a precise 3D coordinate control network (CNN) is established to control the overall measurement accuracy. When the sensor is adjusted to face the object, a visual measuring volume, which can guide the scanning, is automatically aligned to the established CNN. Meanwhile, to maintain the local region scanning accuracy, simple rules are developed to check the low-quality regions in each scanning. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these scanning strategies are discussed in detail. We hope our work will be helpful in order for others to make their own scanning plans with similar optical devices at hand.

  12. PCM-enhanced building components an application of phase change materials in building envelopes and internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kosny, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an overview of the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) within buildings, this book discusses the performance of PCM-enhanced building envelopes. It reviews the most common PCMs suitable for building applications, and discusses PCM encapsulation and packaging methods. In addition to this, it examines a range of PCM-enhanced building products in the process of development as well as examples of whole-building-scale field demonstrations. Further chapters discuss experimental and theoretical analyses (including available software) to determine dynamic thermal and energy performance ch

  13. Determination of floor response spectra for the Brookhaven HFBR reactor building structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M.; Goradia, H.

    1978-11-01

    In order to perform the dynamic analysis of various structural components of the HFBR reactor building at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) subjected to seismic disturbances, it is necessary to obtain the floor response spectra of the primary structure. The mathematical model includes the four floor levels of the internal structure, the dome, and soil spring effects. The standard time history analysis is adopted to obtain the response spectrum for each floor of the internal structure. This report summarizes the results both in tabular and graphical form for various damping values.

  14. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md(-1) delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  15. 3D building reconstruction from ALS data using unambiguous decomposition into elementary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the paper is to develop an automated method that enables for the recognition and semantic interpretation of topological building structures. The novelty of the proposed modeling approach is an unambiguous decomposition of complex objects into predefined simple parametric structures, resulting in the reconstruction of one topological unit without independent overlapping elements. The aim of a data processing chain is to generate complete polyhedral models at LOD2 with an explicit topological structure and semantic information. The algorithms are performed on 3D point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanning. The presented methodology combines data-based information reflected in an attributed roof topology graph with common knowledge about buildings stored in a library of elementary structures. In order to achieve an appropriate balance between reconstruction precision and visualization aspects, the implemented library contains a set of structure-depended soft modeling rules instead of strictly defined geometric primitives. The proposed modeling algorithm starts with roof plane extraction performed by the segmentation of building point clouds, followed by topology identification and recognition of predefined structures. We evaluate the performance of the novel procedure by the analysis of the modeling accuracy and the degree of modeling detail. The assessment according to the validation methods standardized by the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing shows that the completeness of the algorithm is above 80%, whereas the correctness exceeds 98%.

  16. Influence of professional preparation and class structure on sexuality topics taught in middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Darson L; Kirchofer, Gregg; Hammig, Bart J; Ogletree, Roberta J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the impact of professional preparation and class structure on sexuality topics taught and use of practice-based instructional strategies in US middle and high school health classes. Data from the classroom-level file of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs were used. A series of multivariable logistic regression models were employed to determine if sexuality content taught was dependent on professional preparation and /or class structure (HE only versus HE/another subject combined). Additional multivariable logistic regression models were employed to determine if use of practice-based instructional strategies was dependent upon professional preparation and/or class structure. Years of teaching health topics and size of the school district were included as covariates in the multivariable logistic regression models. Findings indicated professionally prepared health educators were significantly more likely to teach 7 of the 13 sexuality topics as compared to nonprofessionally prepared health educators. There was no statistically significant difference in the instructional strategies used by professionally prepared and nonprofessionally prepared health educators. Exclusively health education classes versus combined classes were significantly more likely to have included 6 of the 13 topics and to have incorporated practice-based instructional strategies in the curricula. This study indicated professional preparation and class structure impacted sexuality content taught. Class structure also impacted whether opportunities for students to practice skills were made available. Results support the need for continued advocacy for professionally prepared health educators and health only courses. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  17. On the use of tensegrity structures for kinetic solar facades of smart buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternali, F.; De Chiara, E.; Skelton, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the use of tensegrity structures with morphing and prestress-stability capabilities for the design of active solar façades of smart buildings. Morphing tensegrity lattices are used to design shading screens composed of umbrella-shaped ‘eyes’ that are opened and closed by adjusting the elongation in a limited number of cables. Prestressable lattices are instead employed to design superstable Venetian blinds that are composed of orientable slats. Future use of tensegrity solutions for next-generation smart buildings are outlined, with the aim of designing kinetic solar façades that combine morphing abilities with prestress-stability.

  18. Proposal of reducing permitted seismic damages on immovable cultural properties (building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojnić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All interventions pertaining to remediation, strengthening and reconstruction of building structures (BS in seismic areas, to which belong the immovable cultural property (ICP buildings which are ranked as building structures (ICPBS, are constructed according to the (Code no. 52/85, [10]. This code permits structural damage of buildings without collapse in the event of the strongest earthquakes. However, this condition is unacceptable for ICPBS which have a status of high and outstandingly high importance according to the Law on Cultural property (LCP no. 71/94 [13]. Because of their special value and importance for cultural heritage ICPBS should not only survive the most intensive earthquakes, but their damage should be considerably reduced in comparison with ordinary BS. Therefore the paper proposes to divide ICPBS into three categories: ICPBS outstandingly high importance listed by UNESCO 2 ICPBS of outstanding cultural importance and 3 ICPBS of high cultural importance. For all categories, the factors for determination of ICPBS value are introduced, and therefore is determined the level of permissible damage they can be exposed to and potential risk of the loss of life in ICPBS which can be a basis for a new 'Code for strengthening and remediation of ICPBS in seismic areas', or can be appended to the existing Code no 52/85, [10].

  19. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  20. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A.; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-01-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness. PMID:28890599

  1. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  2. Vibration Characteristics of a Building Structure from a Natural Frequency Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Kurita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate vibration characteristics of the building, the natural frequency of the building was estimated using microtoremor and strong motion. In case estimated using microtoremor data, the natural frequency was 2.40Hz in the minor axis of the building. However, in case estimated using strong motion data, the average of them was 2.28Hz that is lower than that of microtremor. From a time series analysis on strong motion data, the natural frequency indicates high value before the part of principal motion, it drops to a lower on the part of principal motion. And it goes back with the decreasing acceleration amplitude of motion. It means that the natural frequency of the structure depends on the peak acceleration amplitude. Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate a health index only using the change of the natural frequency estimated by strong motion data. It means that it needs to use another parameter together.

  3. Preparation and magnetization reversal of exchange bias structured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Christine; McCord, Jeffrey; Moench, Ingolf; Kaltofen, Rainer; Gemming, Thomas; Schaefer, Rudolf; Schultz, Ludwig [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Magnetically patterned thin films of NiFe/IrMn/Ta-NiFe/IrMnO{sub x} with laterally modulated unidirectional anisotropy were prepared by local oxidation of the antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Varying the lateral dimensions and orientation with respect to the anisotropy modulation, the films exhibit different magnetization reversal behaviors. While stripes aligned parallel to the unidirectional anisotropy direction display a spin valve-like two step hysteresis loop, perpendicular orientation lead to a single step shifted hysteresis loop. Magnetic domain observation reveals separate switching of the stripes for the parallel alignment and simultaneous reversal for the perpendicular orientation. By decreasing the lateral dimensions, quasi-domain states have been observed. The presented magnetic data of the exchange biased-patterned films show that we did succeed in creating an alternative method for the preparation of materials with new hybrid properties.

  4. Condition Assessment of the Timber Structures of a Century-Old Industrial Building Using a Nondestructive Inspection Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Marko Teder; James Wacker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an in situ inspection project conducted on heavy timber structures of a century-old industrial building at a paper manufacturing facility. A nondestructive inspection procedure was employed to evaluate the true condition of the heavy timbers that serve as the main framing structure of the building. The on-site investigation involved monitoring of the...

  5. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  6. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  7. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  8. USING OPENSTREETMAP DATA TO GENERATE BUILDING MODELS WITH THEIR INNER STRUCTURES FOR 3D MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more data related to indoor environments has been collected within the volunteered geographic information (VGI framework, which creates a need for construction of indoor environments from VGI. In this study, we focus on generating 3D building models from OpenStreetMap (OSM data, and provide an approach to support construction and visualization of indoor environments on 3D maps. In this paper, we present an algorithm which can extract building information from OSM data, and can construct building structures as well as inner building components (e.g., doors, rooms, and windows. A web application is built to support the processing and visualization of the building models on a 3D map. We test our approach with an indoor dataset collected from the field. The results show the feasibility of our approach and its potentials to provide support for a wide range of applications, such as indoor and outdoor navigation, urban planning, and incident management.

  9. Structural observability analysis and EKF based parameter estimation of building heating models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research for enhanced energy-efficient buildings has been given much recognition in the recent years owing to their high energy consumptions. Increasing energy needs can be precisely controlled by practicing advanced controllers for building Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. Advanced controllers require a mathematical building heating model to operate, and these models need to be accurate and computationally efficient. One main concern associated with such models is the accurate estimation of the unknown model parameters. This paper presents the feasibility of implementing a simplified building heating model and the computation of physical parameters using an off-line approach. Structural observability analysis is conducted using graph-theoretic techniques to analyze the observability of the developed system model. Then Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is utilized for parameter estimates using the real measurements of a single-zone building. The simulation-based results confirm that even with a simple model, the EKF follows the state variables accurately. The predicted parameters vary depending on the inputs and disturbances.

  10. StructuralComponents 4: Conceptual building models with structural design justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of computation in the building industry has led to the development of a range of tools intended for design. Although commonly used for detailed analysis (FEA) and documentation (CAD/BIM), few tools address the needs of the early design stages for flexibility and quick, insightful feedba

  11. Chitosan-Based Matrices Prepared by Gamma Irradiation for Tissue Regeneration: Structural Properties vs. Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, Maria Helena; Lancastre, Joana J H; Rodrigues, Alexandra P; Gomes, Susana R; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Ferreira, Luís M

    2017-02-01

    In the last decade, new generations of biopolymer-based materials have attracted attention, aiming its application as scaffolds for tissue engineering. These engineered three-dimensional scaffolds are designed to improve or replace damaged, missing, or otherwise compromised tissues or organs. Despite the number of promising methods that can be used to generate 3D cell-instructive matrices, the innovative nature of the present work relies on the application of ionizing radiation technology to form and modify surfaces and matrices with advantage over more conventional technologies (room temperature reaction, absence of harmful initiators or solvents, high penetration through the bulk materials, etc.), and the possibility of preparation and sterilization in one single step. The current chapter summarizes the work done by the authors in the gamma radiation processing of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan-based matrices for skin regeneration. Particular attention is given to the correlation between the different preparation conditions and the final polymeric matrices' properties. We therefore expect to demonstrate that instructive matrices produced and improved by radiation technology bring to the field of skin regenerative medicine a supplemental advantage over more conservative techniques.

  12. Total synthesis of woodrosin I--part 1: preparation of the building blocks and evaluation of the glycosylation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Jeanjean, Fabien; Razon, Patrick; Wirtz, Conny; Mynott, Richard

    2003-01-03

    The preparation of three building blocks required for the total synthesis of woodrosin I (1) is outlined, a complex resin glycoside bearing a macrolide ring which spans four of the five sugars of its oligosaccharide backbone. Key steps involve the enantioselective, titanium-catalyzed addition of dipentylzinc to 5-hexenal, the glycosylation of the resulting alcohol 18 with the glucose-derived trichloroacetimidate 7, and further elaboration of the resulting product 19 into disaccharide 22 on treatment with the orthogonally protected glycosyl donor 15. The trichloroacetimidate method is also used for the formation of the second synthon represented by disaccharide 38. A model study shows that the assembly of the pentasaccharidic perimeter of 1 depends critically on the phasing of the glycosylation events between fragments 22, 38 and the rhamnosyl donor 27 due to the severe steric hindrance in the product. A particularly noteworthy finding is the fact that diol 22 can be regioselectively glycosylated at the 3'-OH group in high yield without protection of the neighboring 2'-OH function.

  13. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sorace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the longest side of the transversal direction. These characteristics identify the structure as the largest example of a base-isolated “artificial ground” ever built in Italy. The base isolation solution guarantees lower costs, a much greater performance, and a finer architectural look, as compared to a conventional fixed-base antiseismic design. The characteristics of the building and the isolators, the mechanical properties and the experimental characterization campaign and preliminary sizing carried out on the latter, and the nonlinear time-history design and performance assessment analyses developed on the base isolated building are reported in this paper, along with details about the installation of the isolators and the plants and highlights of the construction works.

  14. Automated metric characterization of urban structure using building decomposition from very high resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Johannes; Kemper, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Classification approaches for urban areas are mostly of qualitative and semantic nature. They produce interpreted classes similar to those from land cover and land use classifications. As a complement to those classes, quantitative measures directly derived from the image could lead to a metric characterization of the urban area. While these metrics lack of qualitative interpretation they are able to provide objective measure of the urban structures. Such quantitative measures are especially important in rapidly growing cities since, beside of the growth in area, they can provide structural information for specific areas and detect changes. Rustenburg, which serves as test area for the present study, is amongst the fastest growing cities in South Africa. It reveals a heterogeneous face of housing and building structures reflecting social and/or economic differences often linked to the spatial distribution of industrial and local mining sites. Up to date coverage with aerial photographs is provided by aerial surveys in regular intervals. Also recent satellite systems provide imagery with suitable resolution. Using such set of very high resolution images a fully automated algorithm has been developed which outputs metric classes by systematically combining important measures of building structure. The measurements are gained by decomposition of buildings directly from the imagery and by using methods from mathematical morphology. The decomposed building objects serve as basis for the computation of grid statistics. Finally a systematic combination of the single features leads to combined metrical classes. For the dominant urban structures verification results indicate an overall accuracy of at least 80% on the single feature level and 70% for the combined classes.

  15. A METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SENSITIVITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURAL MEMBERS TO FIRE DECAY PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gernay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters face a major threat when intervening in a building during a fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. At present, this threat is amplified by the fact that the behaviour of structures after the time of peak gas temperature is not well understood, and is not taken into account in the design. This work presents an analysis of the behaviour of different structural members under natural fires, and develops a method for characterizing their sensitivity to fire decay phases. Thermo-mechanical numerical simulations based on the non-linear finite element method are conducted using the parametric fire model of the Eurocode to represent natural fires. The results show that, for all the members (a column, a beam and materials (reinforced concrete, steel and timber that are studied here, structural failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire is a possible event. The major factors that promote delayed structural failure are thermal inertia and the constituting material of the member. A method, based on a new indicator, is proposed for quantifying the propensity to delayed failure for structural members under natural fire. This work enhances the understanding of the behaviour of structures under natural fires, and has important implications for the safety of fire brigades and of people responsible for making a building inspection after a fire.

  16. Protective system for civil buildings and industrial structures subjected to the seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, D.; Grigore, A.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. The most active seismic zone is represented by the Vrancea area, located within the arch of the Carpathians Mountains. Vrancea seismicity is characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes which occur in a narrow epicentral and hypocentral region. During the last 70 years, Romania experienced four strong Vrancea earthquakes: 10 November 1940 (Mw =7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw =7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw =7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw =6.9, 80 km depth). The 1977 event was characterized by catastrophic consequences: 1500 casualties and collapsing of 35 high-risk buildings, mostly occurring in Bucharest. The purpose of this paper is to present a protective system designed to be installed in the civil buildings and industrial structures placed in the high seismic regions, and therefore to contribute to the mitigation of the strong earthquake effects on human society. This system proposes an efficient antiseismic protection, respectively shutting down the installations and equipments mounted in the building's infrastructure, which can become extremely dangerous in case of a major earthquake by appearing the possibility of explosions, deflagration, fires, toxic and polluting fluids leakage. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible an efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Moreover, the installations of the individual heating stations which operate with open flame increase the risk of explosions inside the buildings during an earthquake. The protective system consists of a seismic switch used for activating through weak-electric-currents of the building's safety systems in case of strong earthquake, especially designed for building's elevators, as well as for moving parts of installations, which require positioning in safety place areas. The originality

  17. Preparation of Flexible and Elastic Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Structures by Stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller-Ravoo, Sigrid; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    3D porous and non-porous structures are designed and prepared by stereolithography using resins based on PTMC macromers. Tough, flexible network films prepared in this manner show E moduli of approximate to 3.8MPa and high elongations at break >900% tensile strengths are approximate to 4.2MPa. These

  18. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are

  19. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  20. Chosen aspects of multi-criteria analysis applied to support the choice of materials for building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranko, E.

    2017-08-01

    When planning a building structure, dilemmas arise as to what construction and material solutions are feasible. The decisions are not always obvious. A procedure for selecting the variant that will best satisfy the expectations of the investor and future users of a structure must be founded on mathematical methods. The following deserve special attention: the MCE methods, Hierarchical Analysis Methods and Weighting Methods. Another interesting solution, particularly useful when dealing with evaluations which take into account negative values, is the Indicator Method. MCE methods are relatively popular owing to the simplicity of the calculations and ease of the interpretation of the results. Having prepared the input data properly, they enable the user to compare them on the same level. In a situation where an analysis involves a large number of data, it is more convenient to divide them into groups according to main criteria and subcriteria. This option is provided by hierarchical analysis methods. They are based on ordered sets of criteria, which are evaluated in groups. In some cases, this approach yields the results that are superior and easier to read. If an analysis encompasses direct and indirect effects, an Indicator Method seems to be a justified choice for selecting the right solution. The Indicator Method is different in character and relies on weights and assessments of effects. It allows the user to evaluate effectively the analyzed variants. This article explains the methodology of conducting a multi-criteria analysis, showing its advantages and disadvantages. An example of calculations contained in the article shows what problems can be encountered when making an assessment of various solutions regarding building materials and structures. For comparison, an analysis based on graphical methods developed by the author was presented.

  1. Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xu; Yining Wang; Jian-Tao Sun; Jianwen Zhang; Junichi Tsujii; Eric Chang

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large...

  2. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  3. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Elizabeth J; Chips, Michael J; Carson, Walter P; Rooney, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7-12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  4. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Roberson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  5. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Elizabeth J.; Chips, Michael J.; Walter P. Carson; Thomas P. Rooney

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau re...

  6. An integrated approach to structural design of buildings using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, M.Y.; Mathews, J.D. [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach to the integration of design activities, in the area of structural design of buildings, using Genetic Algorithms (GA). Integration process is viewed in two contexts: (i) Integration across the design activities within a particular discipline, and (ii) Integration across of the disciplines involved in the design. Particular advantages of the integration of design activities during the conceptual stage of the design process are highlighted.

  7. Teaching optimization of students at design of buildings and structures foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Misura, Lid. V.; MISURA Liub. V.; Poltorachenko, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. According to world statistics, more than 75 % of all violations of the normal operation of buildings and structures is due to deficiencies in the design, construction and operation of bases and foundations [1]. The costs to eliminate these negative effects can be compared only with the initial cost of construction, it speaks about the relevance of teaching subjects related to the design of foundations. On the other hand increased demands on the students' knowledge, raises ...

  8. Aircraft-crash-protected steel reactor building roof structure for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, A.S. [General Electric Nuclear Engineering, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper recommends the use of all steel roof structures for the reactor building of European Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants. This change would make the advanced US BWR designs more compatible with European requirements. Replacement of the existing concrete roof slab with a sufficiently thick steel plate would eliminate the concrete spelling resulting from a postulated aircraft crash, potentially damaging the drywell head or the spent fuel pool.

  9. Automated Building Extraction from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Urban Areas Using Structural, Contextual, and Spectral Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt H. Davis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution satellite imagery provides an important new data source for building extraction. We demonstrate an integrated strategy for identifying buildings in 1-meter resolution satellite imagery of urban areas. Buildings are extracted using structural, contextual, and spectral information. First, a series of geodesic opening and closing operations are used to build a differential morphological profile (DMP that provides image structural information. Building hypotheses are generated and verified through shape analysis applied to the DMP. Second, shadows are extracted using the DMP to provide reliable contextual information to hypothesize position and size of adjacent buildings. Seed building rectangles are verified and grown on a finely segmented image. Next, bright buildings are extracted using spectral information. The extraction results from the different information sources are combined after independent extraction. Performance evaluation of the building extraction on an urban test site using IKONOS satellite imagery of the City of Columbia, Missouri, is reported. With the combination of structural, contextual, and spectral information, 72.7% of the building areas are extracted with a quality percentage 58.8%.

  10. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  11. V-amylose structural characteristics, methods of preparation, significance, and potential applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obiro, WC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available , and postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. Various aspects of V-amylose structure, methods of preparation, factors that affect its formation, and the significance and potential applications of the V-amylose complexes are reviewed....

  12. Structural Studies of BaTiO 3 Ferroelectric Material Prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural Studies of BaTiO 3 Ferroelectric Material Prepared by Green Chemistry ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... The microstructure of the samples was investigated by using Scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  13. Vision-based system identification technique for building structures using a motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung Kwan; Hwang, Jin Woo; Kim, Yousok; Cho, Tongjun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new vision-based system identification (SI) technique for building structures by using a motion capture system (MCS). The MCS with outstanding capabilities for dynamic response measurements can provide gage-free measurements of vibrations through the convenient installation of multiple markers. In this technique, from the dynamic displacement responses measured by MCS, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of building structures are extracted after the processes of converting the displacement from MCS to acceleration and conducting SI by frequency domain decomposition. A free vibration experiment on a three-story shear frame was conducted to validate the proposed technique. The SI results from the conventional accelerometer-based method were compared with those from the proposed technique and showed good agreement, which confirms the validity and applicability of the proposed vision-based SI technique for building structures. Furthermore, SI directly employing MCS measured displacements to FDD was performed and showed identical results to those of conventional SI method.

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam and a pillar of the original construction of the Sobrado Ramalho, a historical building of the city of Tiradentes, MG. The equipments utilized were the Stress Wave Timer and resistograph. Samples of the elements were taken for analysis of density. The results showed that, in both structures, to calculate the dynamic modulus of elasticity, there was no significant difference for the application of stress wave timer on the alignments studied. There was no significant difference between the directions of application of the resistograph on the pillar, due to its apparent entirety and regular sessions, practically square, and to not being loaded eccentrically. In the case of the beam, there was significant difference, presumably because it has cracks in its traction line. The equipments, unknown by professionals of heritage conservation allow promising methodologies for inspection of timber structures in service.

