WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation animal friends

  1. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  2. New eco-friendly animal bone meal catalysts for preparation of chalcones and aza-Michael adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Yassine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two efficient reactions were successfully carried out using Animal Bone Meal (ABM and potassium fluoride or sodium nitrate doped ABMs as new heterogeneous catalysts under very mild conditions. After preparation and characterization of the catalysts, we first report their use in a simple and convenient synthesis of various chalcones by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and then in an aza-Michael addition involving several synthesized chalcones with aromatic amines. All the reactions were carried out at room temperature in methanol; the chalcone synthesis was also achieved in water environment under microwave irradiation. Doping ABM enhances the rate and yield at each reaction. Catalytic activities are discussed and the ability to re-use the ABM is demonstrated. Results For Claisen–Schmidt the use of ABM alone, yields never exceeded 17%. In each entry, KF/ABM and NaNO3/ABM (79-97% gave higher yields than using ABM alone under thermic condition. Also the reaction proceeded under microwave irradiation in good yields (72-94% for KF/ABM and 81-97% for NaNO3/ABM and high purity. For aza-Michael addition the use of ABM doped with KF or NaNO3 increased the catalytic activity remarkably. The very high yields could be noted (84-95% for KF/ABM and 81-94% for NaNO3/ABM. Conclusion The present method is an efficient and selective procedure for the synthesis of chalcones an aza-Michael adducts. The ABM and doped ABMs are a new, inexpensive and attractive solid supports which can contribute to the development of catalytic processes and reduced environmental problems.

  3. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  4. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  5. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  6. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  8. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J N

    2015-05-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution.

  9. Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝群

    2002-01-01

    A life without a friend is a life without a sun. This is no doubt a truthful saying. Everybody needs friends. Without a friend, you will feel lonely and sad. Suppose you are in trouble , whom will you turn to for help if yo have no friends ?So it is necessary for all of us to make friends.

  10. Preparation of nanoparticles with an environment-friendly approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Kefu; PENG Zhen; FAN Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Developing various approaches for preparing high performance materials has long been topics and tasks both for scientists and for engineers.Despite that many methods have been developed for preparing nanomaterials,developing simple and environment-friendly ways for preparing nanomaterials is very attractive.A simple approach of synthesizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by arc-discharge submerging in water was reported.The results showed that by this method Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be synthesized in large scale.The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape and their diameters varied with arc-discharging parameters.The experimental results showed that the size of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the processing parameters.Since no vacuum system has been used,the synthesizing process is greatly simplified.In addition,only cheap deionized water and industrial iron bar are used and no pollution or harmful by-products are found in the synthesis process.It indicated that the present approach is a simple,low-cost and environment-friendly for preparing nanoparticles.

  11. Market Opportunities for Animal-Friendly Milk in Different Consumer Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie de Graaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have increasing, but highly variable, interest in sustainability attributes of food, including ethical aspects, such as animal welfare. We explored market opportunities for animal-friendly cow’s milk based on segmentation (cluster analysis. Flemish survey participants (n = 787 were clustered (n = 6 based on their intention to purchase (IP animal-friendly milk, and their evaluation of cows’ welfare state (EV. Three market opportunity segments were derived from clusters and labelled as “high”, “moderate” and “limited”. Only 8% of the participants belong to the “high market opportunities” segment, characterized by a high IP and a low EV. The “limited” segment (44% indicated a neutral to low IP and a positive EV. The “moderate” segment (48% had a moderately positive IP and positive/negative EV. Reported willingness to pay, interest in information about the state of animal welfare and importance of the product attribute “animal welfare” differed among segments and were strongly related to IP. Most promising selling propositions about animal-friendly milk were related to pasture access. The high degree of differentiation within the Flemish milk market reveals market opportunities for animal-friendly milk, but for an effective market share increase supply of animal-friendly products needs to get more aligned with the heterogeneous demand.

  12. Consumer decision-making for animal-friendly products: synthesis and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Immink, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how consumers’ concerns affect the consumer decision-making process is important for developing a market for animal-friendly products. This paper presents a synthesis of research on the role of animal welfare in consumer decision-making. Drawing on basic models and concepts from consum

  13. Consumer decision-making for animal-friendly products: synthesis and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Immink, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how consumers’ concerns affect the consumer decision-making process is important for developing a market for animal-friendly products. This paper presents a synthesis of research on the role of animal welfare in consumer decision-making. Drawing on basic models and concepts from

  14. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Schmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society.

  15. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Paul T M; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-08-14

    This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society.

  16. An Environmentally Friendly Process for the Preparation of 16-Dehydropregnenolone Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱; 刘颙颙; 程学新; 王雪松; 张宝文

    2005-01-01

    Instead of environmentally toxic chromium oxidant, singlet oxygen generated photcchemically was used as environmentally friendly and benign oxidizing agent to accomplish the transformation of pseudodiosgenin diacetate to diosone efficiently in a low toxic and less expensive solvent acetone. Accordingly 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate(16-DPA), an important intermediate for preparation of steroidal drugs, was prepared in good yield (75%) when photoreaction was run in acetone/acetic anhydride/pyridine system. The mild reaction condition as well as simple and environmentally friendly process made the method commercially viable and important for production of 16-DPA in industrial scale.

  17. PREPARE: guidelines for planning animal research and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian J; Clutton, R Eddie; Lilley, Elliot; Hansen, Kristine E Aa; Brattelid, Trond

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread concern about the quality, reproducibility and translatability of studies involving research animals. Although there are a number of reporting guidelines available, there is very little overarching guidance on how to plan animal experiments, despite the fact that this is the logical place to start ensuring quality. In this paper we present the PREPARE guidelines: Planning Research and Experimental Procedures on Animals: Recommendations for Excellence. PREPARE covers the three broad areas which determine the quality of the preparation for animal studies: formulation, dialogue between scientists and the animal facility, and quality control of the various components in the study. Some topics overlap and the PREPARE checklist should be adapted to suit specific needs, for example in field research. Advice on use of the checklist is available on the Norecopa website, with links to guidelines for animal research and testing, at https://norecopa.no/PREPARE .

  18. Experimental evaluation of eco-friendly flocculants prepared from date palm rachis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramzi Khiari; Sonia Dridi-Dhaouadi; Chadlia Aguir; Mohamed Farouk Mhenni

    2010-01-01

    Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa) is an anionic water soluble polyelectrolyte widely used in many industrial sectors including food,textiles,papers,adhesives,paints,pharmaceuticals,cosmetics and mineral processing.CMCNa was produced by chemical modification of cellulose,and represents many advantages:natural,renewable,non-toxic and biodegradable.In this study,different kinds of CMCNa,prepared from an agricultural waste date palm rachis,were tested as eco-friendly flocculants for drinking water treatment and their performances as flocculants in turbidity removal enhancement were assessed.The prepared materials were characterized by the degree of substitution (DS) and polymerisation (DP).The study of the effect of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance,using the prepared materials combined with aluminium sulphate (as coagulant),showed that the best conditions for turbidity treatment were given for pH 8,coagulant dose 20 mg/L,flocculant concentration of 100 mg/L and stirring velocity (during the flocculation step) of 30 r/min.Under the optimum conditions,the turbidity removal using CMCNa,prepared from raw material,was about 95%.A comparison study between the flocculation performance of a commercial anionic flocculant (A100 PWG:polyacrylamide) and that of the prepared CMCNa showed that the performance of the waste-based flocculant with a DS of 1.17 and a DP of 480 was 10% better than that achieved by the commercial one.

  19. Different shades of grey: Compromise products to encourage animal friendly consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary production and consumption are often characterised by negative externalities, for example regarding animal welfare. Despite consumer concerns about animal welfare standards in livestock production systems, the market share of organic meat is still low. The current paper investigates to

  20. An Adolescent's Best Friend: The Roles of Animals in Lynn Hall's Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way Lynn Hall uses animals in her novels. Shows how her use of animals varies from background to the focus of the story, often as central object of the heroine's affection. Analyzes Hall's animal novels as archetypically romantic in pattern. (HB)

  1. Consumer attitudes towards the development of animal-friendly husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kole, A.P.W.; Kroon, van der S.M.A.; Lauwere, de C.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Recent policy developments in the area of livestock husbandry have suggested that, from the perspective of optimizing animal welfare, new animal husbandry systems should be developed that provide opportunities for livestock animals to be raised in environments where they are permitted to e

  2. A user-friendly approach to cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G

    2011-08-19

    Cost accounting is an essential management activity for laboratory animal facility management. In this report, the author describes basic principles of cost accounting and outlines steps for carrying out cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities. Methods of post hoc cost accounting analysis for maximizing the efficiency of facility operations are also described.

  3. Pu-nvt-tv E-ten-hes-se (Animal Friends).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This reader in Maskoke (Muskokee) is developed to help elementary school children begin simple reading. Black-and-white drawings personifying animals illustrate the text. An English translation is included. (NCR)

  4. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation and animation model to boost mining efficiency and enviro-friendly in multi-pit operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarshizi Ebrahim; Sturgul John; Ibarra Virginia; Taylor Danny

    2015-01-01

    A discrete-event system simulation and animation program was developed to enhance the efficiency of a truck-excavator operation and reduce the environmental impact of haulage in an open-cut coal mine with multiple-pit operations. In any mine, a key objective is to have sufficient equipment for production and not to have excess to where it becomes counterproductive. Due to the advent of responsible mining, environmental regulations, and eco-friendly practices, these factors must also be considered in the analysis. Simulation studies can be financially advantageous for both the optimization of existing mine operations and new development phases in a mine. This study is a new approach to use discrete-event system simulation for mine systems, in order to investigate and possibly reduce environmental impact considering mining haulage performance and production target. A hypothetical layout of a surface coal mine with two pit operations was used for the simulation and animation model. The simulation model includes the animation of the operation. Animation is helpful to enhance the benefit of a mine simulation model. GPSS/H? and Proof Professional? were the software used for the investigation.

  6. 译林新版《英语》五(上)Unit3 Our animal friends Story time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伊菊; 李芹

    2014-01-01

    教学过程Step 1.Pre-reading1.Play a game:Listen,read and judge.T:I’m your new English teacher today.How do you think about me?I want to play a game to get the answers.Rules:If you think it is right,please say“Yeah,Yeah,Yeah”.If you think it is false,please say“No,No,No”.The sentences:I have small eyes.I have big eyes I have a small nose.I have long hair.I have a big mouth.I can sing and dance.I have an animal friend.【点评】导入的设计很新颖。它不同于以往的新教师自我介绍,而是通过游戏使学生

  7. Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Karen D

    2015-07-01

    In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine.

  8. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm(3)). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  10. An Environmentally Friendly Process for the Preparation of UHMWPE As-Spun Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waqar Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extrusion of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fibres cannot be achieved by conventional extrusion processes due to its very high melt viscosity. To overcome this limitation, UHMWPE is first dissolved in a petrochemical to form a gel before extrusion. The petrochemicals used to dissolve the polymer then need to be removed using other chemicals making the process unfriendly to the environment. This article is focused on finding an environmentally friendly, natural solution to replace these chemicals and altering the process to potentially reduce the process cost.

  11. Efficient and Eco-Friendly Preparation of 4-Methyl-5-formyl-thiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Meng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available 4-Methyl-5-formylthiazole, an intermediate for synthesizing cefditoren pivoxil,was prepared in good yield by Pd/BaSO4 catalyzed hydrogenation of 4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid chloride. Detailed reaction conditions have been studied.

  12. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Hultén, Fredrik; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-06-09

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  13. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  14. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-08

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.

  15. Environmentally Friendly Preparation of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles for Sers Applications Using Biopolymer Pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Y. L.; Panarin, A. Y.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Terekhov, S. N.; Gutleb, A. C.; Girijaa, S.

    2015-01-01

    A facile, one-step, and environmentally friendly fabrication of anisotropic gold nanostructures and size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (NP) using biopolymer pectin is reported. The reduction of Au and Ag ions was carried out at room temperature using an increasing concentration of pectin, which acts as the single source of reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-formed NPs were studied by UV-vis, infrared Fourier transform and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies, as well as transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A high yield of anisotropic gold nanostructures was observed at low concentrations of pectin, while its increase results in the formation of smaller sharp edged perfect triangles with a considerable number of quasi-spherically shaped gold NP. On the other hand, the size of spherical silver NP decreased as the biopolymer concentration in the solution increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement of different NPs was evaluated using a Cu-complex of cationic tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin as a probe molecule at 441.6 and 532 nm excitation. Great enhancement of Raman signal was obtained with a pectin-silver NP and for most of them their levels were higher than that for the routinely synthesized citrate silver NP.

  16. Intervention of gender friendly land preparation technologies for drudgery reduction of hill farm women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishtwaria, Jatinder; Rana, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    Inventory of all agricultural tasks depicted land preparation by women farmers as one of the most drudgery prone task with high energy cost, thereby, making it amenable to ergonomic interventions in terms of improved technologies (clod breaker, improved plough/'danella') to relieve women from high energy demands, time spent and associated drudgery. The study was conducted in two hill states of India viz. Himachal Pradesh (35 villages and 900 representative samples) and Uttrakhand (10 villages and 900 representative samples). Experimental data were conducted on representative sub sample of 60 hill farm women of both the states to assess physiological workload and musculo-skeletal problems both while working with traditional tools along with improved tools by employing selected parameters viz. physical fitness level, physiological parameters etc. The results showed that heart rate values were more than acceptable limits for task performed with the traditional tools as compared with improved tools. Significant reduction in the heart rate was observed while working with improved tools. Analysis of MSDs showed that the postural stress and severity of pain in various body parts was reduced by adopting new technology. Hence, the use of improved land preparation tools is recommended over the existing ones for drudgery reduction.

  17. Facile preparation of nickel/carbonized wood nanocomposite for environmentally friendly supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-09-01

    We are reporting a facile way to prepare nickel/carbon nanocomposites from wood as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors. The surface morphology and the structure of the as-prepared electrodes were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that after high-temperature carbonization process, the wood is converted into graphitic carbon with nickel nanoparticles uniformly distributed within the three dimensional structure of the wood. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were conducted. These results showed that the introduction of nickel into the carbonized wood improves the specific capacitance and the cyclic stability of the nanocomposite electrode over that of the pure carbonized wood electrode. The composite electrode displayed an enhanced capacitive performance of 3616 F/g at 8 A/g, and showed an excellent capacitance retention after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results endow the nickel nanoparticles impregnated carbonized wood with a great potential for future application in supercapacitors.

  18. Use of olive biomass fly ash in the preparation of environmentally friendly mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2011-08-15

    The incorporation of fly ash from olive biomass (FAOB) combustion in cogeneration plants into cement based mortars was explored by analyzing the chemical composition, mineralogical phases, particle size, morphology, and IR spectra of the resulting material. Pozzolanic activity was detected and found to be related with the presence of calcium aluminum silicates phases. The preparation of new olive biomass fly ash content mortars is effective by replacing either CaCO(3) filler or cement with FAOB. In fact, up to 10% of cement can be replaced without detracting from the mechanical properties of a mortar. This can provide an alternative way to manage the olive biomass fly ash as waste produced in thermal plants and reduce cement consumption in the building industry, and hence an economically and environmentally attractive choice.

  19. Preparation and properties of environmental-friendly coatings based on carboxymethyl cellulose nitrate ester & modified alkyd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongtao; Shao, Ziqiang; Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Zhenwen

    2016-02-10

    Amphipathic coating basic film-forming material carboxymethyl cellulose nitrate ester (CMCN) was synthesized and characterizations of CMCN with different ratio of functional groups were studied. Ratios of functional groups on each repeating units of CMCN have great importance in the decision of CMCN properties using as an amphipathic coating basic film-forming material and ratios of functional groups were the most concerned of the study. Ratios of functional groups on each repeating units of CMCN were measured by elemental analyzer and calculated. Series of experiments were conducted using different ratios of functional groups of CMCN. Thermal properties of CMCN were measured by FT-IR and TG. Densities of CMCN powders were measured. Aqueous coatings based on CMCN/alkyd (after chemical modified by coconut oil) were prepared and morphology & rheology of CMCN hydrophilic dispersions were measured using an Anton-Paar-Strasse 20A-8054 Graz analyzer. Contact angles between films based on CMCN and deionized water were recorded. Other properties of films were measured. CMCN with the etherification of carboxymethyl groups at 0.35-0.40, nitrate ester groups at 1.96-2.19 and hydroxyl groups at 0.46-0.64 per d-glucose was considered as the best film forming material.

  20. Preparation of Environmental Friendly Soybean Oil Ink%环保型大豆油墨的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2014-01-01

    采用大豆油衍生物大豆油甲酯为溶剂,制备环保型大豆油墨,并与矿物油溶剂制备油墨的性能进行比较。试验结果表明:大豆油墨的总体性能与矿物油油墨相当,而在黏性、稳定性和光泽方面,大豆油墨更优于矿物油油墨。%An environmental friendly soybean oil ink was prepared by soybean oil derivatives methyl soyate as solvent. The performance comparison between methyl soyate based ink and mineral oil based ink was made. The experimental results showed that the comprehensive performance of soybean oil ink was equivalent to that of mineral oil ink,and its viscosity,stability,glossness were better than those of mineral oil ink.

  1. Properties of Eco-friendly Acrylic Resin/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Non-aqueous Dispersion (NAD) Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongho; Lee, Minho; Jeon, Hyeon Yeol; Min, Byong Hun; Kim, Jeong Ho [Univ. of Suwon, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Chul [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Eco-friendly acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites containing pristine montmorillonite (PM) or modified clays (30B and 25A) were prepared from acrylic and styrenic monomers using non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerization. Effect of nanoclays on physical properties of polymerization product and resulting nanocomposites was investigated. In view of NAD particle stability, addition of nanoclay at the beginning of polymerization is proved to be good. Results of gel fraction, acid value and viscosity of the NAD product showed that nanocomposites containing clay 25A showed better physical properties than the ones with other clays. GPC results exhibit the increase in molecular weight and decrease in polydispersity index for the 25A nanocomposite. Increase in layer distance confirmed from XRD analysis showed good dispersion of 25A in the nanocomposite. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis showed that highest glass transition temperature and storage modulus for 25A nanocomposites. These results indicate that 25A nanoclay gives the best properties in the process of non-aqueous dispersion polymerization of acrylic resin/nanoclay nanocomposites.

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia: developmental preparation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Piotr; Wozniak, Anna; Nowakowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia manifests itself primarily with positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive disorders. Animal models of mental diseases seem to be an important tool in understanding key theories related with pathophysiology of the disorder and are used to assess efficacy of new drugs. References describe four basic groups of animal models of schizophrenia, such as: models created by pharmacological intervention, genetic models, lesion models and models of developmental disorders of primary brain structures. Of the models referred to above, the group of developmental disorder models is particularly noteworthy, as they are primarily easy to use, and the methods are highly sensitive. High scientific value of these models is associated with the neurodevelopmental theory which stipulates that at an early stage of body development, a number of interactions between genetic and environmental factors may affect the development of neurons which may cause disorders of brain cytoarchitecture development. We review six developmental models of schizophrenia in rats (MAM--methylooxymethanol acetate, prenatal stress, maternal deprivation, isolation rearing, prenatal immune challenge and maternal malnutrition) that are all validated by disruption in PPI.

  3. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  4. Compassionate Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The services provided by the... Help Support Compassionate Friends Rest assured, every donation we receive is used ... remembered.... Read More... Sign Up for the Compassionate Friends Newsletter Find Support Chapters To The Newly Bereaved ...

  5. Animated educational video to prepare children for MRI without sedation: evaluation of the appeal and value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeszak, Szofia [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Man, Rachel; Love, Andrew [Nottingham Trent University, School of Art and Design, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Langmack, Gill; Wharrad, Heather [University of Nottingham, Health E-learning and Media group, School of Health Sciences, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Dineen, Robert A. [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    MRI scans can be distressing for children and often require sedation. Educating children about what to expect reduces anxiety and increases likelihood of successful non-sedated MRI scans. Multimedia tools are a popular means of education. Animated video could provide a free, accessible method of preparing children for MRI scans. To evaluate a new animation video for preparing children for MRI, specifically for decreasing in-scanner motion and examination failure. We recruited 24 healthy children ages 5-11 years. Participants underwent pre- and post-viewing questionnaires and structured interviews. We then compared median Likert scale score changes between pre- and post-animation questions and analyzed the interview framework. Participants were filmed viewing the animation to calculate time spent looking at the screen to assess how well the video retained children's attention. There were significant improvements in median scores regarding what to expect, checking for metal and keeping still. There were no significant changes in other knowledge-based topics. There were significant improvements in median scores for anxiety-based topics. On average, children watched the screen for 98.9% of the 174-s animation. The animation improved knowledge, reduced anxiety, retained attention and was enjoyed by participants. It can be accessed freely via the Internet to help prepare children ages 5-11 for having an MRI scan. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation...

  8. Eco-friendly plasmonic sensors: using the photothermal effect to prepare metal nanoparticle-containing test papers for highly sensitive colorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shao-Chin; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Wang, Lon Alex; Wu, Ming-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2012-06-05

    Convenient, rapid, and accurate detection of chemical and biomolecules would be a great benefit to medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental sciences. Many chemical and biosensors based on metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed. However, as a result of the inconvenience and complexity of most of the current preparation techniques, surface plasmon-based test papers are not as common as, for example, litmus paper, which finds daily use. In this paper, we propose a convenient and practical technique, based on the photothermal effect, to fabricate the plasmonic test paper. This technique is superior to other reported methods for its rapid fabrication time (a few seconds), large-area throughput, selectivity in the positioning of the NPs, and the capability of preparing NP arrays in high density on various paper substrates. In addition to their low cost, portability, flexibility, and biodegradability, plasmonic test paper can be burned after detecting contagious biomolecules, making them safe and eco-friendly.

  9. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  10. A novel, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for preparation of textile fibers from cellulosic pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-10-01

    Although cellulosic fibers are increasingly used in textile products, current methods for production of cellulose-based textiles suffer certain economic and/or environmental drawbacks. We have developed a new, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly (CS2-free) process that overcomes some of the shortcomings of existing technologies. The process is based on a modified method for periodate oxidation of cellulose that is then cross-linked with chitosan and extruded to obtain cellulosic fibers in the form of textile fibers. The produced fibers have low content of aldehyde groups (∼2mmol/g cellulose) and water retention values of 1.5-2.0g/g fibers. The new process makes use of both hardwood and softwood pulps, and offers significant yield advantages over the use of dissolving pulp as a raw material. The mechanical, water absorbency and morphological properties of the new textile fibers and their potential applications are discussed. The potential techno-economic and environmental benefits of the process are summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a novel epoxy based nanocomposite using tryptophan as an eco-friendly curing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motahari, Ahmad, E-mail: motahari@umz.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 453, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 453, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, Morteza [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965-115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • Epoxy cured with tryptophan in the presence of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole. • Kinetic study on the epoxy nanocomposite using advanced isoconversional method. • Structural study and characterization of nanocomposite using SEM, XRD, AFM and DMTA. - Abstract: In this study, kinetics of the curing reaction between DGEBA epoxy resin and tryptophan as an environmentally friendly curing agent in the presence of 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole was reported. The role of silica nanoparticles (SiNP) in changing the mechanism of the curing reaction was also studied. The optimum molar ratio of DGEBA/tryptophan and the optimum content of SiNP were determined by calorimetry analyses. Kinetic analysis using the advanced isoconversional method revealed that the system undergoes the vitrification. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that addition of SiNP does not improve the thermal stability of the tryptophan based thermosets. Impedance spectroscopy and also the standard four-probe method were performed to investigate the effect of curing agent and SiNP loading level on the electrical properties of the cured epoxy. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy imaging. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis revealed that the crosslinking density cannot be significantly affected with the addition of SiNP.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of 12-Acryloyloxystearic Acid and Application in Preparing Environmentally Friendly Magnesium 12-Acryloyloxy Stearate Detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yonglei; Li Haiyun; Fang Hongxia; Wu Qiong; Lu Lulu

    2015-01-01

    In this article, 12-acryloyloxystearic acid was synthesized, which was then used to prepare the magnesium 12-ac-ryloyloxy stearate detergent. Reaction conditions for synthesizing 12-acryloyloxystearic acid, including the molar ratio of 12-hydroxystearic acid to acrylic acid, the catalyst amount, the esteriifcation temperature, and the esteriifcation time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the 12-acryloyloxystearic acid with an acid value of 159 mgKOH/g and a melt-ing range of between 70.4℃and 71.4℃was obtained. The structure of 12-acryloyloxystearic acid was conifrmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Results of preparing magnesium 12-acryloyloxy stearate detergent showed the existence of acryloyloxy radical in 12-hydroxystearic acid could improve the quality of lubricant detergent greatly.