  15. Study on steady state wind and turbulence environments. [structure of wakes near buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of wakes and how this structure is related to the size and shape of buildings and other obstacles, and to ambient winds, was investigated. Mean values of natural atmospheric flow were obtained and used in conjunction with theoretical relationships developed by dimensional analysis to establish a model of the flow in the wake. Results indicate that conventional and V/STOL aircraft passing through the wake during takeoff and landing would experience not only a change in turbulence level, but also a change in mean wind speed of a magnitude roughly equivalent to that of the eddy components.

  16. Fracture strength of the remaining dental structure after different cavity preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Evisabel Siqueira Simões; Rizzante, Fabio Antonio Piola; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Mondelli, José; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the loss of tooth structure after cavity preparation for direct (retentive) and indirect (nonretentive) restorations and its relationship to the fracture strength of the prepared tooth. Sound human third molars (60 maxillary and 60 mandibular) were randomly assigned into 12 groups (n = 10) according to the type of cavity preparation and the respective buccolingual width. Class II mesio-occlusodistal cavity preparations, for both indirect inlay and direct resin restorations, were prepared with standardized dimensions of one-half, one-third, or one-quarter of the occlusal intercuspal distance. Fracture resistance was lower and weight loss was greater for all nonretentive preparations. Greater losses in weight and fracture resistance occurred when the buccolingual width for both types of cavities increased, except for the weight loss of the one-quarter and one-third indirect cavity preparations in the mandibular molars, and the fracture resistance of the one-half and one-third direct cavity preparations in maxillary molars. Higher tooth structure loss and lower fracture strength were recorded after preparation of the inlay cavities.

  17. Structure of a passivated Ge surface prepared from aqueous solution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, P. F.; Sakata, O.; Marasco, D, L.; Lee, T.-L.; Breneman, K. D.; Keane, D. T.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2000-08-10

    The structure of a passivating sulfide layer on Ge(001) was studied using X-ray standing waves and X-ray fluorescence. The sulfide layer was formed by reacting clean Ge substrates in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S solutions of various concentrations at 80{sup o}C. For each treatment, a sulfide layer containing approximately two to three monolayers (ML) of S was formed on the surface, and an ordered structure was found at the interface that contained approximately 0.4 ML of S. Our results suggest the rapid formation of a glassy GeS{sub x} layer containing 1.5-2.5 ML S residing atop a partially ordered interfacial layer of bridge-bonded S. The passivating reaction appears to be self-limited to 2-3 ML at this reaction temperature.

  18. Structural Integrity Evaluation of Cold Neutron Laboratory Building by Design Change of Guide Shielding Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Youngki; Kim, Harkrho

    2007-06-15

    This report summarizes the results of the structural integrity evaluation for the cold neutron laboratory building by design change of guide shielding room. The design of the guide shielding room was changed by making its structure members in normal concrete (2.3 g/cc) instead of heavy concrete (3.5 g/cc) because the heavy concrete could be not supplied to meet its design specification. Therefore, it was decided that the guide shielding room is made of the normal concrete. And, the shielding performance of the normal concrete was recalculated to confirm satisfying its design specification, which is of a 9000 zone according to HANARO radiation region classification. The change makes the shielding wall thicker than existing design, and then it is caused to qualify the structural integrity evaluation of the CNLB. Finally, the structural integrity of the CNLB was re-evaluated by considering the design change of the guide shielding room.

  19. Methods for Progressive Collapse Analysis of Building Structures Under Blast and Impact Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; SHI Yanchao

    2008-01-01

    Progressive collapse of building structures under blast and impact lcads has attracted great attention all over the world.Prog ressive collapse analysis is essential for an economic and safe design of building structures against progressive collapse to blast and impact loads.Because of the catastrophic nature of progressive collapse and the potentially high cost of constructing or retrofitting buildings to resist it,is imperative that the progressive collapse analysis methods be reliable.For engineers.their methodology to carry out progressve collapse evaluation need not only be accurate and concise.but also be easily used and works fast.Thus,many researchers have been spending lots of effort in developing reliable,efficient and strajghtforward progressive collapse analysis methods recently.In the present paper,currenf progresslve collapse analysis meth ods available in the literature are reviewed.Their suitability,applicability and reliability are dis cussed.Our recent proposed new method for progressive collapse analysis of relnforced concrete frames under blast lcads is also introduced.

  20. Thermal Analysis of a Structural Solution for Sustainable, Modular and Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopescu, D. N.; Maxineasa, S. G.; Neculai, O.

    2017-06-01

    In the construction field, the design principles for an efficient and operational use of buildings and a minimal impact on the environment are essential aspects of sustainable development. In this regard, several aspects must be taken into consideration, such as: durability, easy maintenance, flexibility in interior design, and reduced energy consumption. Decreasing energy consumption in buildings during the service life (heating / cooling / drinking water / electricity) can mean lower costs, but also a lower impact on the environment. The paper presents the thermal analysis for a GF+1F height structure, consisting of several identical, adjacent and / or overlapped metallic cubic modules. The spaces inside this cubes ensemble solve the functionality of a family home building. The good carrying capacity, the rapidity of execution, the superior degree of thermal insulation and the minimum losses of material in execution were the main advantages provided by this structural solution. Regarding the thermal comfort for the users of this constructive system, the thermal analysis showed that the internal temperatures are constant and uniform, without cold surfaces or temperature fluctuations. In addition, humidity is controlled and there is no risk of condensation.

  1. Optimization & Design of High Rise Building with Different Structural Framing Systems Subjected To Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anant A. Kapse ,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to excessive displacements of tall buildings occasioned by lateral loads, lateral load resisting systems are usually provided to curtail the load effect. The resistance may be offered by Frame Action, Shear Walls, or combined Walls and Frames (also known as Dual System. In this study, 3D structural modelling base software STAAD-PRO was used to generate and analyze three-dimensional building models for the assessment of the relative effectiveness of the various lateral load resisting systems. Five models were used, one for moment resisting frame & 04 models each for the lateral load resisting systems. Each model consisted of G +10 storey frame structure having total height of 33.0 m. Each building sample was subjected to three-dimensional analysis for the determination of both the lateral displacements at storey top and interstorey drifts. The results of the work showed that the dual system was the most efficient lateral-load resisting system based on deflection criterion, as they yielded the least values for lateral displacements and inter-storey drifts. The moment frame was the least stiff of the resisting systems, yielding the highest values of both the lateral displacement and the inter-storey drift.

  2. Construction technology and major building structure%建筑主体结构的施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱靖宇

    2015-01-01

    引入了建筑主体结构的概念,对建筑主体结构的施工情况进行了分析,主要从混凝土施工、钢筋施工、模板施工三个环节阐述了建筑主体结构施工的注意事项,以提高建筑的施工质量,满足用户对建筑的使用需求。%The paper introduces the concept of major building structure, analyzes construction conditions of major building structure, and mainly describe major building structure construction matters from three aspects of concrete construction, steel construction and template construction, with a view to improve the building construction quality and meet users’ utilization demands for building.

  3. Specifications and applications of the technical code for monitoring of building and bridge structures in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the exclusive compulsory technical code (GB 50982-2014 for structural health monitoring of buildings and bridges in China has been developed and implemented. This code covers the majority of the field monitoring methods and stipulates the corresponding technical parameters for monitoring of high-rise structures, large-span spatial structures, bridges and base-isolated structures. This article first presents the comprehensive review and linear comparison of existing structural health monitoring codes and standards. Subsequently, the progress of the codification of GB 50982-2014 is imparted and its main features and specifications are summarized. Finally, in accordance with GB50982-2014, several representative structural health monitoring practical applications of large-scale infrastructures in China are exemplified to illustrate how this national code can bridge the gap between theory and practical applications of structural health monitoring. This technical code is an important milestone in the application of well-established structural health monitoring techniques into the realistic and complex engineering projects. Also, it can provide abundant and authoritative information for practitioners and researchers involving the structural health monitoring techniques.

  4. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2010-07-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.

  5. Method of preparation and structural properties of transparent YAG nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyk, Robert; Hreniak, Dariusz; Łojkowski, Witold; Stręk, Wiesław; Matysiak, Hubert; Grzanka, Ewa; Gierlotka, Stanisław; Mazur, Piotr

    2007-06-01

    Transparent Nd:YAG nanoceramics composed of nanosized grains were fabricated by high-pressure low temperature sintering technique (HPLT). Structural and morphological studies of the sintered pellets were carried out using X-ray powder diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The hardness of nanoceramics, extinction coefficient and transmittance spectra were measured and analyzed. The initial grain size of the YAG powder was 30 nm and no grain growth has taken place during the consolidation process. The density of the obtained nanoceramics was close to the theoretical density of YAG.

  6. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  7. Cement stabilized red earth as building block and structural pavement layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. RAMA SUBBARAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red Earth is most commonly used as material in the building and road construction. Many a times, the red earth found in various quarries is found not suitable for construction. Cement of 4 and 8% of dry mass of red earth was added to improve its suitability as building block and structural pavement material. To know the influence of waste plastic fiber on cement stabilized red earth, 1% fiber was also added to the mixture. It is shown that the compressive strength of cement stabilized red earth blocks was improved with seven days of curing. The addition of cement to red earth enhanced soaked CBR value. The soaked CBR value of fiber reinforced cement stabilized red earth was about 1.3 to 1.5 times that of unreinforced cement stabilized red earth.

  8. DESIGN OF ENVELOPE STRUCTURES OF BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR AND SUBJECT TO THE CONDITIONS OF ACOUSTIC PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The totality of all environmental influences, including domestic and industrial noise, must be taken into account in the design of building structures. Building envelopes that have appropriate acoustic protection properties are to be used in the practice of the acoustic protection (soundproofing, etc.. According to the principles of structural design, design of soundproof buildings can be broken down into the two groups: design with account for the security conditions (eg., windows, doors, walls, floors, and design of noise-proof structures (eg., partitions, suspended ceilings. Multi-optional design of building structures or buildings that meet the terms of acoustic protection requires a modern approach to the process of their development. Any progress in this area is associated with computer-aided design supported by multiple analysis options. Automation allows adjustments in order to comply with the variety of the input data or objective functions to provide for optimal cycling options. In this regard, the authors describe the algorithms and principles of design of building envelopes on the condition of and subject to the acoustic protection. The proposed solution represents a software package capable of performing a multivariate analysis of options of acoustic protection at each stage of building design. Practical application of the software package used to solve practical problems in the design of building envelopes has demonstrated its higher efficiency that the one of traditional design methods.

  9. Base Isolation for Seismic Retrofitting of a Multiple Building Structure: Evaluation of Equivalent Linearization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferraioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the most commonly used isolation systems exhibit nonlinear inelastic behaviour, the equivalent linear elastic analysis is commonly used in the design and assessment of seismic-isolated structures. The paper investigates if the linear elastic model is suitable for the analysis of a seismically isolated multiple building structure. To this aim, its computed responses were compared with those calculated by nonlinear dynamic analysis. A common base isolation plane connects the isolation bearings supporting the adjacent structures. In this situation, the conventional equivalent linear elastic analysis may have some problems of accuracy because this method is calibrated on single base-isolated structures. Moreover, the torsional characteristics of the combined system are significantly different from those of separate isolated buildings. A number of numerical simulations and parametric studies under earthquake excitations were performed. The accuracy of the dynamic response obtained by the equivalent linear elastic model was calculated by the magnitude of the error with respect to the corresponding response considering the nonlinear behaviour of the isolation system. The maximum displacements at the isolation level, the maximum interstorey drifts, and the peak absolute acceleration were selected as the most important response measures. The influence of mass eccentricity, torsion, and high-modes effects was finally investigated.

  10. Preparation of a disulfide-linked precipitative soluble support for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit M. Jabgunde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a disulfide-tethered precipitative soluble support and its use for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate building blocks is described. To obtain the building blocks, N-acyl protected 2´-deoxy-5´-O-(4,4´-dimethoxytritylribonucleosides were phosphorylated with bis(benzotriazol-1-yl 2-chlorophenyl phosphate. The “outdated” phosphotriester strategy, based on coupling of PV building blocks in conjunction with quantitative precipitation of the oligodeoxyribonucleotide with MeOH is applied. Subsequent release of the resulting phosphate and base-protected oligodeoxyribonucleotide trimer 3’-pTpdCBzpdGibu-5’ as its 3’-(2-chlorophenyl phosphate was achieved by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bond.

  11. Preparation of a disulfide-linked precipitative soluble support for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate) building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandro Gimenez; Virta, Pasi; Lönnberg, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Summary The preparation of a disulfide-tethered precipitative soluble support and its use for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate) building blocks is described. To obtain the building blocks, N-acyl protected 2´-deoxy-5´-O-(4,4´-dimethoxytrityl)ribonucleosides were phosphorylated with bis(benzotriazol-1-yl) 2-chlorophenyl phosphate. The “outdated” phosphotriester strategy, based on coupling of PV building blocks in conjunction with quantitative precipitation of the oligodeoxyribonucleotide with MeOH is applied. Subsequent release of the resulting phosphate and base-protected oligodeoxyribonucleotide trimer 3’-pTpdCBzpdGibu-5’ as its 3’-(2-chlorophenyl phosphate) was achieved by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bond. PMID:26664575

  12. Comparison of environmental impacts of building structures with in situ cast floors and with precast concrete floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mesa, Belinda; Pitarch, Angel; Tomas, Ana; Gallego, Teresa [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction (ESTCE), Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, Castellon 12071 (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, the environmental impacts of two types of slab systems are studied. The first type, a concrete-based one-way spanning slab, is the most common solution in residential buildings in Spain. The second type, a hollow core slab floor, is increasingly becoming more used in buildings, but is not being broadly used in residential buildings as yet. The study is undertaken through the Life Cycle Analysis methodology, applying the EPS 2000 method. The assessment shows that the environmental impact of a building structure with precast concrete floors is 12.2% lower than that with in situ cast floors for the defined functional unit. (author)

  13. Preparation of intercalated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite and its exfoliation exhibiting dendritic structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Srivastava; Y Singh; R A Singh

    2011-07-01

    Intercalated composite of polyaniline and clay has been reported. The composite was prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline within the layers of `illite’ clay. The composite was characterized for its structural, spectral, and microscopic properties. At higher level of loading the layered structure of composite breaks forming exfoliated composite, revealing well-defined nanosized dendritic morphology of polyaniline.

  14. The Preparation and Properties of Niobium Superconducting Structures Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation in Uhv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin S.

    with a UHV environment and in any case, will not withstand the high source temperature (seed layer followed by a 1 mu m copper film on top of which was deposited a 0.2mu m aluminium mask layer. The copper and aluminium have been selectively etched to produce a offset beam of the required dimensions. This has been used to fabricate all niobium junction structures which have been observed to have dimensions of the order of 1mu m^2 which is essential for applications at sub-millimeter wavelengths. It is too early to report final results on those junctions but it can be seen as very encouraging for future development.

  15. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  16. Investigation of the structural form optimization methods of high-rise buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shihai; WANG Li; OU Jinping; WANG Guangyuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the structural form optimization methods of high-rise buildings based on the expert system (ES), case-based reasoning (CBR), and knowledge discovery in database (KDD) are evaluated systematically. The charac- teristics and shortcomings of each method are pointed out. It is predicted that the incorporation of these three techniques into an intelligent form optimization method will be an important development direction in the future. Finally, the unified intelligent form selection model combined with concepts of ES, CBR, KDD and artificially intelligent beauti- fication is proposed. In consideration of the needs of human beings, machinery and computation, the model has been used for structural design combined with relevant knowledge, means, maneuver and strategy. The model plays an important role and has practical value in the process of artificially intelligent form optimization. It effectively reduces the blindness and failure of computer-aided structural design.

  17. Cellulose-builder: a toolkit for building crystalline structures of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S

    2012-05-30

    Cellulose-builder is a user-friendly program that builds crystalline structures of cellulose of different sizes and geometries. The program generates Cartesian coordinates for all atoms of the specified structure in the Protein Data Bank format, suitable for using as starting configurations in molecular dynamics simulations and other calculations. Crystalline structures of cellulose polymorphs Iα, Iβ, II, and III(I) of practically any size are readily constructed which includes parallelepipeds, plant cell wall cellulose elementary fibrils of any length, and monolayers. Periodic boundary conditions along the crystallographic directions are easily imposed. The program also generates atom connectivity file in PSF format, required by well-known simulation packages such as NAMD, CHARMM, and others. Cellulose-builder is based on the Bash programming language and should run on practically any Unix-like platform, demands very modest hardware, and is freely available for download from ftp://ftp.iqm.unicamp.br/pub/cellulose-builder.

  18. Design objectives and collapse prevention for building structures in mega-earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lieping; Lu, Xinzheng; Li, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A “mega-earthquake” is one with an intensity larger than the most severe earthquake intensity category currently considered in design codes. For a “mega-earthquake,” the design objective of a given structure is to “preserve living spaces for people in the buildings.” In this paper, factors that may influence the collapse resistance of RC frames in a megaearthquake are analyzed based on seismic damage observed in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methodologies to improve structural collapse resistance focus on three aspects: global strength margin, global redundancy and global integration of the structural system. Fundamental principles and design concepts for collapse prevention under a mega-earthquake are proposed, and issues that need further research are identified.

  19. Using Model Building in Structural Engineering to Enhance Understanding of Construction Principles and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model building exercise in a second year module in the Department of Civil & Structural Engineering in the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. The activity aimed to improve students’ understanding of structural engineering, construction principles and methods. It allowed students to practically apply lecture material and construct a scaled model giving them an opportunity to study and visualise a real structure and generate their own ideas on how it should be assembled within a constructivist active learning environment. As a result, lectures were found to be more interactive and students more engaged in the discussions and provided a pathway to bridge the gap between theory (presented in lectures and the reality of their professions, which can aid them in their graduate careers. It is hoped that this type of active learning can be used in other engineering programmes to improve student understanding and as an opportunity to better apply lecture material to the real world.

  20. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Sandra J; Roy, Soumyajit; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Petukhov, Andrei V; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Broersma, Alfred; Soulimani, Fouad; Visser, Tom; Kegel, Willem K

    2008-08-04

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended structure of {MoO 3(NH 2-CO-NH 2)} infinity consisting of right- and left-handed helical units. In the crystal structure urea acts both as a glue that links the inorganic molybdenum units into a helix and as a supramolecular linker for the stabilization of the crystal structure as a whole. This type of molecular topology resulted in an unexpectedly high thermal stability.

  1. Preparation and structure characterization of nanospherical MCM- 41 molecular sieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ting

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanospherical MCM-41 molecular sieves have been synthesized by using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as templates and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as silicon sources. XRD,SEM,FT-IR,TEM,and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were used to investigate the effects of the reaction temperature and aging time on the morphology and structure of the samples. The results show that the nanospherical MCM-41 particles can be obtained at reaction temperatures between 20 to 80℃. With the reaction temperature increasing,the diameter of the nanospheres increases. When the reaction temperature reaches 110℃,MCM-41 molecular sieves exhibit irregular particle morphology. With the aging time of 0-15 h,the dispersion of nanospherical MCM-41 molecular sieves is very good. However,as the aging time increases,the particle size is also increased,while agglomeration is also more serious. Besides,the optimal synthesis conditions of the nanospherical MCM-41 molecular sieves were obtained by analyzing their formation mechanism.

  2. Physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with myofibrillar protein and lard diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqin; Guan, Haining; Zhao, Xinxin; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) and lard, glycerolized lard (GL) or purified glycerolized lard (PGL). The gels prepared with MP and GL or PGL had significantly higher penetration force and water-holding capacity (WHC) than the gel with lard (Pgel, T21 and T22 of the gels that were prepared with GL or PGL moved in the direction of slower relaxation time, which suggests that the water mobility in the gel system was restricted. The presence of lard, GL and PGL did not affect the participating proteins in composite gels. The presence of GL and PGL altered the secondary and tertiary structures of MP in composite gels, which changed the gel properties. In general, the composite gels that were prepared with MP and GL or PGL showed improved gel quality.

  3. Life-Cycle Assessment of Seismic Retrofit Strategies Applied to Existing Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Vitiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the renovation and refurbishment of existing buildings have become the main activities of the construction industry. In particular, many studies have recently focused on the mechanical and energy performances of existing retrofitted/refurbished facilities, while some research has addressed the environmental effects of such operations. The present study aims to assess the environmental impact of some retrofit interventions on an existing reinforced concrete (RC building. Once the structural requirements have been satisfied and the environmental effects of these retrofit solutions defined, the final purpose of this study is to identify the most environmentally sustainable retrofit strategy. The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed using a life-cycle assessment (LCA. This paper sets out a systematic approach that can be adopted when choosing the best structural retrofit option in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of the study is to also provide a tool for researchers and practitioners that reflects a deep understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations and can be used for future researches or practical activities.

  4. Preparation, Crystal Structure, and Thermal Analysis of Carbohydrazide Trinitrophloroglucinolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-hua; ZHANG Tong-lai; HU Xiao-chun; ZHANG Jian-guo; YANG Li; QIAO Xiao-jing

    2008-01-01

    A new compound (CHZ)(HTNPG).0.5H2O was synthesized by mixing carbohydrazide(CHZ) and trinitrophloroglucinol(TNPG) and characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum.Its crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.The crystal belongs to triclinic system,P1 space group,with a=0.45578(9) nm,b=1.0142(2) nm,c=1.3041(3) nm,a=86.53(3)°,β=99.56(3)°,γ=81.94(3)°,V=0.5958(2) nm3,Z=2,Dc=2.008 g/cm3,R1=0.0476,and wR2=O.1139.The compound is a di-substituted salt of TNPG,which consists of a cation (CHZ)2+ and an anion (HTNPG)2-.The thermal analysis of the compound was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry(TG-DTG).Under nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 ℃/min,the thermal decomposition of the compound contained one endothermic process of dehydrating stage and two intense exothermic decomposition processes in a temperature range of 140--232℃ on the DSC trace.The decomposition products of the title compound are nearly gaseous products.The existing complicated hydrogen bond networks and electrostatic attraction between (CHZ)2+ and (HTNPG)2-enhance the thermal stability of the title compound.

  5. Doped titanium oxide photcatalysts: Preparation, structure and interaction with viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    Since the discovery of photoelectrochemical splitting of water on n-titanium oxide (n-TiO2) electrodes by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, there has been much interest in semiconductor-based materials as photocatalysts for both solar energy conversion and environmental applications in the past several decades. Among various semiconductor-based photocatalysts, TiO2 is the only candidate suitable for industrial use because of its high chemical stability, good photoactivity, relatively low cost, and nontoxicity. However, the photocatalytic capability of TiO 2 is limited to only ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength, lambda, disinfection of bacteria and viruses under visible light illumination. The sol-gel process was optimized to produce high quality TiON-based photocatalysts by carefully modulating the precursor ratio and calcination temperature. A TiON inverse opal structure was created, which demonstrated enhanced visible light absorption and subsequently improved photocatalytic efficiency by the combination of chemical and physical modifications on n-TiO2. The effect of palladium dopant on the optical and photocatalytic properties of TiON/PdO photocatalyst was examined, which suggests that a careful optimization of the transition metal ion dopant concentration is needed to achieve high photocatalytic efficiency in these anion and transition metal ion co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts. High photocatalytic virus disinfection efficiency under visible-light illumination was observed for the first time with TiON/PdO photocatalyst, and the interaction between MS2 virus and TiO2-based semiconductor surfaces was successfully modulated. A strategy to use atomic force microscope (AFM) to conduct in-situ observation of viruses on semiconductor surfaces in aqueous environment was developed, which combines information from both height profile and phase profile and solves the difficulty of observing small nanosized biomolecules on substrates with similar feature sizes.

  6. Optimal Thermo-Structural Analysis for High Density Package Mounting on Build-up Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The importance of the high density packaging technology and mounting technology on the printed wiring build-up board has been increased for the consumer electric products. On the other hand, the chance to use the build-up boards for mounting the high density packages has been increased. However, the understanding that the reliability of the solder connection depends on the structure of the package, the motherboard, and the material properties, is not very high. In this paper, the reliability for high density packaging, mounted on the build-up board, is assessed. The compact numerical analysis model for the reliability assessment is suggested and the most reliable packaging design with optimizing each of the parameters is reported. For introduction to the reliability assessment of the FCA attachment, ceramic and silicon are compared as the inter-poser with the parameter of the solder height. The verification of the numerical analysis results using tests on the actual hardware is also shown. And the established numerical analysis model is applied to the study of influence of the copper balance between the front side and the back side copper layers.

  7. An investigation of soil-structure interaction effects observed at the MIT Green Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taciroglu, Ertugrul; Celebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. Farid; Abazarsa, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    The soil-foundation impedance function of the MIT Green Building is identified from its response signals recorded during an earthquake. Estimation of foundation impedance functions from seismic response signals is a challenging task, because: (1) the foundation input motions (FIMs) are not directly measurable, (2) the as-built properties of the super-structure are only approximately known, and (3) the soil-foundation impedance functions are inherently frequency-dependent. In the present study, aforementioned difficulties are circumvented by using, in succession, a blind modal identification (BMID) method, a simplified Timoshenko beam model (TBM), and a parametric updating of transfer functions (TFs). First, the flexible-base modal properties of the building are identified from response signals using the BMID method. Then, a flexible-base TBM is updated using the identified modal data. Finally, the frequency-dependent soil-foundation impedance function is estimated by minimizing the discrepancy between TFs (of pairs instrumented floors) that are (1) obtained experimentally from earthquake data and (2) analytically from the updated TBM. Using the fully identified flexible-base TBM, the FIMs as well as building responses at locations without instruments can be predicted, as demonstrated in the present study.

  8. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  9. Probabilistic analysis of aircraft crashes with explicit analysis of the building structure perforation; Probabilistische Analyse von Flugzeugabstuerzen mit expliziter Analyse der Perforation von Gebaeudestrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, Mathias; Pacharzina, Benedykt; Oberste-Schemmann, Andre; Sassen, Felix [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) the estimation of aircraft crash induced core damage frequencies is required. Westinghouse developed a methodology for a realistic evaluation of accident sequences caused by aircraft crashes. The analysis includes two steps: the analysis of sequence of accident events and the analysis of damage mechanisms. For the aircraft crash induced accident sequences new detailed event trees were prepared for application in the PSA. The damage mechanisms include kerosene combustion, by building structures transferred vibrations with direct or mediated effects on safety systems, and direct impacts due to the penetration of building structures. The presented methodology evaluates solely the direct impact by penetration of building structures by simulation of the aircraft crash. It was assumed that the other damage mechanisms do not yield significant contributions to the non-availability of safety system components. It was shown that the calculated core damage frequencies for hypothetical aircraft crashes using the new methodology are about one magnitude lower than the results of conservative methods.

  10. INTEGRATED PURIFICATION OF VENTILATED AIR IN AIR LAYERS OF DAMP BUILDING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Intensive wear of the structure bearing elements in premises with high moisture content in ventilated air is associated with cyclic changes in temperature and humidity indicators of steam-air environment; hence, the problem of ventilated air treatment in such premises is topical.Results. The design of device for integrated purification of atmospheric ventilated air from fine-dispersed pollutants in premise with high moisture content in indoor air is developed.Conclusions. The proposed device provides reliable and long-term operation of bearing building elements.

  11. Seismic transmission tomography: determination of the elastic properties of building structures (some examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cardarelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a general review on seismic transmission tomography considering data acquisition and processing. Some questions on linear and non linear inversions are tackled, and advice given on the choice of the best damping factor. Taking into account prediction matrices we show that it is possible to point out the best distribution of sensors and shot points in terms of resolution and stability of system. Then two examples in which seismic tomography was used are described concerning the determination of elastic characteristics of building structures.

  12. Structure and properties of nanocrystalline rare earth bulks prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢年端; 宋晓艳; 刘雪梅; 张久兴

    2009-01-01

    A series of rare earth bulks with the ultrafine nanocrystalline structure were prepared by applying an "oxygen-free" (an environmental oxygen concentration less than 0.5 ppm) in-situ synthesis system, where the inert-gas condensation was combined with the spark plasma sintering technology into an entirely closed system. The thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared ultrafine nanocrystalline bulks were characterized and compared with those of the raw polycrystalline bulks. It was found that the speci...

  13. Vibrationproof Design for Building Structures%建筑结构防振设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅玉泉; 辛兰琴

    2012-01-01

    建筑结构防振设计涉及到建筑物内部精密设备、仪器、仪表的精密度,机械设备和操作的工作条件,工作人员的舒适度,建筑物的安全和耐久性,以及不致影响其使用的容许振动防振指标.防振的主要措施:通过厂址选择,远离强振动、强噪声、强风沙、强电磁波辐射、有害气体液体等污染和不良环境;厂区和车间的合理布置,振源和精密设备相对集中、互相远离,尽量满足允许振动的防振距离要求;建筑结构本身要使得其基本频率避开共振区,构造上要采取局部加强以减弱振动影响;室内气流控制低速、门窗要求弹性密闭等.若还难以满足允许振动要求,则需要采取对有害振源的隔振,或对受振精密设备、仪器、仪表采取隔振(必要时采取同时隔振),从而满足不同设备、人、建筑物的防振指标要求.%Vibrationproof design for building structures is important esp for precision equipment and instruments/meters in the building. Working conditions of mechanical equipment and operators, the safety and durability of buildings as well as vibrationproof index are required for allowable vibration. For the vibrationproof of building structures, such measures shall be taken: (1) Selecting proper site location, keeping away from regional intensified vibration, high level of noise, strong wind/sand, strong electromagnetic radiation, harmful gases/liquids, pollution and poor environment; ( 2 ) Design in plant/workshop layout rationally, grouping the vibration sources and precision equipment relatively and respectively and meeting the requirements of vibrationproof distance; ( 3 ) Consideration for the building structures, avoiding resonance zones; ( 4 ) Structural design in reinforcing the structure, keeping low indoor air speed and ensureing good tightness of doors/windows. If the vibrationproof requirements can not be satisfied, vibration isolation measures shall be taken to. the

  14. Preparation and structural properties of thin carbon films by very-high-frequency magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明伟; 叶超; 王响英; 何一松; 郭佳敏; 杨培芳

    2016-01-01

    Growth and structural properties of thin a-C films prepared by the 60 MHz very-high-frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering were investigated. The energy and flux of ions impinging the substrate were also analyzed. It is found that the thin a-C films prepared by the 60 MHz sputtering have a lower growth rate, a smooth surface, and more sp3 contents. These features are related to the higher ion energy and the lower ions flux onto the substrate. Therefore, the 60 MHz VHF sputtering is more suitable for the preparation of thin a-C film with more sp3 contents.

  15. Three-dimensional structures of human phospholipase A2 from pancreas and synovial fluid by model building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Svensson, L A

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from human pancreas and from human synovial fluid were constructed by model building based on high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures and homology considerations. The structure of the human pancreatic PLA2 was based...

  16. Three-dimensional structures of human phospholipase A2 from pancreas and synovial fluid by model building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Svensson, L A;

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from human pancreas and from human synovial fluid were constructed by model building based on high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures and homology considerations. The structure of the human pancreatic PLA2 was based on t...

  17. Comparative Performance of Octagrid and Hexagrid Lateral Load Resisting Systems For Tall Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Raghu Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of high rise structure is quite common in this era. There are a number of high rise structures constructed all over the world and are being constructed. The analysis and design of high rise structure is quite different from that of low rise structures because of lateral forces due to wind and earthquake. In high rise structures the resistance to lateral loading (wind and earthquake loads will be the dominant criteria that have to be considered in the analysis and design and an efficient lateral load resisting system will define the efficiency of tall structures. In the present paper it is aimed to study different lateral load resisting systems like octagrid and hexagrid bracing systems for tall building. Not much information is available in the literature on such systems. It is intended to study such lateral load resisting systems. The two types of bracing systems including octagrid and hexagrid bracings are modeled and analyzed. Behavior under lateral loads of hexagrid and octagridsystem is compared with that and the commonly employed shear wall systems. The key parameter for comparision is the top story displacement under wind and seismic loading, the maximum storey drift ratio and also quantity of concrete consumed. It is found that the hexagrid and octagrid systems are best with respect to the above parameter. Although there is a marginal increase in the quantity of concrete consumed.

  18. Preparation of carbon monoliths having tailored pore structure from porous polymer precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.

    1993-04-01

    This work concerns preparing tailored porous carbon monoliths by pyrolyzing porous polymer precursors. Prior work in this laboratory (1) demonstrated that a low density (0.05 g/cm{sup 3}), high void fraction (97 vol%) carbon monolith could be prepared by pyrolyzing a porous poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) precursor. A higher density, more robust carbon material is preferred for certain applications, such as electrodes for electrochemical devices. The present work demonstrates that porous carbon monoliths having mass density of 0.7 g/cm{sup 3} can be prepared from a porous PAN precursor if the pyrolysis is controlled carefully. The macropore structure of the carbon is adjusted by changing the pore structure of the PAN precursor, and the finer scale structure (such as the crystallite size L{sub c}) is adjusted by varying the pyrolysis or heat treatment temperature.

  19. Preparation of carbon monoliths having tailored pore structure from porous polymer precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work concerns preparing tailored porous carbon monoliths by pyrolyzing porous polymer precursors. Prior work in this laboratory (1) demonstrated that a low density (0.05 g/cm[sup 3]), high void fraction (97 vol%) carbon monolith could be prepared by pyrolyzing a porous poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) precursor. A higher density, more robust carbon material is preferred for certain applications, such as electrodes for electrochemical devices. The present work demonstrates that porous carbon monoliths having mass density of 0.7 g/cm[sup 3] can be prepared from a porous PAN precursor if the pyrolysis is controlled carefully. The macropore structure of the carbon is adjusted by changing the pore structure of the PAN precursor, and the finer scale structure (such as the crystallite size L[sub c]) is adjusted by varying the pyrolysis or heat treatment temperature.

  20. Are building users prepared for energy flexible buildings—A large-scale survey in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Dane, Gamze; Finck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Building energy flexibility might play a crucial role in demand side management for integrating intermittent renewables into smart grids. The potential of building energy flexibility depends not only on the physical characteristics of a building but also on occupant behaviour in the building...... to use smart technologies, and willingness to change energy use behaviour. The survey was completed by 835 respondents, of which 785 (94%) were considered to have provided a genuine response. Our analysis showed that the concept of smart grids is an unfamiliar one, as more than 60% of the respondents had...... never heard of smart grids. However, unfamiliarity with smart grids increased with age, and half of the respondents aged 20–29 years old were aware of the concept. Monetary incentives were identified as the biggest motivating factor for adoption of smart grid technologies. It was also found that people...

  1. Pushing the Envelope: A Case Study of Building the First Manufactured Home Using Structural Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Sparkman, Ronald; Lubliner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper for the ACEEE Summer Study describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL’s and WSU’s involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  2. Structural Risk Assessment and Mitigation for Low- to Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim A. Korkmaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.

  3. TEACHING OPTIMIZATION OF STUDENTS AT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISURA Lid. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. According to world statistics, more than 75 % of all violations of the normal operation of buildings and structures is due to deficiencies in the design, construction and operation of bases and foundations [1]. The costs to eliminate these negative effects can be compared only with the initial cost of construction, it speaks about the relevance of teaching subjects related to the design of foundations. On the other hand increased demands on the students' knowledge, raises the amount of information that needs to absorb at constant periods of instruction, which makes the current process optimization study of these disciplines. Purpose. The aim of the article is to present the software package that allows to facilitate and accelerate the calculation and check the parameters of foundations and bases for the design of buildings and structures. The software product is designed as an educational complex, which allows the student to help with the calculations in different levels of difficulty and test his knowledge. Conclusion. The program complex, which consists of a program for dimensioning the foundations, the program for calculating the parameters of the bases, of the database. It is confirmed stable operation of the school complex (the program, measures were taken to test the program, helped to make it stable. The training complex is designed only for shallow foundations, so the work will be continued.

  4. Structural Model for the Effects of Perceived Indoor Work Environment on Sick Building Syndrome and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nor Hazana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick Building syndrome (SBS and stress have a prevalent influence on organizational productivity and competitiveness. Unhealthy employees not only tend to have high medical leaves but also low productivity due to ailments and discomforts. Studies that investigate the effects of indoor work environment on Sick Building Syndrome (SBS have yielded mixed results while their effect on stress has not been empirically established. Furthermore, studies that simultaneously investigate both SBS and stress are almost non-existent. Thus, this study aimed to study the effects of perceived indoor work environment on SBS and stress and the link between SBS and stress. A cross-sectional survey participated by 598 employees from various industries was conducted from September to October 2015. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM to assess both the measurement model and the path structure. The results suggest that indoor work environment has significant yet the weak effect on SBS while it has no effect on stress. However, SBS has a strong significant relationship with stress. The implication of this study on the importance of conducive indoor work environment is discussed with suggestions for future studies.

  5. Structure build-up and evolution in the drying of sessile blood droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craster, Richard; Uppal, Aran; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Experimental observations have recorded blood undergoing a sol-gel transition during the evaporation process. Consequently, the rheology becomes non-uniform throughout the droplet and exhibits transitional complex phenomena that we must capture if we wish to accurately model the evaporative/cracking process. We propose a model where thixotropy is introduced to capture the evolving rheology as evaporation occurs. Thixotropy is often used to describe fluids which exhibit a decrease in viscosity due to flow and subsequent slow recovery of viscosity after the cessation of the flow. We introduce an additional parameter to describe the internal structure of the fluid at each point and consider a droplet in the limit of the lubrication approximation. We present a discussion of our results that demonstrates the dependence of structure build-up, which accompanies the spatio-temporal evolution of the drop, on system parameters. EPSRC UK Centre for Doctoral Training.

  6. Application of experimental design techniques to structural simulation meta-model building using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费庆国; 张令弥

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are being used to construct meta-models in numerical simulation of structures. In addition to network structures and training algorithms, training samples also greatly affect the accuracy of neural network models. In this paper, some existing main sampling techniques are evaluated, including techniques based on experimental design theory,random selection, and rotating sampling. First, advantages and disadvantages of each technique are reviewed. Then, seven techniques are used to generate samples for training radial neural networks models for two benchmarks: an antenna model and an aircraft model. Results show that the uniform design, in which the number of samples and mean square error network models are considered, is the best sampling technique for neural network based meta-model building.

  7. Preparation of Hollow Spherical and Core/shell Structured Powders by Plasma Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaofeng; ZHOU; Kesong; DENG; Changguang; SONG; Jinbing; ZHANG; Jifu; DONG; Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of hollow spherical micro- and nano-szied powders of ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3(7YSZ), ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3, Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2(AT) and WC as well as one type of core/shell structured powder of ZrB2-30 wt.%Mo Si2 were prepared via plasma processing. In addition, the formation mechanisms of hollow spherical and core/shell structured powders prepared via plasma processing were also proposed.

  8. Magnetic ordering in two molecule-based (10,3)-a nets prepared from a copper(II) trinuclear secondary building unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hernández, Beatriz; Gili, Pedro; Vieth, Jana K; Janiak, Christoph; Sanchiz, Joaquín

    2010-08-16

    Two new molecule-based materials of formulas 3D-{[K(H(2)O)(6)](0.5)[K(18-crown-6)](0.5)[MnCu(3)(Hmesox)(3)].5.25H(2)O} (1) and 3D-{(Ph(4)P)(2)[MnCu(3)(Hmesox)(3)Cl].3.5H(2)O} (2) have been prepared from a tricopper(II) secondary building unit (SBU), [Cu(3)(Hmesox)(3)](3-) (H(4)mesox = mesoxalic acid, 2-dihydroxymalonic acid). Compound 1 is obtained by means of the reaction of the SBU with manganese(II) acetate in the presence of potassium cations and the 18-crown-6 ether, whereas compound 2 is obtained by means of the reaction of the SBU with manganese(II) acetate in the presence of Ph(4)PCl. The [MnCu(3)(Hmesox)(3)](-) and [MnCu(3)(Hmesox)(3)Cl](2-) moieties in compounds 1 and 2, respectively, yield chiral 3-connected three-dimensional (3D) anionic (10,3)-a (srs, SrSi(2)) nets. In the cubic and centrosymmetric structures (Pa3) of 1, two inversion-symmetry-related anion nets interpenetrate to a racemic structure. The Ph(4)P(+) cations in 2 are organized in a supramolecular (10,3)-a net through the 6-fold phenyl embrace. In 2, both the cationic and anionic nets are homochiral and enantiopure with opposite handedness and form interpenetrating supramolecular and covalent (10,3)-a nets in the noncentrosymmetric Sohncke space group P 2(1)2(1)2(1). Both compounds display ferrimagnetic interaction with long-range magnetic ordering below 2.5 and 15.2 K for 1 and 2, respectively. A dehydrated phase of 2 exhibits a T(c) of 21.8 K. The saturation of magnetization, M(S), indicates two different ground states, S = (1)/(2) and (3)/(2), for the tricopper(II) units in 1 and 2, respectively. The different spin states of the tricopper(II) unit in 1 and 2 has been explained by means of a density functional theory (DFT) study performed in the [Cu(3)(Hmesox)(3)](3-) and [Cu(3)(Hmesox)(3)Cl](4-) fragments, for 1 and 2, respectively. A further DFT study has allowed one to analyze the structural parameters that lead to the different spin ground states for the trinuclear units in both

  9. Vibration control of building structures using self-organizing and self-learning neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Alok

    2005-11-01

    Past research in artificial intelligence establishes that artificial neural networks (ANN) are effective and efficient computational processors for performing a variety of tasks including pattern recognition, classification, associative recall, combinatorial problem solving, adaptive control, multi-sensor data fusion, noise filtering and data compression, modelling and forecasting. The paper presents a potentially feasible approach for training ANN in active control of earthquake-induced vibrations in building structures without the aid of teacher signals (i.e. target control forces). A counter-propagation neural network is trained to output the control forces that are required to reduce the structural vibrations in the absence of any feedback on the correctness of the output control forces (i.e. without any information on the errors in output activations of the network). The present study shows that, in principle, the counter-propagation network (CPN) can learn from the control environment to compute the required control forces without the supervision of a teacher (unsupervised learning). Simulated case studies are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the unsupervised learning approach in ANN for effective vibration control of structures under the influence of earthquake ground motions. The proposed learning methodology obviates the need for developing a mathematical model of structural dynamics or training a separate neural network to emulate the structural response for implementation in practice.

  10. Review of the use of phase change materials (PCMs in buildings with reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials are capable of storing and releasing energy in the form of heat in determined temperature ranges, so to increase a building’s thermal inertia, stabilize its indoor temperatures and reduce its energetic demand. Therefore, if we used these materials we could have more energetically efficient buildings. Nevertheless, are these materials most appropriate to be used in buildings? Could the incorporation of phase change materials in buildings with concrete structures be generalized? This article aims to carry out a review of these phase change materials from construction professionals’ points of view, study their applications for buildings with reinforced concrete structures and the key points for these applications, draw conclusions and provide recommendations useful for all professionals within the sector who are considering the application of these materials.Los materiales de cambio de fase son capaces de almacenar y liberar energía en forma de calor en un determinando rango de temperaturas, y así aumentar la inercia térmica de un edificio, estabilizar las temperaturas en el interior y reducir la demanda energética. En consecuencia, si utilizáramos estos materiales podríamos tener un parque de edificios más eficientes energéticamente. No obstante, ¿estos materiales son apropiados para usarse en edificios? ¿Se podría generalizar la incorporación de materiales de cambio de fase en edificios con estructuras de hormigón? Este artículo tiene como objetivos hacer una revisión del estado del arte de estos materiales de cambio de fase desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la construcción, estudiar las aplicaciones en edificios con estructuras de hormigón armado y los puntos clave para estas aplicaciones, extraer conclusiones y recomendaciones útiles para los profesionales del sector que se planteen la utilización de estos materiales.

  11. Preparing for the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Guide for students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mohammed M S

    2013-04-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has become an accepted method for evaluating clinical competence. Limited references are available for students and residents to help them prepare adequately for such examinations. In this review an outline on how to prepare, approach, and behave during the OSCE is presented. Students should prepare by repeated practice keeping in mind that the exam is usually divided into history and physical examination stations. Candidates should pay close attention to all given instructions and rules of the exam. During the encounter, proper interaction, and good communication with the patient and family are critical for a successful exam. At the end of the OSCE, candidates should avoid rushing the patient or asking for their mark. To conclude, careful preparation for the OSCE is needed to improve the likelihood of a successful outcome.