  13. Preparation and culture of precision-cut organ slices from human and animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robyn L; Vickers, Alison E M

    2013-01-01

    1.Human and animal precision-cut organ slices are being widely used to obtain drug metabolism and toxicity profiles in vitro. These data are then used to predict what might be seen in human patients. The accuracy of this prediction and extrapolation of the findings based on human or animal in vitro systems to the findings that occur in vivo is dependent on both the quality of the tissue itself and the quality of the in vitro system. 2.The quality of human organs used in research is dependent on procurement methods, warm ischaemia time, preservation solutions, cold ischaemia time, and donor-specific factors. It is important to confirm that the organs being used are highly viable and fully functional before using them in scientific studies. 3.The optimal preparation and incubation of organ slices is also essential in maintaining slice viability and function. It is important to prepare the slices in a cold preservation solution, to prepare the slices at a correct thickness, and to incubate the slices in a system where the slice rotates in out of the oxygen atmosphere and medium. 4.Meeting the criteria outlined here will lead to successful organ slice cultures for investigating drug-induced mechanisms and organ-specific toxicity.

  14. Friendly competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  15. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankir, Nurdan Demirci, E-mail: nsankir@etu.edu.tr; Aydin, Erkan; Ugur, Esma; Sankir, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} heterojunction solar cells. • Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells. • Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. • AZO–Ag–AZO sandwich structure. • Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO was studied as a function of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 10{sup 6} times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) of the Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. The maximum J{sub sc} of 9.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc} of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 μm-thick In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed

  16. A facile and environmentally friendly NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid route to prepare crystalline β-CaSiO3 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Suyun; Wang, Lijuan; Shi, Honglong

    2013-05-01

    We described an environmentally friendly and facile NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid route for the first time to synthesize β-CaSiO3 nanowires. β-CaSiO3 nanowires were prepared by annealing precursor calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanostructures in NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid, in which the precursor CSH nanostructures were first prepared by a facile one-step, solid state reaction, ground with both NaCl and surfactant nonyl phenyl ether (9) (NP-9), and heated at 850 °C for 2 h. β-CaSiO3 nanowires were characterized by XRD, TEM and HRTEM. The comparative experiments have been conducted systemically to investigate the growth mechanism of β-CaSiO3 nanowires, and the roles of salt NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid and NP-9 on the formation of β-CaSiO3 nanowires. The results demonstrated that both salt NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid and surfactant NP-9 played key roles on the formation of β-CaSiO3 nanowires. A rational growth mechanism of β-CaSiO3 nanowires has been proposed on the basis of experimental results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  18. Effect of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Gut-Friendly Microorganisms, Commercial Probiotic Preparations, and Digestive Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Mannanthendil Kumaran; Debraj, Debnath; Dethe, Shekhar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Muruganantham, Nithyanantham; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu

    2017-05-04

    Flavonoid-rich extract prepared from Glycyrrhiza glabra has been found to be beneficial in patients with functional dyspepsia and was reported to possess some gut health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities. In the present study, the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was evaluated for its compatibility with probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus thermophilus), commercial probiotic drinks, and digestive enzymes (pancreatic α-amylase, α-glucosidase, phytase, xylanase, and pancreatic lipase). Results of this study indicated that the flavonoid-rich extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is compatible with the tested probiotic strains, probiotic drinks and digestive enzymes.

  19. Close Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChappellSargent

    2004-01-01

    As my friends ambled out the front door, I ran to the window, called good-bye, and stuck my tongue out at her. She spun around and returned the gesture, and we gave each other a final wave before parting

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. My Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    学生习作: I have three friends. They is1 Jack, Gina and Kate. Jack’s favorite subject is P.E.. He likes it because it is interested2. He has P.E. on Monday. Gina’s favorite subject is music. She thinks it is very much3 relaxing. She likes to listen4 music after class. She has music on

  2. 绿色环保近海渔船防污涂料的制备%Preparation of Environment-Friendly Antifouling Paints for Offshore Fishing Boat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍平; 国耀东; 康思波; 刘希燕; 蒋健明

    2012-01-01

    介绍了绿色环保近海渔船防污涂料的特点.采用自由基聚合制备了丙烯酸锌聚合物,经级差和方差分析后,确定了单体的浓度、反应温度、滴加时间、引发剂用量.经海水溶解性实验、海水干湿交替试验,确定了混合单体比例.制备了两类绿色环保近海渔船防污涂料,对防污涂料的影响因素进行了考察,确定了防污涂料浅海浸泡实验条件.防污涂料浅海浸泡实验结果表明,所制备的绿色环保近海渔船防污涂料34个月防污效果良好.防污涂料涂船试验表明,所制备的防污涂料可满足近海渔船的使用需求.%This article introduced the characteristics of the environment — friendly antifouling paints for offshore fishing boats. The zinc acrylate polymer was prepared by radical polymerization. The concentration of monomer, reaction temperature, the dropping time and the amount of initiator were determined after the a-nalysis of differentials and variance. The proportion of mixed monomers was determined by seawater solubility experiments and the alternative dry and wet test in seawater. Two types of green offshore fishing boat antifouling paints were prepared and the influencing factors were investigated to determine the conditions of antifouling coatings shallow immersion test. Antifouling coating shallow immersion test results indicated that the prepared green offshore fishing antifouling paint showed good antifouling property over 34 months. The test results on boat showed that antifouling paints prepared could meet the demand of offshore fishing boats user.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  5. Preparation of environment-friendly oxygen-rich silicone rubber membrane%乳液涂敷制备硅橡胶富氧膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安坤; 范红玮; 董亚军; 彭跃莲

    2013-01-01

    In this study,silicone rubber/polysulfone (PDMS/PS) composite membranes were prepared; the silicone rubbers included solvent-based hydroxyl silicon rubber and emulsion hydroxyl silicon rubber.The prepared composite membranes were evaluated by the permeation rate and separation factor.The results showed that the permeation rate of solvent-based silicon rubber/polysulfone membrane was 3 ~ 4 times more than that of emulsion silicon rubber/polysulfone membrane,but the latter had a little better separation factor than the former.Under the optimized preparation conditions the membrane had the following performance:the oxygen permeation rate Q(O2) and separation factor a (O2/N2) was 113 GPU and 2.00,respectively.This latex coating method,coating emulsion hydroxyl silicon rubber on the support,was not only environment-friendly,but also safe and economic.%实验制备了聚二甲基硅氧烷/聚砜(PDMS/PS)富氧膜,并考察其富氧性能,分别制备了溶剂型羟基硅橡胶富氧膜和乳液型羟基硅橡胶富氧膜,评价其渗透速率Q和分离系数α(O2/N2),得出了二者在性能上的差异,发现溶剂型富氧膜渗透速率Q(O2)是乳液型富氧膜Q(O2)的3~4倍,而乳液型富氧膜的分离系数α(O2/N2)比溶剂型富氧膜略好,并且以水代替有机溶剂,采用硅橡胶水乳液作为涂敷材料进行乳液涂敷,制备的乳液型富氧膜相对于传统的溶剂型富氧膜,具有环保、安全和经济等特点.该方法制备的富氧膜同时也具有较好的富氧效果,其氧气渗透速率Q(O2)在113 GPU左右,分离系数a(O2/N2)能达到2.0.

  6. 萃取法研制环境友好型橡胶操作油%A RESEARCH OF PREPARING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY RUBBER PROCESSING OIL BY EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石威; 杨基和; 林富荣

    2011-01-01

    Environmental friendly rubber processing oil was prepared from naphthenic base crude feed using extraction or adsorption methods to remove polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).The comparable experiments between preparation methods were carried out and the results showed that the removal of PAHs by extraction was much better than that by adsorption,thus extraction method was adopted.The effect of various solvents including complex solvent and extractionconditions on the removal of PAHs was investigated, as well as the properties of solvent raffinate.Results indicated that the complex solvent exhibited improved separation effect, its maximum separation coefficient reached up to 220.0 under the following process conditions:a solvent/oil ratio of 2,extraction at 60 ℃ for 15 min and using stirring speed of 150 r/min.after secondary extraction,the PAHs content in solvent raffinate was reduced to 1.7 % from 14.0 %.The yield of solvent raffinate was more than 82 % ,and its hydrocarbon group compositions were improved.By adding certain viscosity improver the quality of the final product could meet the product standard standard for VIVATEC 500 rubber processing oil,which is an environmental friendly product.%以环烷基油为原料,分别采用萃取法和吸附法脱除原料中有害的多环芳烃化合物(PAHS),得到的抽余油用作环境友好橡胶操作油.实验考察了萃取和吸附、萃取剂的选用和复合使用情况、萃取分离操作条件对脱除效果的影响,同时对抽余油性质进行了改进.结果表明:萃取法脱除效果明显优于吸附法;醇类、酮类萃取剂复合使用分离效果更好;在剂油质量比为2、温度为60℃、搅拌速率为150 r/min、搅拌时间为15 mim时,复合萃取剂分离系数高达220.0,二级萃取后PAHs质量分数从14.0%降低到1.7%,同时改善了族组成分布.经黏度改进后基本满足欧盟环保的VIVATEC 500规格标准.抽余油收率在82%以上.

  7. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  8. Making Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Hello, I' m Zeng Chuqi. My English name is Gucci. I' m a beautiful girl. I'm seven years old. I like drawing and dancing. My favourite animal is a rabbit because it is very cute. I often go swimming in hot summer.

  9. 环保溶剂型氯丁胶的制备%Preparation of environment-friendly solvent-based neoprene adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊勇; 杨洪记; 刘文涛; 何素芹; 朱诚身

    2012-01-01

    At present,the solvent-based neoprene adhesive was still dominant in rubber-based adhesives. In order to make low-toxicity solvent-based neoprene adhesive, the better proportion of non-benzene mixed solvents for liquefying neoprene was preferred by "solubility parameter+hydrogen bond index" method,then a pre-reaction liquid between tert-butyl phenolic resin and light-MgO was made by pre-chelation reaction. Finally, a environment-friendly solvent-based neoprene adhesive with faster curing speed and 35.5% solid contents was prepared by mixing. The research results showed that the corresponding neoprene adhesive had reversely best combination property because its shear strength and peeling strength were 1.83 Mpa and 17.9 N/25 mm respectively when mass ratio of m(120* solvent oil):m(ethyl acetate):m(acetone) was 4:7:4 in mixed solvent.%目前,溶剂型氯丁胶仍在橡胶基胶粘剂中占主导地位.为制备低毒性溶剂型氯丁胶,可根据"溶度参数+氢键指数"法优选出溶解氯丁橡胶用非苯类混合溶剂的较佳配比;然后使叔丁基酚醛树脂与轻质MgO预先发生螯合反应制得预反应液,再采用混炼法制得固化速率快、固含量高达35.5%的环保溶剂型氯丁胶.研究结果表明:当混合溶剂中m(120#溶剂油):m(乙酸乙酯):m(丙酮):4:7:4时,相应氯丁胶的综合性能相对最好,其剪切强度为1.83 MPa、剥离强度为17.9 N/25 mm.

  10. A user-friendly and scalable process to prepare a ready-to-use inactivated vaccine: the example of heartwater in ruminants under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Isabel; Lefrançois, Thierry; Martinez, Dominique; Giraud-Girard, Ken; Aprelon, Rosalie; Mandonnet, Nathalie; Gaucheron, Jérôme; Bertrand, François; Vachiéry, Nathalie

    2015-01-29

    The use of cheap and thermoresistant vaccines in poor tropical countries for the control of animal diseases is a key issue. Our work aimed at designing and validating a process for the large-scale production of a ready-to-use inactivated vaccine for ruminants. Our model was heartwater caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER). The conventional inactivated vaccine against heartwater (based on whole bacteria inactivated with sodium azide) is prepared immediately before injection, using a syringe-extrusion method with Montanide ISA50. This is a fastidious time-consuming process and it limits the number of vaccine doses available. To overcome these issues, we tested three different techniques (syringe, vortex and homogenizer) and three Montanide ISA adjuvants (50, 70 and 70M). High-speed homogenizer was the optimal method to emulsify ER antigens with both ISA70 and 70M adjuvants. The emulsions displayed a good homogeneity (particle size below 1 μm and low phase separation), conductivity below 10 μS/cm and low antigen degradation at 4 °C for up to 1 year. The efficacy of the different formulations was then evaluated during vaccination trials on goats. The inactivated ER antigens emulsified with ISA70 and ISA70M in a homogenizer resulted in 80% and 100% survival rates, respectively. A cold-chain rupture assay using ISA70M+ER was performed to mimic possible field conditions exposing the vaccine at 37 °C for 4 days before delivery. Surprisingly, the animal survival rate was still high (80%). We also observed that the MAP-1B antibody response was very similar between animals vaccinated with ISA70+ER and ISA70M+ER emulsions, suggesting a more homogenous antigen distribution and presentation in these emulsions. Our work demonstrated that the combination of ISA70 or ISA70M and homogenizer is optimal for the production of an effective ready-to-use inactivated vaccine against heartwater, which could easily be produced on an industrial scale.

  11. Preparation of an Environment-friendly De-painting Agent%环境友好型脱漆剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高产; 习早红; 陈炳耀; 陈炳强; 梁银齐; 何丽婷

    2011-01-01

    以苯甲醇(BA)、二丙二醇丁醚(DPNB)和二甲基亚砜(DMSO)等为主溶剂制备环境友好型脱漆剂,采用单因素试验法研究了有机溶剂、促进剂、缓蚀剂以及封闭剂等助剂对脱漆效率的影响。试验结果表明:以BA、DPNB和DMSO为主溶剂,异丙醇(IPA)为助溶剂,表面活性剂AR-10和十二烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)复配,复配有机酸为促进剂,微晶蜡为封闭剂,氨基磺酸与有机羧酸醇铵盐类缓蚀剂复配。当复合主溶剂的用量范围为60%~70%,m(DMSO)∶m(DPNB)=8∶6,m(AR-10)∶m(LAS)=1∶0.8,复配用量为2.5%~3%,异丙醇用量为5%~l0%,复配有机酸用量为7.5%~10%,微晶蜡用量为2.5%~3%时,脱漆效率最高。其组成均为低挥发性的物质,符合绿色化学"高效、洁净、经济、环保"的要求。%The environment-friendly de-painting agent is prepared using the benzyl alcohol(BA),dipropylene glycol butyl ether(DPNB) and dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) as main solvents.This paper studies the influence of organic solvent,accelerant,corrosion inhibitor and sealant on the de-painting efficiency.With BA,DPNB and DMSO as main solvents,isopropyl alcohol(IPA) as co-solvent,composite surfactant of AR-10 and sodium dodecyl sulfonateshowing(LAS),composite organic acid as accelerant,microcrystalline wax as sealant and composite corrosion inhibitor of amino sulfonic acid and ammonium salt of organic carboxylic acid alcohol,the best de-painting efficiency can be obtained under the conditions: composite main solvent amount of 60% ~ 70%,m(DMSO)∶m(DPNB) of 8∶6,composite surfactant amount of 2.5% ~ 3%,m(AR-10)∶m(LAS) of 1∶0.8,isopropyl alcohol amount of 5% ~ l0%,composite organic acid amount of 7.5% ~ 10% and microcrystalline wax amount of 2.5% ~ 3%.The compositions are all low volatile matter,meeting the demands of "high-efficiency,clean,economy,environment protection" of green chemistry.

  12. Technical note: Test of a low-cost and animal-friendly system for measuring methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2012-01-01

    and validated. The system uses the same principles as systems for open-circuit indirect calorimetry, but to lower the costs, the chamber construction and air-conditioning system were simpler than described for other open-circuit systems. To secure the highest possible animal welfare, the system is located...... in the cow’s daily environment. The system consists of 4 transparent polycarbonate chambers placed in a square so that the cows are facing each other. The chamber dimensions are 183 (width), 382 (length), and 245cm (height) with a volume of 17 m3. Flow and concentrations of O2, CO2, CH4, and H2 are measured...

  13. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Vardkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  14. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  15. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.

  16. Clinico-morphological changes and diagnosis of animal poisoning with mercury preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishkov, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines animal poisoning with mercury compounds used to dress seeds. Chickens, guinea pigs, and mice were fed plants grown from seeds dressed with mercury compounds. The chickens exhibited stomatitis, pharyngitis, esophagitis, and leukocytosis. The guinea pigs and mice exhibited a biological accumulation of mercury.

  17. 环境友好型干粉空气净化涂料的研制%Preparation of Environmentally Friendly Dry Powder Air-purifying Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海银; 张安杰; 曾慧崇; 陈丽丽; 付燕; 李鑫哲; 韩立娟; 罗志河; 安兴才

    2016-01-01

    The novel environmentally friendly dry powder air-purifying coatings have been widely studied as an effective method for indoor air puriifcation, which could actively adsorb and decompose the pollutants in the air. This work optimized the formula of environmentally friendly dry powder air-purifying coatings. The optimal results were achieved when H-TiO2 as functional powders and the dosage at 2%~5%. Under these conditions, the removal rate of formaldehyde reached 100%after 1.5 h.%环境友好型干粉空气净化涂料是一种新型的功能涂料,能够主动吸附分解空气中的污染物。通过实验,优化了干粉空气净化涂料的基本配方,选择合作开发的H还原法制备的纳米TiO2(H-TiO2)为主要的功能粉体,粉体添加量为2%~5%(质量分数),最终确定的配方1.5 h对甲醛的总去除率为100%。

  18. [Preparation of reactants for the detection of proteins from different animal species by immunodiffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordal de Bobbi, M E; Petracca, A; Moro, A A

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative identification of fresh ground meat samples of beef, sheep, pork, horse and rabbit has been made by the double agar gel diffusion test (method of Ouchterlony) and by immunoelectrophoresis. The reagents used were: 1) Antigens: saline meat extracts from different animal species, saline meat mixture extracts and whole sera from the different animal species. Meat extracts and sera were controlled by electrophoresis and the amounts of protein were estimated by the method of Lowry; 2) Antibodies: multivalent antisera anti-bovine, anti-ovine, anti-porcine and anti-equine, were obtained by immunization of rabbits with an emulsion of 1 vol of whole serum and 1 vol of Freund complete adjuvant; anti-rabbit serum was obtained by immunization of rats; antisera were controlled by the double agar gel diffusion test and by immunoelectrophoresis. To remove cross-reacting antibodies, when it was necessary, antisera were adsorbed.

  19. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  20. NIH Loses a Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. NIH Loses a Friend Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Donald ... changingthefaceofmedicine/ . Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library of Medicine Let Us ...

  1. Study on preparation and properties of eco-friendly dust suppressant%生态友好型抑尘剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷波; 焦姣; 赵雪艳; 张静; 邹德坤; 姬亚芹; 单春艳

    2013-01-01

    为控制中国北方裸露农田土壤风蚀,改善城市环境质量,该文以盐地碱蓬籽饼为主要原料,以十二烷基苯磺酸钠、羧甲基纤维素钠、聚乙烯醇等为辅料,经生物改性,制备了一种生态友好型抑尘剂并研究了其保湿性、水稳定性、抗风蚀性等性能以及该抑尘剂对种子出苗率及农田土壤土质的影响。结果表明,该抑尘剂喷洒后易形成团粒结构,可起到保护表层土壤的作用;在25℃时,黏度可高达到55.1 mPa·s,常温下使用时具有较好的黏结性能;保湿时间可以延长至72 h以上,具有良好的保湿性;能够抗击4次雨水冲蚀,具有较好的水稳性;单位面积土壤颗粒累积损失量小于0.7 g/m2,抑尘效率提高了99%以上;可增加土壤中植物生长所需的一些营养成分,可提高作物出苗率,促进作物生长;每平方米的使用成本约为0.5元。该文可为今后抑尘剂研究与实践提供参考。%Particulate matter pollution is a serious problem in north China. One of the important sources is the bare farmland on the outskirts of the cities. To effectively control wind erosion and improve the quality of the urban environment in north China an eco-friendly dust suppressant (“SY” dust suppressant) was prepared with suaede salsa seed cake, a kind of agricultural and sideline product as main material, adding suitable amount of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, and polyvinyl alcohol, et al. In order to discuss the performance of the“SY”dust suppressant, a study was carried out to compare“SY”dust suppressant with plant gum dust suppressant (“ZW” dust suppressant) and eco-efficient dust suppressant (“GS” dust suppressant) in various performances, including primarily the microstructure characterization of “SY” dust suppressant bonded soil particles, as well as the viscosity, moisture retention, water stability, the ability

  2. Preparation of Filling Porous Osteoconduction Materials and Its Animal Experiment Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; WANG Jing; CHEN Weimin; LI Dezhong

    2011-01-01

    Titanium rods were processed into implant samples with cavity and groove in which was filled with HAP/β-TCP porous osteoconduction composite materials in order to increase the mechanical stability of the implant in vivo. The phase compositions of the composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Histological evaluation showed that the biogradable composite could enhanced the ability of new bone formation. The composite can conduct new bone tissue growing into the cavities gradually after implanted into animal, and then achieve mechanical fixation. The filling biogradable compound exhibited excellent biocompatibility, which combined with the new bone tissues tightly without inflammation and loosing.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  4. Sample Preparation and Staining Methods for Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins from Animal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Czegledi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics in animal science as well as in other biological sciences is a significant tool in the post-genomic era. In proteomic studies the presence and relative abundance of expressed proteins of a cell, tissue or biological fluid is studied. Recently, the whole genome of more and more domestic animal species is known, but genes and the transcribed mRNA have no direct effect on biological systems as they are regulated by proteins, which explain the importance of proteomics. The most common tool in proteomic approach is the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE, when proteins are separated by their isoelectric point followed by their mass separation as a second dimension. In this study authors used different sample preparation and protein staining methods on meat,  liver and blood plasma and carried out 2D PAGE experiments. The most appropriate sample preparation methods are described in this paper. We concluded that depletion of major proteins in plasma is required but not necessary for meat and liver samples.

  5. Inflammation: Friend or foe for animal production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation is an essential immune response that seeks to contain microbial infection and repair damaged tissue. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators have been associated with enhanced resistance to a range of important poultry and pig pathogens. However, inflammation may also have undesirable co...

  6. AG-NGS: a powerful and user-friendly computing application for the semi-automated preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries using open liquid handling platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Sergio; Álvarez, Rebeca; Benguria, Alberto; Dopazo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming one of the most widely used technologies in the field of genomics. Library preparation is one of the most critical, hands-on, and time-consuming steps in the NGS workflow. Each library must be prepared in an independent well, increasing the number of hours required for a sequencing run and the risk of human-introduced error. Automation of library preparation is the best option to avoid these problems. With this in mind, we have developed automatic genomics NGS (AG-NGS), a computing application that allows an open liquid handling platform to be transformed into a library preparation station without losing the potential of an open platform. Implementation of AG-NGS does not require programming experience, and the application has also been designed to minimize implementation costs. Automated library preparation with AG-NGS generated high-quality libraries from different samples, demonstrating its efficiency, and all quality control parameters fell within the range of optimal values.