  12. Polymer-virus core-shell structures prepared via co-assembly and template synthesis methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTHIWANGCHAROEN; Nisaraporn; PREVELIGE; Peter; E.Jr

    2010-01-01

    Bionanoparticles(BNPs),consisting of virus and virus-like assemblies,have attracted much attention in the biomedical field for their applications such as imaging and targeted drug delivery,owing to their well-defined structures and well-controlled chemistries.BNPs-based core-shell structures provide a unique system for the investigation of biological interactions such as protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate interactions.However,it is still a challenge to prepare the BNPs-based core-shell structures.Herein,we describe(i) co-assembly method and(ii) template synthesis method in the development of polymer-BNPs core-shell structures.These two methods can be divided into three different systems.In system A,different polymers including poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P2VP),poly(4-vinylpyridine)(P4VP) and poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)(PCL-b-P2VP) can form a raspberry-like structure with BNPs.In system B,polystyrene(PS) spheres end capped with free amine and BNPs can form a core-shell structure.In System C,layer-by-layer(LBL) method is used to prepare positive charged PS particles,which can be used as a template to form the core-shell structures with BNPs.These two methods may open a new way for preparing novel protein-based functional materials for potential applications in the biomedical field.

  13. STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF ALUMINOSILICATE INORGANIC POLYMERS: INFLUENCE OF THE PREPARATION PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kobera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of amorphous aluminosilicate inorganic polymer (AIP systems with regard to the structural role of water molecules incorporated in inorganic matrix is discussed. Innovative approach to preparation of amorphous AIP systems with identical chemical composition but differing in structural and mechanical behavior is introduced. It is shown that even small changes in the manufacture dramatically affect mechanical properties and the overall structural stability of AIP systems. If the required quantity of water is admixed to the reaction mixture during the initial step of AIPs synthesis the resulting amorphous aluminosilicate matrix undergoes extensive crystallization (zeolitization. On the other hand, if the amount of water is added to the reaction mixture during the last step of the preparation procedure, the inorganic matrix exhibits long-term stability without any structural defects. To find the structural reasons of the observed behavior a combination of traditional solid state NMR (1H and 29Si MAS NMR, 29Si CP/MAS NMR, 29Si inverse-T1-filtered NMR, XRPD and TGA measurements were used. The applied experiments revealed that the structural stability of AIPs can be attributed to the tight binding of water molecules into the inorganic matrix. The structural stability of the prepared amorphous AIP systems thus seems to be affected by the extent of hydration i.e. the strength of binding water into the inorganic framework.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Thermal and Hygrometric Characteristics of Building Structures Employing Recycled Plastic Aggregates and Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Colangelo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimation of building energy consumptions is assuming an always increasing importance, and a detailed reproduction of building structures, with all the single components involved, is necessary to achieve this aim. In addition, the current ecological development tries to limit the use of natural raw materials as building components, in favor of alternative (waste materials, which ensure significant advantages from the economic, energetic and environmental point of views. In this work, dynamic heat and vapor transport in a typical three-dimensional (3D building structure, involving different types of environmental-friendly concrete mixtures, have been simulated by using finite elements. In particular, the authors propose to substitute part of the aggregates with plastic waste and to use a fly ash based geopolymeric binder for the production of low conductivity concrete, to be employed in eco-efficient buildings. Concrete produced with natural limestone aggregates has been considered as the reference benchmark. The whole characterization of the different types of concrete tested in the present work has been obtained through laboratory experiments. The structure taken into account in the simulations is a 3D thermal bridge, typical of building envelopes. The thermal and hygrometric transient behavior of this structure, employing plastic waste in different percentages and geopolymer concrete, has been analyzed by the authors.

  15. Preparation of flexible and elastic poly(trimethylene carbonate) structures by stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller-Ravoo, Sigrid; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2011-12-01

    3D porous and non-porous structures are designed and prepared by stereolithography using resins based on PTMC macromers. Tough, flexible network films prepared in this manner show E moduli of ≈3.8 MPa and high elongations at break >900%; tensile strengths are ≈4.2 MPa. These values increase with increasing PTMC macromer molecular weight. To reach suitable viscosities for processing, up to 45 wt% propylene carbonate is added as non-reactive diluent. The solid specimens have compression moduli of 3.1-4.2 MPa, similar to the values determined in tensile testing. The built porous structures show porosities of 53-66% and average pore sizes of 309-407 µm. The compression moduli of the porous structures are significantly lower than those of the solid structures.

  16. Structures and properties of porous coordination polymers based on lanthanide carboxylate building units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yinfeng; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Liqing; Ma, Chunlin; Shen, Zhen; Song, You; You, Xiaozeng

    2010-12-06

    A series of 3-D lanthanide porous coordination polymers, [Ln(6)(BDC)(9)(DMF)(6)(H(2)O)(3)·3DMF](n) [Ln = La, 1; Ce, 2; Nd, 3], [Ln(2)(BDC)(3)(DMF)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n) [Ln = Y, 4; Dy, 5; Eu, 6], [Ln(2)(ADB)(3)(DMSO)(4)·6DMSO·8H(2)O](n) [Ln = Ce, 7; Sm, 8; Eu, 9; Gd, 10], {[Ce(3)(ADB)(3)(HADB)(3)]·30DMSO·29H(2)O}(n) (11), and [Ce(2)(ADB)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](n) (12) (H(2)BDC = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and H(2)ADB = 4,4'-azodibenzoic acid), have been synthesized and characterized. In 1-3, the adjacent Ln(III) ions are intraconnected to form 1-D metal-carboxylate oxygen chain-shaped building units, [Ln(4)(CO(2))(12)](n), that constructed a 3-D framework with 4 × 7 Å rhombic channels. In 4-6, the dimeric Ln(III) ions are interlinked to yield scaffolds with 3-D interconnecting tunnels. Compounds 7-10 are all 3-D interpenetrating structures with the CaB6-type topology structure. Compound 11 is constructed by ADB spacers and trinulcear Ce nodes with a NaCl-type topology structure and a 1.9-nm open channel system. In 12, the adjacent Ce(III) ions are intraconnected to form 1-D metal-carboxylate oxygen chain-shaped building units, [Ln(4)(CO(2))(12)](n), and give rise to a 3-D framework. Moreover, 6 exhibits characteristic red luminescence properties of Eu(III) complexes. The magnetic susceptibilities, over a temperature range of 1.8-300 K, of 3, 6, and 7 have also been investigated; the results show paramagnetic properties.

  17. Synergistic proinflammatory interactions of microbial toxins and structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalainen, M; Täubel, M; Naarala, J; Kirjavainen, P; Koistinen, A; Hyvärinen, A; Komulainen, H; Viluksela, M

    2017-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbes and their structural and metabolic compounds is notoriously complex. To study proinflammatory interactions between the multiple microbial agents, macrophages derived from human THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to several concentrations of microbial toxins alone (emodin, enniatin B, physcion, sterigmatocystin, valinomycin) and in combination with microbial structural components (bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or fungal β-glucan). While the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β to single toxins alone was modest, low-dose co-exposure with structural components increased the responses of emodin, enniatin B, and valinomycin synergistically, both at the mRNA and protein level, as measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Co-exposure of toxins and β-glucan resulted in consistent synergistically increased expression of several inflammation-related genes, while some of the responses with LPS were also inhibitory. Co-exposure of toxins with either β-glucan or LPS induced also mitochondrial damage and autophagocytosis. The results demonstrate that microbial toxins together with bacterial and fungal structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings can have drastic synergistic proinflammatory interactions at low exposure levels.

  18. Preparation of Material Surface Structure Similar to Hydrophobic Structure of Lotus Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; GUAN Zisheng; LI Dongxu

    2008-01-01

    Nano/micro replication,a technique widely applied in the microelectronics field,was introduced to prepare the hydrophobic bionics microstructure on material surface.Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)and polystyrene(PS)moulds of the mastoid microstructure on lotus leaf surface were prepared respectively by the nano/micro replication technology.And poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS)replicas with the mastoid-like microstructure were prepared from these two kinds of polymer moulds.Scanning electronic microscope(SEM) was employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures on moulds and replicas.Both the static and dynamic contact angles between water droplet and PDMS replicas'surface were also measured.As a result,similar microstructure Can be observed clearly on the surface of PDMS replicas and the static contact angle on PDMS replicas was enhanced dramatically by the existence of these microstructures.

  19. Structural and optical properties of phenylalanine and tyrosine thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, M A [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, CNRS-Universite Lyon I, 10 rue Andre-Marie Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Garapon, C [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, CNRS-Universite Lyon I, 10 rue Andre-Marie Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Champeaux, C [Science des Procedes Ceramiques et Traitement de Surface, CNRS-Universite de Limoges, 123, avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Orlianges, J C [Science des Procedes Ceramiques et Traitement de Surface, CNRS-Universite de Limoges, 123, avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)

    2007-04-15

    Thin films of the amino-acids phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) were prepared by PLD with a KrF laser at fluences of some hundreds mJ/cm{sup 2}. Conservation of the chemical structure and a metastable modification of the molecular interactions are evidenced by IR spectroscopy. The evolution of the refractive indices with fluence was correlated with the structure determined by X ray diffraction. The plume expansion imaging was achieved.

  20. Structural and optical properties of phenylalanine and tyrosine thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Garapon, C.; Champeaux, C.; Orlianges, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    Thin films of the amino-acids phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) were prepared by PLD with a KrF laser at fluences of some hundreds mJ/cm2. Conservation of the chemical structure and a metastable modification of the molecular interactions are evidenced by IR spectroscopy. The evolution of the refractive indices with fluence was correlated with the structure determined by X ray diffraction. Phe plume expansion imaging was achieved.

  1. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  2. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  3. Structural Study of Inclusion Complex of Andrographolide with β-Cyclodextrin Prepared under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with andrographolide (Andro) was prepared by using a convenient method of microwave irradiation. The structure of the inclusion complex was determined by the 1H NMR, 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as the elemental analysis.

  4. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A.; Geenevasen, J.A.J.; Kreiter, R.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethox

  5. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Fe-N Films Prepared by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛兰剑; 吴雪梅; 汤乃云; 叶春兰; 姚伟国

    2001-01-01

    Fe-N films were prepared on Si substrate by dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS). It is of the films were investigated by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The structure of the films is insensitive to the ratios of N2/Ar in main ion source(MIS), and is mainly influenced by the substrate temperature (Ts).``

  6. Preparation of Ferrierite Zeolite Membranes in the Absence of Organic Structure-directing Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Hui SU; Gang LI; Rui Sen LIN; Eiichi KIKUCHI; Masahiko MATSUKATA

    2006-01-01

    Ferrierite zeolite membranes were prepared for the first time in the absence of organic structure-directing agents (SDA) on the surface of a porous α-alumina support. These membranes were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pervaporation tests.

  7. 办公楼绿色建筑结构设计%Green Structural Design of Office Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德欣

    2015-01-01

    我国正处于绿色建筑加速发展时期,节能设计与建筑能耗的问题越来越受到广泛的重视。通过某办公楼绿色建筑结构设计实例,对绿色建筑结构的体系选型、优化设计等方面进行阐述,为类似工程提供参考。%China is in a period of accelerated development of green building, and energy-saving design and building energy consumption problem is getting wide attention. Through the example of green structure design of a office building, the selection and optimized design of the green building structure are elaborated to provide reference for similar projects.

  8. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  9. Localization of the places of stress-strain state changes of building structures based on the vibrodiagnostic measurement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhraman'yan Andrey Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available The method of localization of changes in the deflected mode is based on the analysis of time series of oscillations (displacement, velocity, acceleration of building constructions and structures. The method is based on the hypothesis that any changes in the deflected mode of structures result in changes in the oscillation energy. In this case, once the information on the structure oscillation parameters in different points of the building is available, the changes in the oscillation energy will signify the changes in the deflected mode in the relevant points.

  10. Structure, Mechanism, and Application of Vacuum Insulation Panels in Chinese Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhai Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is one of the most used approaches to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs are new thermal insulation materials that have been used in the domestic and overseas market in the last 20 years. Due to the vacuum thermal insulation technology of these new materials, their thermal conductivity can be as low as 0.004 W/(m·K at the center of panels. In addition, VIPs that are composites with inorganic core and an envelope out of commonly three metallized PET layers and a PE sealing layer can provide B class fire resistance (their core materials are not flammable and are classified as A1. Compared with other conventional thermal insulation materials, the thermal insulation and fire resistance performances form the foundation of VIP’s applications in the construction industry. The structure and thermal insulation mechanism of VIP and their application potential and problems in Chinese buildings are described in detail.

  11. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  12. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  13. Effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement on the structural behavior of a nuclear building under aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thai, Duc-Kien; Kim, Seung-Eock, E-mail: sekim@sejong.ac.kr; Lee, Hyuk-Kee

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Numerical analysis of RC nuclear building model under aircraft impact was conducted. • The analysis result shows similar behavior as compared to the Riera function. • The effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement were enumerated. • The appropriate number of layer of longitudinal rebar was recommended. - Abstract: This study presents the effectiveness of the rebar ratio and the arrangement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures on the structural behavior of nuclear buildings under aircraft impact using a finite element (FE) approach. A simplified model of a fictitious nuclear building using RC structures was fully modeled. The aircraft model of a Boeing 767-400 was used for impact simulation and was developed and verified with a conventional impact force–time history curve. The IRIS Punching test was used to validate the damage prediction capabilities of the RC wall under impact loading. With regard to the different rebar ratios and rebar arrangements of a nuclear RC building, the structural behavior of a building under aircraft impact was investigated. The structural behavior investigated included plastic deformation, displacement, energy dissipation, perforation/penetration depth and scabbing area. The results showed that the rebar ratio has a significant effect on withstanding aircraft impact and reducing local damage. With four layers of rebar, the RC wall absorbed and dissipated the impact energy more than once with only two layers of rebar for the same rebar ratio.

  14. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. South Florida Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    The first part of this document describes Nova University's doctoral program in Vocational, Technical, and Occupational (VTO) Education, developed in response to the need to create high performance learners and leaders for building learning communities. It discusses how a curriculum change in 1990 resulted in the following: conversion of the…

  15. Remote sensing of voids in large concrete structures: runways, taxiways, bridges, and building walls and roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-10-01

    Maintenance of our world's infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as Infrared Thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetometer and Pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies. This paper will review the applications of different non- destructive testing techniques on many concrete infrastructure components.

  16. Nondestructive testing of airport concrete structures: runways, taxiways, roads, bridges, building walls, and roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Maintenance of airport infrastructure presents many unique challenges. Airport engineering and maintenance personnel must maintain around the clock service to millions of people each year while maintaining millions of cubic meters of concrete distributed throughout the facilities. This infrastructure includes runways, taxiways, roadways, walkways, bridges, building walls and roofs. Presently only a limited number of accurate and economical techniques exist to test this myriad of concrete structures for integrity and safety as well as insure that they meet original design specifications. Remote sensing, non-destructive testing techniques, such as IR thermography, ground penetrating radar, magnetometer and pachometer, measure physical properties affected by the various materials and conditions found within, and under, concrete infrastructure. These techniques have established reputations for accurate investigations of concrete anomalies.

  17. Experimental study of wind loads on unique buildings and structures in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddaeva Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of unique buildings and structures (sports arenas, airport complexes, business centres, etc. from an engineering point of view is a very difficult task as in most cases these facilities have an original architectural form. Therefore, consideration of wind loads is an important part of the design. The paper presents the definition of wind load for two complex of airport. Researches was applied the combined calculation an experimental method. During the experimental study a wind tunnel architectural and construction type NRU MSUCE was used. Numerical simulations were performed using the software package ANSYS. The result of research on each object are integral aerodynamic loads on the object (coefficients Cx, Cy, Cmz and picture of the distribution of aerodynamic pressure coefficient Cp obtained in the numerical simulation. In conclusion, we discuss the possible formation of deposits of snow and recommendations to eliminate them from the roof of researched objects.

  18. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: The DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Mutch, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find the discs naturally build a pseduobulge-like component. Our main results are focussed on predictions relating to the integrated mass--specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequenc...

  19. Software package to automate the design and production of translucent building structures made of pvc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC. The analysis of the automation systems of this process currently existing on the market is carried out, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. Basing on this analysis, a set of requirements for automation systems for the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC is formulated; the basic entities are involved in those business processes. The necessary functions for the main application and for dealers’ application are specified. The main application is based on technological platform 1C: Enterprise 8.2. The dealers’ module is .NET application and is developed with the use of Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server because these software products have client versions free for end users (.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express. The features of the developed software complex implementation are described; the relevant charts are given. The scheme of system deployment and protocols of data exchange between 1C server, 1C client and dealer is presented. Also the functions supported by 1C module and .NET module are described. The article describes the content of class library developed for .NET module. The specification of integration of the two applications in a single software package is given. The features of the GUI organization are described; the corresponding screenshots are given. The possible ways of further development of the described software complex are presented and a conclusion about its competitiveness and expediency of new researches is made.

  20. Influence of the Soil-Structure Interaction on the Design of Steel-Braced Building Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbakht, Alireza; Ashtiany, Mohsen Ghafory

    2008-07-01

    The modeling and analysis of the superstructure and the foundation for the seismic lateral loads are traditionally done separately. This assumption is an important issue in the design/rehabilitate procedures especially for the short period structures, i.e. steel braced or shear wall systems, which may result to a conservative design. By using more advance procedures, i.e. nonlinear static method, and the incorporation of the soil-structure interaction (SSI), the seismic demand in the lateral resisting system decreases and the design will become more economic. This paper includes an investigation about the influence of the SSI effect on the design of the steel-braced building foundation. The presented example is a three-bay three-storey steel braced frame. Three design methods based on the FEMA 356 guideline and the UBC 97 code are taken in to consideration. The three methods are: (1) linear static analysis based on the UBC 97 code assuming the fixed based condition; (2) linear static analysis based on the FEMA 356 guideline assuming the fixed based condition; and (3) nonlinear static analysis assuming both fixed and flexible based assumptions. The results show that the influence of the SSI on the input demand of the short period building foundations is significant and the foundation design based on the linear static method with the fixed base assumption is so conservative. A simple method is proposed to take the SSI effect in to consideration in the linear static procedure with the fixed base assumption, which is a common method for the engineers. The advantage of this proposed method is the simplicity and the applicability for the engineering purposes.

  1. A modified Kelvin impact model for pounding simulation of base-isolated building with adjacent structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Kun; Li Li; Zhu Hongping

    2009-01-01

    Base isolation can effectively reduce the seismic forces on a superstructure, particularly in low- to medium-rise buildings. However, under strong near-fault ground motions, pounding may occur at the isolation level between the base-isolated building (BIB) and its surrounding retaining walls. To effectively investigate the behavior of the BIB pounding with adjacent structures, after assessing some commonly used impact models, a modified Kelvin impact model is proposed in this paper. Relevant parameters in the modified Kelvin model are theoretically derived and numerically verified through a simple pounding case. At the same time, inelasticity of the isolated superstructure is introduced in order to accurately evaluate the potential damage to the superstructure caused by the pounding of the BIB with adjacent structures. The reliability of the modified Kelvin impact model is validated through numerical comparisons with other impact models. However, the difference between the numerical results from the various impact analytical models is not significant. Many numerical simulations of BIBs are conducted to investigate the influence of various design parameters and conditions on the peak inter-story drills and floor accelerations during pounding. It is shown that pounding can substantially increase floor accelerations, especially at the ground floor where impacts occur. Higher modes of vibration are excited during poundings, increasing the inter-story drifts instead of keeping a nearly rigid-body motion of the superstructure. Furthermore, higher ductility demands can be imposed on lower floors of the superstructure. Moreover, impact stiffness seems to play a significant role in the acceleration response at the isolation level and the inter-story drifts of lower floors of the superstructure. Finally, the numerical results show that excessive flexibility of the isolation system used to minimize the floor accelerations may cause the BIB to be more susceptible to pounding

  2. Structural analyses of the storage container for heavy element facility, building-251

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, D S

    1999-01-01

    The Heavy Element Facility, Building 251, contains a series of underground storage vaults which are used for long term storage of nuclear materials. A storage rack with shelves is suspended from the top of each storage vault. The stainless steel containers enclosing the nuclear materials are stored on the shelves. A Hazard & Accident assessment analyzed the vulnerability of this storage system to assaults resulting from natural phenomena and accidents within the building. The assessment considered all racks and their containers to be stored underground and secured in their static, long-term configuration. Moving beyond the static, long-term hazard assessment, the structural analyses were performed to evaluate the storage container against a rare, short duration event. An accidental free drop of a container may occur in a combination of two events: a rare, short-duration earthquake concurrent with an operation of raising the storage rack to a maximum height that the crane is capable of. This hypothetical free drop may occur only to the container in the uppermost shelf of the storage rack. The analyses were the structural evaluation of the storage container to determine the material containment integrity of the storage container after the accident. The evaluation was performed simulating a free drop from the storage rack, with a maximum load in the container, striking/an unyielding surface in the worst orientation. The analyses revealed that, in the very unlikely event of a container drop, the integrity of the hermetic seal of the storage container could be compromised due to plastic deformation of the lid and mating flange. Simple engineering and administrative controls can prevent that from occurring.

  3. Modal Parameters Estimation of Building Structures from Vibration Test Data Using Observability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The load distribution to each mode of a structure under seismic loading depends on the modal participation factors and mode shapes and thus the exact estimation of modal participation factors and mode shapes is essential to analyze the seismic response of a structure. In this study, an identification procedure for modal participation factors and mode shapes from a vibration test is proposed. The modal participation factors and mode shapes are obtained from the relationship between observability matrices realized from the system identification. Using the observability matrices, it is possible to transform an arbitrarily identified state space model obtained from the experimental data into a state space model which is defined in a domain with physical meaning. Then, the modal participation factor can be estimated based on the transformation matrix between two state space models. The numerical simulation is performed to evaluate the proposed procedure, and the results show that the modal participation factor and mode shapes are estimated from the structural responses accurately. The procedure is also applied to the experimental data obtained from the shaking table test of a three-story shear building model.