  7. Isolation and catalytic competence of different animal liver microsomal fractions prepared by calcium-aggregation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawalkar Pradnya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes were prepared, using the calcium-aggregation method. The mean specific spectral cytochrome P450 content obtained for rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes were 0.547, 0.394, 0.677, and 0.378 nmol cytochrome P450/mg protein, respectively. All the microsomal samples showed the ability to biotransform p-nitrophenol to p-nitrocatechol. The mean rate of formation of p-nitrocatechol by rat, mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig liver microsomes was 0.272, 0.247, 0.497 and 0.424 nmole/min/nmole cytochrome 450, respectively. This method circumvents the need of an ultracentrifuge for isolation of microsomes, by the conventional differential centrifugation method.

  8. Eco-friendly microwave-assisted protocol to prepare hyaluronan-fatty acid conjugates and to induce their self-assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Leone, Marilisa; Saviano, Michele; De Luca, Stefania

    2016-06-05

    An environmentally sustainable and energy-efficient synthetic process has been developed to prepare hyaluronan-based nano-sized material. It consists in a microwave-promoted acylation of the hydroxyl function of the polysaccharide with natural fatty acids, performed under solvent-free conditions. The efficient interaction of the solid reagents with the MW radiation accounts for the obtained high yielded products. The self-assembly process of the obtained compounds very fast occurred in an aqueous medium under MW-radiation, thus allowing the development of a green protocol for the nano-particles preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rational design for the nanoencapsulation of poisonous animal venoms in liposomes prepared with natural phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Maria Helena Bueno; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Quintilio, Wagner; Schwendener, Reto Albert; de Araujo, Pedro Soares

    2012-11-01

    Liposomes have been used since the 1970's to encapsulate drugs envisaging enhancement in efficacy and therapeutic index, avoidance of side effects and increase in the encapsulated agent stability. The major problem when encapsulating snake venoms is the liposomal membrane instability caused by venom phospholipases. Here the results obtained encapsulating Crotalus durissimus terrificus and a pool of Bothropic venoms within liposomes (LC and LB, respectively) used to produce anti-venom sera are presented. The strategy was to modify the immunization protocol to enhance antibody production and to minimize toxic effects by encapsulating inactivated venoms within stabilized liposomes. Chemically modified venoms were solubilized in a buffer containing an inhibitor and a chelating agent. The structures of the venoms were analyzed by UV, CD spectroscopy and ELISA. In spite of the differences in the helical content between natural and modified venoms, they were recognized by horse anti-sera. To maintain long-term stability, mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. The encapsulation efficiencies were 59 % (LB) and 99 % (LC), as followed by filtration on Sephacryl S1000. Light scattering measurements led us to conclude that both, LB (119 ±47 nm) and LC (147±56 nm) were stable for 22 days at 4 °C, even after lyophilization. Genetically selected mice and mixed breed horses were immunized with these formulations. The animals did not show clinical symptoms of venom toxicity. Both, LB and LC enhanced by at least 30 % the antibody titers 25 days after injection and total IgG titers remained high 91 days after immunization. The liposomal formulation clearly exhibited adjuvant properties.

  10. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  11. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  12. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed.

  13. Characterizing environment friendly tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Reinsberg, Cicilie; Vinje, Linn Therese

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of sustainable tourism research today is to find tourists that have a low environmental impact on destinations, which can also be defined as environment friendly tourists. The majority of earlier studies on this topic have focused on characteristics of ecotourists, assuming that these are the only tourists that are environment friendly. Few have tried to identify characteristics of environment friendly tourists using a sample from the general tourist population....

  14. Preparation and properties of 117m Sn(IV)-TTHMP in in-vitro and in small animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiaheng; LUO Shunzhong; JIANG Shubin; YANG Yuqing; WANG Guanquan

    2007-01-01

    In this work,TTHMP was synthesized and labelled with 117m Sn.The preparation conditions,stability and lipophilicity of 117m Sn(IV)-TTHMP were investigated.Biodistribution of the complex in rabbits and mice was studied.It was found that the quantity of TTHMP and pH value of the prepararion solution had vital effects on the labeling yield of 117m Sn(IV)-TTHMP.It was also found that 117m Sn(IV)-TTHMP was hydrophilic and stable at room temperature and 37℃ in open air 117m Sn(IV)-TTHMP showed unexpectedly high bone uptake and bone-to-blood ratio in the animals.This made it potentially useful as an reagent for skeletal scintigraphy and radiotherapy of bone tumors.

  15. Preparation of Environmentally Friendly Non-phosphorus Corrosion and Scale Inhibitor%环保型无磷缓蚀阻垢剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴文; 曾宪光; 龚敏; 金永中

    2012-01-01

    Based on the low molecular weight sodium polyacrylate(PAAS),the corrosion and scale inhibitor with non-phosphorus formula was prepareded by PAAS,sodium molybdate,D-glucose acid sodium,1,2,3-benzotriazole and hexamethylenetetramine in definite proportion.Its anti-scaling performance was evaluated by calcium carbonate deposition method,its corrosion inhibition was evaluated by rotation specimen method and electro chemical method.The best formula is sodium polyacrylate 15 mg/L,D-glucose acid sodium 14 mg/L,1,2,3-benzotriazole 13 mg/L,sodium molybdate 18 mg/L,hexamethylenetetramine 14 mg/L.The scale inhibition efficiency and corrosion inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor were 92.63% and 92.78% respectively.This formula ethibits the characteristics of no phosphorus,non-toxicity,high efficiency and being environmental friendly.There are important economic and use values.%以低分子量聚丙烯酸钠(PAAS)为基础,将聚丙烯酸钠、钼酸钠、D-葡萄糖酸钠、苯并三氮唑、六次甲基四胺等物质按一定比例复配成无磷缓蚀阻垢剂配方,采用碳酸钙沉积法评价其阻垢性能,用旋转挂片法和电化学法评价其缓蚀性能。优选出的最佳缓蚀剂配方为:聚丙烯酸钠15mg/L、D-葡萄糖酸钠14mg/L、苯并三氮唑13mg/L、钼酸钠18mg/L、六次甲基四胺14mg/L,其阻垢率为92.63%,缓蚀率为92.78%。该配方具有无磷、无毒、高效、环保等特点,具有重要的经济和利用价值。

  16. Friends' Discovery Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  17. 显色复合CMA环保型融雪剂的研制%Preparation of the chromogenic & environment-friendly snowmelt agent based on composite CMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋乃建; 杨强旭

    2013-01-01

    A snowmelt agent was prepared based on the composite of magnesium acetate and calcium acetate (CMA).Sodium benzoate and phenol were added into the snowmelt agent as corrosion inhibitor and color indicator respectively.The optimum mass ratio was determined by orthogonal test method as m(magnesium)∶m(calcium acetate)∶m(sodium benzoate)∶m(phenol) =16∶4∶4∶3.The snow-melting & deicing capacity of the snowmelt agent was tested as 105.44%under the optimum conditions:the deicing & snow melting time was 80 minutes,and the ratio to water was 3∶25.The corrosion to metal and harm to plants of the snowmelt agent were negligible.%以复合的醋酸镁和醋酸钙(CMA)为主要原料自制除冰融雪剂(PSMA),同时添加缓蚀剂和对植物生长有益的植物钙剂,并使融雪剂显色,通过正交试验法确定最佳配比为a(乙酸钙镁比)∶b(苯甲酸钠)∶c(苯酚)=16∶4∶4∶3.对融雪剂进行性能测定,融雪除冰能力达到了105.44%,最佳融冰时间为80min,最佳融雪比为3∶25,并测定出融雪剂对植物生长无影响,对道路有防锈能力.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  19. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  20. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  1. My Best Friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清华; 郭克晴

    2002-01-01

    I am a middle school student,study in Yaoxia Middle School. I have a lot of good friends in this school. One of them, Li Kelong is my best friend. We are both fourteen years old. He has a round face and two big bright eyes. He is much stronger than me, but I am taller than him. I often call him Kelong for short.

  2. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Visiting Friends or Family in an ... to sustain more severe injuries from animal bites. Prevention Before departure, travelers should have a current tetanus ...

  3. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  4. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  5. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  6. My Beautiful Friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷全

    2004-01-01

    I have many toys in my room.Al-though they can’t speak,I treat them asmy friends.I like playing with them.Among them,my favorite is the beautiful girl-Barbiedoll.Her name is Kelly,same as my English name.She cameto my family a year ago as my birthday gift.

  7. Our Readers and Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In Shanghai,a rapidly-developing modern metropolisthere are a lot of foreign women who have moved with theirfamilies to live and work there.During their leisure time theytake sightseeing trips and study Chinese culture,so theybecome readers and friends of our magazine.Recently,at ourReaders Forum in Shanghai,women from the UK,Belgium,the

  8. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  9. My Good Friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨航

    2008-01-01

    @@ I have a good friend. My mother even says that he is a member of our family. His name is Peter. He has two bright eyes, a small nose, a big mouth and a long tail. He is very lovely and looks like a white flowers. He likes drinking milk and eating meat.

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  11. Highly Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Preparation of14-Aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes Catalyzed by Tungsto-divanado-phosphoric Acid%Highly Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Preparation of 14-Aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes Catalyzed by Tungsto-divanado-phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza TAYEBEE; Shima TIZABI

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and efficient procedure for the preparation of various aryl-14H-dibenzo[a.j]xanthenes was reported.The method developed produced excellent yields via one-pot condensation of β-naphthol with various aryl-aldehydes in the presence of Keggin vanadium substituted heteropolyacid,H5PW10V2O40,as catalyst under solvent free conditions.The present methodology therefore offered several advantages but not limited to excellent yields (82%-98%),short reaction times (30-50 min),mild reaction conditioas,simple work-up,as well as the utilization of cheap and environmentally benign catalyst in the absence of organic solvents.

  12. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Preparation of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Animal Oil and AlcoholUnder the Catalysis of SO42- / TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was obtained through transesterification of animal oil and ethanol under the catalysis of SO42- / TiO2 We have inspected the activation of SO42- / TiO2prepared under different dipping vitriol concentration,baking activation temperature. The optimum conditions to prepare SO42- / TiO2are; dipping vitriol concentration of TiCl4 hydrolysis product is 1.5 mol / L, baking activation temperature for this catalyst takes 500°C. It can guarantee the catalyst has a smaller size and a higher load of vitriol. With animal oil as raw materials, ethanol as transesterifying agent and SO42- / TiO2as catalyst, the influence of reaction time, mass ratio of ethanol to oil and the dosage of catalyst were investigated. Optimum condition to obtain biodiesel was studied through orthogonal experiment, and it is listed as follow: mass ratio of ethanol to oil is 1.5:1.0, dosage of catalyst is 30 g SO42- / TiO2versus per 100 g animal oil, and reaction time is 8.0 h when reaction temperature is controlled as 80°C. The yield of biodiesel is 0.796 g/g under the above condition. SO42- / TiO2can be used as an effective catalyst during transesterification of animal oil and ethanol, and it can be reused

  14. Toxicity of a Novel Herbomineral Preparation Las01 on Human Cancer Cell Lines and Its Safety Profile in Humans and Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral formulations based on Rasayana therapy described in Charaka Samhita showed remarkable improvement in quality of life of various cancer patients who have been found to be refractory or poor responders to modern chemotherapy and radiation treatment. One of the most recent novel herbomineral preparation, Las01 prepared absolutely as per the instruction given in the ancient Ayurvedic literature has been found to be effective as a potent anticancer drug in the human cell lines, the MCF-7 and Hela cancer cell lines. This novel preparation of Las01 is also found to be devoid of toxicity both in animals as well as in human subjects, which is the main drawback of chemotherapeutic agents used in modern system of medicine. Our results warrant multicentric clinical trials on a large scale which seems to be a future promising drug to cure incurables cancer patients.

  15. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  16. Books Are Good Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Books are our friends because they are bridges to knowledge.Knowledge is valuable because it enriches our life and brings us happiness.Almost all great men in the history of mankind loved books.We have every reason to believe it is the knowledge in books that led them to success.There is no genius without books.Because books give them knowledge and knowledge gives them

  17. SiO2杂化环保型酚醛树脂的研究与制备%Research and preparation of SiO2 hybrid environment-friendly PF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江涛; 齐暑华; 李春华; 尹必文

    2011-01-01

    以正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)为前驱体,成功制备了玻璃纤维增强型改性PF(酚醛树脂)基复合材料的基体树脂——环保型纳米SiO2/PF.研究结果表明:当w(TEOS)=10%时,PF/SiO2复合材料的综合性能相对最好,其拉伸强度(758 MPa)、弯曲强度(945 MPa)和冲击强度(261 kJ/m2)分别比未改性体系提高了144%、53%和30%;改性PF体系的最大失重速率温度比纯PF体系提高了40~50℃,其热分解第二阶段的活化能由134.41 kJ/mol升至240.72 kJ/mol;玻璃纤维增强型PF/SiO2复合材料的线烧蚀率和质量烧蚀率分别比纯PF体系降低了22.5%和8.4%.%With tetraethoxysilane(TEOS) an precursor,an environment-friendly nano-SiO2/PF(phenolic resin), which was used as matrix resin of modified PF-based composites reinforced by fiberglass,was successfully prepared. The research results showed that the PF/SiO2 composites had reversely optimal combination property because the tensile strength(758 Mpa),bend strength(945 Mpa) and impact strength(261 Kj/m2) of modified system were 144%,53% and 30% respectively more than those of unmodified system when mass fraction of TEOS was 10%. The temperatures at maximum weight loss speed of modified PF system were 40-50 ℃ more than those of pure PF system,its activation energy at second phase of pyrolysis was increased from 134.41 Kj/mol to 240.72 Kj/mol. The ablation rate and mass ablation rate of PF/SiO2 composites reinforced by fiberglass were 22.5% and 8.4% less than those of pure PF system.

  18. Considerations for the design and execution of protocols for animal research and treatment to improve reproducibility and standardization: "DEPART well-prepared and ARRIVE safely".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M M; Clarke, E C; Little, C B

    2017-03-01

    To review the factors in experimental design that contribute to poor translation of pre-clinical research to therapies for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and how this might be improved. Narrative review of the literature, and evaluation of the different stages of design conduct and analysis of studies using animal models of OA to define specific issues that might reduce quality of evidence and how this can be minimised. Preventing bias and improving experimental rigour and reporting are important modifiable factors to improve translation from pre-clinical animal models to successful clinical trials of therapeutic agents. Despite publication and adoption by many journals of guidelines such as Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE), experimental animal studies published in leading rheumatology journals are still deficient in their reporting. In part, this may be caused by researchers first consulting these guidelines after the completion of experiments, at the time of publication. This review discusses factors that can (1) bias the outcome of experimental studies using animal models of osteoarthritis or (2) alter the quality of evidence for translation. We propose a checklist to consult prior to starting experiments; in the Design and Execution of Protocols for Animal Research and Treatment (DEPART). Following DEPART during the design phase will enable completion of the ARRIVE checklist at the time of publication, and thus improve the quality of evidence for inclusion of experimental animal research in meta-analyses and systematic reviews: "DEPART well-prepared and ARRIVE safely". Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental biochemistry of current environmental levels of heavy metals: preparation of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity for metallobiochemical experiments on laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, E; Goetz, L; Birattari, C; Bonardi, M

    1981-03-01

    Environmental toxicology research on dose-response relationships of heavy metals requires experiments on laboratory animals exposed to "low doses" of trace elements which should reflect "present or actual environmental levels" characteristic of polluted environments. Unfortunately no criteria exist to establish the "low doses" to which laboratory animals must be exposed, in practice the choice of the level used is made in an almost arbitrary manner. In order to define the "present environmental levels" of heavy metals which should be administered to laboratory animals an approach is suggested, based upon knowledge of the concentrations of trace elements in the diet, air and food as well as the fractions absorbed. Today daily intakes of trace elements by man are of the order of few micrograms or nanograms thus requiring the use of extremely sensitive analytical techniques to determine the very low amounts of heavy metals in tissues and cellular components. In these fields of research the use of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity appears particularly advantageous but requires considerable care during their preparation and use. The first part of this paper deals with a definition of the ranges of concentrations of trace elements which should be used for metabolic studies on laboratory animals when they are exposed via different routes such as ingestion, inhalation in injection; the second part describes the production of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity by proton activation in the cyclotron and by neutron irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Their use to label present levels of heavy metals under conditions adapted for biochemical purposes, as well as the preparation of different metal-labelled chemical species is also reported. Particular attention is directed to quality control of the radiotracer solutions which are administered to the animals including those of radioactivity concentrations, radioisotopic purity, radiochemical purity

  20. 慢性难治性骨髓炎动物模型制备与鉴定%Preparation and identification of chronic and refractory osteomyelitis animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金亮; 唐辉; 范新宇; 徐永清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the experimental method of preparation and identification of chronic and refractory osteomyelitis animal model. Methods The rabbit's chronic osteomyelitis model was prepared based on literature method. After the model was determined, the model animals received debridement and sensitive antibiotic treatment for 2 w. Clinical and X - ray manifestation were observed. Myeloid tissue bacterial culture and histological observation were carried out. At last, based on the histological observation, the establishment of chronic and refractory osteomyelitis model was determined. Results Ten animals had local soft tissue lump,and X - ray film showed local soft tissue swelling shadow,hyperosteogeny and low - density cavity shadow in 20 ones. The results of myeloid tissue bacterial cultures in 25 ones were positive. The histological observation of 21 ones showed chronic inflammatory changes. Conclusion The chronic and refractory osteomyelitis models of twenty one experimental animals are prepared successfully, which verifies that this method can successfully prepare animal models of chronic refractory osteomyelitis with an achievement ratio of 56. 8% .%目的 探讨慢性难治性骨髓炎动物模型制备与鉴定的实验方法.方法 根据文献方法制备兔的慢性骨髓炎模型,模型确定后,给予尽可能彻底的清创及敏感抗生素治疗2 w,再观察临床表现、大体观、X线表现以及行骨髓组织细菌培养、组织学观察,最后以组织学观察为基础,确定慢性难治性骨髓炎模型的建立.结果 10只局部出现软组织肿块,20只动物X线片提示局部软组织肿胀影、骨质增生、低密度空洞影;25只骨髓组织细菌培养阳性,21只组织学观察呈慢性炎症改变.结论 21只实验动物慢性难治性骨髓炎模型制备成功,证实此法可成功制备慢性难治性骨髓炎动物模型,成功率为56.8%.

  1. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Laboratory Animal Science Technology. Interim Report. Research 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Walter E.; Farnsworth, Wilbur M.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the necessary information for the writing of educational specifications for facilities to house career programs in laboratory animal science technology. The guide is also designed to: (1) assist planners in formation of creative solutions to the housing of desired educational programs, (2) prevent…

  2. Selectivity in the sample preparation for the analysis of drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical in relation to analysis time, sample throughput and therefore analysis costs. Due to recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrumentation, the detection of many compounds within one run became possible, and methods for the simultaneous ana

  3. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  4. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

    2016-01-25

    The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives.

  5. Three friendly walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    More than 15 years ago Guttmann and Vöge (2002 J. Stat. Plan. Inference 101 107), introduced a model of friendly walkers. Since then it has remained unsolved. In this paper we provide the exact solution to a closely allied model which essentially only differs in the boundary conditions. The exact solution is expressed in terms of the reciprocal of the generating function for vicious walkers which is a D-finite function. However, ratios of D-finite functions are inherently not D-finite and in this case we prove that the friendly walkers generating function is the solution to a non-linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients, it is in other words D-algebraic. We find using numerically exact calculations a conjectured expression for the generating function of the original model as a ratio of a D-finite function and the generating function for vicious walkers. We obtain an expression for this D-finite function in terms of a {{}2}{{F}1} hypergeometric function with a rational pullback and its first and second derivatives. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  6. Network-Friendly Gossiping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbu, Sabina; Rivière, Étienne; Felber, Pascal

    The emergence of large-scale distributed applications based on many-to-many communication models, e.g., broadcast and decentralized group communication, has an important impact on the underlying layers, notably the Internet routing infrastructure. To make an effective use of network resources, protocols should both limit the stress (amount of messages) on each infrastructure entity like routers and links, and balance as much as possible the load in the network. Most protocols use application-level metrics such as delays to improve efficiency of content dissemination or routing, but the extend to which such application-centric optimizations help reduce and balance the load imposed to the infrastructure is unclear. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of such network-friendly protocols and associated metrics. More specifically, we investigate random-based gossip dissemination. We propose and evaluate different ways of making this representative protocol network-friendly while keeping its desirable properties (robustness and low delays). Simulations of the proposed methods using synthetic and real network topologies convey and compare their abilities to reduce and balance the load while keeping good performance.

  7. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  8. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  9. Thinking with friends:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Can research in situated and embodied cognition inform the study of interpersonal relations like friendship? And conversely, can friendship studies from disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives inspire research in cognitive science? These are the guiding questions for this chapter. Compared...... cognitive phenomenon, and bringing together observations and concepts from interdisciplinary studies of interpersonal relationships allows for a notion of relational attention to be developed. At least for some forms of friendships, the agents not merely attend to common interests; their perception...... is shared, mediated by the very relationship as an embodied activity of distributed cognition. An important example of this is collaboration in science and art, as when friends or colleagues work close together to solve problems or develop new forms of creative expression....

  10. My Nepalese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    NEPAL and China are good neighbors. In the 1980s many Chinese technicians went to Nepal to help build roads and other projects. As an interpreter with a Chinese construction cooperative, I worked there from 1993 to 1994. During my stay in Nepal, I met many different Nepalese women who impressed me deeply. My landlady Sumiyala, was the first Nepalese woman to come into my life. She was over 40 years old, a healthy and good-humored housewife. Whenever Ⅰ had time, I liked to chat with her and gradually we became friends. I remember my landlady was busy in and out of her house all day long— cleaning, cooking and taking care of her grandchildren and her parents-in-laws.

  11. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  12. Do Friends Share and Communicate More than Non-Friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    1981-01-01

    Observed the social communication and task relevant behaviors of 80 kindergarten and first-grade children, each of whom was assigned to do a task with either a friend or a nonfriend. Results showed that friends exhibited less sharing and communicative behaviors and more task relevant behaviors. An explanatory model is suggested to account for…

  13. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  14. Coagulation Factor IX concentrate: method of preparation and assessment of potential in vivo thrombogenicity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menache, D; Behre, H E; Orthner, C L; Nunez, H; Anderson, H D; Triantaphyllopoulos, D C; Kosow, D P

    1984-12-01

    Thrombosis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are complications specifically associated with the use of factor IX complex in some patients. Assuming that these complications might result from zymogen overload, we have produced, using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephadex (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) and sulfated dextran chromatography, a factor IX concentrate (coagulation factor IX) that is essentially free of prothrombin, factor VII, and factor X. Factor IX specific activity is at least 5 U/mg protein, a 250-fold purification compared to plasma. Amounts of factors II, VII, and X are less than 5 units each per 100 units of factor IX. The concentrate is essentially free of activated clotting factors and contains no added heparin. In the rabbit stasis model, a dose of 200 factor IX U/kg was less thrombogenic than 100 factor IX U/kg of the DEAE-Sephadex eluate from which the concentrate was derived. Infusion of 200 factor IX U/kg did not induce DIC in the nonstasis rabbit model, whereas 100 factor IX U/kg of the DEAE-Sephadex eluate resulted in DIC in this model. Several factor IX lots were found to have shortened nonactivated partial thromboplastin times (PTTs), but were nonthrombogenic in both animal models. These data indicate that coagulation factor IX concentrate is less thrombogenic than factor IX complex.