  4. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF BUILDING STRUCTURES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kulhánek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to prove the feasibility of sensitivity analysis with dominant weight method for structure parts of envelope of buildings inclusive of energy; ecological and financial assessments, and determination of different designs for same structural part via multi-criteria assessment with theoretical example designs ancillary. Multi-criteria assessment (MCA of different structural designs or in other word alternatives aims to find the best available alternative. The application of sensitivity analysis technique in this paper bases on dominant weighting method. In this research, to choose the best thermal insulation design in the case of that more than one projection, simultaneously, criteria of total thickness (T; heat transfer coefficient (U through the cross section; global warming potential (GWP; acid produce (AP; primary energy content (PEI non renewable and cost per m2 (C are investigated for all designs via sensitivity analysis. Three different designs for external wall (over soil which are convenient with regard to globally suggested energy features for passive house design are investigated through the mentioned six projections. By creating a given set of scenarios; depending upon the importance of each criterion, sensitivity analysis is distributed. As conclusion, uncertainty in the output of model is attributed to different sources in the model input. In this manner, determination of the best available design is achieved. The original outlook and the outlook afterwards the sensitivity analysis are visualized, that enables easily to choose the optimum design within the scope of verified components.

  5. Structural Influence on Superatomic Orbitals of Typical Gold Nanostructure Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanrun; Gao, Yang; Xu, Dexuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    We compared superatomic orbitals mainly contributed by 6s atomic orbitals among spherical core-shell cluster Au13, hexagonal plane Au7 and a (5,5) nanotube segment Au35 through first-principles density functional theory calculations. The compatibility between geometry and orbital morphology influences both the presence and the energy level order of particular superatomic orbitals. Taking Au13 as a reference, which possesses a regular configuration of 1S 21P 61D 5, the hexagonal Au7 in 1S 21P 41D 1 lacks the 1P occupied superatomic orbital which is distributed out of the structural plane. Different from the nearly degenerated five occupied 1D orbitals in Au13, Au35 in 1S 21P 61D 101F 101G 61H 1 shows energy separations over 4.0 eV between split 1D regions and 1F regions according to the preference of tubular geometry to different orbital morphologies. The structural reliance of the electronic structure revealed by these typical building blocks might be informative for bottom-up design and fabrication of nanoscale devices based on a gold nanostructure and contributes to the variety and operability of nanoscale materials.

  6. Preparation of melanin from Catharsius molossus L. and preliminary study on its chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chao; Ma, Jia-hua; Tan, Cheng-jia; Yang, Zhou; Ye, Feng; Long, Chan; Ye, Shuang; Hou, Da-bin

    2015-04-01

    A great deal of melanin was found in the waste alkali liquor produced by extraction of chitin from Catharsius molossus L. Discarding the lye could harm the environment and cause waste of resources. In this paper, melanin from C. molossus L. was recovered through acid precipitation and purified by pepsin and so on. The purity, chemical composition and structure of the prepared melanin were explored by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high resolution (13)C Cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, X ray diffraction, X ray fluorescence, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry, thermal analysis, and so on. The results showed that the purity of the prepared melanin was higher than the commercial standard melanin and it was a kind of nanoaggregates composed of a large quantity of 5,6-dihydroxyindole eumelanin and a small amount of phaeomelanin. In addition, the prepared melanin was irregular in shape and its structure could be divided into three levels: advanced structure maintained by polypeptides, substructure maintained by the ferric ion and microstructure. In particular, the smallest structural unit showed the graphite-like layered structure containing five layers linked by non-covalent bonds and each layer mainly consisted of 5,6-dihydroxyindole and its derivatives, which might be connected to each other through various chemical bonds.

  7. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Zheng

    2014-07-15

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Structural Concrete Prepared with Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregate: From Investigation to Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Corinaldesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of mechanical behaviour and elastic properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC is presented. RACs were prepared by using a coarse aggregate fraction made of recycled concrete coming from a recycling plant in which rubble from concrete structure demolition is collected and suitably treated. Several concrete mixtures were prepared by using either the only virgin aggregates (as reference or 30% coarse recycled aggregate replacing gravel and by using two different kinds of cement. Different water-to-cement ratios were adopted ranging from 0.40 to 0.60. Concrete workability was always in the range 190–200 mm. Concrete compressive strength, elastic modulus, and drying shrinkage were evaluated. Results obtained showed that structural concrete up to C32/40 strength class can be manufactured with RAC. Moreover, results obtained from experimentation were discussed in order to obtain useful information for RAC structure design, particularly in terms of elastic modulus and drying shrinkage prediction.

  9. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-11-25

    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  10. Membrane biofouling characterization: effects of sample preparation procedures on biofilm structure and the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng; Lu, Huijie; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the quality and reproducibility of results from biofilm structure and microbial community analysis is essential to membrane biofouling studies. This study evaluated the impacts of three sample preparation factors (ie number of buffer rinses, storage time at 4°C, and DNA extraction method) on the downstream analysis of nitrifying biofilms grown on ultrafiltration membranes. Both rinse and storage affected biofilm structure, as suggested by their strong correlation with total biovolume, biofilm thickness, roughness and the spatial distribution of EPS. Significant variations in DNA yields and microbial community diversity were also observed among samples treated by different rinses, storage and DNA extraction methods. For the tested biofilms, two rinses, no storage and DNA extraction with both mechanical and chemical cell lysis from attached biofilm were the optimal sample preparation procedures for obtaining accurate information about biofilm structure, EPS distribution and the microbial community.

  11. Uncertainty quantification in structural health monitoring: Applications on cultural heritage buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Filippo; Casarin, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Islami, Kleidi; Modena, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of cultural heritage buildings and sites determined a growing interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) as a knowledge-based assessment tool to quantify and reduce uncertainties regarding their structural performance. Monitoring can be successfully implemented in some cases as an alternative to interventions or to control the medium- and long-term effectiveness of already applied strengthening solutions. The research group at the University of Padua, in collaboration with public administrations, has recently installed several SHM systems on heritage structures. The paper reports the application of monitoring strategies implemented to avoid (or at least minimize) the execution of strengthening interventions/repairs and control the response as long as a clear worsening or damaging process is detected. Two emblematic case studies are presented and discussed: the Roman Amphitheatre (Arena) of Verona and the Conegliano Cathedral. Both are excellent examples of on-going monitoring activities, performed through static and dynamic approaches in combination with automated procedures to extract meaningful structural features from collected data. In parallel to the application of innovative monitoring techniques, statistical models and data processing algorithms have been developed and applied in order to reduce uncertainties and exploit monitoring results for an effective assessment and protection of historical constructions. Processing software for SHM was implemented to perform the continuous real time treatment of static data and the identification of modal parameters based on the structural response to ambient vibrations. Statistical models were also developed to filter out the environmental effects and thermal cycles from the extracted features.

  12. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  13. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  14. Preparation of resveratrol-loaded nanoporous silica materials with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Margarita; Szegedi, Agnes; Mavrodinova, Vesselina; Novak Tušar, Natasa; Mihály, Judith; Klébert, Szilvia; Benbassat, Niko; Yoncheva, Krassimira

    2014-11-01

    Solid, nanoporous silica-based spherical mesoporous MCM-41 and KIL-2 with interparticle mesoporosity as well as nanosized zeolite BEA materials differing in morphology and pore size distribution, were used as carriers for the preparation of resveratrol-loaded delivery systems. Two preparation methods have been applied: (i) loading by mixing of resveratrol and mesoporous carrier in solid state and (ii) deposition in ethanol solution. The parent and the resveratrol loaded carriers were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2 physisorption, thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the support structure on the adsorption capacity and the release kinetics of this poorly soluble compound were investigated. Our results indicated that the chosen nanoporous silica supports are suitable for stabilization of trans-resveratrol and reveal controlled release and ability to protect the supported compound against degradation regardless of loading method. The solid-state dry mixing appears very effective for preparation of drug formulations composed of poorly soluble compound.

  15. ENERGY DEMANDS OF THE EXISTING COLLECTIVE BUILDINGS WITH BEARING STRUCTURE OF LARGE PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FROM TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescari S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the targets of EU Directives on the energy performance of buildings is to reduce the energy consumption of the existing buildings by finding efficient solutions for thermal rehabilitation. In order to find the adequate solutions, the first step is to establish the current state of the buildings and to determine their actual energy consumption. The current paper aims to present the energy demands of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in the city of Timisoara. Timisoara is one of the most important cities in the west side of Romania, being on the third place in terms of size and economic development. The Census of Population and Housing of 2011 states that Timisoara has about 127841 private dwellings and 60 percent of them are collective buildings. Energy demand values of the existing buildings with bearing structure of large precast concrete panels in Timisoara, in their current condition, are higher than the accepted values provided in the Romanian normative, C107. The difference between these two values can reach up to 300 percent.

  16. A preliminary study on the preparation of wood-plastic composites from urban wastes generated in Merida, Mexico with potential applications as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Estrada, Ricardo H; Martínez-Tapia, Gustavo E; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; González-Chí, Pedro I; Martín-Barrera, Cesar; Duarte-Aranda, Santiago; Guillén-Mallette, Javier; Cupul-Manzano, Carlos V; Martínez-Domínguez, Osvaldo; García-Gómez, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    A preliminary study on the use of wood and plastic wastes generated in Merida, Mexico to assess their potential for the development of building materials is reported. Composites based on recycled, high-density polyethylene (R-HDPE) loaded with wood particles were prepared. The R-HDPE was collected from Merida's Separation Plant, where it was sorted from other residues, either organic or inorganic. Composites based on virgin, high-density polyethylene (V-HDPE) were also prepared to assess the effect of the R-HDPE on the composite's mechanical properties. The wood came from the trims of different varieties of the city's trees that are periodically pruned as part of the cleaning and urbanising programmes implemented by the City Council. A batch of this material was selected at random to incorporate into both the R-HDPE and V-HDPE. Different wood particle sizes were experimented with to obtain extruded composites with contents of 50% and 60% by weight of wood that were characterized under tension and impact. Flat wood-plastic extrudates with reasonable good appearance were also produced at the laboratory level as a first step to find an adequate route to scale-up the process to a pilot level to evaluate the feasibility of producing alternative building materials.

  17. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  18. Chinese wood frame buildings and the changing dimensions of their structural components in different time periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nujaba Binte Kabir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Features of the Chinese wood frame buildings are same in character from dynasty to dynasty. The study concentrates on 9 Chinese wood frame buildings from Tang to Yuan dynasty and tries to relate these buildings with the text described in a building manual book published in Song dynasty Yingzao fashi. The features of some buildings match with the text described in the book some do not. But on the other hand Liang Sicheng, scholar of Chinese architecture in his book claimed that Chinese wood frame architecture has a unique system of characteristics (Liang, 1984. The system of wood frame Chinese architecture did not change but the proportion of the features has changed in different dynasty. The aim of the paper is to compare the features of the buildings those have been studied according to Yingzao fashi with Liang's observation on the change of building style in different periods.

  19. Short synthesis of the C1-C14 stretch of discodermolide from building blocks prepared by asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huanyan; Parker, Kathlyn A

    2008-04-01

    A convergent and stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C14 stretch of (+)-discodermolide demonstrates the utility of the "asymmetric catalysis approach" to complex polypropionates. The preparation of this complex synthon requires 15 steps in the longest linear sequence and 19 steps total from inexpensive materials.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  1. Influence of soil–structure interaction on seismic collapse resistance of super-tall buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengke Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous field tests indicate that the soil–structure interaction (SSI has a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of super-tall buildings, which may lead to unexpected structural seismic responses and/or failure. Taking the Shanghai Tower with a total height of 632 m as the research object, the substructure approach is used to simulate the SSI effect on the seismic responses of Shanghai Tower. The refined finite element (FE model of the superstructure of Shanghai Tower and the simplified analytical model of the foundation and adjacent soil are established. Subsequently, the collapse process of Shanghai Tower taking into account the SSI is predicted, as well as its final collapse mechanism. The influences of the SSI on the collapse resistance capacity and failure sequences are discussed. The results indicate that, when considering the SSI, the fundamental period of Shanghai Tower has been extended significantly, and the collapse margin ratio has been improved, with a corresponding decrease of the seismic demand. In addition, the SSI has some impact on the failure sequences of Shanghai Tower subjected to extreme earthquakes, but a negligible impact on the final failure modes.

  2. D Reconstruction of Buildings with Gabled and Hipped Structures Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, H.; Pahlavani, P.; Karimi, R.

    2014-10-01

    Buildings are the most important objects in urban areas. Thus, building detection using photogrammetry and remote sensing data as well as 3D model of buildings are very useful for many applications such as mobile navigation, tourism, and disaster management. In this paper, an approach has been proposed for detecting buildings by LiDAR data and aerial images, as well as reconstructing 3D model of buildings. In this regard, firstly, building detection carried out by utilizing a Supper Vector Machine (SVM) as a supervise method. The supervise methods need training data that could be collected from some features. Hence, LiDAR data and aerial images were utilized to produce some features. The features were selected by considering their abilities for separating buildings from other objects. The evaluation results of building detection showed high accuracy and precision of the utilized approach. The detected buildings were labeled in order to reconstruct buildings, individually. Then the planes of each building were separated and adjacent planes were recognized to reduce the calculation volume and to increase the accuracy. Subsequently, the bottom planes of each building were detected in order to compute the corners of hipped roofs using intersection of three adjacent planes. Also, the corners of gabled roofs were computed by both calculating the intersection line of the adjacent planes and finding the intersection between the planes intersection line and their detected parcel. Finally, the coordinates of some nodes in building floor were computed and 3D model reconstruction was carried out. In order to evaluate the proposed method, 3D model of some buildings with different complexity level were generated. The evaluation results showed that the proposed method has reached credible performance.

  3. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS WITH GABLED AND HIPPED STRUCTURES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the most important objects in urban areas. Thus, building detection using photogrammetry and remote sensing data as well as 3D model of buildings are very useful for many applications such as mobile navigation, tourism, and disaster management. In this paper, an approach has been proposed for detecting buildings by LiDAR data and aerial images, as well as reconstructing 3D model of buildings. In this regard, firstly, building detection carried out by utilizing a Supper Vector Machine (SVM as a supervise method. The supervise methods need training data that could be collected from some features. Hence, LiDAR data and aerial images were utilized to produce some features. The features were selected by considering their abilities for separating buildings from other objects. The evaluation results of building detection showed high accuracy and precision of the utilized approach. The detected buildings were labeled in order to reconstruct buildings, individually. Then the planes of each building were separated and adjacent planes were recognized to reduce the calculation volume and to increase the accuracy. Subsequently, the bottom planes of each building were detected in order to compute the corners of hipped roofs using intersection of three adjacent planes. Also, the corners of gabled roofs were computed by both calculating the intersection line of the adjacent planes and finding the intersection between the planes intersection line and their detected parcel. Finally, the coordinates of some nodes in building floor were computed and 3D model reconstruction was carried out. In order to evaluate the proposed method, 3D model of some buildings with different complexity level were generated. The evaluation results showed that the proposed method has reached credible performance.

  4. Structural and optical properties of silicon nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in hydrogen background gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T.; Inada, M.; Yoshida, K.; Umezu, I.; Sugimura, A.

    We studied the structural and optical properties of silicon (Si) nanoparticles (np-Si) prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in hydrogen (H2) background gas. The mean diameter of the np-Si was estimated to be approximately 5 nm. The infrared absorption corresponding to Si-Hn (n=1,2,3) bonds was observed at around 2100 cm-1, and a Raman scattering peak corresponding to crystalline Si was observed at around 520 cm-1. These results indicate that nanoparticles are not an alloy of Si and hydrogen but Si nanocrystal covered by hydrogen or hydrogenated silicon. This means that surface passivated Si nanoparticles can be prepared by PLA in H2 gas. The band-gap energy of np-Si prepared in H2 gas (1.9 eV) was larger than that of np-Si prepared in He gas (1.6 eV) even though they are almost the same diameter. After decreasing the hydrogen content in np-Si by thermal annealing, the band-gap energy decreased, and reached the same energy level as np-Si prepared in He gas. Thus, the optical properties of np-Si were affected by the hydrogenation of the surface of np-Si.

  5. Drastic difference in porous structure of calcium alginate microspheres prepared with fresh or hydrolyzed sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Kazuki; Maruyama, Kaho; Chen, Wei; Nakao, Aiko; Nakao, Shin-ichi

    2011-11-15

    Fresh or hydrolyzed sodium alginate was used as a material for preparing calcium alginate microspheres, and a drastic difference in porous structure was observed between them, even though the other materials and the preparation method except for the sodium alginate were exactly the same. When fresh sodium alginate was used, nonporous microspheres were obtained. In contrast, when 82-day-hydrolyzed sodium alginate, whose molecular weight became 7% of the molecular weight of the fresh sodium alginate, was used, porous microspheres with 6.5 times larger BET surface area were obtained. XPS studies indicated that the atomic ratio of Ca, the crosslinker of the alginic acid polymer, was almost the same in both cases. Therefore, the difference in porous structure was not attributed to the amount of crosslinking points, but to the low-molecular-weight compounds formed by hydrolysis, and they would work as pore-generating agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Optoelectrical Properties of ZnTe Thin Films Prepared by E-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Riaz, Madeeha; Nassem, Shahzad

    2016-10-01

    ZnTe thin films have been prepared by an electron-beam evaporation technique on glass substrates, changing the accelerating voltage and the substrate temperature at accelerating voltage of 2 kV. Structural analysis showed that all the films had cubic structure with preferential orientation along (111) direction, though (220) and (311) orientations were also present. The (111) peak intensity increased with increasing film thickness. The crystallite size increased with increasing film thickness. Conductivity measurements showed that the films were p-type. Films prepared at accelerating voltage of 2 kV exhibited minimum resistivity. Optical characterization indicated that both absorbing and transparent thin films can be achieved by using different deposition conditions. The optical bandgap value was found to vary with substrate temperature.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Structured SiO2 Thin Films on Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Dong Zhou YAN; Gang WEI

    2003-01-01

    Nano-structured SiO2 thin films were prepared on the surface of carbon steel for the first time by LPD. The compositions of the films were analyzed by XPS, and the surface morphology of the thin films were observed by AFM. The thin films were constituted by compact particles of SiO2, and there was no Fe in the films. In the process of film forming, the SiO2 colloid particles were deposited or absorbed directly onto the surface of carbon steel substrates that were activated by acid solution containing inhibitor, and corrosion of the substrates was avoided. The nano-structured SiO2 thin films that were prepared had excellent protective efficiency to the carbon steel.

  8. Polyurethaneurea-silica nanocomposites: Preparation and investigation of the structure-property behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Malay Heinz, Özge; Malay Heinz, Ozge; Oğuz, Oğuzhan; Oguz, Oguzhan; Koşak, Çağla; Kosak, Cagla; Yılgör, Emel; Yilgor, Emel; Yılgör, İskender; Yilgor, Iskender; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z.

    2013-01-01

    Accepted Manuscript Polyurethaneurea-Silica Nanocomposites: Preparation and Investigation of the Structure-Property Behavior Ozge Malay, Oguzhan Oguz, Cagla Kosak, Emel Yilgor, Iskender Yilgor, Yusuf Z. Menceloglu PII: S0032-3861(13)00691-5 DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2013.07.043 Reference: JPOL 16366 To appear in: Polymer Received Date: 6 April 2013 Revised Date: 3 July 2013 Accepted Date: 19 July 2013 Please cite this article as: Malay O, Oguz O, Kosak C, Yilg...

  9. Facile preparation of smooth perovskite films for efficient meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Hua; Yun, Jung-Ho; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-06-21

    Smooth organolead halide perovskite films for meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells were prepared by a simple compressed air blow-drying method under ambient conditions. The resultant perovskite films show high surface coverage, leading to a device power conversion efficiency of over 10% with an open circuit voltage up to 1.003 V merely using pristine poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a hole transporter.

  10. The role of polar, lamdba (Λ)-shaped building units in noncentrosymmetric inorganic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, Martin D; Gautier, Romain; Yeon, Jeongho; Moore, Donald T; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2012-05-01

    A methodology for the design of polar, inorganic structures is demonstrated here with the packing of lambda (Λ)-shaped basic building units (BBUs). Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) solids with interesting physical properties can be created with BBUs that lack an inversion center and are likely to pack into a polar configuration; previous methods to construct these solids have used NCS octahedra as BBUs. Using this methodology to synthesize NCS solids, one must increase the coordination of the NCS octahedra with maintenance of the noncentrosymmetry of the bulk. The first step in this progression from an NCS octahedron to an inorganic NCS solid is the formation of a bimetallic BBU. This step is exemplified with the compound CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7): this compound, presented here, crystallizes in an NCS structure with ordered, isolated [Cu(H(2)O)(5)](2+) cations and [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) anions into Λ-shaped, bimetallic BBUs to form CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(6)·H(2)O, owing to the Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu(2+). Conversely, the centrosymmetric heterotypes with the same formula MVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) (M(II) = Co, Ni, and Zn) exhibit ordered, isolated [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](2+) ionic species in a hydrogen bond network. CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) exhibits a net polar moment while the heterotypes do not; this demonstrates that Λ-shaped BBUs give a greater probability for and, in this case, lead to NCS structures.

  11. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures.

  12. Preparation and production of a home builders' guide. Building and selling energy-efficient homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D. N.; Mahoney, J. M.; McMahon, N. M.; Troy, M. H.; Wood, E. W.

    1977-06-01

    Procedures used in the preparation of a manual on the construction of energy-saving one- and two-family houses are described. Prior to writing the manual, builders were interviewed and a bibliographic search was conducted to obtain information on the design, construction and marketing of energy conserving homes. The packaging and distribution of the manual was planned. When written FEA will publish the manual. (ERA citation 04:044977)

  13. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation.

  14. Facile method for preparing superoleophobic surfaces with hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonshik; Hwang, Woonbong

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the fabrication of superoleophobic surfaces having hierarchical microcubic/nanowire structures (HMNS), even for low surface tension liquids including octane (surface tension = 21.1 mN m-1), and to understand the influences of surface structures on the oleophobicity, we developed a convenient method to achieve superoleophobic surfaces on aluminum substrates using chemical acid etching, anodization and fluorination treatment. The liquid repellency of the structured surface was validated through observable experimental results the contact and sliding angle measurements. The etching condition required to ensure high surface roughness was established, and an optimal anodizing condition was determined, as a critical parameter in building the superoleophobicity. The microcubic structures formed by acid etching are essential for achieving the formation of the hierarchical structure, and therefore, the nanowire structures formed by anodization lead to an enhancement of the superoleophobicity for low surface tension liquids. Under optimized morphology by microcubic/nanowire structures with fluorination treatment, the contact angle over 150° and the sliding angle less than 10° are achieved even for octane.