  15. My Good Friend and I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志阳; 罗美珍

    2011-01-01

    I have many friends. But I like Sunny best. He is my good friend. Sunny is ten years old. He has two small eyes. He is thin and tall. He like reading picture books, watching TV, and he also likes playing computergames.

  16. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...... between climate-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the climate but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, climate-friendly default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives...... climate-friendly defaults, choice architects (subject to legal constraints) should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of climate-friendly defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental...

  18. Friends of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten members of Congress have been presented with the Friends of Science Award by the National Coalition for Science and Technology (NCST). The awards, honoring significant contributions to science, engineering, and science education, are made every 2 years at the end of the congressional session. The recipients this year are Sen. Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), Rep. Joseph D. Early (D-Mass.), Rep. Bill Frenzel (R-Minn.), Rep. Albert Gore, Jr. (D-Tenn.), Rep. Judd Gregg (R-N.H.), Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), Rep. Stan Lundine (D-N.Y.), Sen. Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.), and Rep. Ed Zschau (R-Calif).Except for Sen. Inouye, whose term expires in 1986, all of this year's recipients were up for reelection in the national elections held November 6. All were successful in securing another term in Congress. In addition, Albert Gore was successful in his bid for a Senate seat, filling the vacancy left by the retiring Senate Majority Leader Howard H. Baker (R-Tenn.)

  19. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  20. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avi; Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production.The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species.They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  1. A Lifelong Friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xialin

    2012-01-01

    When my little brother David was born. I was preparing day and night for my college entrance exam. The day my ecstatic parents brought him home, I gave him a brief glance before immersing myself again in Einstein,Seneca and Nietzsche.

  2. Students friendly medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia

    2014-04-01

    always a burden. The professional exams of universities are the matter of their norms and regulation, but we have day-to-day assessment through-out duration; this is enough to moralize them and prepare before final professional examination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 412-412

  3. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Magnesium Linoleate Detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yonglei; Li Haiyun; Fang Hongxia; Ni Zhifei; Zhao Lele

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly covers a method for preparing a highly alkaline magnesium linoleate solution with a total base number (TBN) value of 328 mg KOH/g using linoleic acid as the biodegradable raw material, which can substitute for traditional lubricant detergents as an environmentally friendly detergent. Reaction conditions, including the molar ratio of magnesium oxide to linoleic acid, the molar ratio of methanol to magnesium oxide, the carbonation temperature, the molar ratio of water to magnesium oxide, the lfow rate of CO2 gas and the duration for injection of CO2 to magnesium oxide sys-tem, were optimized.

  4. Universal wet-milling technique to prepare oral nanosuspension focused on discovery and preclinical animal studies - Development of particle design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Miura, Satoru; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-02-28

    Simple and easy methods to prepare oral nanosuspension of a poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical candidate compound, called a candidate, have been developed to support the discovery and preclinical studies using animals. The different wet-milling processes in miniature, middle and large preparation scales have been established in order to cover the various types of studies with wide scale. The powder of phenytoin, a poorly water-soluble model drug candidate, was suspended in the aqueous medium, in which the appropriate dispersing agents were dissolved, and milled by agitating together with small hard beads made of zirconia. Three general-purpose equipments with stirring, oscillating and turbulent motions were applied instead of the specific milling machine with high power to avoid much investment at such early development stage. The operational condition and dispersing agents were optimized to obtain finer particles using the middle-scaled oscillating beads-milling apparatus in particular. It was found that the nanosuspension, which whole particle distribution was in the submicron range, was successfully produced within the running time around 10min. By applying the newly developed dispersing medium, the nanoparticles with identical size distribution were also prepared using the stirring and turbulent methods on miniature and large scales, respectively; indicating only 50mg to 30g or more amount of candidate could be milled to nanosuspension using three equipments. The crystalline analysis indicated that the both crystal form and crystallinity of the original bulk drug completely remained after wet-milling process. The results demonstrated that the wet-milling methods developed in this research would be a fundamental technique to produce nanosuspension for poorly water-soluble and oral absorbable drug candidates.

  5. Environmentally friendly and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased and environmentally friendly lubricants are finding applications in many areas ranging from hydraulic fluids to grease. They offer excellent biodegradability and very low ecotoxicity; high viscosity index; improved tribological properties; lower volatility and flash points relative to petro...

  6. 一种自制环保型小麦种衣剂的活性测试与机理探究%Preparation and Study of an Environmentally Friendly Wheat Seed Coating Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会芳; 曾德芳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]更好的提高小麦产量,并有效降低传统小麦种衣剂对环境造成的严重危害.[方法]采用硼改性天然高分子多糖为主要原料,附加微量元素Cu、Zn等和生物农药助剂醇酯蔗糖等,研制出一种小麦种衣剂,并测定了其对小麦的增产效应.[结果]该种衣剂可提高小麦产量8%左右,降低成本28%左右,并且对环境友好、无污染.[结论]具有高效、环保、抑菌的作用,是可大量推广的环境友好型种衣剂.%[Aims] It was to improve the yield of wheat and reduce the serious pollution and harm to the environment caused by the traditional wheat seeds coating agent effectively. [Methods] This wheat seed coating agent had been made with natural polysaccharide modified by boron as the primary material, mixed with trace elements, including copper and zinc etc., biological pesticide assistant, alcohol ester saccharos etc. as the auxiliary material. And the yield increasing effect of this agent was evaluated. [Results] The results of lab and field test showed that when wheat seeds were treated by the novel seed coating agent, the yield was increased by about 8%, while the cost of seed coating agent was descended by about 28%, and the new agent was environmentally friendly. [Concludes] The novel seed coating agent was effective, friendly to the environment and bacteriostatic which could achieve remarkable economic and environmental benefits.

  7. The patient-friendly practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Sharon Kay

    2006-01-01

    In today's medical marketplace, patients see themselves as consumers of healthcare with certain customer-service expectations. The medical practice that is indifferent or resistant to these changes is at risk. Having a good understanding of patient-friendly changes can help a practice survive in a changing environment. A patient-friendly office will continue to meet the needs of the patient by adopting this new practice style.

  8. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...... and to accept or reject the results according to existing rules for quality assurance....... and the corresponding RNA internal standard. Competitive RT-PCR and CURT-PCR were used for rat liver samples from 21 different animals. Comparable results were obtained by the two methods. The imprecision of the CURT-PCR method was 8% (n = 20), and the imprecision of the traditional competitive RT-PCR was 16% (n = 17......). We conclude that the CURT-PCR method developed is suitable for routine applications such as quantitation of EGFR expression in tumor biopsies. The imprecision is relatively low. Furthermore, the use of a calibration curve makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in one analytical run...

  9. Friending the Virgin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Friedlander

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at how previous practice of portraiture prepared the way for self-presentation on social networking sites. A portrait is not simply an exercise in the skillful or “realistic” depiction of a subject. Rather, it is a rhetorical exercise in visual description and persuasion and a site of intricate communicative processes. A long evolution of visual culture, intimately intertwined with evolving notions of identity and society, was necessary to create the conditions for the particular forms of self-representation we encounter on Facebook. Many of these premodern strategies prefigure ones we encounter on Facebook. By delineating the ways current practices reflect earlier ones, we can set a baseline from which we can isolate the precise novelty of current practice in social networking sites.

  10. Supply Chain Optimisation in Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); C.M. Smeets; J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe pig husbandry is an important economic sector. In the last decade, major changes have been made. As a result, farmers came together to introduce the "Eco Label pig", meeting the strong consumer and governmental call for high quality, animal friendly and environmentally friendly foo

  11. An Invitation to Friendly Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaviddeFrutos-Escring; LuisLlana-Diaz; 等

    1998-01-01

    We present a new testing semantics,called friendly testing,whose main property is that the induced preorder between processes Contain in fr is consistent with the conformance relation,and so we have,for instance,a+b Contain in fr a Contain in fr a+b .The new theory is strongly based on De Nicola & Hennessy's work on testing.Friendly tests are defined exactly as in their work,except that internal actions are not allowed.However,in order to obtain the desired notion of friendly testing this restriction is not enough and we also have to relax the conditions to pass a test. Thus we obtain a new testing semantics and a new preorder between processes which is strictly weaker than the relation Contain in must.Moreover,we present an altrnative characterization of our new testing semantics by defining a modification of acceptance sets.

  12. Process and formulation variables of pregabalin microspheres prepared by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method and their clinical application by animal modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were

  13. Towards Global Age-Friendly Cities: Determining Urban Features that Promote Active Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more “age-friendly,” the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion “Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities”. In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings...

  14. Preparation of the multifunctional & environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor in seawater and its capability%环境友好型多功能海水缓蚀剂的研制及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 刘振法; 高玉华; 刘展

    2013-01-01

    为同时解决碳钢与铜材在海水中的腐蚀问题,将聚天冬氨酸、苯并三唑等5种原料按一定的质量比复配成多功能海水缓蚀剂.利用失重法和电化学法研究了海水缓蚀剂在海水中对A3碳钢及H62黄铜的缓蚀性能.结果表明,当海水缓蚀剂用量为150 mg/L时,对碳钢与黄铜在海水中的腐蚀均有良好的抑制作用,碳钢缓蚀率达到95.17%,黄铜缓蚀率达到93.67%.该海水缓蚀剂具有优良的生物降解性能,28 d后生物降解率达到82.6%.%A kind of multifunctional and environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor has been made from polyaspartic acid (PASP),sodium gluconate,zinc sulfate,hydroxyphosphonoacetic acid (HPAA) and benzotriazole (BTA).The corrosion capability of the corrosion inhibitor in seawater for Carbon Steel A3 and Copper H62 is evaluated by weight-loss method and electrochemical method.The results show that when the dosage of this inhibitor is 150 mg/L,the corrosion inhibition effects on carbon steel and copper are pretty good.Carbon steel corrosion inhibiting rate reaches 95.17% and copper corrosion inhibiting rate 93.67%.The corrosion inhibitor has excellent biodegradability.The biodegradation rate after 28 days reaches 82.6%.

  15. Evaluation of the adsorption potential of eco-friendly activated carbon prepared from cherry kernels for the removal of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) from aqueous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Sabolč; Radonić, Jelena; Trifunović, Snežana; Adamović, Dragan; Mihajlović, Ivana; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Turk Sekulić, Maja

    2016-12-15

    Development, characterization and evaluation of the efficiency of cost-effective medium for the removal of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) from aqueous systems, as a novel, eco-friendly solution for wastewater remediation were done. The precursors for low-cost adsorbent were lignocellulosic raw materials (sweet/sour cherry kernels), as industrial byproducts and components of organic solid waste. Activated carbon synthesis was carried out by thermochemical conversion (H3PO4, 500 °C) in the complete absence of inert atmosphere. Characterization of the activated carbon was performed by elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM, EDX and BET. BET surface area corresponds to 657.1 m(2) g(-1). The evaluation also included the influence of pH, contact time, solute concentration and adsorbent dose on the separation efficiency in the batch operational mode. The equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption were done. The maximum adsorption capacity of the activated carbon for Cd(2+) ions was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm and found to be 198.7 mg g(-1). Adsorption of Pb(2+) and Ni(2+) were better suitable to Freundlich model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 180.3 mg g(-1) and 76.27 mg g(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the pseudo-second-order model best describes adsorption kinetic data. Based on desorption study results, activated carbon was successfully regenerated with HNO3 for 3 cycles. In order to provide the results for basic cost-effective analysis, competing ion-effects in a real sample have been evaluated.

  16. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  17. Our Brain Enjoys Making Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Salvarezza, Florencia; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    Is it important to have friends? Why do we enjoy spending time with them? Do we learn differently around our friends? Neuroscience research is helping us to answer some of these questions by looking at the way our brain allows us to, and benefits from, interacting with other humans. Part of the reason why human brains are so complex is that our interactions with others are so complex; we are social creatures and have been living in groups for thousands of years. Our brain has developed the ab...

  18. Nano-TiO2: An eco-friendly alternative for the synthesis of quinoxalines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili; Ali Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Nano-TiO2 as an eco-friendly and efficient nanocatalyst was applied for quinoxaline preparation with improved yield. In this protocol, diketones and 1.2-diamines were condensed in the presence of catalyst at room temperature.

  19. The Danish technology foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A premise that is necessary for agriculture to develop into an environmentally friendly direction is that research is undertaken into environmentally friendly technologies and methods and how they can be brought into use. There is a need for a prioritised research effort that focuses on those...... without any plan or with some thought. Therefore the National Forest and Nature Agency in Denmark initiated the Green Technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture with the aim of examining the agricultural environmental challenges and suggesting technological and structural solutions....... problems which are related to minimising environmental problems affected by the agricultural production’s negative influence on the surroundings, improving animal welfare and finding new ways and products for agriculture. Future directions of agriculture can derive with or without dialogue; it can occur...

  20. Environmentally friendly anodization on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel anodization which is environmentally friendly,low voltage and lOW energy consumption was developed to improve corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy.The corrosion resistance of the anodic films was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS)and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.The microstructure and compositions of films were examined by SEM,XPS and XRD.A new kind of organic additive used in the electrolyte is friendly to the environment.The compact,intact and uniform coating with high hardness can be prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy by the environmentally friendly anodization,which enhances the corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy significantly.

  1. Free Our Friends in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Many secrets can be told by the physical surroundings of library media centers. Whether the center is kid-friendly is one of the first obvious tell-tale signs. When a library center has Arthur & D.W., Clifford, Pooh & Eeyore, shells, special rocks, etc. hidden by the circulation center or in the back in boxes, it's time to revolt. The movie Free…

  2. My stepfather,My friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武

    2005-01-01

    Nine years ago, after Leo had died, people said to me, ""I never knew he was your stepfa-ther."" You see, I never called .him that. At first, he was no one special in my life. Then he became my friend. In time, I felt he was my fa-ther too.

  3. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends.

  4. Study and preparation of environmentally-friendly water-based ultrasonic cleaning agent for aluminum-magnesium alloys%铝镁合金用超声波环保水基清洗剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建辉; 陈郁明; 周玉成; 孙雪飞

    2013-01-01

    A supersonic environmentally friendly waterbased cleaning agent suitable for Al-Mg alloy was developed.The composition of the cleaning agent was selected,and the influence of the formulation of cleaning agent on corrosion rate of substrate,oil removal rate,and biodegradation rate was studied.The optimal formulation of cleaning agent was obtained as follows:AO90 5.0wt%,AO42 3.0wt%,AO10 2.0wt%,solvent (fatty alcohol) 3.0wt%,aluminum inhibitor A 0.3wt%,aluminum inhibitor B 0.3wt%,magnesium inhibitor A 0.5wt%,metal chelating agent 0.25wt%,sodium tripolyphosphate 0.5wt%,and sodium metasilicate pentahydrate 0.l wt%.5052 A1-Mg alloy was supersonically rinsed for 45 s to 1 min with the home-made cleaning agent and a commercial cleaning agent at 60-65 ℃.The home-made cleaning agent has the following performance:A1-Mg alloy appearance 0 grade after rinsing,biodegradation rate 99.5%,oil removal rate 99.7%,and corrosion rate 0%,being superior to the commercial product.%开发了一种适用于铝镁合金的超声波环保水基清洗剂.对清洗剂的组成进行了筛选,考察了清洗剂配方对基材腐蚀率、除油率和生物降解率的影响,确定了最优的清洗剂配方(以质量分数表示)为:AO90 5.0%,AO42 3.0%,AO10 2.0%,溶剂(脂肪醇)3.0%,铝缓蚀剂A 0.3%,铝缓蚀剂B 0.3%,镁缓蚀剂A0.5%,金属螯合剂0.25%,三聚磷酸钠0.5%,五水偏硅酸钠0.1%.在60 ~ 65℃下,以自制的清洗剂和市售清洗剂对5052铝镁合金超声清洗45 s至1 min.结果表明,以自制清洗剂清洗的铝镁合金外观为0级,生物降解率99.5%,除油率99.7%,腐蚀率0%.自制清洗剂的性能优于市售产品.

  5. 可生物降解的环保型镁合金微乳化切削液的制备%Preparation of biodegradable environmental-friendly micro-emulsion cutting fluid for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈郁明; 周建辉; 周玉成; 孙雪飞

    2015-01-01

    A biodegradable environmental-friendly micro-emulsion cutting fluid for magnesium alloys was developed. The influence of base oil, corrosion inhibitor, chelator, anti-rust agent, lubricant, surfactant, and other additives on lubrication property of the cutting fluid were studied. The optimal formulation was determined as follows: naphthenic base oil 30.0wt%, modified organic alcohol chelator 1.5wt%, composite corrosion inhibitor 2.5wt%, triethanolamine 8.0wt%, long carbon chain polycarboxylic acid anti-rust agent 5.0wt%, polymerized glycerol trioleate lubricant 16.0wt%, polyoleate lubricant 6.0wt%, AEO fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactant 2.5wt%, emulsion-type low-foam fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactant 3.0wt%, fungicide 1.0wt%, defoamer 0.1wt%, and water 24.4wt%. In comparison with the marketable commercial products of Castrol and Master, the developed micro-emulsion cutting fluid for magnesium alloys has lower price but better performance in aspects of lubrication, hard water resistance, anti-corrosion, defoamation, and service life. Its biodegradation rate is 92.0% and hard water resistance reaches 8 330 mg/L. The green and highly efficient micro-emulsion cutting fluid is a special-purpose cutting fluid for magnesium alloys.%开发了一种可生物降解的环保型镁合金微乳化切削液,考察了基础油、缓蚀剂、螯合剂、防锈剂、润滑剂、表面活性剂和其他添加剂对切削液润滑性能的影响,筛选出最优的微乳化切削液配方(以质量分数表示):环烷基基础油30.0%,改性有机醇类螯合剂1.5%,复合缓蚀剂2.5%,三乙醇胺8.0%,长碳链多元羧酸防锈剂5.0%,聚合油酸合成酯润滑剂16.0%,多元油酸合成酯润滑剂6.0%,AEO类脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚表面活性剂2.5%,脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚类乳化型低泡表面活性剂3.0%,杀菌剂1.0%,消泡剂0.1%,水24.4%。所开发的镁合金微乳化切削液在润滑、抗硬水、防腐防锈、

  6. An eco-friendly stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of two anticancer stereoisomer drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations following micellar enhancement: Application to kinetic degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kimary, Eman I.; El-Yazbi, Amira F.

    2016-06-01

    A new rapid and highly sensitive stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of two stereoisomers anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI) in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The fluorescence spectral behavior of DOX and EPI in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system was investigated. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of DOX and EPI in an aqueous solution of phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and in the presence of SDS was greatly (about two fold) enhanced and the mechanism of fluorescence enhancement effect of SDS on DOX was also investigated. The fluorescence intensity of DOX or EPI was measured at 553 nm after excitation at 497 nm. The plots of fluorescence intensity versus concentration were rectilinear over a range of 0.03-2 μg/mL for both DOX and EPI with good correlation coefficient (r > 0.999). High sensitivity to DOX and EPI was attained using the proposed method with limits of detection of 10 and 9 ng/mL and limits of quantitation of 29 and 28 ng/mL, for DOX and EPI, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of DOX and EPI in biological fluids and in their commercial pharmaceutical preparations and the results were concordant with those obtained using a previously reported method. The application of the proposed method was extended to stability studies of DOX following different forced degradation conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic) according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the kinetics of the alkaline and oxidative degradation of DOX was investigated and the apparent first-order rate constants and half-life times were calculated.

  7. An eco-friendly stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of two anticancer stereoisomer drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations following micellar enhancement: Application to kinetic degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kimary, Eman I; El-Yazbi, Amira F

    2016-06-15

    A new rapid and highly sensitive stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of two stereoisomers anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI) in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The fluorescence spectral behavior of DOX and EPI in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system was investigated. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of DOX and EPI in an aqueous solution of phosphate buffer pH4.0 and in the presence of SDS was greatly (about two fold) enhanced and the mechanism of fluorescence enhancement effect of SDS on DOX was also investigated. The fluorescence intensity of DOX or EPI was measured at 553nm after excitation at 497nm. The plots of fluorescence intensity versus concentration were rectilinear over a range of 0.03-2μg/mL for both DOX and EPI with good correlation coefficient (r>0.999). High sensitivity to DOX and EPI was attained using the proposed method with limits of detection of 10 and 9ng/mL and limits of quantitation of 29 and 28ng/mL, for DOX and EPI, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of DOX and EPI in biological fluids and in their commercial pharmaceutical preparations and the results were concordant with those obtained using a previously reported method. The application of the proposed method was extended to stability studies of DOX following different forced degradation conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic) according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the kinetics of the alkaline and oxidative degradation of DOX was investigated and the apparent first-order rate constants and half-life times were calculated.

  8. Friends of the National Library of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / ... Javascript on. The Hon. Paul G. Rogers Chairman, Friends of the National Library of Medicine and former ...

  9. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods KidsHealth > For Teens > ... in organic and other environmentally friendly foods. Defining "Organic" If a food is labeled "organic," what does ...

  10. Making Friends While Making Deals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LII; HAIBO

    2006-01-01

    The China-U.S. relationship is one of the most important bilateral relationships in the world today, and the trade and economic ties between the two countries constitute the most essential part of that relationship. We believe that the China-U.S. relationship is by and large a friendly one, a fact that is ignored or denied by some observers. There are two supporting points here. First, as trade expands and

  11. Be Safe with Your Internet Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2006-01-01

    You can have lots of friends on the Internet.But you must pay attention to your safety. 1.Do not tell your Internet friends your real name,address,phone number, ID card number and so on. 2.Do not send your photos to your Internet friends.

  12. How Friends Influence Adolescents' Adjustment to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas J.; Keefe, Keunho

    A short-term longitudinal study investigated theoretical perspectives on friends' influences and compared the influence of a student's closest friend with that of several close friends. Participants were 297 seventh and eighth graders in junior high schools in small towns or rural areas adjacent to a medium-sized city. Measures obtained in the…

  13. Comparison of a waterless hand-hygiene preparation and soap-and-water hand washing to reduce coliforms on hands in animal exhibit settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M A; Sheng, H; Newman, J; Hancock, D D; Hovde, C J

    2006-10-01

    Outbreaks of enteric disease associated with exposure to live animals on exhibit have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. Possibly the most important pathogen causing such outbreaks is Escherichia coli O157:H7, because of the serious illness it can cause. Hand hygiene is consistently protective against disease among persons exposed to animals implicated in these outbreaks. Livestock barns have limited hand-washing facilities, therefore a waterless hand-sanitizing gel would be a potentially preventive measure readily available to visitors and animal exhibitors. This study compared the reduction of bacterial counts on hands of animal exhibitors when soap and water was used or when an ethanol-based hand gel was used after animal handling. Participants were youth and adults involved with showing livestock. The sanitation methods were similar in reducing the total bacteria and coliform counts on the hands of the participants (Wilcoxon rank sum test P values 0.12 and 0.69 respectively).

  14. Adolescent Boys' Intentions of Seeking Help from Male Friends and Female Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…

  15. Classroom Friends and Very Best Friends: A Short-Term Longitudinal Analysis of Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChristian, Chrystal L.; Ray, Glen E.; Tidwell, Pamela S.; LoBello, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children evaluated relationship qualities of a self-nominated friend and a self-nominated very best friend over a 6-month school year period. Results demonstrated that 76% of the friend relationships and 50% of the very best friend relationships were maintained over the course of the study. Children in…

  16. A fast algorithm for identifying Friends-of-Friends halos

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple and fast algorithm for identifying friends-of-friends clusters and prove its correctness. The algorithm avoids unnecessary expensive neighbor queries, uses minimal memory overhead, and rejects slowdown in high over-density regions. We define our algorithm formally based on pair enumeration, a problem that has been heavily studied in fast 2-point correlation codes and our reference implementation employs a dual KD-tree correlation function code. We construct halos in a hierarchical merger tree, and use a splay operation to reduce the average cost of identifying the root of a cluster from $O[\\log L]$ to $O[1]$ ($L$ is the size of a cluster) without additional memory costs. This reduces the overall time complexity of merging trees form $O[L\\log L]$ to $O[L]$, reducing the number of operations per by orders of magnitude. We next introduce a pruning operation that skips pair enumeration between two fully self-connected KD-tree nodes. This improves the robustness of the algorithm, reducing cost...

  17. 环境友好型锂离子电池正极材料 LiFePO4的制备方法%Preparing Method of LiFePO4 as Environment Friendly Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宝冬梅; 曹可名; 肖寒; 邹光龙

    2012-01-01

    橄榄石型磷酸铁锂( LiFePO4)由于价格低廉、热稳定性好、比容量高、循环寿命长、环境友好等优点被公认为最具发展潜力的锂离子电池正极材料.介绍了锂离子电池正极材料LiFePO4的晶体结构和工作原理,概述了LiFePO4的制备方法.最后,分析了国内外LiFePO4的生产现状,指出了正极材料LiFePO4在发展过程中存在的问题,并展望了其应用前景.%The olivine LiFePO4 is acknowledged as the most promising cathode material for lithium ion battery due to its lower cost, good thermal stability, high specific capacity, long cycling life, environmentally friendly, etc. The crystal structure and working principle of LiFePO4 are introduced. The preparing methods of LiFePO4 are reviewed. At last,the production situation of LiFePO4 at home and abroad is analyzed, the future application prospect and the existing problems are also presented.

  18. 新型环保木薯淀粉改性聚氨酯硬质泡沫塑料的制备及性能研究%Study on Preparation and Properties of New Environmental Friendly Cassava Starch Modified Polyurethane Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石骥; 黄科林; 王犇; 杨波; 张雪旺; 慕朝师; 孙果宋; 罗素娟

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] Starch modified polyurethane foam was prepared from cassava starch and sucrose and the effect of reaction conditions on product properties were studied. [ Method ] The structure and thermal stability of products were analyzed based on FT - IR, SEM, DSC and TG.Moreover,the soil burying method was used to investigate the degradability of products. [ Result] Cross - linking reaction was involved in the preparation process of products. The increasing of starch content caused the acceleration of degradation rate and the greater degree of degradation. [ Conclusion] The starch modified polyurethane foam,which has good thermal stability,low thermal conductivity and excellent biodegradability,which can be used as environmental friendly thermal insulation materials.%[目的]以木薯淀粉和蔗糖为起始原料制备淀粉改性聚氨酯泡沫塑料,研究反应条件对产品性能的影响.[方法]用FT-IR、SEM、DSC和TG分析产品的结构及热稳定性,通过土埋试验考察产品的降解性能.[结果]淀粉在聚氨酯的制备过程中参与交联反应,随着淀粉含量的增加,产品的降解速度有所加快,且降解的程度也越大.[结论]淀粉改性聚氨酯泡沫具有良好的热稳定性、较低的导热系数和优异的生物降解性能,可以作为环保的保温材料使用.

  19. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications.

  20. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  1. Ants recognize foes and not friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating 'friends' (nest-mates) from 'foes' (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects.

  2. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  3. Language as friend and foe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    If the limits of our language are the limits of our world, in the famous Wittgensteinian formulation, we can confidently add that they are also the limits of our theories and methodologies. The terms we use to conceptualise psychological and social phenomena often reify and dichotomise realities...... that are otherwise both integrated and dynamic. How can we use language in research that captures both content and process, both meaning and action, both the conscious and the subconscious, both the individual and the social (and the list can continue...)? Illustrations of the _dangers_ of terminology...... will be offered from the field of creativity studies. A collective creative exercise will be set in place in order to overcome these barriers in our thinking and, consequently, in our acting in and on the world. Linguistic creativity, will be argued, should be the _best friend_ of researchers engaged...

  4. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  5. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have......-friendly products. It is therefore to be expected that other animal welfare-friendly food products marketed via “natural behaviors” in the farm animals will catch the interest of consumers. However, grass milk consumption has been supported by proper labeling, ready availability and low price premiums as well...

  6. Friends don't let friends eat cookies: effects of restrictive eating norms on consumption among friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Mann, Traci

    2012-10-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend's consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change.

  7. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  8. 支气管哮喘动物模型制备的研究%The Studies on Preparation of Animal Model with Bronchial Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹珊珊

    2012-01-01

    支气管哮喘是一种常见多发病,哮喘动物实验模型的建立在研究本病的发病原因、机制及防治方面有着极其重要的意义.笔者主要就哮喘动物模型的相关内容进行了概述.%Bronchial asthma is a common and frequently encountered disease. The establishment of animal experimental model on asthma had extremely important significance in aetiological agent,mechanism and preventive treatment of asthma. A brief review relating to animal modles on asthma was summarized in this paper.

  9. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  10. Phil Friend julgustab riske võtma / Phil Friend ; interv. Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friend, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritannia koolitus- ja konsultatsioonifirma Churchill & Friend juhataja Phil Friend vastab küsimustele oma firma missiooni kohta Hiiumaal, puuetega inimeste elu erinevuste kohta Hiiumaal ja Suurbritannias. Vt. samas: Phil Friend julgustas tööandjaid puuetega inimesi tööle võtma

  11. Phil Friend julgustab riske võtma / Phil Friend ; interv. Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friend, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritannia koolitus- ja konsultatsioonifirma Churchill & Friend juhataja Phil Friend vastab küsimustele oma firma missiooni kohta Hiiumaal, puuetega inimeste elu erinevuste kohta Hiiumaal ja Suurbritannias. Vt. samas: Phil Friend julgustas tööandjaid puuetega inimesi tööle võtma

  12. Criterious preparation and characterization of earthworm-composts in view of animal waste recycling. Part I. Correlation between chemical, thermal and FTIR spectroscopic analyses of four humic acids from earthworm-composted animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangrich Antonio S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids (HA were extracted from sheep (SH, cow (CO, goat (GO and rabbit (RA manures which were vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia foetida. HA DSC curves showed well-defined thermal events indicative of intramolecular bonds (300 ºC and intermolecular organo-mineral linkages (500 ºC. All samples showed high nitrogen contents (from peptide chains and probably N-heterocycles and aromatic and/or unsaturated aliphatic conjugated structures, as well as a low carboxylic functionality content. The SH-HA was the most similar to a medium soil HA and the RA-HA being the least similar. The results show that it is possible to prepare distinct worm-composts to solve specific problems of degraded soils.

  13. Best Friend Networks of Children across Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Glen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated children's classroom sociometry and size of their best-friend networks. For both classroom and playground settings, popular children had the most reciprocal best friends, while rejected children had the fewest, but had more on the playground than in the classroom. Results suggest that constraints and opportunities of different…

  14. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    of structural equation modelling and other techniques. Cases of transfer of environment-friendly conduct between behavioural categories are found, but only in a few of the possible instances and only of a modest size. The panel analysis also identifies a few negative cross-lagged effects. Such effects may......This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuous...... indicate that the performance of an environmentally friendly behaviour reduces the propensity to behave environmentally friendly in other areas. However, they may also be the result of the two involved behaviours correlating positively from the out-set. Multigroup SEM analyses indicate that the likelihood...

  15. Building a sulfonamide library by eco-friendly flow synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioiello, Antimo; Rosatelli, Emiliano; Teofrasti, Michela; Filipponi, Paolo; Pellicciari, Roberto

    2013-05-13

    A rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of a sulfonamide library under flow conditions is described. The study illustrates an efficient, safe, and easily scalable preparation of sulfonamides by use of a meso-reactor apparatus, thus demonstrating the impact of flow technologies within drug discovery. Waste minimization, employment of green media, and nontoxic reactants are achieved by the optimization of the flow setup and experimental protocol designed to sequentially synthesize primary, secondary, and tertiary sulfonamides. Isolation of the products involves only extraction and precipitation affording pure compounds in good to high yields without further purification for biological evaluation.

  16. User-friendly design approach for analog layout design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Lee, Zhao Chuan; Tripathi, Vikas; Perez, Valerio; Ong, Yoong Seang; Hui, Chiu Wing

    2017-03-01

    Analog circuits are sensitives to the changes in the layout environment conditions, manufacturing processes, and variations. This paper presents analog verification flow with five types of analogfocused layout constraint checks to assist engineers in identifying any potential device mismatch and layout drawing mistakes. Compared to several solutions, our approach only requires layout design, which is sufficient to recognize all the matched devices. Our approach simplifies the data preparation and allows seamless integration into the layout environment with minimum disruption to the custom layout flow. Our user-friendly analog verification flow provides the engineer with more confident with their layouts quality.

  17. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  18. Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen; Peters, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely viewed as the optimal feeding method for infants among professional nursing and medical organizations. Its health benefits have been comprehensively studied and documented for both infants and mothers. Hospitals and birthing centers can strongly influence the outcomes for mothers who choose to breastfeed by establishing effective breastfeeding behaviors immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. The Baby-Friendly USA initiative outlines 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. Although these steps have been successfully supported in practice, they can be difficult to implement due to a variety of factors, including resistance to change. Specific steps generate more barriers to overcome than others--namely exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation or pacifiers, rooming-in for 23 out of 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact with a parent immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. Our hospital spent 5 years implementing Baby-Friendly practices to prepare for a successful site visit. In the process, barriers to key Baby-Friendly steps were overcome through creative approaches and strategic education for staff, physicians, and parents. The purpose of this article is to outline specific actions taken that assisted our hospital in its successful journey. Those actions and strategies will hopefully be of value to others in their journey toward designation.

  19. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  20. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa;

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...... the development and demonstration of low energy and climate friendly buildings. The innovation program should support a development that brings the Nordic countries to an international forefront with respect to business strongholds and market penetration of low energy and climate friendly buildings....

  1. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  2. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  3. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes. ... alternative to wood charcoal using agricultural wastes (dry leaves, coffee husk, sugarcane trash, ... produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no ...

  4. Romantic Partners, Friends, Friends with Benefits, and Casual Acquaintances As Sexual Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Shaffer, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits” as well as with friends in general. Young adults were most likely to engage in sexual behavior with romantic partners, but sexual behavior also often occurred with some type of nonromantic partner. More young adults engaged in some form of sexual behavior with casual acquaintances than with friends with benefits. The frequencies of sexual behavior, however, were greater with friends with benefits than with friends or casual acquaintances. Interview and questionnaire data revealed that friends with benefits were typically friends, but not necessarily. Nonsexual activities were also less common with friends with benefits than other friends. Taken together, the findings illustrate the value of differentiating among different types of nonromantic partners and different levels of sexual behavior. PMID:21128155

  5. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  6. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  7. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  8. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuous...... circle and whether it is a necessary prerequisite for a virtuous circle to emerge and to continue to work that the individual possesses certain general values or ethical norms. The data material is a three-wave panel study with a large random sample of Danish consumers. The data were analysed by means...... indicate that the performance of an environmentally friendly behaviour reduces the propensity to behave environmentally friendly in other areas. However, they may also be the result of the two involved behaviours correlating positively from the out-set. Multigroup SEM analyses indicate that the likelihood...

  9. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Shyness My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  10. Korean Friend Receiving Title of Friendship Ambassador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The CPAFFC held a ceremony on October 8, 2003 to confer the title of Friendship Ambassador upon Korean friend Lee Ik Soon in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the cause of Sino-Korean friendship.

  11. "The Friendly Clergy": Characteristics and Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; McNally, Christopher J.

    1998-01-01

    Among the recommendations possible in assessment of clients' religious beliefs is that of referral to the "friendly clergy." Delineates guidelines for referral as well as ideal characteristics of that spiritual profession. (Author)

  12. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends People who are very ill often ask spiritual questions, in seeking comfort, meaning and hope. While clergy, chaplains and other spiritual leaders may play an important role in spiritual ...

  13. Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  14. Preparing photochromic nanofibers and animal cells using a photochromic compound of 1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro (2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-indoline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Lin, Lin; Kanjwal, Muzafar A; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Liu, Shuiping; Chen, Yanmo

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the photochromic compound 1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro (2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-indoline) (NOSP) was synthesized by a two step process. The photochromic properties of NOSP were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. The results showed that NOSP was very sensitive to UV irradiation with absorption peaks at about 336 nm and 567 nm. Our hypothesis was that both photochromic nanofibers and photochromic living animal cells could be obtained by combining them with NOSP. To test the hypothesis, photochromic nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning from various mixed solutions of NOSP and polymers (including a synthetic polymer of poly(methyl methacrylate) and a natural polymer of gelatin); NOSP/ethanol solution was dissolved in culture medium to stain pig iliac endothelial cells (PIEC) and endow them with photochromic capability. Polymer nanofibers from electrospinning were characterized by water contact angle measurements, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of photochromic PIEC was observed by fluorescence microscopy after being irradiated. It was shown that nanofibers from electrospun polymers and NOSP-treated PIEC had photochromic properties. The bio-toxicity of the photochromic compound was also evaluated and it was shown that ~50% of PIEC remained viable for at least 20 min. The photochromic compound NOSP could be a potentially powerful tool for development of multi-functional nanofibers and biological applications.

  15. Mainstreaming animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Lori S; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Niemi, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The term animal-assisted therapy (AAT) commonly refers to the presentation of an animal to one or more persons for the purpose of providing a beneficial impact on human health or well-being. AAT is an ideal example of "One Health" because of numerous studies and widespread testimonials indicating that many humans feel better in the presence of pets and other domesticated animals, and, conversely, that some of those creatures appear to respond positively to human company for their emotional and perhaps physical betterment. Many AAT studies have claimed a wide range of human health benefits, but much of the research is characterized by small-scale interventions among disparate fields, resulting in criticisms about weak study design or inconsistent methodology. Such criticisms contrast with the strongly held belief among many that interaction with friendly animals has a strong and innate value for the persons involved. Consequently the appeal of AAT in human medicine today may be generally characterized as a "push" by enthusiastic advocates rather than a "pull" by prescribing physicians. To fully integrate AAT into conventional medical practice as an accepted therapeutic modality, more convincing intervention studies are necessary to confirm its clinical merits, along with an understanding of the underlying mechanism of the human response to the company of friendly animals.

  16. Friends of the National Library of Medicine - Letter from Friends of the NLM Chairman Paul G. Rogers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from Friends of the NLM Chairman Paul G. Rogers Past ... and recommend medlineplus.gov to your family and friends. On behalf of the Friends of the National ...

  17. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  18. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  19. Gluten - Not a Friendly Protein

    OpenAIRE

    E Tafreshi; A Jafarzade Noghani; B Khairkhah; Yazdani, M.; Seddighi, S.; S khayam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gluten is a protein found in grains.  Research has shown that the gluten that is in grains of wheat, barley, rye, and oats (to a lesser degree) is toxic to many individuals.  While gluten is essential for the make-up of these 4 grains, our bodies do not need it. Is it healthful?  The protein in today’s wheat is poorly digested and can be harmful.  An estimated 95% of prepared foods on the grocery shelves contain the toxic forms of gluten.   Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivit...

  20. Mobile-friendly web design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Heyiredin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the current technology how to optimized mobile friendly web design and development. The conception of this thesis idea Mobile-friendly web design and development was conceived by a colleague during a visit to Nokia Company. The purpose of this paper is to show how to build compelling easy to use website which is optimized to today’s mobile devices. Web application developers and companies who wants to optimize their products for mobile devices could also benefit ...

  1. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  2. Independence-friendly cylindric set algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    Independence-friendly logic is a conservative extension of first-order logic that has the same expressive power as existential second-order logic. In her Ph.D. thesis, Dechesne introduces a variant of independence-friendly logic called IFG logic. We attempt to algebraize IFG logic in the same way that Boolean algebra is the algebra of propositional logic and cylindric algebra is the algebra of first-order logic. We define independence-friendly cylindric set algebras and prove two main results. First, every independence-friendly cylindric set algebra over a structure has an underlying Kleene algebra. Moreover, the class of such underlying Kleene algebras generates the variety of all Kleene algebras. Hence the equational theory of the class of Kleene algebras that underly an independence-friendly cylindric set algebra is finitely axiomatizable. Second, every one-dimensional independence-friendly cylindric set algebra over a structure has an underlying monadic Kleene algebra. However, the class of such underlyin...

  3. Friend or foe: Personal use and friends' use of protective behavioral strategies and spring break drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Sheng, Elisa; Geisner, Irene M; Rhew, Isaac C; Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by college students and their friends and drinking-related outcomes during Spring Break (SB). Moreover, this study examined the influence of friends' own PBS use on participants' PBS use during SB. Participants included college students (N = 694) and their nominated friends (N = 131) who were part of a larger study of SB drinking. Data were collected via web-based surveys that participants and friends took after SB, which assessed SB PBS, drinking, and related negative consequences. Results indicated that higher levels of Serious Harm Reduction (SHR) strategies and Limiting/Stopping (LS) strategies were associated with increased consumption, higher likelihood of experiencing any consequences, and an increased number of consequences. A different pattern emerged for Manner of Drinking (MD) strategy use; participants utilizing higher levels of MD strategies drank less and had fewer consequences. LS and MD strategies used by the participant's friends appeared to have less of an impact on the participant's drinking outcomes. However, greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with increased alcohol use by the participant, but not with consequences. Greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with greater SHR strategy use by the participant. Friends' LS and MD strategies were not associated with participant drinking, consequences, or PBS. These findings highlight the potential utility of interventions that focus on drinking behaviors on specific high-risk occasions for those at risk as well as for their friends.

  4. Eco-friendly Synthesis of Ceria Foam via Carboxymethylcellulose Gelation: Application for the Epoxidation of Chalcone

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and innovative process is described for the eco-friendly preparation of ceria foams via the carboxymethylcellulose gelation by Ce4+ cations; heat treatment of the ensuing xerogels produces ceria foams. The influence of the concentration of cerium and of the calcination t...

  5. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  6. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  7. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  8. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  9. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact services and communication interventions…

  10. Socialization of emotion regulation strategies through friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marion; Gniewosz, Burkhard; Reinders, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the effects of best friends' emotion regulation strategies (regarding the emotions anger, fear, and sadness) on the development of adolescents' emotion regulation strategies and subsequent depressive symptoms. Based on a two-wave longitudinal sample of 238 German adolescents, true change analyses showed positive effects of best friends' adaptive strategies (T1) on the change of adolescents' adaptive strategies (T2 - T1) for anger and fear. Best friends' adaptive strategies (T1) indirectly influence the development of maladaptive strategies (T2 - T1) through the change of adaptive strategies (T2 - T1) and, in turn, the development of depressive symptoms (T2 - T1; two-step mediation). Best friends' adaptive strategies for sadness did not have an effect on adolescents' adaptive strategies. In contrast to adaptive strategies, none of the friends' maladaptive strategies affected adolescents' maladaptive strategies. The results are discussed in terms of peer influences on the development of emotion regulation strategies and psychosocial adjustment.

  11. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  12. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  13. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  14. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. "Friends" of Anglican Cathedrals: Norms and Values. Befriending, Friending or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…

  17. ‘Dementia-friendly communities’ and being dementia friendly in healthcare settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the concept of ‘dementia-friendly communities’ and summarizes the latest research and practice around such communities. This review also highlights important topic areas to be considered to promote dementia friendliness in healthcare settings. Recent findings Definitions of ‘dementia-friendly communities’ reflect the contemporary thinking of living with dementia (e.g., dementia as a disability, equal human rights, a sense of meaning). Existing research has covered a wide range of topic areas relevant to ‘dementia-friendly communities’. However, these studies remain qualitative and exploratory by nature and do not evaluate how dementia-friendly communities impact health and quality of life of people living with dementia and their caregivers. In healthcare settings, being dementia friendly can mean the inclusion of people with dementia in treatment discussion and decision-making, as well as the provision of first, adequate and appropriate service to people with dementia at an equivalent standard of any patient, second, person-centered care, and third, a physical environment following dementia-friendly design guidelines. Summary Research incorporating more robust study designs to evaluate dementia-friendly communities is needed. Being dementia-friendly in healthcare settings requires improvement in multiple areas – some may be achieved by environmental modifications while others may be improved by staff education. PMID:27997454

  18. Animal welfare: the EU policy and consumers' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The awareness of animal welfare and animal well-being is growing all over Europe and the world. The concerns are related to the applied policy regimes, economic sustainability of the production methods, food quality and safety, consumers’ health and behaviour and their willingness to pay for animal products obtained in animal-friendly conditions. The paper aims to analyse the consumers’ awareness and its effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Bulgaria. The data were collected under the ...

  19. [Fostering LGBT-friendly healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Chen, Mu-Hong; Ku, Wen-Wei

    2015-02-01

    LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) patients suffer from stigma and discrimination when seeking healthcare. A large LGBT healthcare survey revealed that 56% of gay patients and 70% of transgender patients suffered some type of discrimination while seeking healthcare in 2014. The fostering of LGBT-friendly healthcare services is not just an advanced step of gender mainstreaming but also a fulfillment of health equality and equity. Additionally, LGBT-friendly healthcare services are expected to provide new opportunities for healthcare workers. Therefore, proactive government policies, education, research, and clinical practice should all encourage the development of these healthcare services. We look forward to a well-developed LGBT-friendly healthcare system in Taiwan.

  20. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices.

  1. Development of eco-friendly polymeric materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-hak; Shim, Kihyung; Kim, Jaeyoung; and others

    2012-12-15

    In this project, the core technologies such as fabrication of eco-friendly and high-performance bioplastics, anionic exchange membranes for the energy generation, and anisotropic conductive films (ACF) for the electronic devices were developed by using an eco-friendly and low-energy consumption radiation. In the 1{sup st} project group, the fabrication technologies of biodegradable polymer-based blends, biocompoistes, and foam were developed using a radiation crosslinking technology, and the possibility of their commercialization was evaluated through the fabrication of prototype products (fruits packaging material and adhesive) in the practical production lines. In the 2{sup nd} project group, the fabrication technology of the anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell were prepared by utilizing the inherent property of radiation such as high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, mechanical property, and chemical stability of the prepared membranes were measured. The results of the MEA performance test, the maximum power density of 115 mW and operation for 200 hours, indicates the possibility of the use of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. In the 3rd project group, the electron beam-induced room temperature and fast curable epoxy was developed and the mechanism of electron beam-induced curing was investigated using various analytical methods. On the basis of the physical and electrical characterization, the prepared ACF exhibited lower resistance and higher tensile strength compared to that of the commercialized one.

  2. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  3. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  4. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  5. Animal Flicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érik Bullot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leafing a book quickly creates metamorphoses of its images and illustrations. Cinema as a medium is based on such visual discontinuity.  Both Paolo Gioli, the Italian filmmaker, and Stan Brakhage in America,  made very interesting flicker films with and about insects and butterflies : Farfallìo (1993 and Mothlight (1963. Is the buttefly miming the filmic device? To what extent has a film to disguise its mechanism? What is the relation between animation and the animal? I intend to scrutinize the link between flicker film and animality in regard of camouflage and mimicry.

  6. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  7. Human-friendly stylization of video content using simulated colored paper mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulbeom; Kang, Dongwann; Yoon, Kyunghyun

    2016-07-01

    Video content is used extensively in many fields. However, in some fields, video manipulation techniques are required to improve the human-friendliness of such content. In this paper, we propose a method that automatically generates animations in the style of colored paper mosaics, to create human-friendly, artistic imagery. To enhance temporal coherence while maintaining the characteristics of colored paper mosaics, we also propose a particle video-based method that determines coherent locations for tiles in animations. The proposed method generates evenly distributed particles, which are used to produce animated tiles via our tile modeling process.