  15. Preparation of microcellular composites with biomimetic structure via supercritical fluid technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new microcellular composite material with a biomimetic structure has been prepared via the supercritical fluid (SCF) technology. The resultant material has a clear biomimetic structure like bamboo and wood. The skin region is enriched with oriented high-strength thermotropic liquid crystal polymer fibrils, while the core region with polystyrene (PS) micro-cells. The diameter and density of micro- cells can be controlled by the processing parameters such as temperature and pressure. And the skin thickness can be controlled conveniently by varying the composition of polystyrene and liquid crystal polymer.

  16. Seismic soil structure interaction analysis for asymmetrical buildings supported on piled raft for the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Pallavi; Satyam, Neelima

    2017-01-01

    Seismic damage surveys and analyses conducted on modes of failure of structures during past earthquakes observed that the asymmetrical buildings show the most vulnerable effect throughout the course of failures (Wegner et al., 2009). Thus, all asymmetrical buildings significantly fails during the shaking events and it is really needed to focus on the accurate analysis of the building, including all possible accuracy in the analysis. Apart from superstructure geometry, the soil behavior during earthquake shaking plays a pivotal role in the building collapse (Chopra, 2012). Fixed base analysis where the soil is considered to be infinitely rigid cannot simulate the actual scenario of wave propagation during earthquakes and wave transfer mechanism in the superstructure (Wolf, 1985). This can be well explained in the soil structure interaction analysis, where the ground movement and structural movement can be considered with the equal rigor. In the present study the object oriented program has been developed in C++ to model the SSI system using the finite element methodology. In this attempt the seismic soil structure interaction analysis has been carried out for T, L and C types piled raft supported buildings in the recent 25th April 2015 Nepal earthquake (M = 7.8). The soil properties have been considered with the appropriate soil data from the Katmandu valley region. The effect of asymmetry of the building on the responses of the superstructure is compared with the author's research work. It has been studied/observed that the shape or geometry of the superstructure governs the response of the superstructure subjected to the same earthquake load.

  17. Study of the effects of local geological structure on seismic ground motion and building vulnerability with microtremors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Examples of several earthquakes in last decades have shown that the influenceoflocalgeological structure (site effects on seismic ground motion was often underestimated; the effects of the earthquake were therefore greater than expected. Especially dangerous is the situation when both the fundamental frequency of sediments and of structures are similar and a resonance occurs. Among the other methods for assessing the effects of local geology the use of microtremors achieved a recognition in the last decade. The method is based on measurements of ambient vibration of natural and artificial origin with three-component sensor. Spectral ratio between the records on horizontal and vertical component yield fundamental frequency of soft sediments deposited over hard bedrock. By measurements inside buildings the main building frequency in longitudinal and transverse direction and consequently the range of increased vulnerability is determined. By comparison of thefundamental frequency map of sediments and measurements inside buildings, we can perform quantitative microzonation of urbane areas and identify areas where the danger of soil-structure resonance exists. In Slovenia microtremors investigations are carried out in the frame of a NATO Science for peace project. By measurements in a very dense grid of 200 m x 200 m a new microzonation of Ljubljana will be performed. In the Bovec basin, where the site effects were very prominent during 1998 and 2004 damaging earthquakes, we found out that relative high damage to some buildings were caused by soil-structure resonance effects. In Ilirska Bistrica, which is one of the most seismically active regions in Slovenia, we also established that most of the buildings damaged during stronger earthquakesare located in areas characterised by the fundamental frequency of soil which coincide with the range of the main building frequencies.

  18. Structural properties of pure and Fe-doped Yb films prepared by vapor condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Ayala, C., E-mail: chachi@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, P.O.B. 14-149, Lima 14 (Peru); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910, ES (Brazil); Suguihiro, N.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Ytterbium and iron-doped ytterbium films were prepared by vapor quenching on Kapton substrates at room temperature. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to study the microstructure of pure and iron-doped films and thereby to understand the effects induced by iron incorporation. A coexistence of face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed-like structures was observed, the cubic-type structure being the dominant contribution. There is an apparent thickness dependence of the cubic/hexagonal relative ratios in the case of pure ytterbium. Iron-clusters induce a crystalline texture effect, but do not influence the cubic/hexagonal volume fraction. A schematic model is proposed for the microstructure of un-doped and iron-doped films including the cubic- and hexagonal-like structures, as well as the iron distribution in the ytterbium matrix. - Highlights: • Pure and Fe-doped Yb films have been prepared by vapor condensation. • Coexistence of fcc- and hcp-type structures was observed. • No oxide phases have been detected. • Fe-clustering does not affect the fcc/hcp ratio, but favors a crystalline texture. • A schematic model is proposed to describe microscopically the microstructure.

  19. The structure of Cu-Al films prepared by unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.; Bell, A.J. [Czech Acad. of Sci., Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Phys.; Chepera, M.; Zeman, J. [Military Technical Institute, PO Box 574, 602 00 (Czech Republic)

    1997-11-25

    Recently, the formation of nanostructured and amorphous materials has been the focus of intense research owing to interest from a basic scientific point of view and their potential technological value. This paper reports on the variation in, and control of, the structure of Cu-Al films prepared in a state-of-the-art unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering system. The structure is shown to be considerably influenced by ion bombardment during growth with both the energy and ratio of impinging ions: arriving atoms playing dominant roles. In addition, the addition of different quantities of Al to the thin film is shown to have a dramatic impact on the structure. The conditions under which nanocrystalline Cu-Al films can be prepared are given. The films were deposited by the magnetron sputter ion plating (MSIP) process using negative substrate biases up to 1000 V and at different argon pressures down to 0.04 Pa. The structure of the films were determined from XRD analyses. An attempt to correlate obtained XRD spectra with the structure of the film is suggested. The resistivities of the films were measured using the four-point probe method, whilst the content of Al was determined from EDX measurements. (orig.) 15 refs.

  20. Structural response of nuclear containment shield buildings with unanticipated construction openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Namara, Sinead Caitriona

    As Nuclear Power Plants age many require steam generator replacement. There is a nickel alloy in the steam generator tubes that is susceptible to stress cracking and although these cracks can be sealed the generator becomes uneconomical without 10%-15% of the tubes. The steam generator in a typical nuclear power plant is housed in the containment structure next to the reactor. The equipment hatch is not big enough to facilitate steam generator replacement, thus construction openings in the dome of the containment structure are required. To date the structural consequences of construction openings in the dome have not been examined. This thesis examines the effects of such openings. The prototype concrete dome is made up of a 2 ft thick dome atop 3 ft thick and 170 ft high cylindrical walls (radius 65.5 ft) with a tension ring 15 ft high and 8 ft thick in between. The dome of the building is cast in two layers; a lower 9 inch layer that serves as the formwork for an upper 15 inch layer. The weight of the dome is carried in axial compression along the hoops and meridians of the dome. The first finite element model uses shell elements and considers two limiting load cases; where the two layers act as one, and where the lower layer carries the weight of both. The openings interrupt the hoops and meridians and the weight of the dome must be redistributed around the openings. Without openings, the stresses due to dead load in the structure are very low when compared to the material strength. The impact of the openings is increased compression stresses near the opening. The maximum stresses are approximately four times larger than in the original structure. These results are confirmed by the second model which is made from layers of solid elements. This model shows a significant difference between the compression on the top surface of the dome, in the affected areas, and that on the bottom surface, leading to shear stresses. These shear stresses are largest around the

  1. Influence of dynamic soil-structure interaction on building response to ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vibration from traffic and pile driving are an increasing problem in densely populated areas. To assess vibration levels in new or existing buildings near construction sites, roads or railways in the design phase, valid models for prediction of wave transmission via the ground and into a building...... must be used. In this regard it is often assumed that a no significant back coupling from the building to the ground exists. Thus, a model with free-field vibrations from the ground provides input at the base of the building model. The aim of the present paper is to examine whether—and to which extent...

  2. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability of Different Building Structures in Latvian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovičs, A.; Gendelis, S.; Bandeniece, L.

    2015-11-01

    Five experimental test buildings have been built in Riga, Latvia. They are identical except external walls for which different mainly regional building materials are used. Calculated U-values of the other walls, floor and ceiling are the same for each test building. Initial moisture influences the relative humidity of indoor air, which can be higher in the initial time period; as a result, heat transmittances are also very different and cause different heating/cooling energy consumption. Overheating risk in summer exists for test buildings with the smallest thermal inertia. Both summer and heating seasons have been analysed and differences between five test houses have been discussed in details.

  3. Preparation of novel polymer–metal oxide nanocomposites with nanophase separated hierarchical structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Nam; Y Tsutsumi; C Yoshikawa; Y Tanaka; R Fukaya; T Kimura; H Kobayashi; T Hanawa; A Kishida

    2011-12-01

    This article deals with preparation of nanocomposite which comprised of nanophase separated structure of polymer chains and metal oxide. By grafting poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(HEMA) on the surface of titanium which is covered by passive titanium oxide by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and executing anodic polarization, hierarchy nanophase separated structure with controlled thickness can be obtained. The titanium ions would be cationically charged and completely filled up the unoccupied binding sites of the polymer chains via electrochemical reaction, eventually covering the polymer chains with titanium oxide. However, this structure can be obtained when the anodic polarization is executed at initial applied voltage exceeding 10 VSCE. The control of thickness is possible by controlling the initial applied voltage. These results prove that the conventional polymer can form composite structure with metal oxide without using fillers or special polymers designed for composite.

  4. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Rabaut, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    We study how organism traits and population densities of ecosystem engineering species, in combination with environmental factors, affect the formation and erosion rates of biogeomorphological structures, and focus on the widely distributed marine tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega, which li

  5. Building on the Existing Structures; an Outreach Strategy for Improving the Capacity for Education in the Inner Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    Describes design and implementation of the outreach and dissemination approach used by the National Center on Education in the Inner Cities, with emphases on building on existing structures for information dissemination, training, and technical support for research utilization. Application of the Model of Outreach and Utilization was guided by two…

  6. To Problem Pertaining to Calculation of Resistance to Heat Transfer in Modern Structures of Building External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nesterov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new methodology for determination of resistance to heat transfer of building external walls with the introduction of heat engineering uniformity factors obtained on the basis of calculating two- and three-dimensional temperature pattern. The methodology makes it possible to take into account influence of joints, connections with adjoining structures and jambs of external walls.

  7. On development status for steel structure residential buildings%谈钢结构住宅发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永兴

    2012-01-01

    The paper sums up the advantages of the steel structure residential buildings,introduces the components,the classification and the features of the light-steel structure residential building system,analyzes and researches the development status for the light-steel structure residential buildings,and provides some suggestions for the problems in the development process of the steel structure residential buildings based on the previous views,so as to direct the practice.%总结了钢结构住宅的优越性,着重介绍了轻钢结构住宅体系的组成、分类和特点,分析研究了轻钢结构住宅的发展现状,在此基础上对目前钢结构住宅发展过程中存在的问题给出了一些建议,以期指导实践。

  8. On the effectiveness of smart technologies in the seismic protection of existing buildings Part II: Reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, A.; Ramundo, F.; Spina, G.

    2008-07-01

    The second part of a study concerning innovative intervention techniques for seismic protection of existing buildings is presented in this paper. The case of an existing framed r.c. structure, not designed for horizontal forces and extremely vulnerable to seismic action, is analyzed both in terms of maximum response reduction and energy dissipation. The proposed intervention approach, based on steel braces linked to the existing structure by passive or smart devices comes out appropriate and effective in the case of this type of buildings. The adopted control strategy produces a significant reducing effect on the elastic strain energy transmitted by the external perturbation to the structure, which is itself a fundamental safeguard aspect. The results prove the significantly improved capability of the system to dissipate input energy without structural damage, regardless of the specific seismic input.

  9. VERTICAL PROJECTION EFFICIENCY OF PIVOT POINTS USING ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER DURING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterenok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that functional limitation of zenith devices and introduction of modern high-accuracy electronic tacheometers should lead to substitution of the mentioned devices for tacheometers in geodesic works concerning vertical projection of pivot points of the constructed buildings and structures. However the electronic tacheometer has not been considered in the function of a zenith device in ТКП 45-1.03-26-2006.Special experiemnts and practical works executed by UE “Geokart” has proved that in accordance with its design the electronic tacheometer equipped with a compensator for small inclinations and zenith prism attachment for ocular can be applied as a vertical projection device while setting sighting line of a telescope in a fixed vertical position. Corresponding experiments have been carried out for multi-storied building of business centre located in the M. Tank Street in Minsk in order to obtain comparative characteristics of vertical projection accuracy with the help of tacheometer TOPCON GPT 7501 and zenith device PZL-100. An initial point of the staked grid has been situated at the elevation ±0,0 м, standard graph elevation has been equal to +49,5 м (concrete slab of the 14th floor, projection height referred to the device has been equal to Н = 47,8 м. Both devices have been set on the same stand using a purpose made adaptive device in order to exclude centering errors. Deviation in position of final projection points on the standard graph which were obtained with the help of two devices has been equal to 1.2 mm, that testifies practical equal accuracy of the zenith device and tacheometer for vertical projection function.Additional advantage of the electronic tacheometer in comparison with special vertical projection devi ces lies in the fact that in the case of a certain misalignment of geodesic openings in intermediate floors ta- cheometer deviating from the vertical makes it possible to carry out initial point

  10. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  11. Assessment of soil-structure interaction on a 51-story building from the spectral ratio of earthquake recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kun-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-structure interaction (SSI can significantly alter the characteristics of recorded motions in buildings. The ratio of Fourier amplitude spectrum of the top-story accelerations to that of the foundation accelerations permits the identification of the natural frequency of the fixed-base building. In this study, records of the Chi-Chi earthquake and the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet from the structural array in a 51-story highrise building are used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the buildings by the transfer function (TF method. As a result, the acceleration amplification of seismic excitation on the 47th storey of buildings is 4.24, in the horizontal component, from the Chi-Chi earthquake data greater than those of the 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet with a value of 2.82 and 2.06, respectively. In addition, from the spectral ratio of the accelerations (47th floor/basement, together with the Fourier Amplitude Spectrum (FAS of the 47th floor and basement accelerations, it is noted that the peaks of the 47th floor FAS and the spectral ratio appear to coincide with each other from the records of 1226 Hengchun earthquake doublet, suggesting that there is no significant SSI effects in both the longitudinal and transverse directions.

  12. Structural Performance Assessment Based on Statistical and Wavelet Analysis of Acceleration Measurements of a Building during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the analysis of structural health monitoring (SHM system based on acceleration measurements during an earthquake. The SHM system is applied to assess the performance investigation of the administration building in Seoul National University of Education, South Korea. The statistical and wavelet analysis methods are applied to investigate and assess the performance of the building during an earthquake shaking which took place on March 31, 2014. The results indicate that (1 the acceleration, displacement, and torsional responses of the roof recording point on the top floor of the building are more dominant in the X direction; (2 the rotation of the building has occurred at the base recording point; (3 95% of the energy content of the building response is shown in the dominant frequency range (6.25–25 Hz; (4 the wavelet spectrum illustrates that the roof vibration is more obvious and dominant during the shaking; and (5 the wavelet spectrum reveals the elasticity responses of the structure during the earthquake shaking.

  13. Mechanism and bounding of earthquake energy input to building structure on surface ground subjected to engineering bedrock motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, K; Sakaguchi, K; Takewaki, I.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of earthquake energy input to building structures is clarified by considering the surface ground amplification and soil–structure interaction. The earthquake input energies to superstructures, soil–foundation systems and total swaying–rocking system are obtained by taking the corresponding appropriate free bodies into account and defining the energy transfer functions. It has been made clear that, when the ground surface motion is white, the input energy to the swaying–rocking m...

  14. Novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s with functional carbonate building blocks. 1. Chemical synthesis and their structural and physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hao, Qinghui; Liu, Xiaoyun; Ba, Chaoyi; Cao, Amin

    2004-01-01

    This study presents chemical synthesis, structural, and physical characterization of novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s P(BS-co-CC) bearing functional carbonate building blocks. First, five kinds of six-membered cyclic carbonate monomers, namely, trimethylene carbonate (TMC), 1-methyl-1,3-trimethylene carbonate (MTMC), 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-trimethylene carbonate (DMTMC), 5-benzyloxytrimethylene carbonate (BTMC), and 5-ethyl-5-benzyloxymethyl trimethylene carbonate (EBTMC), were well prepared from ethyl chloroformate and corresponding diols at 0 degrees C in THF solution with our modified synthetic strategies. Then, a series of new P(BS-co-CC)s were synthesized at 210 degrees C through a simple combination of poly-condensation and ring-opening-polymerization (ROP) of hydroxyl capped PBS macromers and the prepared carbonate monomers, and titanium tetra-isopropoxide Ti(i-OPr)4 was used as a more suitable catalyst of 5 candidate catalysts which could concurrently catalyze poly-condensation and ROP. By means of NMR, GPC, FTIR, and thermal analytical instruments, macromolecular structures and physical properties have been characterized for these aliphatic poly(ester carbonate)s. The experimental results indicated that novel biodegradable P(BS-co-CC)s were successfully synthesized with number average molecular weight Mn ranging from 24.3 to 99.6 KDa and various CC molar contents without any detectable decarboxylation and that the more bulky side group was attached to a cyclic carbonate monomer, the lower reactivity for its copolymerization would be observed. The occurrences of 13C NMR signal splitting of succinyl carbonyl attributed to the BS building blocks could be proposed due to the randomized sequences of BS and CC building blocks. FTIR characterization indicated two distinct absorption bands at 1716 and 1733 approximately 1735 cm(-1), respectively, stemming from carbonyl stretching modes for corresponding BS and CC units. With

  15. Building disc structure and galaxy properties through angular momentum: the DARK SAGE semi-analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Croton, Darren J.; Mutch, Simon J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the new semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution, DARK SAGE, a heavily modified version of the publicly available SAGE code. The model is designed for detailed evolution of galactic discs. We evolve discs in a series of annuli with fixed specific angular momentum, which allows us to make predictions for the radial and angular-momentum structure of galaxies. Most physical processes, including all channels of star formation and associated feedback, are performed in these annuli. We present the surface density profiles of our model spiral galaxies, both as a function of radius and specific angular momentum, and find that the discs naturally build a pseudo-bulge-like component. Our main results are focused on predictions relating to the integrated mass-specific angular momentum relation of stellar discs. The model produces a distinct sequence between these properties in remarkable agreement with recent observational literature. We investigate the impact Toomre disc instabilities have on shaping this sequence and find they are crucial for regulating both the mass and spin of discs. Without instabilities, high-mass discs would be systematically deficient in specific angular momentum by a factor of ˜2.5, with increased scatter. Instabilities also appear to drive the direction in which the mass-spin sequence of spiral galaxy discs evolves. With them, we find galaxies of fixed mass have higher specific angular momentum at later epochs.

  16. Electrooptic converter to control linear displacements of the large structures of the buildings and facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Aleksandr S.; Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Molev, Fedor V.

    2015-05-01

    The paper analyzes the construction matters and metrological parameters of the electrooptic converter to control linear displacements of the large structures of the buildings and facilities. The converter includes the base module, the processing module and a set of the reference marks. The base module is the main unit of the system, it includes the receiving optical system and the CMOS photodetector array that realizes the instrument coordinate system that controls the mark coordinates in the space. The methods of the frame-to-frame difference, adaptive threshold filtration, binarization and objects search by the tied areas to detect the marks against accidental contrast background is the basis of the algorithm. The entire algorithm is performed during one image reading stage and is based on the FPGA. The developed and manufactured converter experimental model was tested in laboratory conditions at the metrological bench at the distance between the base module and the mark 50±0.2 m. The static characteristic was read during the experiment of the reference mark displacement at the pitch of 5 mm in the horizontal and vertical directions for the displacement range 400 mm. The converter experimental model error not exceeding ±0.5 mm was obtained in the result of the experiment.

  17. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-16

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  18. Building up Graphene-Based Conductive Polymer Composite Thin Films Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Prepared by γ-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reduced graphene oxide (RGO was prepared by means of γ-ray irradiation of graphene oxide (GO in a water/ethanol mix solution, and we investigated the influence of reaction parameters, including ethanol concentration, absorbed dose, and dose rate during the irradiation. Due to the good dispersibility of the RGO in the mix solution, we built up flexible and conductive composite films based on the RGO and polymeric matrix through facile vacuum filtration and polymer coating. The electrical and optical properties of the obtained composite films were tested, showing good electrical conductivity with visible transmittance but strong ultraviolet absorbance.

  19. Host population genetic structure and zooxanthellae diversity of two reef-building coral species along the Florida Reef Tract and wider Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, I. B.; Johnson, M. E.; Devlin-Durante, M. K.; Miller, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    In preparation for a large-scale coral restoration project, we surveyed host population genetic structure and symbiont diversity of two reef-building corals in four reef zones along the Florida reef tract (FRT). There was no evidence for coral population subdivision along the FRT in Acropora cervicornis or Montastraea faveolata based on microsatellite markers. However, in A. cervicornis, significant genetic differentiation was apparent when extending the analysis to broader scales (Caribbean). Clade diversity of the zooxanthellae differed along the FRT. A. cervicornis harbored mostly clade A with clade D zooxanthellae being prominent in colonies growing inshore and in the mid-channel zones that experience greater temperature fluctuations and receive significant nutrient and sediment input. M. faveolata harbored a more diverse array of symbionts, and variation in symbiont diversity among four habitat zones was more subtle but still significant. Implications of these results are discussed for ongoing restoration and conservation work.

  20. STRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT AND TEMPERATURE FIELD SIMULATION OF PREPARING NANOPOWDER BY EVAPORATION-CONDENSATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Bao; Y.Yin; T.G.Liu; Z.Y.Yang

    2008-01-01

    A new apparatus, with a segregable conical water cooling condenser, which is heated by an electric arc using the evaporation-condensation method to prepare carbon-coated nanopowder, has been developed by the authors. Numerical simulation of the temperaturc field is done by the ANSYS software, and temperature in the reaction vessel is measured with the help of an experiment, to verify the simulation result. Influence of the temperature field in the reaction vessel, on the process of preparing nanopowder is then discussed simply. It is shown that the segrcgable conical water cooling condenser and carbon-coated surface process can be used to prepare steady carbon-coated metal nanopowder, at a lower cost and higher yield rate than the traditional structure. Simulation of the temperature field in the apparatus shows that the arc heating method can form a temperature field in the apparatus, which is quite favorable for nanopowder formation. Experiments show that the rational parameters using this apparatus, with the arc heating method to prepare carbon-coated nanopowder are electricity 60-100 A and arc length 5-8 mm.