  8. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  9. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  11. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.; Blok, V.; Tulder, van R.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the proces

  12. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.; Blok, V.; Tulder, van R.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the

  13. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  14. Participants in "Friends with Benefits" Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Jennifer; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 1013 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed that over half (51%) reported experience in a "friends with benefits" relationship. In comparing the background characteristics of participants with nonpartipants in a FWBR, ten statistically significant findings emerged. Findings included that…

  15. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  16. The Importance of Friends in Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less exp...

  17. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  18. Friend Flips: A Story Activity about Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Leigh; Reyes, Jovanni V.; Farmer, Jennifer; Wilson, Kelly L.; McNeill, Elisa Beth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are influenced by the type, length and quality of the connections shared with different people throughout their lifespan. Relationships with peers, friends, and adults help to shape knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to health. Recognizing healthy or unhealthy characteristics allow youth to strengthen relationships and…

  19. Friends of NSFC in Obama's Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Youxin

    2008-01-01

    @@ On 15 December,2008,the US President-Elect Obama Picked Steven Chu for Energy Secretary.Steven Chu is an old friend of NSFC.On May 4,1998,he attended a reception of Nobel Prize winners in Beijing hosted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.The following photos were taken at the meeting.

  20. The most common friend first immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  1. Students' Facebook "Friends": Public and Private Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Lewis, Jane; Currie, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Friendship is highly significant during the university years. Facebook, widely used by students, is designed to facilitate communication with different groups of "friends". This exploratory study involved interviewing a sample of student users of Facebook: it focuses on the extent to which older adults, especially parents, are accepted as Facebook…

  2. LET BOOKS BE OUR GOOD FRIENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Books are our friends because they are bridges to knowledge. Knowledge isvaluable because it enriches our life and brings us happiness.Almost all great men in the history of mankind loved books. We have every reason to believe it is the knowledge in books that led them to success.

  3. Chinese Friendly Personages’ Delegation Visits Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A 50-member "Meeting at Uncle Ho’s Hometown" Chinese friendly personages’delegation led by Wang Yunze, vice president of the China-Vietnam Friendship Association (CVFA), paid a visit to Vietnam from May 15 to 23. Nguyen Minh Triet, Vietnamese president;

  4. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mbasera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There has been a growing concern for a ‘green’ hotel in the view of customers as they experience an increased awareness of environmental damage and excessive consumption of goods, energy and water.Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects.Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations.Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management.Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.

  6. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    manifested. The foresight makes the decision-makers more aware of those challenges and possibilities that exist in the long-term. The foresight is in this case carried out in dialogue with a widely combined panel ofexperts and agricultural players, where one has placed the environmental challenges......Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet......, and The Co-operative Retail and Wholesale Society of Denmark. The purpose has been to thoroughly examinethose environmental challenges which agriculture is up against in the future - and point towards technological and structural solutions as to how agriculture will develop from 2004 to 2024 with dialogue...

  7. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  8. The Prospect of Market-Driven Improvements in Animal Welfare: Lessons from the Case of Grass Milk in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Increased consumption of animal welfare-friendly products is suggested as one way of addressing public worries about the welfare of farm animals. However, the factors that drive and limit markets for animal welfare-friendly products are poorly understood. Based on an analysis of market for grass milk in Denmark, we conclude that successful cases of market-driven improvements in animal welfare require the joint presence of a number of positive drivers as well as low consumption ...

  9. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  10. Separation of haemopoietic cells for biochemical investigation. Preparation of erythroid and myeloid cells from human and laboratory-animal bone marrow and the separation of erythroblasts according to their state of maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F L; Beswick, T M; Chesterton, C J

    1981-03-15

    The separation of haemopoietic bone-marrow cells by centrifugation through discontinuous density gradients of Percoll is described. This method was used to prepare fractions enriched in erythroblasts, myeloid blast cells or reticulocytes from bone marrow of anaemic and non-anaemic rabbits, from the marrow of other anaemic laboratory animals and from human samples. It is a simple, rapid, reproducible and inexpensive technique that can be readily adapted to suit individual requirements. Secondly, a convenient method is presented for the separation of large quantities of bone-marrow cells into fractions enriched in erythroblasts at different stages of maturation, by velocity sedimentation through a linear gradient of 1-2% sucrose at unit gravity. In vitro, erythroblasts adhere together strongly via a mechanism almost certainly involving a beta-galactoside-specific surface lectin termed erythroid developmental agglutinin. Since the efficiency of cell-separation techniques depends heavily on the maintenance of a single cell suspension in which each unit can move independently, the presence of an adhesive molecule at the cell surface is of considerable significance. The effect of washing the marrow with a lactose-containing medium, which has been shown to remove the agglutinin, was therefore investigated in relation to both methods. The separation on Percoll gradients is considerably enhanced by this treatment. In addition, the unit-gravity sedimentation gradient can be loaded with 5-10 times more cells after lactose extraction in comparison with intact marrow. Although enrichment is less, a useful fractionation according to maturation is still obtained.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze fatty acid glycerides. (2) The ingredient is used in... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme... tissue. The enzyme preparation may be produced as a tissue preparation or as an aqueous extract. Its...

  12. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  13. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  14. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  15. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  16. Curriculum Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  17. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  18. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...

  19. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  20. Plants extracts on the service of production eco-friendly poultry products

    OpenAIRE

    Feofilova, J.; Nesteruk, N.

    2013-01-01

    Plants extracts contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, they are relevant in nutrition for poultry because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review ...

  1. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  2. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  3. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Mbasera; Engelina Du Plessis; Melville Saayman; Martinette Kruger

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: There has been a growing concern for a ‘green’ hotel in the view of customers as they experience an increased awareness of environmental damage and excessive consumption of goods, energy and water.Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects.Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmen...

  4. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  5. Eco-friendly location of small hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hanley, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of locating small hydropower dams in an environmentally friendly manner. We propose the use of a multi-objective optimization model to maximize total hydropower production, while limiting negative impacts on river connectivity. Critically, we consider the so called “backwater effects” that dams have on power generation at nearby upstream sites via changes in water surface profiles. We further account for the likelihood that migratory fish and other aquatic species can s...

  6. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  7. Disaster-friendly sundanese traditional building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maknun, J.; Busono, T.; Nuryanto

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia is one country that is highly prone to earthquakes because it is located at the juncture of four tectonic plates, namely the Asian continental shelf, the continental shelf of Australia, the Indian Ocean plate and the Pacific plate. In the southern and eastern parts of Indonesia there is a volcanic belt that extends from the island of Sumatra, Java and Nusa south eastern Sulawesi, the sides in the form of old volcanic mountains and the lowlands are mostly dominated by swamps. The condition of potential and proneness to disasters such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides. Indonesian society have a local knowledge for facing disasters. Local communities in particular areas have local knowledge for facing disasters. Such knowledge is commonly kept by members of the communities and applied to their environments, including houses. This research aims to describe disaster-friendly Sundanese traditional building construction. It employs the evaluation method, by comparing Sundanese traditional house construction to the standards of disaster-friendly construction. The results indicate that the Sundanese traditional building constructions have been qualified as disaster-friendly buildings.

  8. More Colleges Are Adding Family-Friendly Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Results of a new survey of family-friendly benefits by the Center for the Education of Women at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor show that stopping the tenure clock has become the most common family-friendly benefit in higher education, following paid maternity leave. Other family-friendly policies that top the list in academe allow…

  9. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  10. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  11. Friends of Survivors: The Community Impact of Unwanted Sexual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Ward, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Since sexual assault survivors are most likely to disclose their experiences to a friend; prevention efforts increasingly focus on friends as informal helpers. The current study examined friends' perceptions of the disclosure experience. Undergraduates (N = 1,241) at the University of New Hampshire completed a shortened version of the Ahrens and…

  12. Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs.

  13. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Murali Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Insect pest and diseases management, Lack of awareness of agro environmental problems and farmer’s attitude towards the Eco Friendly Conservation Practices are the major constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices.The study suggests educational, extension & training strategies for fostering the adopted of ECO friendly Conservation Practices.

  14. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  15. Animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Application and microbial preparation of D-valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Shi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Ziqing; Zhang, Chunzhi

    2016-10-01

    D-Valine is an important organic chiral source and has extensive industrial application, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of agricultural pesticides, semi-synthetic veterinary antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs. Its derivatives have shown great activity in clinical use, such as penicillamine for the treatment of immune-deficiency diseases, and actinomycin D for antitumor therapy. Fluvalinate, a pyrethroid pesticide made from D-valine, is a broad-spectrum insecticide with low mammalian toxicity. Valnemulin, a semi-synthetic pleuromutilin derivative synthesized from D-valine, is an antibiotic for animals. Moreover, D-valine is also used in cell culture for selectively inhibiting fibroblasts proliferation. Due to its widespread application, D-valine is gaining more and more attention and some approaches for D-valine preparation have been investigated. In comparison with other approaches, microbial preparation of D-valine is more competitive and promising because of its high stereo selectivity, mild reaction conditions and environmental friendly process. So far, microbial preparation of D-valine can be mainly classified into three categories: microbial asymmetric degradation of DL-valine, microbial stereoselective hydrolysis of N-acyl-DL-valine by D-aminoacylase, and microbial specific hydrolysis of DL-5-isopropylhydantoin by D-hydantoinase coupled with D-carbamoylase. In this paper, the industrial application of D-valine and its microbial preparation are reviewed.

  17. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  18. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  19. Influence of friends on children's physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-07-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends' PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs.

  20. Animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.

  2. Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham A W; Raison, Charles L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the immune system is an important function of the gut microbiota. Increasing evidence suggests that modern living conditions cause the gut microbiota to deviate from the form it took during human evolution. Contributing factors include loss of helminth infections, encountering less microbial biodiversity, and modulation of the microbiota composition by diet and antibiotic use. Thus the gut microbiota is a major mediator of the hygiene hypothesis (or as we prefer, "Old Friends" mechanism), which describes the role of organisms with which we co-evolved, and that needed to be tolerated, as crucial inducers of immunoregulation. At least partly as a consequence of reduced exposure to immunoregulatory Old Friends, many but not all of which resided in the gut, high-income countries are undergoing large increases in a wide range of chronic inflammatory disorders including allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases. Depression, anxiety and reduced stress resilience are comorbid with these conditions, or can occur in individuals with persistently raised circulating levels of biomarkers of inflammation in the absence of clinically apparent peripheral inflammatory disease. Moreover poorly regulated inflammation during pregnancy might contribute to brain developmental abnormalities that underlie some cases of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In this chapter we explain how the gut microbiota drives immunoregulation, how faulty immunoregulation and inflammation predispose to psychiatric disease, and how psychological stress drives further inflammation via pathways that involve the gut and microbiota. We also outline how this two-way relationship between the brain and inflammation implicates the microbiota, Old Friends and immunoregulation in the control of stress resilience.

  3. Being Fat and Friendly is Not Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2009-01-01

    We show that there is no $(1+\\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the problem of covering points in the plane by minimum number of fat triangles of similar size (with the minimum angle of the triangles being close to 45 degrees). Here, the available triangles are prespecified in advance. Since a constant factor approximation algorithm is known for this problem \\cite{cv-iaags-07}, this settles the approximability of this problem. We also investigate some related problems, including cover by friendly fat shapes, and independent set of triangles in three dimensions.

  4. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  5. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  6. Characteristics of Hostile and Friendly Takeover Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Andrei Shleifer; Vishny, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Compared to an average Fortune 500 firm, a target of a hostile takeover is smaller, older, has a lower Tobin's Q, invests less of its income, and is growing more slowly. The low Q seems to be an industry-specific rather than a firm-specific effect. In addition, a hostile target is less likely to be run by a member of the founding family, and has lower officer ownership, than the average firm. In contrast, a target of a friendly acquisitions is smaller and younger than an average Fortune 500 f...

  7. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  8. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children in school and therapeutic contexts. Early Childhood Education Journal. 2009;37:261. Barker SB, et al. The benefits of human-companion animal interaction: A review. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2008;35:487. Mills D, et al. Animal- ...

  9. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry.

  10. FRIEND PRESSURE SCALE: DEVELOPMENT, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Volkan SARI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human that has psycho-socio-cultural identity is invaded in an insensitive interaction with society in which he lives. The interaction continues from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. One of the main factors of the interaction is to have friends and to exist in social environment. The person constantly leagues together new friends, influences them, and is impressed by them during both childhood period and adolescence and adulthood period. However, the friend relationships that one have throughout his life, can create some problems from time to time. At this point, it is seen that the main parts of the national studies related to the subject have been commonly carried out so as to analyze the peer relations of the students at primary or secondary school. In this sense, the starting point of this study consists of the problems that students face in their university peer- groups. Therefore analyzing this problem necessitates developing a new data gathering tool that enables descriptive survey. By doing so, it is through that this scale will be used by researchers in order to put forward the factors related to the friend pressure levels of students and to determine the factors related to the friend pressure levels of the students. By developing a peer pressure scale for university students, the aim of the study is to show the usability of the scale within the scope of validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 450 university students training at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University. The study group consist of 188 men (42% and 262 girl (58%. In the scale development process, firstly, twelve students selected from different classes and departments on Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University. Then, focus group discussions were interviewed. For using discussions, a semi-structured interview form was developed. Focused group is shared ideas

  11. What is Popular Amongst Your Friends?

    CERN Document Server

    Barman, Kishor

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a collaborative filter that answers the simple question: What is popular amongst your friends? While this basic principle seems to be prevalent in many practical implementations, there does not appear to be much theoretical analysis of its performance. In this paper, we partly fill this gap. While recent works on this topic, such as the low-rank matrix completion literature, consider the probability of error in recovering the entire rating matrix, we consider probability of an error in an individual recommendation (bit error rate (BER)). For a mathematical model introduced in [1],[2], we identify three regimes of operation for our algorithm (named Popularity Amongst Friends (PAF)) in the limit as the matrix size grows to infinity. In a regime characterized by large number of samples and small degrees of freedom (defined precisely for the model in the paper), the asymptotic BER is zero; in a regime characterized by large number of samples and large degrees of freedom, the asymptotic B...

  12. Creation of an Innovation-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinas Maceika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on identifying the methods useful for improving the process of creating an innovation ­friendly environment. For this purpose, conditions for innovation activity in industry were investigated, and the expert evaluation of the selected knowledge and the assessment of the importance of skills for the successful development of innovations were car­ ried out. The work referred to the analysis of the sources of scientific information, a sociological inquiry of the personnel of industrial enterprises, correlation analysis and expert evaluation. The study has found that for building the innovation ­friendly environment, knowledge of the psychology of creativity, personnel management, formation and implementation of the innova­ tion strategy, risk management, business development and sales organization are of a particular importance. Expert assessment has showed that abilities to work in a team, be an entrepreneur, use marketing tools, generate ideas and create new products play a crucial role in innovation development. A situation in industry companies has shown the currently existing various groups of employees with a different point of view on the surveyed parameter. Managers, workers, engineers and other staff have different opinions and knowledge, and therefore a well thought­out policy is required for wider innovative activities. The directives of such a policy must be available for everyone.

  13. Convergent spray process for environmentally friendly coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Conventional spray application processes have poor transfer efficiencies, resulting in an exorbitant loss in materials, solvents, and time. Also, with ever tightening Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the low transfer efficiencies have a significant impact on the quantities of materials and solvents that are released into the environment. High solids spray processes are also limited by material viscosities, thus requiring many passes over the surface to achieve a thickness in the 0.125 -inch range. This results in high application costs and a negative impact on the environment. Until recently, requirements for a 100 percent solid sprayable, environmentally friendly, lightweight thermal protection system that can be applied in a thick (greater than 0.125 inch) single-pass operation exceeded the capability of existing systems. Such coatings must be applied by hand lay-up techniques, especially for thermal and/or fire protection systems. The current formulation of these coatings has presented many problems such as worker safety, environmental hazards, waste, high cost, and application constraints. A system which can apply coatings without using hazardous materials would alleviate many of these problems. Potential applications include the aerospace thermal protective specialty coatings, chemical and petroleum industries that require fire-protection coatings that resist impact, chemicals, and weather. These markets can be penetrated by offering customized coatings applied by automated processes that are environmentally friendly.

  14. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  15. Artificial Fur: Another Choice of Eco-friendly%Artificial Fur: Another Choice of Eco-friendly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Coping with shrinking demand both in overseas and domestic markets, the Wool industry in China makes great effort to enhance industrial structural adjustment and upgrading. How to develop the eco-friendly green wool industry responsibly, especially integrating economic benefit and social benefit together? Nantong Hong Yang Cashmere Company develops a way.

  16. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  17. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  18. Show me your friends and I will tell you what type of person you are: how own profile, number of friends, and type of friends influence impression formation on social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of

  19. Show me your friends and I will tell you what type of person you are: how own profile, number of friends, and type of friends influence impression formation on social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  1. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal... FROM PREPARATION PURSUANT TO AN UNSUSPENDED AND UNREVOKED LICENSE § 107.1 Veterinary practitioners and...)(1) Products prepared by a veterinary practitioner (veterinarian) solely for administration...

  2. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  3. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  4. Intergenerational Links in Victimization: Prosocial Friends as a Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors buffered the associations between family-of-origin aggression and later victimization. Adolescent participants (N=125) and their parents reported on different types of family aggression in early adolescence. Approximately 5 years later, adolescents reported on their victimization experiences with dating partners and friends, and their friends' prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Only father-to-child aggression was significantly associated with dating and friend victimization, with stronger risk for females' dating victimization. Moreover, having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors had both a direct inverse relationship with dating partner victimization. This also buffered the risk for dating victimization associated with father-daughter aggression. Findings suggest that greater attention be paid to the father-daughter relationship and to the importance of having friends who engage in prosocial behaviors in the prevention of adolescents' victimization.

  5. Narcissism and discrepancy between self and friends' perceptions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun W; Colvin, C Randall

    2014-08-01

    Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers' ratings are influenced by narcissists' stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants' superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Participants (N = 66; 38 women; Mage = 20.83 years) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100-item California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants' personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The "optimally adjusted individual" prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Narcissistic individuals' self-ratings were extremely positive and more favorable than friends' ratings of them.

  6. Let Indonesia-China Friendly Relations Continue to Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>When my friends from the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, the CPAFFC, asked me to write in their jubilium magazine, for the fiftieth anniversary of the Association, I felt very much honoured indeed. Because in the deepest feeling of my heart, I always consider the Chinese people, and China, as the true friends, as lao peng you (old friends), of

  7. The Role of Communication with Friends in Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Peter; Fishbein, Martin; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism through which communication with friends about sex influences sexual initiation in a sample of adolescents. The Integrative Model was used to assess the effect of attitudes, normative pressure and self efficacy on intentions to have sex in a sample of virgin adolescents. Results show that the constructs of the theory partially mediated the effect of communication with friends on subsequent sexual initiation. The effect of communication with friend...

  8. Vestibular compensation: the neuro-otologist's best friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Michel; Helmchen, Christoph; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Why vestibular compensation (VC) after an acute unilateral vestibular loss is the neuro-otologist's best friend is the question at the heart of this paper. The different plasticity mechanisms underlying VC are first reviewed, and the authors present thereafter the dual concept of vestibulo-centric versus distributed learning processes to explain the compensation of deficits resulting from the static versus dynamic vestibular imbalance. The main challenges for the plastic events occurring in the vestibular nuclei (VN) during a post-lesion critical period are neural protection, structural reorganization and rebalance of VN activity on both sides. Data from animal models show that modulation of the ipsilesional VN activity by the contralateral drive substitutes for the normal push-pull mechanism. On the other hand, sensory and behavioural substitutions are the main mechanisms implicated in the recovery of the dynamic functions. These newly elaborated sensorimotor reorganizations are vicarious idiosyncratic strategies implicating the VN and multisensory brain regions. Imaging studies in unilateral vestibular loss patients show the implication of a large neuronal network (VN, commissural pathways, vestibulo-cerebellum, thalamus, temporoparietal cortex, hippocampus, somatosensory and visual cortical areas). Changes in gray matter volume in these multisensory brain regions are structural changes supporting the sensory substitution mechanisms of VC. Finally, the authors summarize the two ways to improve VC in humans (neuropharmacology and vestibular rehabilitation therapy), and they conclude that VC would follow a "top-down" strategy in patients with acute vestibular lesions. Future challenges to understand VC are proposed.

  9. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  10. A new environment-friendly refrigerant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 史琳; 朱明善; 韩礼钟

    1999-01-01

    CFCs and HCFCs, widely used in refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, have been or will be phased out according to the revisions of the Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Many substitutes have been proposed, but no one has perfectly replaced the CFC end HCFC refrigerants. New generation alternatives are being investigated worldwide. According to the industrial and environmental requirements, many factors should be considered in the screening and evaluation of refrigerant alternatives. A new method is proposed using the soft algebra method——fuzzy multiple evaluation. The weights for different factors are determined mathematically and criteria values for all the objects are made dimensionless to quantitatively compare the different alternatives. A new long-term drop-in mixture alternative THR02 is developed and evaluated in a series of theoretical and experimental evaluations.THR02 is proved to be an environment-friendly, nontoxic, inflammable, drop-in alternative to CFC-12 a

  11. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesterlund, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden); Hassan, A.E. [North Carolina State Univ. Col. of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  12. JAMES GLIMM:MATHEMATICIAN,FRIEND,MENTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur Jaffe; Thomas Spencer

    2010-01-01

    @@ A description of Jim's contributions to mathematics would take us far beyond our expertise.Jim was never content to spend too long in any one area of mathematics.Operator algebras,hyperbolic systems of conservation laws,fluid dynamics,quantum field theory and statistical mechanics and the computational aspects of applied mathematics are just a few of the areas to which Jim has contributed.Here we relate a few impressionistic recollections of personal interactions,together with some ideas about his work in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics.In spite of the non-technical character of these observations,we hope nevertheless that they will provide pleasure for our dear friend and for other readers as well.

  13. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    . However, well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers, and in future markets where the gas/electricity price ratio is likely to increase, compression heat pumps in combination with intermediate thermal storages represent a superior potential for combining an intermittency-friendly...... are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration...... using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration...

  14. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  15. Transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, L M

    2000-01-01

    involved in protein maturation has been envisaged and successfully performed in one case. Furin gene expressed specifically in the mammary gland proved to able to cleave native human protein C with good efficiency. In a certain number of cases, the recombinant proteins produced in milk have deleterious effects on the mammary gland function or in the animals themselves. This comes independently from ectopic expression of the transgenes and from the transfer of the recombinant proteins from milk to blood. One possibility to eliminate or reduce these side-effects may be to use systems inducible by an exogenous molecule such as tetracycline allowing the transgene to be expressed only during lactation and strictly in the mammary gland. The purification of recombinant proteins from milk is generally not particularly difficult. This may not be the case, however, when the endogenous proteins such as serum albumin or antibodies are abundantly present in milk. This problem may be still more crucial if proteins are produced in blood. Among the biological contaminants potentially present in the recombinant proteins prepared from transgenic animals, prions are certainly those raising the major concern. The selection of animals chosen to generate transgenics on one hand and the elimination of the potentially contaminated animals, thanks to recently defined quite sensitive tests may reduce the risk to an extremely low level. The available techniques to produce pharmaceutical proteins in milk can be used as well to optimize milk composition of farm animals, to add nutriceuticals in milk and potentially to reduce or even eliminate some mammary infectious diseases.

  16. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  17. Eco friendly nitration of toluene using modified zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Sunaja Devi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitration of toluene has been studied in the liquid phase over a series of modified zirconia catalysts.  Zirconia, zirconia- ceria (Zr0.98Ce0.02O2, sulfated zirconia and sulfated zirconia- ceria were synthesised by co precipitation method and were characterised by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, Infra red spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X ray analysis (EDAX. The acidity of the prepared catalysts was determined by FTIR pyridine adsorption study. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the catalysts prepared mainly consist of tetragonal phase with the crystallite size in the nano range and the tetragonal phase of zirconia is stabilized by the addition of ceria. The modified zirconia samples have higher surface area and exhibits uniform pore size distribution aggregated by zirconia nanoparticles. The onset of sulfate decomposition was observed around 723 K for sulfated samples. The catalytic performance was determined for the liquid phase nitration of toluene to ortho-, meta- and para- nitro toluene. The effect of reaction temperature, concentration of nitric acid, catalyst reusability and reaction time was also investigated. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 20th November 2012; Revised: 8th December 2012; Accepted: 7th January 2013[How to Cite: K. R. S. Devi, S. Jayashree, (2013. Eco friendly nitration of toluene using modified zirconia. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 205-214. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4154.205-214][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4154.205-214 ] View in  |

  18. Animal models of source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  19. Disclosing Mental Illness Information to a Friend: Exploring How the Disclosure Decision-Making Model Informs Strategy Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Maria K; Chernichky-Karcher, Skye; Gettings, Patricia E

    2017-03-10

    Within the context of mental illness disclosure between friends, this study tested the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM; Greene, 2009) to comprehensively investigate factors that predict disclosure enactment strategies. The DD-MM describes how individuals determine whether they will reveal or conceal non-visible health information. Processes of revealing, called disclosures, take various forms including preparation and rehearsal, directness, third-party disclosure, incremental disclosures, entrapment, and indirect mediums (Afifi & Steuber, 2009). We explore the disclosure decision-making process to understand how college students select to disclose their mental illness information with a friend. Participants were 144 students at a Midwestern university who had disclosed their mental illness information to a friend. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that college students choose strategies based on their evaluation of information assessment and closeness, and that for some strategies, efficacy mediates the relationship between information assessment and strategy. This manuscript discusses implications of findings and suggests direction for future research.

  20. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  1. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  2. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  3. Mark twain's joke on a friend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲俊

    2002-01-01

    Mark Twain was a famous American writer of novels and short stories.He liked to tell funny_______and he also liked to play jokes on (开玩笑)his friends.One day a friend of his lost his______and asked Mark Twain to buy the train ticket for him.

  4. Parental Strategies for Knowledge of Adolescents' Friends: Distinct from Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda A.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental monitoring is defined as a set of behaviors used to gain knowledge about an adolescent's whereabouts, friends and associates, and activities. However, can knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts/activities, and friends all be attained through the same strategies? Or do they require their own strategies? This study used qualitative…

  5. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  6. Working the Social: Twitter and FriendFeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carscaddon, Laura; Harris, Colleen S.

    2009-01-01

    Information overload is so five years ago, but the problem it describes is all too real. Fortunately, there's hope yet for the savvy librarian: Twitter and FriendFeed turn information dissemination on its head, using friends and subscribers as a filter for the best, most credible, and most engaging information out there. Like other social media…

  7. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  8. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  9. In Profound Memory of American Friend WILLIAM H. HINTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>William H. Hinton, an old friend of the Chinese people, died of illness in Boston, the United States on May 15, 2004 at the age of 85.I was filled with deep sorrow for losing a good friend of the Chinese people.

  10. In Profound Memory of American Friend WILLIAM H. HINTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenZhichang

    2004-01-01

    William H. Hinton, an old friend of the Chinese peopie, died of illness in Boston, the United States on May 15, 2004 at the age of 85. I was filled with deep sorrow for losing a good friend of the Chinese people.

  11. "Friending" Professors, Parents and Bosses: A Facebook Connection Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katherine A.; Peluchette, Joy V.

    2011-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Facebook has led some educators to ponder what role social networking might have in education. The authors examined student reactions to friend requests from people outside their regular network of friends including professors, parents, and employers. We found students have the most positive reactions to friend…

  12. "Friending" Professors, Parents and Bosses: A Facebook Connection Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katherine A.; Peluchette, Joy V.

    2011-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Facebook has led some educators to ponder what role social networking might have in education. The authors examined student reactions to friend requests from people outside their regular network of friends including professors, parents, and employers. We found students have the most positive reactions to friend…

  13. Support Between Siblings and Between Friends : Two Worlds Apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether siblings and friends resemble each other in supportive behavior. Using a Dutch national sample of 6,289 individuals containing 12,578 relationships with siblings and friends, we investigated the relative importance of gender composition, geographical proximity, relatio

  14. A Forever Friend%永远的朋友

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A friend walk in when the rest of the world walks out. Sometimes in life, You find a special friend; Someone who changes your life just by being part of it. Someone who makes you laugh until you can't stop; Someone who makes you believe that there really is good in the world.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  17. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  18. Awareness of Eco-Friendly Dentistry among Dental Faculty and Students of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qarni, Mohammed A.; Alamri, Mohammed Abdullah; Alshaikh, Yahya A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eco-friendly or green dentistry can be a reality by effectively designing dental clinics and using more eco-friendly materials in the clinical practice. Aim To determine the awareness of eco-friendly dentistry among dental faculty and students in preparation for future implementation. Materials and Methods Assessment of knowledge regarding eco-friendly dentistry was done using an 18 item self-administered questionnaire among 160 participants. After baseline data collection, the intervention was done by educating participants with a power point presentation. The post-intervention data was then collected for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and one-way ANOVA. Results The educational intervention increased the knowledge about eco-friendly dentistry confirming the importance of continuing education. There was a statistically significant gain in knowledge among the participants after the presentation. The gain was highest for department of Preventive Dental Sciences (PDS) followed by Substitute Dental Sciences (SDS), No specialty, Maxillofacial Dental Sciences (MDS), and Restorative Dental Sciences (RDS) respectively. (F=5.5091, p<0.05). Conclusion Lack of knowledge of green dentistry amongst the dental fraternity is highly prevailing. The same can be substantiated with effective training in the respective fields if channelized through the curriculum in an educational set-up. PMID:27891464

  19. Awareness of Eco-Friendly Dentistry among Dental Faculty and Students of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qarni, Mohammed A; Shakeela, Nasim Vahid; Alamri, Mohammed Abdullah; Alshaikh, Yahya A

    2016-10-01

    Eco-friendly or green dentistry can be a reality by effectively designing dental clinics and using more eco-friendly materials in the clinical practice. To determine the awareness of eco-friendly dentistry among dental faculty and students in preparation for future implementation. Assessment of knowledge regarding eco-friendly dentistry was done using an 18 item self-administered questionnaire among 160 participants. After baseline data collection, the intervention was done by educating participants with a power point presentation. The post-intervention data was then collected for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon's signed rank test and one-way ANOVA. The educational intervention increased the knowledge about eco-friendly dentistry confirming the importance of continuing education. There was a statistically significant gain in knowledge among the participants after the presentation. The gain was highest for department of Preventive Dental Sciences (PDS) followed by Substitute Dental Sciences (SDS), No specialty, Maxillofacial Dental Sciences (MDS), and Restorative Dental Sciences (RDS) respectively. (F=5.5091, p<0.05). Lack of knowledge of green dentistry amongst the dental fraternity is highly prevailing. The same can be substantiated with effective training in the respective fields if channelized through the curriculum in an educational set-up.

  20. Animal-friendly production systems may cause re-emergence of Toxoplasma gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.; Mul, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is still one of the most common parasitic infections in the world, although in Europe improvements in hygiene and the introduction of `total` indoor farming in livestock production have rapidly diminished the problem during the past decades. As a result of public dislike, however, intr

  1. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  2. Man's Best Friend as a Reading Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donita Massengill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…

  3. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  4. Sitting closer to friends than enemies, revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Cygan, Marek; Pilipczuk, Michał; Wojtaszczyk, Jakub Onufry

    2012-01-01

    Signed graphs, i.e., undirected graphs with edges labelled with a plus or minus sign, are commonly used to model relationships in social networks. Recently, Kermarrec and Thraves initiated the study of the problem of appropriately visualising the network: They asked whether any signed graph can be embedded into the metric space R^l in such a manner that every vertex is closer to all its friends (neighbours via positive edges) than to all its enemies (neighbours via negative edges). Interestingly, embeddability into R^1 can be expressed as a purely combinatorial problem. In this paper we pursue a deeper study of this particular case, answering several questions posed by Kermarrec and Thraves. First, we refine the approach of Kermarrec and Thraves for the case of complete signed graphs by showing that the problem is closely related to the recognition of proper interval graphs. Second, we prove that the general case, whose polynomial-time tractability remained open, is in fact NP-complete. Finally, we provide lo...

  5. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  6. FLIPS: Friendly Lisp Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Shirley J.

    1991-08-01

    The Friendly Lisp Image Processing System (FLIPS) is the interface to Advanced Target Detection (ATD), a multi-resolutional image analysis system developed by Hughes in conjunction with the Hughes Research Laboratories. Both menu- and graphics-driven, FLIPS enhances system usability by supporting the interactive nature of research and development. Although much progress has been made, fully automated image understanding technology that is both robust and reliable is not a reality. In situations where highly accurate results are required, skilled human analysts must still verify the findings of these systems. Furthermore, the systems often require processing times several orders of magnitude greater than that needed by veteran personnel to analyze the same image. The purpose of FLIPS is to facilitate the ability of an image analyst to take statistical measurements on digital imagery in a timely fashion, a capability critical in research environments where a large percentage of time is expended in algorithm development. In many cases, this entails minor modifications or code tinkering. Without a well-developed man-machine interface, throughput is unduly constricted. FLIPS provides mechanisms which support rapid prototyping for ATD. This paper examines the ATD/FLIPS system. The philosophy of ATD in addressing image understanding problems is described, and the capabilities of FLIPS are discussed, along with a description of the interaction between ATD and FLIPS. Finally, an overview of current plans for the system is outlined.

  7. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  8. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  9. Friends Partnership Mentoring Program Action Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Action Plan has been prepared to support Recommendation 11 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuge System’s “Conserving the Future”. The plan outlines a...

  10. Understanding farmers' decisions with regard to animal welfare: The case of changing to group housing for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Riet, van 't J.P.; Hoop, de J.G.; Pierick, ten E.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare in livestock farming requires changing the behaviour of many stakeholders. Farmers have to take proper actions on their farm to improve animal welfare, retailers have to market animal-friendly products and consumers have to purchase these products. The theory of planned

  11. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  12. Friend leukemia virus transformed cells exposed to microgravity in the presence of DMSO (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the adaptation of living cells to microgravity. The in vitro transformation of Friend cells by Dimethylsufoxide (DMSO) is a good model for the study of cell differentiation and protein biosynthesis. Cultures of cells will be prepared shortly before launch. Once in space, transformation will be induced by injection of DMSO. One set of cultures will be chemically fixed with glutaraldehyde for electron microscope investigations; another set will be preserved for determining the amount of hemogloben produced and the extent of cell proliferation.

  13. “Yingli Cup” China-Germany Friendly Football Match Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On the evening of July 24, the "Yingli Cup" China-Germany Friendly Football Match was held in the Workers Stadium in Beijing. The home team was Football Club (FC) Beijing Guo’an and the visit team FC Bayern Munich. The CPAFFC, as the honorary organizer,participated in the preparation for the match, one of a series of activities celebrating the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between China and Germany.Bayern Munich is one of the

  14. An efficient and green sonochemical synthesis of some new eco-friendly functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouslim Messali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable stress to replace a lot of volatile organic compounds which were used as solvents in synthetic organic chemistry has been done for many chemical industries. A suitable solution for these problems is found by using the ionic liquids as a clean medium of working and avoiding the solvent effect. The present work describes a facile and green ultrasound-assisted procedure as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods for the preparation of a series of 26 new functionalized imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C, 11B, 19F, 31P NMR and mass spectra.

  15. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  16. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  17. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  18. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  19. Site-Specific, Climate-Friendly Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Eitel, J.; Huggins, D. R.; Painter, K.; Rupp, R.; Smith, J. L.; Stockle, C.; Vierling, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Of the four most important atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHG) enriched through human activities, only nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are due primarily to agriculture. However, reductions in the application of synthetic N fertilizers could have significant negative consequences for a growing world population given the crucial role that these fertilizers have played in cereal yield increases since WWII. Increasing N use efficiency (NUE) through precision management of agricultural N in space and time will therefore play a central role in the reduction of agricultural N2O emissions. Precision N management requires a greater understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of factors supporting N management decisions such as crop yield, water and N availability, utilization and losses. We present an overview of a large, collaborative, multi-disciplinary project designed to improve our basic understanding of nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and water (H2O) spatio-temporal dynamics for wheat-based cropping systems on complex landscapes, and develop management tools to optimize water- and nitrogen-use efficiency for these systems and landscapes. Major components of this project include: (a) cropping systems experiments addressing nitrogen application rate and seeding density for different landscape positions; (b) GHG flux experiments and monitoring; (c) soil microbial genetics and stable isotope analyses to elucidate biochemical pathways for N2O production; (d) proximal soil sensing for construction of detailed soil maps; (e) LiDAR and optical remote sensing for crop growth monitoring; (f) hydrologic experiments, monitoring, and modeling; (g) refining the CropSyst simulation model to estimate biophysical processes and GHG emissions under a variety of management and climatic scenarios; and (h) linking farm-scale enterprise budgets to simulation modeling in order to provide growers with economically viable site-specific climate-friendly farming guidance.

  20. Bonobos protect and console friends and kin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palagi

    Full Text Available Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim. We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation, and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction. Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported. Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching, thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture--more than the protection itself--works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous--but not solicited--third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported. Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also

  1. The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    the markets for pork in three other European countries. Our findings suggest that in order to improve animal welfare through demand for welfare-friendly products it is important to maintain separate the market for products with strong animal welfare profiles from markets for products with medium levels...... of animal welfare where, often, animal welfare is bundled together with other food quality attributes. We conclude that such quality labels may indeed play an important role in promoting higher animal welfare standards provided that they offer real improvements in animal welfare as compared with standard......In policy-making the consumption of specially labelled products, and its role in improving the welfare of livestock, has attracted considerable attention. There is in many countries a diverse market for animal welfare-friendly products which is potentially confusing and may lack transparency. We...

  2. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  3. User Friendly Explosives Reactive Armour a Long term Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is a strong need to develop explosive reactive armour (ERA for protecting battle tanks against an emerging threat of kinetic and chemical energy missiles. In this context, global trends, principle and limitations of ERA and threat perception-based types of ERA have been dwelt upon. User-friendly ERA is a long-term reality. User-friendly ERA system is thus defined to be an efficient and protective system that not only provide full protection to the tank crew, but is also harmless to the supporting infantory. The indigenously-developed ERA system is close to be termed as a user-friendly ERA.

  4. Near friends communication encouragement system using NFC and SNS

    OpenAIRE

    二宮, 啓聡; 伊東, 栄典; フラナガン, ブレンダン; 廣川, 佐千男

    2012-01-01

    The value of an open event is in active communication between participants. However, it is difficult to look for those who have a common interest or a common friend. You would miss an opportunity to speak directly to your SNS friends or to those who have common SNS friends, unless you notice that there are such participants and you recognize them. This paper proposes a participant managerial system for using the human relations in SNS in an actual event site. Each participant makes his regis...

  5. Consumer Perceptions of Eco-friendly and Sustainable Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Benjamin; Khachatryan, Hayk; Behe, Bridget; Dennis, Jennifer; Hall, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Common marketing strategies include emphasizing products’ “green†or environmentally friendly at-tributes and characteristics to appeal to a growing market of environmentally conscious consumers. While previous studies have used product labels such as “eco-friendly,†“environmentally friendly,†and “sustainable†to investigate consumer preferences, relatively little is known about how consumer perceptions as a pre-decision mechanism impact their preferences and choice behaviors....

  6. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  7. Friends-of-friends galaxy group finder with membership refinement. Application to the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, E; Tamm, A; Gramann, M; Einasto, M; Sepp, T; Tuvikene, T

    2016-01-01

    Context. Groups form the most abundant class of galaxy systems. They act as the principal drivers of galaxy evolution and can be used as tracers of the large-scale structure and the underlying cosmology. However, the detection of galaxy groups from galaxy redshift survey data is hampered by several observational limitations. Aims. We improve the widely used friends-of-friends (FoF) group finding algorithm with membership refinement procedures and apply the method to a combined dataset of galaxies in the local Universe. A major aim of the refinement is to detect subgroups within the FoF groups, enabling a more reliable suppression of the Fingers-of-God effect. Methods. The FoF algorithm is often suspected of leaving subsystems of groups and clusters undetected. We use a galaxy sample built of the 2MRS, CF2, and 2M++ survey data comprising nearly 80 000 galaxies within the local volume of 430 Mpc radius to carry out FoF group detection. We conduct a multimodality check on the detected groups in search for subgr...

  8. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit different species and breeds. Nevertheless, there are several drugs and many peculiar anesthetic techniques used in animals but not in human beings. Keeping this in mind, literature was hand searched and electronically searched using the words "veterinary anesthesia," "anesthetic drugs and techniques in animals" using Google search engine. The interesting information so collected is presented in this article which highlights some challenging and amazing aspects of anesthetizing animals including the preanesthetic assessment, preparation, premedication, monitoring, induction of general anesthesia, intubation, equipment, regional blocks, neuraxial block, and perioperative complications.

  9. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  10. The science behind animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A

    2013-04-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a complementary medicine intervention, typically utilizing dogs trained to be obedient, calm, and comforting. Several studies have reported significant pain relief after participating in therapy dog visits. Objective reports of reduced pain and pain-related symptoms are supported by studies measuring decreased catecholamines and increased endorphins in humans receiving friendly dog visits. Mirror neuron activity and disease-perception through olfactory ability in dogs may also play important roles in helping dogs connect with humans during therapeutic encounters. This review will explore a variety of possible theories that may explain the therapeutic benefits that occur during therapy dog visits.

  11. L-Prolinamide Catalyzed Aqueous Direct Aldol Reaction: an Environment-friendly Method for the Synthesis of β-Hydroxylketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG, Yi-Yuang; LIU, Han; CUI, Ming; CHENG, Jin-Pei

    2007-01-01

    An environment-friendly L-prolinamide catalyzed aldol reaction has been developed. The reaction exhibited broad substrate generality, and high yields with good diastereoselectivity were obtained for cyclic ketones. The simplicity of product isolation, usage of water as environmentally benign reaction medium, and the usage of cheap,readily available and recyclable catalyst make this process promising to be developed for large-scale preparation of β-hydroxyl ketones.

  12. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  13. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  14. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  15. Fido a Friend to Parents of Kids with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fido a Friend to Parents of Kids With Autism Study suggests family dog may help ease parental ... 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Raising a child with autism can be fraught with stressful days, but new ...

  16. SOME PROBLEMS OF CREATING ELECTRIC ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kharkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions connected with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly electric aircraft are considered. It is suggested to use modern accumulators based on the lithium-thionyl chloride as a source of electrical energy.

  17. Environmental Friendly Coatings & Corrosion Prevention for Flight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has undertaken a study to find environmentally friendly alternatives for the petroleum and solvent-based corrosion-preventive compounds...

  18. Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The co...

  19. Extreme edge-friendly indices of complete bipartite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Chee Shiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V,E be a simple graph. An edge labeling f:E to {0,1} induces a vertex labeling f^+:V to Z_2 defined by $f^+(vequiv sumlimits_{uvin E} f(uvpmod{2}$ for each $v in V$, where Z_2={0,1} is the additive group of order 2. For $iin{0,1}$, let e_f(i=|f^{-1}(i| and v_f(i=|(f^+^{-1}(i|. A labeling f is called edge-friendly if $|e_f(1-e_f(0|le 1$. I_f(G=v_f(1-v_f(0 is called the edge-friendly index of G under an edge-friendly labeling f. Extreme values of edge-friendly index of complete bipartite graphs will be determined.

  20. Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162895.html Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado Doctors say problem may become more ... Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term heavy marijuana use can cause chronic vomiting and abdominal pain ...

  1. Not All Dogs Are Man's (Or Kids') Best Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161027.html Not All Dogs Are Man's (or Kids') Best Friend Study suggests ... be told they shouldn't approach a scared dog To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  2. Near-Centenarian Makes Friends Quickly in New Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have lots of activities. We are starting a ‘happy hour' next week so residents can meet each other. And every day I exercise, go to Mass, eat meals with my friends, take choir and music classes, ...

  3. Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang Meets Chinese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yiyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The visiting Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang had a cordial meeting with Chinese personages friendly to Vietnam in the Vietnamese Embassy in China on June 20.The meeting was jointly arranged by

  4. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  9. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  10. Animals in Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developed and tested in animals, for treatment and management of both human and animal ailments. Medical research ... Animal model experimental is one approach among .... comparative study of male reproductive problems. These and ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  12. Cannibalism and Infectious Disease: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Benjamin G; Dillemuth, Forrest P; Flick, Andrew J; Faldyn, Matthew J; Clark, David R; Rudolf, Volker H W; Elderd, Bret D

    2017-09-01

    Cannibalism occurs in a majority of both carnivorous and noncarnivorous animal taxa from invertebrates to mammals. Similarly, infectious parasites are ubiquitous in nature. Thus, interactions between cannibalism and disease occur regularly. While some adaptive benefits of cannibalism are clear, the prevailing view is that the risk of parasite transmission due to cannibalism would increase disease spread and, thus, limit the evolutionary extent of cannibalism throughout the animal kingdom. In contrast, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the other half of the interaction between cannibalism and disease, that is, how cannibalism affects parasites. Here we examine the interaction between cannibalism and parasites and show how advances across independent lines of research suggest that cannibalism can also reduce the prevalence of parasites and, thus, infection risk for cannibals. Cannibalism does this by both directly killing parasites in infected victims and by reducing the number of susceptible hosts, often enhanced by the stage-structured nature of cannibalism and infection. While the well-established view that disease should limit cannibalism has held sway, we present theory and examples from a synthesis of the literature showing how cannibalism may also limit disease and highlight key areas where conceptual and empirical work is needed to resolve this debate.

  13. Environment-friendly Vehicles Used for Urban Public Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Increasing public awareness of environmental protection and health has quickened the step of renewing public transport vehicles to make them more environment-friendly in major Chinese cities.The move demonstrates the Chinese government's determination to alleviate auto emission which is blamed for causing serious air pollution in urban areas. Tianjin, a north China port city and the fourth largest auto production base of China, saw an energy-saving and environment-friendly passenger bus rolling off production line recently.

  14. Maximizing Friend-Making Likelihood for Social Activity Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    the interplay of the group size, the constraint on existing friendships and the objective function on the likelihood of friend making. We prove that...social networks (OSNs), e.g., Facebook , Meetup, and Skout1, more and more people initiate friend gatherings or group activities via these OSNs. For...example, more than 16 millions of events are created on Facebook each month to organize various kinds of activities2, and more than 500 thousands of face

  15. Photoshop with friends: A synchronous learning community for graphic design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Juho; Malley, Benjamin; Brandt, Joel; Dontcheva, Mira; Joseph, Diana; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Miller, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Photoshop with Friends is an online community of learners exchanging just-in-time help on graphic design tasks. The system attempts to provide an interactive, visual, context-aware, and personalized mode of learning. Developed as a Facebook application, Photoshop with Friends allows users to help each other in live sessions, with built-in screen sharing, recording, and voice chat support. Major design decisions are guided by two laboratory studies that identified challenges in learning graphi...