  1. Preparation of resveratrol-loaded nanoporous silica materials with different structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Margarita, E-mail: mpopova@orgchem.bas.bg [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szegedi, Agnes [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1117 Budapest, Magyar tudósok körútja 2. (Hungary); Mavrodinova, Vesselina [Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Novak Tušar, Natasa [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mihály, Judith; Klébert, Szilvia [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1117 Budapest, Magyar tudósok körútja 2. (Hungary); Benbassat, Niko; Yoncheva, Krassimira [Faculty of Pharmacy, 2 Dunav Str., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-11-15

    Solid, nanoporous silica-based spherical mesoporous MCM-41 and KIL-2 with interparticle mesoporosity as well as nanosized zeolite BEA materials differing in morphology and pore size distribution, were used as carriers for the preparation of resveratrol-loaded delivery systems. Two preparation methods have been applied: (i) loading by mixing of resveratrol and mesoporous carrier in solid state and (ii) deposition in ethanol solution. The parent and the resveratrol loaded carriers were characterized by XRD, TEM, N2 physisorption, thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the support structure on the adsorption capacity and the release kinetics of this poorly soluble compound were investigated. Our results indicated that the chosen nanoporous silica supports are suitable for stabilization of trans-resveratrol and reveal controlled release and ability to protect the supported compound against degradation regardless of loading method. The solid-state dry mixing appears very effective for preparation of drug formulations composed of poorly soluble compound. - Graphical abstract: trans-Resveratrol was stabilized in the pores of BEA zeolite, MCM-41and KIL2 mesoporous silicas. - Highlights: • BEA, KIL-2 and MCM-41 materials were used as carriers for resveratrol loading. • Resveratrol encapsulation in ethanol solution and solid state procedure were applied. • The solid-state preparation appears very effective for stabilization of trans-resveratrol.

  2. Preparation of designed poly(D,L-lactide)/nanosized hydroxyapatite composite structures by stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A; Ambrosio, L; Grijpma, D W

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of scaffolds to facilitate the replacement of damaged tissues and organs by means of tissue engineering has been much investigated. The key properties of the biomaterials used to prepare such scaffolds include biodegradability, biocompatibility and a well-defined three-dimensional 3-Dpore network structure. In this study a poly(D,L-lactide)/nanosized hydroxyapatite (PDLLA/nano-Hap) composite resin was prepared and used to fabricate composite films and computer designed porous scaffolds by micro-stereolithography, mixing varying quantities of nano-Hap powder and a liquid photoinitiator into a photo-crosslinkable PDLLA-diacrylate resin. The influence of nano-Hap on the rheological and photochemical properties of the resins was investigated, the materials being characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties after post-preparation curing. In the cured composites stiffness was observed to increase with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. A computer designed construct with a pore network based on the Schwarz architecture was fabricated by stereolithography using PDLLA/nano-Hap composite resins.

  3. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  4. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc. and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S, Object Recall (R(O, and Surface Head recall (R(H. We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems, 89,591 (Medications and 25,107 (Tests terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems, 101,025 (Medications, and 15,032 (Tests terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  5. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    1996-01-01

    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system com

  6. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    1996-01-01

    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system

  7. Novel structural and magnetic properties of Mg doped copper nanoferrites prepared by conventional and wet methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab. (1), Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Afify, H.H.; El Zawawia, I.K.; Azab, A.A. [Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Nanoferrites of the general formula Cu{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 0{<=}x{<=}0.6 were prepared by standard ceramic and wet methods. The structure was studied by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The density and lattice constant were calculated and reported. The particle size of the prepared nanoferrites ranged from 8.7 to 41.1 nm. It was found that the lattice parameter decreases with increasing cation substitution of Mg{sup 2+} due to the difference of ionic radius and atomic mass. The dc magnetic susceptibility was measured out using Faraday's method. The magnetic hysteresis measurement was performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic constants such as Curie temperature, effective magnetic moment, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and corecivicty were obtained and reported. The magnetic constants decrease with increasing Mg{sup 2+}, except the remanent magnetization which increased. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of Mg{sup 2+} on structural and magnetic properties of copper ferrite prepared by the different methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To determine which method gives the smallest particle size and optimize the physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To determine which sample is suitable for different applications.

  8. Structural damages observed in state buildings after Simav/Turkey earthquake occurred on 19 May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Tama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of damages occurred in state buildings, especially in educational facilities, during the Simav earthquake (ML=5.7 on 19 May 2011. A site survey was carried out in the area after the earthquake, where six state buildings were examined in detail. The results of the survey showed that main reasons for the formation of damages in these buildings are the use of low strength concrete, insufficient reinforcement, inappropriate detailing, and low-quality workmanship. The investigated buildings were also evaluated by P25-rapid assessment method. The method demonstrates that two of the buildings in question are in "high risk band"; the other two fall into "detailed evaluation band", and the rest are in the "low risk band". This figure also matches with the damages observed in the site survey.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  10. Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals ((SC)-C-4): Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Alwis, A; Holsclaw, B; Pushkarev, V V; Reinicker, A; Lawton, T J; Blecher, M E; Sykes, E C. H.; Gellman, A J

    2013-02-01

    A set of six spherically curved Cu single crystals referred to as Surface Structure Spread Single Crystals (S{sup 4}Cs) has been prepared in such a way that their exposed surfaces collectively span all possible crystallographic surface orientations that can be cleaved from the face centered cubic Cu lattice. The method for preparing these S{sup 4}Cs and for finding the high symmetry pole point are described. Optical profilometry has been used to determine the true shapes of the S{sup 4}Cs and show that over the majority of the surface, the shape is extremely close to that of a perfect sphere. The local orientations of the surfaces lie within ±1{degree} of the orientation expected on the basis of the spherical shape; their orientation is as good as that of many commercially prepared single crystals. STM imaging has been used to characterize the atomic level structure of the Cu(111)±11{degree}-S{sup 4}C. This has shown that the average step densities and the average step orientations match those expected based on the spherical shape. In other words, although there is some distribution of step-step spacing and step orientations, there is no evidence of large scale reconstruction or faceting. The Cu S{sup 4}Cs have local structures based on the ideal termination of the face centered cubic Cu lattice in the direction of termination. The set of Cu S{sup 4}Cs will serve as the basis for high throughput investigations of structure sensitive surface chemistry on Cu.

  11. Preparation of Building Exterior Wall Coating on Aqueous Polyurethane Resin%一种水性聚氨酯型建筑外墙涂料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜洪利

    2012-01-01

    以水性聚氨酯树脂为基料,以水为分散介质并结合纳米分散技术进行改性,制备了一种性能更为优越的新型建筑外墙涂料,介绍了增稠剂、耐人工气候老化性、耐沾污性、环保性等试验结果。%The study had been made on synthesis and preparation of a kind of novel building waterborne exterior coating having better performance by using water soluble polyurethane resin as the basic material, water as dispersing media and the dispersion techniques of nanoparticles. These influencing factors on the performance of coating were studied including thickening agent,resistance to artificial weathering,stain resistanee,environmental protection test.

  12. Building Extraction Based on an Optimized Stacked Sparse Autoencoder of Structure and Training Samples Using LIDAR DSM and Optical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiming; Tan, Zhichao; Su, Nan; Zhao, Chunhui

    2017-08-24

    In this paper, a building extraction method is proposed based on a stacked sparse autoencoder with an optimized structure and training samples. Building extraction plays an important role in urban construction and planning. However, some negative effects will reduce the accuracy of extraction, such as exceeding resolution, bad correction and terrain influence. Data collected by multiple sensors, as light detection and ranging (LIDAR), optical sensor etc., are used to improve the extraction. Using digital surface model (DSM) obtained from LIDAR data and optical images, traditional method can improve the extraction effect to a certain extent, but there are some defects in feature extraction. Since stacked sparse autoencoder (SSAE) neural network can learn the essential characteristics of the data in depth, SSAE was employed to extract buildings from the combined DSM data and optical image. A better setting strategy of SSAE network structure is given, and an idea of setting the number and proportion of training samples for better training of SSAE was presented. The optical data and DSM were combined as input of the optimized SSAE, and after training by an optimized samples, the appropriate network structure can extract buildings with great accuracy and has good robustness.

  13. Preparation and mechanism study of bulk pure rare-earth metals with amorphous and nanocrystalline structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ErDong; SONG XiaoYan; ZHANG JiuXing; LU NianDuan

    2007-01-01

    The preparation and the mechanism study of bulk pure rare-earth metals with amorphous and nanocrystalline structures, which were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS), were carried out in this paper. With different processing parameters, the amorphous, two phases of amorphous and nanocrystalline, and complete nanocrystalline microstructures have been obtained. The nano-grain sizes in the bulk nanocrystalline materials are found smaller than the original powder particles sizes, which may change the conventional viewpoint that the grains in the sintered bulk are generally coarser than the raw powder particles. The technique developed in the present work can be extended to the preparation of many other nano bulk metal materials, and thus enables the studies of the nano-size effects on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of bulk nano materials.

  14. Structural properties of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles prepared by chemical vapor synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgul, Guvenc, E-mail: guvencakgul@gmail.com [Bor Vocational School, Nigde University, 51700 Nigde (Turkey); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Akgul, Funda Aksoy [Physics Department, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey); Attenkofer, Klaus [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Winterer, Markus [Nanoparticle Process Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, and Center for NanoIntegration Duisburg-Essen, CeNIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► Local structure determination of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} nanostructures by XANES and EXAFS. ► Zn K and Ti K absorption edge XANES investigations of nanopowder samples. ► Investigation of pre-edge peak features of TiO{sub 2} nanosamples. ► Obtaining of local structure parameters of nano ZnO and TiO{sub 2} using EXAFS. ► Good agreement of EXAFS results and crystal structure datas. -- Abstract: Transition metal (TM) oxides provide a wide range of functional materials especially when nanostructured. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and wurtzite type zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials were fabricated by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). Crystal and local structures of the prepared nanosamples were ascertained using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques. Based on the XRD data, a second phase(s) was not found in both samples. A single wurtzite and anatase type structures were observed in ZnO and TiO{sub 2} nanosamples, respectively. Ti K pre-edge features of XANES spectrum indicated the presence of sixfold coordinated Ti in TiO{sub 2} nanosamples. The results showed that CVS is quite useful method to produce high crystalline nanoparticles.

  15. Structural Characteristics of Cerium Oxide Nanocrystals Prepared by the Microemulsion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Zhang; X.Ju; Z.Y.Wu; T.Liu; T.D.Hu; Y.N.Xie

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the microstructure development of erium oxide nanocrystal,prepared by the microemulsion process,as a function of annealing temperature in air.Combined with the HRTEM and the thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis in air.Combined withthe HRTEm and the thremogravimetric-differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA),the XRD patterns reveal that the sample annealed at 623 K is amorphous,and the formation of cerium oxide nanocrystal occurs above 773 K.The local structural and electronic properties in the nanocrystallization process are probed by X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the Ce L3 edge.It is found that the phase structure changes from triclinic to cubic (CeO2),and the electroic structure changes from Ce3 to Ce4 upon increasing the annealing temperature.

  16. Structure of nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and rapid solidification processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Nayak; B S Murty; S K Pabi

    2008-06-01

    Structures of Al-based nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent annealing are compared with those obtained by rapid solidification processing (RSP). MA produced only supersaturated solid solution of Fe in Al up to 10 at.% Fe, while for higher Fe content up to 20 at.% the nonequilibrium intermetallic Al5Fe2 appeared. Subsequent annealing at 673 K resulted in more Al5Fe2 formation with very little coarsening. The equilibrium intermetallics, Al3Fe (Al13Fe4), was not observed even at this temperature. In contrast, ribbons of similar composition produced by RSP formed fine cellular or dendritic structure with nanosized dispersoids of possibly a nano-quasicrystalline phase and amorphous phase along with -Al depending on the Fe content in the alloys. This difference in the product structure can be attributed to the difference in alloying mechanisms in MA and RSP.

  17. Effects of salinity build-up on the performance and bacterial community structure of a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Phan, Hop V; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of salinity increase on bacterial community structure in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. The influent salt loading was increased gradually to simulate salinity build-up in the bioreactor during the operation of a high retention-membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR). Bacterial community diversity and structure were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of MBR mixed liquor samples. Results show that salinity increase reduced biological performance but did not affect microbial diversity in the bioreactor. Unweighted UniFrac and taxonomic analyses were conducted to relate the reduced biological performance to the change of bacterial community structure. In response to the elevated salinity condition, the succession of halophobic bacteria by halotolerant/halophilic microbes occurred and thereby the biological performance of MBR was recovered. These results suggest that salinity build-up during HR-MBR operation could be managed by allowing for the proliferation of halotolerant/halophilic bacteria.

  18. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  19. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  20. Structural and ferroelectrical properties of bismuth titanate ceramic powders prepared by mechanically assisted synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized bismuth titanate, Bi4Ti3O12, was prepared via a high-energy ball milling process through mechanically assisted synthesis directly from the oxide mixture of Bi2O3 and TiO2. The Bi4Ti3O12 phase started to form after 1 h of milling. With increasing the milling time from 3 to 12 h, the particle size of formed Bi4Ti3O12 did not reduce significantly. The grain size was less than 16 nm and showed a strong tendency to agglomeration. The nucleation and phase formation of Bi4Ti3O12, crystal structure, microstructure, powder grain size and specific surface area were followed by XRD, Rietveld refinement analysis, SEM and the BET specific surface area measurements. Raman spectroscopy was used to explain the structural properties of Bi4Ti3O12 powder, prepared by mechanically assisted synthesis. Reduction in grain size with the increase of milling time was also noted (change in the position and relative intensity, which indicated changes in the structure, caused by nanodimension grains. The sample milled for 12 h and subsequently sintered at 1000°C for 24 h exhibited a hysteresis loop, confirming that the synthesized material possesses ferroelectric properties. .

  1. CuO Nano-structures Prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves Extract Medium: Efficient Catalysts for the Aqueous Media Preparation of Dihydropyrano[3, 2-c]chromene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashang, Majid; Kargar, Mahboubeh; Shafiee, Mohammad R M; Mansoor, Syed S; Fazlinia, Abbas; Esfandiari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    CuO nano-structures were prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis leaves extract medium via a green bio-chemical method and were used for the one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrano [3,2-c] chromene derivatives. This procedure is very simple and the products were synthesized in high to excellent yields.

  2. The leaning Tower of Pisa, Structure, building materials and reinforcement interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An exhaustive diagnosis of "anatomy, physiology and pathology" of the masonry body of the leaning Tower of Pisa has been carried out with the aim of integrate the knowledge of the structure features, mechanical conditions and decay processes of the building materials, necessary for correctly managing the therapy, temporary and definitive interventions. The interventions already or being implemented consist of (i outer circular slightly stressed steel tendons, (ii inner stressed and/or passive strainless bars, and (iii grouting by a specially devised cement admixture. The paper will not be dealing with "materic" restoration works, and geotechnical interventions for reducing the progressive tilting and stabilizing the foundation/subsoil system of the Tower.

    Se ha realizado un exhaustivo estudio de diagnosis de la Torre inclinada de Pisa, con el fin de completar todo el conocimiento existente en torno a la estructura, condiciones mecánicas y procesos de alteración de los materiales de construcción, para proponer la terapia más correcta de intervención, ya sean éstas temporales o definitivas. Las intervenciones ya realizadas o en fase de ejecución consisten en: (i cables de acero ligeramente tensados rodeando la Torre, (ii barras interiores tensadas y/o pasivadas, y (iii relleno con una lechada de cemento con aditivo, especialmente preparado para tal fin. El presente trabajo no se centrará en las restauraciones ni en las intervenciones geotécnicas realizadas para reducir la progresiva inclinación y estabilizar el sistema de cimentación de la Torre.

  3. Mobile agent-enabled framework for structuring and building distributed systems on the internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jiannong; ZHOU Jingyang; ZHU Weiwei; LI Xuhui

    2006-01-01

    Mobile agent has shown its promise as a powerful means to complement and enhance existing technology in various application areas. In particular, existing work has demonstrated that MA can simplify the development and improve the performance of certain classes of distributed applications, especially for those running on a wide-area, heterogeneous, and dynamic networking environment like the Internet. In our previous work, we extended the application of MA to the design of distributed control functions, which require the maintenance of logical relationship among and/or coordination of processing entities in a distributed system. A novel framework is presented for structuring and building distributed systems, which use cooperating mobile agents as an aid to carry out coordination and cooperation tasks in distributed systems. The framework has been used for designing various distributed control functions such as load balancing and mutual exclusion in our previous work. In this paper, we use the framework to propose a novel approach to detecting deadlocks in distributed system by using mobile agents, which demonstrates the advantage of being adaptive and flexible of mobile agents. We first describe the MAEDD (Mobile Agent Enabled Deadlock Detection) scheme, in which mobile agents are dispatched to collect and analyze deadlock information distributed across the network sites and, based on the analysis, to detect and resolve deadlocks. Then the design of an adaptive hybrid algorithm derived from the framework is presented. The algorithm can dynamically adapt itself to the changes in system state by using different deadlock detection strategies. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using simulations. The results show that the algorithm can outperform existing algorithms that use a fixed deadlock detection strategy.

  4. Development of a seismic design method based on response spectra for building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiyuan; YU Ruifang

    2007-01-01

    The assumption and problem of the mode-superposition response spectrum method in seismic design code is discussed based on a brief review of the development of the seismic design method for building structures. The scope of application for the classical damping theory is ana- lyzed and the necessity of the research on mode-superposition method for non-classical damping is presented. The pro- gresses on the mode superposition response spectrum theory are discussed. This includes: 1) the complex mode superposi- tion method (in real form) for the non-classically damped linear system and the general calculation formula for the application of code; 2) the complex complete quadratic com- bination (CCQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system, which is based on the same assumptions as in deducing the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method which is popularly used in seismic design codes of many countries; 3) the complex complete quadratic combination with three components (CCQC3) method, which is a general- ization of the CCQC method to the case of multi-components and multiple-support seismic excitations and deducing cor- responding method; 4) the approach for calculation of seismic response of the non-classically damped system with over- critical damping and the calculation method of seismic response for the linear system with multiple eigenvalues; 5) the time-dependent CCQC(t) algorithm considering non- stationary earthquake ground motion; 6) an applied and effec- tive method to solve the low order complex vector basis for the large linear non-classically damped system, which can be expediently used in practice to avoid the unknown errors coming from the forced uncoupling method; 7) bringing for- ward the concept of partial quadratic combination in order to reduce the calculation amount of CQC and CCQC methods, and studying the primary estimation-criterion. The reason- ability and applicable scope of these methods are also briefly discussed in this

  5. Curating and Preparing High-Throughput Screening Data for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Marlene T; Wang, Wenyi; Sedykh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Publicly available bioassay data often contains errors. Curating massive bioassay data, especially high-throughput screening (HTS) data, for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling requires the assistance of automated data curation tools. Using automated data curation tools are beneficial to users, especially ones without prior computer skills, because many platforms have been developed and optimized based on standardized requirements. As a result, the users do not need to extensively configure the curation tool prior to the application procedure. In this chapter, a freely available automatic tool to curate and prepare HTS data for QSAR modeling purposes will be described.

  6. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn) source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S) source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measu...

  7. Preparation of Magnetic Hybrid Microspheres with Well-Defined Yolk-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient route was reported to prepare a kind of yolk-shell magnetic hybrid microspheres by suspension polymerization and calcinations method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the magnetic microspheres were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM, and TGA analysis. The vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM results clearly showed that the magnetic particles were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization of 32.82 emu/g which makes the microcomposites easily controlled by an external magnetic field. The results revealed that the magnetic hybrid microspheres might have important applications in magnetic bioseparation and drug delivery.

  8. Chemical Structure of Carbon Nitride Films Prepared by MW-ECR Plasma Enhanced Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJun,GAOPeng; DINGWan-yu; LIXin; DENGXin-lu; DONGChuang

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nitride thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced DC magnetron sputtering using twinned microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. Chemical structure of deposited films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transtorm infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that the deposition rate is strongly affected by direct current bias, and the films are mainly composed of a single amorphous carbon nitride phase with N/C ratio close to C3N4, and the bonding is predominantly of C-N type.

  9. VIBRATION TESTING OF A SIXTEEN-STORIED BUILDING THAT HAS A PRECAST CONCRETE BOX STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantsev Anton Andreevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the problems of theoretical assessment of the seismic stability of a 16-storied building made of precast concrete box units by full-scale experimental testing through the employment of a powerful unbalance-type vibration machine. The authors provide the results of the experimental testing and scale them to assess the effects of an earthquake. The testing procedure that consists in the assessment of the seismic stability of buildings through employment of the vibration testing performed by a powerful vibration machine installed on the soil surface, have proven its high efficiency. As a result of the vibration testing, specific values of accelerations and shifts in terms of the building height and length were identified in lateral and longitudinal directions. The results of extrapolation of the seismic effect of the vibration testing onto the 9-grade seismic load scale have proven that the buildings of this type can be considered seismically stable.

  10. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  11. Preparation, Characterization and Thermo-Chromic Properties of EVA/VO2 Laminate Films for Smart Window Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onruthai Srirodpai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic films based on vanadium dioxide (VO2/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA composite were developed. The monoclinic VO2 particles was firstly prepared via hydrothermal and calcination processes. The effects of hydrothermal time and tungsten doping agent on crystal structure and morphology of the calcined metal oxides were reported. After that, 1 wt % of the prepared VO2 powder was mixed with EVA compound, using two different mixing processes. It was found that mechanical properties of the EVA/VO2 films prepared by the melt process were superior to those of which prepared by the solution process. On the other hand, percentage visible light transmittance of the solution casted EVA/VO2 film was greater than that of the melt processed composite film. This was related to the different gel content of EVA rubber and state of dispersion and distribution of VO2 within the polymer matrix phase. Thermochromic behaviors and heat reflectance of the EVA/VO2 film were also verified. In overall, this study demonstrated that it was possible to develop a thermochromic film using the polymer composite approach. In this regard, the mixing condition was found to be one of the most important factors affecting morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of the films.

  12. 轨道交通建设沿线建(构)筑物调查实践%The Survey of the Buildings and Structures Along Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海奎; 武鑫; 李忠杰; 吴凯

    2014-01-01

    For the survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,this paper analyzed the survey contents , the operating methods ,the research process ,tidying results and other aspects ,presented the technological scheme of sur-vey to use to survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,and explained and evaluated the preparation ,the sur-vey,the query of data,tidying results and other aspects.Finally,we got the exact and satisfied survey results of the build-ings and structures .%针对城市轨道交通建设沿线的建(构)筑物调查实践,对调查内容、作业方法、调查流程、成果整理等方面进行了分析,提出了调查技术方案,应用在乌鲁木齐市轨道交通沿线的建(构)筑物调查作业中,同时对前期准备、外业调查、资料查询、内业整理和成果提交形式等实施环节进行了内容说明和评价,得到了的准确、可靠的建(构)筑物调查成果。

  13. Preparation and Application of Film Sensor for Metal Structure Crack Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo HOU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A crack monitoring technique is desired to ensure the safety and reliability of metallic structures. In the present study, a conductive film sensor was presented to monitor structural cracks in metal structures in real-time based on the electrical potential method. First, a Ti/TiN film sensor was prepared on the fatigue critical portion of a 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy specimen by vacuum ion plating technology, which allows firm integration with the metal surface. A finite element model (FEM of the Ti/TiN film sensor was then constructed and the changes in the output of the sensor along with corresponding changes in crack propagation were discussed. The results indicated that the Ti/TiN film sensor has high sensitivity to cracks and it is feasible to monitor structural surface cracks using the sensor. Finally, crack monitoring experiments were carried out based on the Ti/TiN film sensor. Experimental results showed that the output potential curve of the Ti/TiN film sensor contained several regions, which corresponded to plastic deformation accumulation, crack propagation, and sensor failure, respectively. Therefore, the information on the origination and propagation of structural cracks can be gained through analyzing changes in slope of the output potential values of the Ti/TiN film sensor with respect to time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9623

  14. Synthesis and Structure of PEDOT Prepared through a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hua-Jing; JIANG Ya-Dong; XU Jian-Hua; YANG Ya-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Adopting LB film method, an arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film and polymerized EDOT monomers in hydrophilic group of LB were chosen to prepare the arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film. UV-Vis, FT-IR and XPS analyses implied that EDOT was effectively polymerized in film, and thus PEDOT conducting polymer was produced. Analyses of XRR and SIMS indicated that the film had a well-arranged lamella structure, and further research showed that polymerization of EDOT in AA film destroyed the orderliness of the original LB film. This phenomenon could be related to the destructive effect of polymerization on the layered structure. We used four-point probe and semiconductor instrument to study the conductivity property of the film, and observed that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film had sudden changes with the changes of processing time in an effective conduction network, which was caused by "permeability" in conducting channel of multilayer film. The test results also indicated that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film was obviously better than that of spin-coating PEDOT/PSS or ODA-SA/PEDOT-PSS film due to the higher π structure of PEDOT structure and ordered film structure.

  15. Structural and optical properties of Ba-doped CdO films prepared by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, B.; Gülen, Y.; Bayansal, F.; Çetinkara, H. A.; Güder, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructure materials have opened a new discussion in the field of semiconductor device technology because material properties could be changed by changing the crystal morphology and size. In this article, Ba doped CdO films were prepared by SILAR method. The crystal morphology, structure and optical properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. From the SEM analysis it is seen that Ba-doping concentration affects the shapes of the nanostructures. XRD analysis showed that the films have poly-crystalline structures. The room temperature UV-vis analysis showed that the optical band gap of the CdO films was firstly decreased then increased with the increasing barium doping concentration.

  16. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Superionic Conductor RbAg4I5 Crystalline Grain Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 孙红三; 孙家林; 田广彦; 邢志; 郭继华

    2003-01-01

    Superionic conductor RbAg4I5 crystalline grainfilms were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on NaCl crystalline substrates. The surface morphology, microstructure and the electronic energy states of the films were examined by atomic force microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained RbAg4I5 layer has an epitaxial film of perfect crystalline structure, and the unit cell of crystalline grain RbAg4I5 films belongs to cubic crystal system. The principal x-ray diffraction peaks at d = 3.7447 and 1.8733A are related to the structure of ternary compound RbAg4I5films.

  17. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Superionic Conductor RbAg4I5 Crystalline Grain Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Sun, Hong-San; Sun, Jia-Lin; Tian, Guang-Yan; Xing, Zhi; Guo, Ji-Hua

    2003-05-01

    Superionic conductor RbAg4I5 crystalline grain films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on NaCl crystalline substrates. The surface morphology, microstructure and the electronic energy states of the films were examined by atomic force microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained RbAg4I5 layer has an epitaxial film of perfect crystalline structure, and the unit cell of crystalline grain RbAg4I5 films belongs to cubic crystal system. The principal x-ray diffraction peaks at d = 3.7447 and 1.8733 Å are related to the structure of ternary compound RbAg4I5 films.

  18. Effects of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles prepared by precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Dong; Yanjiao Chang; Qian Wang; Jin Tong; Jiang Zhou

    2016-02-01

    The present work investigated the influence of surfactants on size and structure of amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through precipitation. ANPs were fabricated using absolute ethanol containing surfactants (Tween80, Span80 and mixtures of Tween80 and Span80 with ratios of 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25, respectively) as non-solvents. The obtained ANPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that surfactant type, concentration and hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value had great impact on size of precipitated ANPs. The smallest ANPs with mean size of 155 nm determined by DLS were obtained by using 0.5% (in proportion of the amylose solution volume) of Tween80/Span80 mixture (HLB = 12.33). The precipitated ANPs possessed the V-type crystalline structure no matter whether using the surfactants or not.

  19. Preparation and structural study of LaMnO{sub 3} magnetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L.C.; Valencia, J.S. [Grupo de Catalisis Heterogenea, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC (Colombia); Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC (Colombia); Arbey Rodriguez M, J. [GEMA-Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC (Colombia); Martinez, M.L. [Laboratorio de Quimica del Estado Solido, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Roa-Rojas, J. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC (Colombia)], E-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co; Fajardo, F. [GEMA-Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC (Colombia)

    2008-07-15

    We report the crystallographic parameters of LaMnO{sub 3} obtained from X-ray diffraction data and electronic properties predictions using the density functional theory (DFT). LaMnO{sub 3} was prepared by the citrate precursor method (CPM). The initial solution was 0.1 M of each cation and the citrate nitrate relation was one. The solution was dried at 373 K; the yielded foam was annealed at 873 K and then was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Diffraction peaks show that the space group is R-3c (no. 167) with a=b =5.523 A and c=13.324 A (rhombohedrally distorted perovskite). Structural results of the Rietveld method have a matching of 97% with that obtained from the Structure Prediction Diagnostic Software. DFT calculation reveals a half-metallic character and its magnetic moment is about 2.0 {mu}{sub B}.

  20. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  1. Consideration of hazardous and especially hazardous hydrometeorological impacts in design of buildings and structures of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available External impacts of the hydrometeorological origin have a significant influence on the safety level of objects of use of atomic energy (OUAE, including nuclear power plants (NPP. Therefore, the existing NPP-related safety regulations demand to consider such impacts at all stages of the NPP life cycle. It is important to make decisions on considering or ignoring certain external impacts while designing NPP buildings and structures. The main criterion for such decisions is the probability of a non-project accident associated with the release of radionuclides into the environment when an extreme phenomena occurs. The aim of this study is to develop a concept for refinement regulatory requirements, considering hydrometeorological factors in organization of NPP engineering protection. Criteria for consideration of hazardous and especially hazardous hydrometeorological impacts for design of NPP buildings and structures were analyzed, and recommendations for refinement of regulatory requirements, considering hydrometeorological factors in organization of NPP engineering protection, were developed.

  2. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Zhang, Hong-Guo; Liu, Dan-Min; Zhang, Jiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51171003, 51071007, and 51401002).

  3. Effects of the preparation processes on structural, electronic, and optical properties of LaHoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siaï, Amira, E-mail: amira_siai@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Horchani-Naifer, Karima [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Haro-González, Patricia [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Department of physical material C-IV, Madrid Autonoma University, C/Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The preparation of LaHoO{sub 3} by combustion and hydrothermal techniques was performed. • The crystal structure and characterization of the synthesized oxides were carried out. • The lattice distortions have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap. • Electronic properties and band structure have been carried out by DFT method. • Sample prepared by hydrothermal process gives higher emission intensities. - ABSTRACT: Lanthanum holmium oxide (LaHoO{sub 3}) was synthesized using combustion and hydrothermal processes in order to compare the effects of preparation method on structural, electronic, and optical properties. For this purpose, the as-prepared samples were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electronic microscopy. The Rietveld refinements structure of as-prepared samples show that lattice distortions and volume expansion were obtained for LaHoO{sub 3} synthesized with hydrothermal method compared to combustion process. The luminescence properties were investigated upon 488 and 750 nm laser excitations. The emission curves show the presence of characteristic Ho{sup 3+} transitions with a higher emission intensity for a sample prepared by hydrothermal method than the one obtained by combustion process. The structures properties effects on the band structure and the density of states were realized via generalized gradient approximation functional with Hubbard correction. The lattice distortions were found to have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap.

  4. Earthquake Shaking and Damage to Buildings: Recent evidence for severe ground shaking raises questions about the earthquake resistance of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R A; Joyner, W B; Blume, J A

    1975-08-22

    Ground shaking close to the causative fault of an earthquake is more intense than it was previously believed to be. This raises the possibility that large numbers of buildings and other structures are not sufficiently resistant for the intense levels of shaking that can occur close to the fault. Many structures were built before earthquake codes were adopted; others were built according to codes formulated when less was known about the intensity of near-fault shaking. Although many building types are more resistant than conventional design analyses imply, the margin of safety is difficult to quantify. Many modern structures, such as freeways, have not been subjected to and tested by near-fault shaking in major earthquakes (magnitude 7 or greater). Damage patterns in recent moderate-sized earthquakes occurring in or adjacent to urbanized areas (17), however, indicate that many structures, including some modern ones designed to meet earthquake code requirements, cannot withstand the severe shaking that can occur close to a fault. It is necessary to review the ground motion assumed and the methods utilized in the design of important existing structures and, if necessary, to strengthen or modify the use of structures that are found to be weak. New structures situated close to active faults should be designed on the basis of ground motion estimates greater than those used in the past. The ultimate balance between risk of earthquake losses and cost for both remedial strengthening and improved earthquake-resistant construction must be decided by the public. Scientists and engineers must inform the public about earthquake shaking and its effect on structures. The exposure to damage from seismic shaking is steadily increasing because of continuing urbanization and the increasing complexity of lifeline systems, such as power, water, transportation, and communication systems. In the near future we should expect additional painful examples of the damage potential of moderate

  5. Dynamic Responses Analysis of a Building Structure Subjected to Ground Shock from a Tunnel Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic responses of a multi-storey building without or with a sliding base-isolation device for ground shock induced by an in-tunnel explosion are numerically analyzed.The effect of an adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel,which affects ground shock propagation,is considered in the analysis.Different modeling methods,such as the eight-node equal-parametric finite element and mass-lumped system,are used to establish the coupling model consisting of the two adjacent tunnels,the surrounding soil medium with the Lysmer viscous boundary condition,and the multi-storey building with or without the sliding base-isolation device.In numerical calculations,a continuous friction model,which is different from the traditional Coulomb friction model,is adopted to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the accumulated errors.Some example analyses are subsequently performed to study the response characteristics of the building and the sliding base-isolation device to ground shock.The effect of the adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel on the ground shock wave propagation is also investigated.The final conclusions based on the numerical results will provide some guidance in engineering practice.

  6. Energy efficiency of the Rural Wall multi-layer structure in low-rise building design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Golova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study on energy efficiency of various wall design solutions and a new multi-layer wall design for low-rise construction as well as the results of television studies on multi-layer and single-layer envelopes. Indoor climate parameters for various wall design solutions are determined. The study reveals the optimal wall design solutions and specifies the theoretical assessment of their energy efficiency in compliance with Russia's national building code 23-02-2003. The paper presents calculations of building heat loss through the exterior building envelope, reduced resistance to heat transfer of walls and total heat loss of the building with the selected outer wall design during the heating season. Recommendations on the application of the new multi-layer wall design using local wall materials in the construction of energy-efficient low-rise buildings are developed. The recommendations include requirements for wall materials, thermal calculations, production guidelines, properties of layers in a multi-layer walls and physical and mechanical properties of wall layers.

  7. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  8. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impact of blast induced ground vibration prior to mining and establish remediation techniques. Blast impact study was conducted at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Building structures within the study area were mapped and characterized. A blast impact prediction model was also generated. Blast induced vibrations that may propagate from the Father Brown pit of Golden Star Wassa Limited using various instantaneous charges were determined. It was found that bench blasting at the Father Brown pit has a potential of causing damage to building structures within the Awunakrom community if the maximum instantaneous charge adopted at the southernmost periphery of the pit exceeds 30 kg. It was therefore, recommended that all bench blast conducted at the southern periphery of the Father Brown pit should adopt a maximum instantaneous charge of 30 kg to avert any potential blast damage. However, variable instantaneous charges of more than 30 kg can be adopted as the blast location moves towards the northern periphery.

  9. Architectural structure and environmental performance of the traditional buildings in Florina, NW Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Patras (Greece); Bougiatioti, F. [School of Architecture, National Technical University of Athens, 25, Iasonos Street, 166-71 Vouliagmeni, Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents various aspects, which characterise the traditional architecture in the town of Florina, north-western Greece, and can be related to bioclimatic and environmental architecture. The study is based on the documentation and the analysis of the architectural and bioclimatic aspects of a sample of forty (40) remaining houses of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The analysis of the architectural aspects concerns the building typology, the form, the materials and the construction techniques, whereas the analysis of bioclimatic aspects involves the thermal behaviour of the building shell, the thermal and the visual comfort conditions. The aim of the study is to document and assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, all the afore-mentioned aspects in order to draw conclusions concerning the principles, which characterised this architecture and can be integrated to the refurbishment of existing buildings or the design of new ones in traditional surroundings. (author)

  10. Structural and Optical Properties of Eu Doped ZnO Nanorods prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Alarawi, Abeer

    2014-06-23

    Nano structured wide band gap semiconductors have attracted attention of many researchers due to their potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this thesis, we report successful synthesis of well aligned Eu doped ZnO nano-rods prepared, for the first time to our knowledge, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without any catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns shows that these Eu doped ZnO nanorods are grown along the c-axis of ZnO wurtzite structure. We have studied the effect of the PLD growth conditions on forming vertically aligned Eu doped ZnO nanorods. The structural properties of the material are investigated using a -scanning electron microscope (SEM). The PLD parameters must be carefully controlled in order to obtain c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods on sapphire substrates, without the use of any catalyst. The experiments conducted in order to identify the optimal growth conditions confirmed that, by adjusting the target-substrate distance, substrate temperature, laser energy and deposition duration, the nanorod size could be successfully controlled. Most importantly, the results indicated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties reflect the quality of the ZnO nanorods. These parameters can change the material’s structure from one-dimensional to two-dimensional however the laser energy and frequency affect the size and the height of the nanorods; the xygen pressure changes the density of the nanorods.

  11. Connecting Structure of Steel Structure Building Component%钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立强

    2015-01-01

    钢材作为一种现代化的建筑材料,近年来得到了极大的发展。在钢结构建筑的应用和发展中,钢结构建筑构件连接构造技术占有十分重要的位置。通过对不同方面构件连接构造技术的研究,探讨了各种技术的优缺点和实际应用,以期更好地推动钢结构建筑的发展和进步。%As a kind of modern building materials, steel has been greatly developed in recent years. In the application and development of steel structure building, the connecting structure of steel structure construction technology is very important. Through the research on the construction technology of different aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed, and the practical application is discussed in order to promote the development and progress of steel structure building.

  12. In vitro biological characterization of macroporous 3D Bonelike structures prepared through a 3D machining technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, M.S.; Dias, A.G. [INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Divisao de Biomateriais, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Santos, J.D. [INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Divisao de Biomateriais, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto - Portugal (Portugal); Fernandes, M.H., E-mail: mhrf@portugalmail.pt [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Medicina Dentaria, Laboratorio de Farmacologia e Biocompatibilidade Celular, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-392 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-04-30

    3D bioactive macroporous structures were prepared using a 3D machining technique. A virtual 3D structure model was created and a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling device machined Bonelike samples. The resulting structures showed a reproducible macroporosity and interconnective structure. Macropores size after sintering was approximately 2000 {mu}m. In vitro testing using human bone marrow stroma showed that cells were able to adhere and proliferate on 3D structures surface and migrate into all macropore channels. In addition, these cells were able to differentiate, since mineralized globular structures associated with cell layer were identified. Results obtained showed that 3D structures of Bonelike successfully allow cell migration into all macropores, and allow human bone marrow stromal cells to proliferate and differentiate. This innovative technique may be considered as a step-forward preparation for 3D interconnective macroporous structures that allow bone ingrowth while maintaining mechanical integrity.

  13. Network Structure, Diversity, and Proactive Resilience Building: a Response to Tompkins and Adger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although community social networks can build resilience, and thus, aid adaptation to unexpected environmental change (Tomkins and Adger 2004, not all social networks are created equal. Networks composed of a diversity of “bridging” links to a diverse web of resources and “bonding” links that build trust strengthen a community's ability to adapt to change, but networks composed only of “bonding” links can impose constraining social norms and foster group homophily, reducing resilience. Diversity fosters the resilience needed to adapt to unexpected change, and can also enlarge the ability to proactively make collective decisions that optimize future options.

  14. Prediction of the structural fire performance of buildings%建筑物结构火灾性能预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard W. Bukowski; P.E. FSFPE

    2004-01-01

    回顾了建筑物结构火灾性能研究的历史,介绍了构件耐火试验和性能化防火的法则,介绍了研究方案和国际合作进度.%Look back on background for research of the structural fire performanre of buildings. Introduce fire endurance tests of the structure element and performence based fire prevention design regulations. Final, introduce organization of the project.

  15. Preparation and performance of tubular nanoflaky (Ni, Co, Mn) oxides with hierarchical mesoporous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Yanqing; Wang, Xianyou, E-mail: wxianyou@yahoo.com; Gao, Jiao; Zhang, Youwei; Zhao, Qinglan

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • The nickel cobalt manganese oxide with nanosheet-like nanotube structure is firstly reported. • The novel composite possess high specific surface area of 134.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • The novel composite deliver superior electrochemical behaviors. - Abstract: The nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCMO/CNT) with hierarchical tubular nanoflaky structure is intentionally designed and synthesized via a facile method by using carbon nanotube (CNT) as a backbone template, then the nickel cobalt manganese oxide with nanosheet-like nanotube structure (NCMONST) is synthesized after removed successfully the CNT templates. The morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of the NCMONST samples are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The results reveal that the NCMO shell with a thickness of 0.2 μm grows uniformly on the surface of the CNT with a diameter of 0.1 μm. After calcined NCMO/CNT in air, the mesoporous NCMONST is successfully obtained. The as-prepared NCMONST maintains the tubular and sheets-like structure of NCMO/CNT, and possesses a high specific surface area of 134.1 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, large pore volume of 0.609 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1} and broad pore-size distribution. The electrochemical results show that the NCMONST exhibits a high specific capacitance of 680 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}, excellent rate capability of 38% at 20 A g{sup −1} and good capacity retention of 88% after 1000 cycles. Therefore, the transition metal oxide with porous structure is a promising electrode candidate for the application of supercapacitors.

  16. Experimental investigations of building structure with a superelastic shape memory alloy friction damper subject to seismic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2016-12-01

    With the goal to assess its effectiveness in structural vibration suppression under strong seismic excitations, this paper experimentally investigates shaking table tests of a new superelastic shape memory alloy friction damper (SSMAFD). The damper consists of pre-tensioned superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and friction devices. The main function of SMA wires is to provide re-centering capacity, while the integrated friction devices provide the most energy dissipation. With the inherent damping property, the superelastic SMA wires also provide energy dissipation. In the shaking table tests, a scaled-down building structure were used as the subject for vibration control and several representative seismic signals as well as white noise motions were used as the inputs. Comparative studies of dynamic behaviors, i.e. story displacements, interstory drifts and story accelerations, of the structural model with and without SSMAFD under seismic loading were performed. The experimental results demonstrated that the SSMAFD was effective in suppressing the dynamic response of the building structure subjected to strong earthquakes by dissipating a large portion of the energy. In addition, with the re-centering capacity of the proposed damper, the structure was able to undergo strong earthquakes without remarkable residual drift under different seismic loads.

  17. Consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including examinations of bacteria risks; Konsekvenser ved solvarmeforberedte beholdere i bygningsreglementet herunder undersoegelse af risici for bakteriegener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Kaersgaard, K. [Teknologisk Inst., SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Bagh, L. [Teknologisk Inst., Miljoedivisionen (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A larger dissemination of solar heating units must be expected, if requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating are introduced in the building regulations. However, this may have effects, which have to be discussed beforehand, just as it has to be decided how the regulations can be put into practice. 1) The aim is to examine and discuss the consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including connections with other legislation, potential, consequences for the building services sector and proposals for rules in the building regulations (exceptions etc.) 2) Furthermore, the aim is to explain the risk of bacteria in tanks prepared for solar heating according to existing or new additional studies. It must be explained whether tanks prepared for solar heating will result in an increased number of bacteria in the water compared to traditional hot water tanks and - if possible - whether the change is caused by the increased volume of the tank (the water stays in the tank for a longer period) or changed temperature conditions which favours growth of bacteria at a certain incubation temperature. (EHS)

  18. Framing Lumber from Building Removal: How do We Best Utilize This Untapped Structural Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; Steven Cramer; James Evans

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other construction materials, wood products are environmentally attractive because they sequester carbon, are renewable, and are low in embodied energy. Lumber salvaged from building removal possesses these same qualities but with additional environmental attributes. In spite of the environmental attractiveness of reclaimed lumber, its widespread...

  19. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.; Roy, S.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Versluijs-Helder, M.; Broersma, A.; Soulimani, F.; Visser, T.; Kegel, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended struct

  20. The impact of sensor errors and building structures on particle filter-based inertial positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftkjær, Thomas; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Positioning systems that do not depend on in-building infrastructures are critical for enabling a range of applications within pervasive computing. Particle filter-based inertial positioning promises infrastructure-less positioning, but previous research has not provided an understanding of how t...