  16. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  17. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  19. 9 CFR 114.2 - Products not prepared under license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Product License: (i) When a culture of microorganisms, isolated from a herd in a State, is... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products not prepared under license. 114.2 Section 114.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  20. 环境友好絮凝剂在印染废水处理中的应用进展%Application progress of environmental friendly flocculant in treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继伟; 徐晶晶; 刘帅霞; 贾浩浩

    2016-01-01

    The environment friendly flocculant includes animal extracts,plant extracts,microorganism, mineral extracts and environmental waste,has the advantages of non-toxic,biodegradable,no secondary pollution or environmental friendly. In this paper,the sources,the effective components and the working mechanisms of environment friendly flocculants were introduced. The current application statue of environment friendly flocculant in the treatment of printing and dyeing wastewater were discussed. The focus was on the influence of pH,dosage,dye characteristics and dosing mode on the effluent quality. Some key parameters were provided for the selection,application and development of environmental friendly flocculants. Lower active components and higher preparation cost are pointed out to restrict its industrial application. Finally,grafting modification,inorganic-organic hybrid, exploring more effective preparation methods were recommended to enhance the adaptability of environment friendly flocculent in the treatment of the printing and dyeing wastewater.%以动植物提取物、微生物、矿物及其提取物和环境废物作为环境友好絮凝剂,具有无毒、易生物降解、无二次污染或可以废治废和环境友好等优点,但存在对实际废水适应性差和使用条件严格等问题。本文简述了环境友好絮凝剂来源、有效成分和作用机理,介绍了近年来环境友好絮凝剂在印染废水处理中的应用现状,讨论了pH、投加量、废水中染料特性和投加方式对絮凝效果的影响,为印染废水处理中环境友好絮凝剂的选择、应用和研发提供了关键参数。同时指出环境友好絮凝剂在印染废水处理中的应用受限于其有效成分和制备成本,为环境友好絮凝剂的工业化应用提出了挑战。最后提出接枝改性、无机-有机复配和杂化以及改进提取和制备方法有望提高环境友好絮凝剂的效果,解决环境友好絮凝剂在

  1. Cascade biocatalysis integrating stereoselective and environmentally friendly reactions integrating stereoselective and environmentally friendly reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This ready reference presents environmentally friendly and stereoselective methods of modern biocatalysis. The experienced and renowned team of editors have gathered top international authors for this book. They cover such emerging topics as chemoenzymatic methods and multistep enzymatic reactions, while showing how these novel methods and concepts can be used for practical applications. Multidisciplinary topics, including directed evolution, dynamic kinetic resolution, and continuous-flow methodology are also discussed. From the contents: * Directed Evolution of Ligninolytic Oxidoreductases: from Functional Expression to Stabilization and Beyond * New Trends in the In Situ Enzymatic Recycling of NAD(P)(H) Cofactors * Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Redox Cascade Biotransformations * Biocatalytic Redox Cascades Involving w-Transaminases * Multi-Enzyme Systems and Cascade Reactions Involving Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases * Chemo-Enzymatic Cascade Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates * Synergies of Chemistry...

  2. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  3. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  5. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  6. The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    In policy-making the consumption of specially labelled products, and its role in improving the welfare of livestock, has attracted considerable attention. There is in many countries a diverse market for animal welfare-friendly products which is potentially confusing and may lack transparency. We...... ask whether special quality labels that involve medium levels of animal welfare, as compared with labels promoting premium levels of animal welfare, have a role to play in promoting improvements in animal welfare. The Danish pork market is our reference case, but we also widen the context by comparing...... the markets for pork in three other European countries. Our findings suggest that in order to improve animal welfare through demand for welfare-friendly products it is important to maintain separate the market for products with strong animal welfare profiles from markets for products with medium levels...

  7. Friends don't let friends suffer from depression: how threat, efficacy, knowledge, and empathy relate to college students'; intentions to intervene on behalf of a depressed friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Nichole; Miraldi, Lori B; Murniadi, Krishnamurti

    2014-04-01

    Mental health-specifically, depression-is of growing concern to health professionals and the public. Health messages can be used to increase the number of people receiving treatment for depressive disorders. The effectiveness of these messages may be amplified by including an interpersonal influence component, such as encouraging individuals to intervene if they suspect a friend or family member is suffering from depression. The purposes of this study were to (a) explore college students'; behavioral intentions when presented with an opportunity to intervene on behalf of a depressed friend, (b) examine the potential of the Extended Parallel Process Model to help direct message design using efficacy and threat, and (c) investigate the respective influences of empathy and knowledge on behavioral intentions related to intervening on behalf of a depressed friend. Results indicated that self-efficacy and response efficacy, as well as perceived knowledge, could be used to help determine students'; readiness to talk with a friend who may be suffering from depression. Empathy (specifically empathic concern and perspective-taking) can also play a significant role in health promotion efforts that blend media and interpersonal health messages.

  8. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, C. C.; Zin, W. M. Wan; Ibrahim, P.; Ibrahim, S.

    2010-05-01

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  9. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keong, C C; Zin, W M Wan; Ibrahim, P; Ibrahim, S, E-mail: chai@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  10. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  12. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  13. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  14. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savy Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.

  15. 48 CFR 1552.223-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Care of laboratory animals... Care of laboratory animals. As prescribed in 1523.303-72, insert the following clause: Care of... adhere to the principles enunciated in the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by...

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  17. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  19. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  20. Alcohol and Apoptosis: Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodriguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse causes 79,000 deaths stemming from severe organ damage in the United States every year. Clinical manifestations of long-term alcohol abuse on the cardiac muscle include defective contractility with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and low-output heart failure; which has poor prognosis with less than 25% survival for more than three years. In contrast, low alcohol consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, however the mechanism of this phenomenon remains elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of apoptosis as a mediating factor in cardiac function following chronic high alcohol versus low alcohol exposure. Adult rats were provided 5 mM (low alcohol, 100 mM (high alcohol or pair-fed non-alcohol controls for 4–5 months. The hearts were dissected, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet or immunohistochemically for caspase-3, a putative marker for apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes were isolated to determine the effects of alcohol exposure on cell contraction and relaxation. High alcohol animals displayed a marked thinning of the left ventricular wall combined with elevated caspase-3 activity and decreased contractility. In contrast, low alcohol was associated with increased contractility and decreased apoptosis suggesting an overall protective mechanism induced by low levels of alcohol exposure.

  1. Similarity between Friends in Social Information Processing and Associations with Positive Friendship Quality and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Laursen, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This study of 166 best friend dyads (M = 10.88 years) examined (a) whether children and their best friends were similar in social information processing (SIP) that pertained to two relationship contexts (unfamiliar peer, friend); (b) the associations between children's and their best friends' SIP and friendship quality and conflict ratings; and…

  2. Friends-of-friends galaxy group finder with membership refinement. Application to the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, E.; Kipper, R.; Tamm, A.; Gramann, M.; Einasto, M.; Sepp, T.; Tuvikene, T.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Groups form the most abundant class of galaxy systems. They act as the principal drivers of galaxy evolution and can be used as tracers of the large-scale structure and the underlying cosmology. However, the detection of galaxy groups from galaxy redshift survey data is hampered by several observational limitations. Aims: We improve the widely used friends-of-friends (FoF) group finding algorithm with membership refinement procedures and apply the method to a combined dataset of galaxies in the local Universe. A major aim of the refinement is to detect subgroups within the FoF groups, enabling a more reliable suppression of the fingers-of-God effect. Methods: The FoF algorithm is often suspected of leaving subsystems of groups and clusters undetected. We used a galaxy sample built of the 2MRS, CF2, and 2M++ survey data comprising nearly 80 000 galaxies within the local volume of 430 Mpc radius to detect FoF groups. We conducted a multimodality check on the detected groups in search for subgroups. We furthermore refined group membership using the group virial radius and escape velocity to expose unbound galaxies. We used the virial theorem to estimate group masses. Results: The analysis results in a catalogue of 6282 galaxy groups in the 2MRS sample with two or more members, together with their mass estimates. About half of the initial FoF groups with ten or more members were split into smaller systems with the multimodality check. An interesting comparison to our detected groups is provided by another group catalogue that is based on similar data but a completely different methodology. Two thirds of the groups are identical or very similar. Differences mostly concern the smallest and largest of these other groups, the former sometimes missing and the latter being divided into subsystems in our catalogue. The catalogues are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  4. Critical friends: A way to develop preceptor competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Preceptorship entails for nurses to create a supportive learning and working climate where students or newcomers are given opportunities to develop professional competence. However, being a skilled and experienced nurse does not automatically turn the professional into a skilled educator as teaching of a subject is a whole different story. Preceptors need to continuously and critically reflect on their practices in order to facilitate the development of professional pedagogical competence. Critical friends are colleagues with comparable educational background evaluating the work of each other. The relationship should rely on friendship and mutual trust, adding new dimensions to the reflective process. Being engaged in a critical friendship allows the "friends" to become aware of their own shortcomings which can then be reflected on in relation to clinical as well as pedagogical practices. Being and having a critical friend might be one promising way forward for preceptors to develop pedagogical and professional competence.

  5. Cooperative courtship: helping friends raise and raze relationship barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2009-10-01

    Do people help each other form romantic relationships? Research on the role of the social environment in relationship formation has traditionally focused on competition, but this article investigates novel patterns of cooperation within courtship interactions. Drawing on a functional/evolutionary perspective, women are predicted to cooperate primarily in building romantic thresholds and barriers; men are predicted to cooperate primarily in achieving romantic access. In support of these predictions, four studies reveal that people consistently perceive cooperation, report cooperative behavior, and make cooperative decisions in romantic situations. People also provide the opposite pattern of help to opposite-sex friends from that provided to same-sex friends, suggesting that assistance is flexibly tuned to differences in the romantic selectivity of recipients. Cooperative courtship is revealed to be a commonly used set of mating strategies by which people functionally tailor aid to promote both their own and their friends' romantic relationship interests.

  6. 9 CFR 108.5 - Preparation of legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of legends. 108.5 Section... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.5 Preparation of legends. A brief description of the activities performed in each room or area shall be prepared as provided in this section and shall be referred to as a...

  7. Optical behaviour of cadmium and mercury free eco-friendly lamp nanophosphor for display devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis of cadmium and mercury free lamp (Y, GdBO3: Eu3+ phosphor which is in nano range useful for display device application. The phosphor doped with Eu3+ was synthesized by the solid state reaction method which is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly. The prepared phosphor was characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The optical behaviour of the prepared phosphor was determined by photoluminescence (PL spectra recorded in room temperature. The PL excitation spectra were found at 470 nm and the emission spectra cover all visible regions (419–625 nm which indicate that the prepared phosphor can act as a single host for white light emitting diode (WLED application and verified by Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE techniques. The thermoluminescence (TL glow curve was recorded for Eu3+ doped (Y, GdBO3 phosphor. The TL glow curve was recorded for UV, beta and gamma irradiations and also the kinetic parameters were calculated. In addition to this trap parameters of prepared phosphor were studied using computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD.

  8. Animal-assisted therapy at Mayo Clinic: The time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagan, Edward T; Bauer, Brent A; Thomley, Barbara S; Borg, Jessica M

    2015-05-01

    The animal-human bond refers to an emotional, almost existential, relationship between animals and people. From the time of antiquity, domestic animals were an important source of economic vitality, but with the changing cultural landscape, the companion animal has become a faithful friend. Overwhelming anecdotal evidence supports the healing power of this relationship. We summarize the emerging literature on the neurobiochemical and cardiovascular benefits of companion pet ownership. We address the peer-reviewed data from myriad journal articles assessing the impact of the companion animal on the quality and often the length of life of select patients.

  9. Albert Einstein's close friends and colleagues from the Patent Office

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    In the Patent Office Einstein hatched his most beautiful ideas, and there he spent his "Happy Bern Years". These wonderful ideas led to his miraculous year works of 1905. Einstein was not an expert in academic matters, and he was out of academic world. Neither did he meet influential professors, or attend academic meetings. He discussed his ideas with his close friends and colleagues from the Patent Office. In 1907 he finally got his foot into the academic doorway; Einstein became a privatdozent and gave lectures at the University of Bern. However, his first students consisted again of his two close friends and another colleague from the Patent Office.

  10. Attitudes toward farm animals welfare and consumer's buying intentions: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine consumers' perception of the products considering animal welfare and to establish the factors which affect consumers' willingness to pay the premium price for the animal-friendly products. In addition, four consumers' profiles according to their attitudes towards farm animals' welfare are distinguished and their features are elaborated. The research has been undertaken in Belgrade, comprising 198 participants. The face-to-face interview technique has been adopted, while for the analysis of the results regression and cluster analyses have been performed. The findings suggest that food sector stakeholders should put more efforts in providing information and education to the consumers regarding the importance of animal welfare and that there is a significant market potential for the introduction of the label for animal-friendly products. The implications for policy makers are proposed and discussed too.

  11. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  12. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  15. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    the development of medicine and surgery. Animals have .... from cinemas and television except if for humane .... museums, exhibitions, films, and education as well as .... India. 2000. Al-Suhrawardy AM (ed). Animals and duties owed thereto.

  16. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  17. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  20. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  1. The livestock sector and its stakeholders in the search to meet the animal welfare requirements of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Reinders, M.J.; Tulder, R.J.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder support is crucial to chain parties delivering against the (latent) demand and consumption of animal-friendly products. Actors take an ambiguous position in dealing with the issue of animal welfare improvements, partly because such improvements deviate from the dominant business

  2. jQuery 2.0 animation techniques beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Culpepper, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This book is a guide to help you create attractive web page animations using jQuery. Written in a friendly and engaging approach this book is designed to be placed alongside your computer as a mentor.If you are a web designer or a frontend developer or if you want to learn how to animate the user interface of your web applications with jQuery, this book is for you. Experience with jQuery or Javascript would be helpful but solid knowledge base of HTML and CSS is assumed.

  3. Cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels for a spatially separated co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyun; Bencherif, Sidi A; Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds have extensively been studied for cell-based tissue engineering but their use is mostly limited to mechanical support for cell adhesion and growth on the surface of macropores. Here, a templated fabrication method is described to prepare cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels (IOHs) allowing both cell encapsulation within the hydrogel matrix and cell seeding on the surface of macropores. Ionically crosslinked alginate microbeads and photocrosslinkable biocompatible polymers are used as a sacrificial template and as a matrix, respectively. The alginate microbeads are easily removed by a chelating agent, with minimal toxicity for the encapsulated cells during template removal. The outer surface of macropores in IOHs can also provide a space for cell adherence. The cells encapsulated or attached in IOHs are able to remain viable and to proliferate over time. The elastic modulus and cell-adhesion properties of IOHs can be easily controlled and tuned. Finally, it is demonstrated that IOH can be used to co-culture two distinct cell populations in different spatial positions. This cell-friendly IOH system provides a 3D scaffold for organizing different cell types in a controllable microenvironment to investigate biological processes such as stem cell niches or tumor microenvironments.

  4. Isolation of mitochondria from animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David A; Shadel, Gerald S

    2014-10-01

    Rat or mouse liver is the most frequently used tissue for mitochondrial preparations because it is readily available, easy to homogenize, and replete with mitochondria. A motor-driven Teflon and glass Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer is the best choice for homogenizing liver, but if one is not available, this tissue is soft enough that a Dounce homogenizer with a loose (A) pestle can also be used. The yield and purity of the mitochondrial preparation will be influenced by the method and speed of preparation and the age and physiological condition of the animal. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Interdisciplinary Chemistry Experiment: An Environmentally Friendly Extraction of Lycopene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Mingjie; Liu, Qingwei

    2008-01-01

    A novel experiment for the extraction of lycopene from tomato paste without the use of an organic solvent is described. The experiment employs polymer, green, and analytical chemistry. This environmentally friendly extraction is more efficient and requires less time than the traditional approach using an organic solvent. The extraction is…

  6. The Kersentuin: environmentally friendly living in Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a country known throughout the world for its innovative approaches to meeting the needs of its citizens, several examples of innovative experiments with sustainable housing can be found. The Kersentuin (Cherry Garden), an environmentally, socially and economically friendly commun

  7. Family Friendly Policies in STEM Departments: Awareness and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong; Bozeman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Focused on academic departments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States, we attempt to map department chairs' awareness of family friendly policies and investigate possible determinants of their knowledge levels. Based on a sample of STEM department chairs in American research universities, we find…

  8. Let Indonesia-China Friendly Relations Continue to flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IbrahlmIsa

    2004-01-01

    When my friends from the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, the CPAFFC, asked me to write in their jubilium magazine, for the fiftieth anniversary of the Association, I felt very much honoured indeed.Because in the deepest feeling of my heart, I al-

  9. Adolescents' Relationships with Father, Mother, and Same-Gender Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas; Hai, Ilan

    1998-01-01

    This study examined age differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescents' relationship with parents, and same-gender friend. Questionnaire responses of 205 Israeli adolescents indicated that older adolescents had greater autonomy in relationships with parents than did younger adolescents. No age differences were reported in closeness and…

  10. Legislation on school governors' power to appoint educators: friend ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    the law can turn from a friend into a foe for public school governors serving on SGBs. ... tution of school governing bodies, SASA aimed to give effect to the principle ..... by agreement with such other public school and with the consent of.

  11. Friendly Exchanges Between Yizheng and Japanese Youth Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Jiangsu Provincial Baseball and Softball Association, and with the help from the Japan IBA Youth Baseball and Softball League, on March 28, the Youth Baseball Team of Kawasaki City of Saitama Prefecture played two friendly matches against the team of Yizheng Experimental School in Jiangsu Province.

  12. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 1, Structure and Chemistry, p. 243-270 Bio-based Fillers for Environmentally Friendly Composites Thabang H. Mokhothu and Maya J. John ABSTRACT: The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement...

  13. Injury prevention among friends: the benefits of school connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Reveruzzi, B; Sheehan, M

    2014-08-01

    Unsafe road behaviors, violence and alcohol use, are primary contributors to adolescent injury. Research suggests that adolescents look out for their friends and engage in protective behavior to reduce others' risk-taking and that school connectedness is associated with reduced injury-risks. This study examined the role of school connectedness in willingness to protect and prevent friends from involvement in alcohol use, fights and unlicensed driving. Surveys were completed at two time points, six months apart, by 545 13-14 year olds from seven Australian high schools. Females were significantly more likely than males to report willingness to protect their friends. School connectedness significantly and positively predicted willingness to protect across all three injury-risk behaviors, after accounting for sex and own involvement in injury-risk behaviors. School connectedness may therefore be an important factor to target in school-based prevention programs, both to reduce adolescents' own injury-risk behavior and to increase injury prevention among friends.

  14. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed [United States Geological Survey - BRD, Turners Falls, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  15. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Ferrini, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassing, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Kjøbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  16. Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-09-01

    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P adolescents on how to assess and interpret unhealthy eating behaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy.

  17. Creating user-friendly databases with Microsoft Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Schneider, Joseph F; Lorenz, Rebecca A

    2005-01-01

    Data entry can be tedious and is fraught with potential for errors that affect study findings. Researchers can minimise entry errors and streamline data entry by using some of the popular software packages on the market. Joanne Kraenzle Schneider and colleagues describe one way to create a user-friendly database that minimises entry errors by using Microsoft (MS) Access.

  18. Family, Close Relatives, Friends: Life Satisfaction among Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Arzu; Oztop, Hulya; Dogan, Nuri; Guven, Seval

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic (age, education, marital status, income, and health) and demographic variables and the quantity and quality of relationships with adult children, grandchildren, siblings and friends on life satisfaction of the elderly. Participants were 200 persons older than 60 years of age. Hierarchical…

  19. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  20. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia eSimão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1 we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking towards the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2 we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants. In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude towards a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  1. Full friendly index sets of slender and flat cylinder graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Chee Shiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a connected simple graph. A labeling $f:Vrightarrow Z_2$ induces an edgelabeling $f^*:EtoZ_2$ defined by $f^*(xy=f(x+f(y$ for each $xy in E$. For $iinZ_2$,let $v_f(i=|f^{-1}(i|$ and $e_f(i=|f^{*-1}(i|$. A labeling $f$ is called friendly if$|v_f(1-v_f(0|le 1$. The full friendly index set of $G$ consists all possible differencesbetween the number of edges labeled by 1 and the number of edges labeled by 0. In recent years,full friendly index sets for certain graphs were studied, such as tori, grids $P_2times P_n$,and cylinders $C_mtimes P_n$ for some $n$ and $m$. In this paper we study the full friendlyindex sets of cylinder graphs $C_mtimes P_2$ for $mgeq 3$, $C_mtimes P_3$ for $mgeq 4$and $C_3times P_n$ for $ngeq 4$. The results in this paper complement the existing resultsin literature, so the full friendly index set of cylinder graphs are completely determined.

  2. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: types, processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -reinforcements of environmentally benign polymers have showed a great promise in designing of eco-friendly polymeric materials with desired properties. A fairly new type of composites has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nano-meter scale dimensions (at least one...

  3. Four factors Constituting Friendly Tang-Tubo Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuFengzhen; ChenQuan

    2003-01-01

    During the 200 or more years of Tang-Tubo bilateral relations, and despite the wars that often occurred owing to conflict between the ruling classes of each side, harmony and friendliness nevertheless prevailed. So what were the reasons behind this friendly Tang-Tubo relationship? This article attempts to generalize four factors and briefly discuss each one.

  4. Data from the Television Game Show "Friend or Foe?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper are from the television game show "Friend or Foe", and can be used to examine whether age, gender, race, and the amount of prize money affect contestants' strategies. The data are suitable for a variety of statistical analyses, such as descriptive statistics, testing for differences in means or proportions, and…

  5. Evaluating the FRIENDS Programme in a Scottish Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Macmillan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study used an "indicated prevention" approach to attempt to replicate very positive international evaluations of the FRIENDS for Life programme. Using standardised self-report measures of anxiety, low mood and self esteem with groups of children from four schools, the study found significant improvements in all of these measures…

  6. The happiness paradox: your friends are happier than you

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, J.; Leemput, van de I.A.; Goncalves Souza, M.B.; Ruan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and happiness is po

  7. Research of Environment-friendly Low Emissivity Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Feng

    2007-01-01

    The environment-friendly glasses which integrate function and structure were introduced, among these glasses can save energy very efficiently due to its low infrared emissivity. The fundamental principle of the low emissivity glass and the research progress of this kind glass were analyzed. Meanwhile,high performance and low applied development trend of emissivity glass were reviewed.

  8. Creating Moral Schools: The Enabling Potential of Critical Friends Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Critical Friends Groups (CFGs) are vehicles for creating collective intentionality that reaches a shared end: increased opportunity for the disadvantaged to create equality of opportunity. Not that participating in CFGs is the only action educators can take to create moral schools; rather, moral schools reflect the beliefs, ends, and practices…

  9. Peer Network Overlap in Twin, Sibling, and Friend Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Shirley; Segal, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sibling–peer connections are important for understanding adolescent problem behaviors. Using a novel behavioral genetic design, the current study investigated peer network overlap in 300 child–child pairs (aged 7-13 years) in 5 dyad types: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic twins, full siblings (FSs), friend pairs, and virtual…

  10. A Practitioner Friendly and Scientifically Robust Training Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review the current state of workplace learning evaluation, to set out the rationale for evaluation along with the barriers that practitioners face when seeking to assess the effectiveness of training and development. Finally, it aims to propose a scientifically robust and practitioner friendly approach to evaluation.…

  11. Application of azathioprine in preparing animal model of pancreatic cancer%硫唑嘌呤在胰腺癌动物模型制作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴介恒; 卢兴兵; 李荣妍; 吕智慧; 黄莎圆子; 刘梦娜; 郭素红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the azathioprine(AZA) concentration most suitable for tumorigenesis. Methods 40 SD rats were divided into 5 groups according to the AZA concentrations:blank control group(A) ,2. 6 mg/kg AZA group(B) ,2. 2 mg/kg AZA group(C) ,1. 8 mg/kg AZA group(D) and 1. 4 mg/kg AZA group(E) ,8 rats in each group. The group A was given normal saline 2mL per day and the group B,C,D and E were irrigated the corresponding concentrations of AZA 2mL. After 30 d,Mia PAC-A cell suspension liquid was subcutaneously transplanted in SD rats. Tumor formation was judged by detecting CA24-2 and preparing the pathological slice. Results On 15,20,25,30 d after inoculation of pancreatic cancer cells,blood CA24-22 levels in various model groups were increased with varying degrees. Blood CA24-2 levels on posttransplantion 15,20,25,30 d in the group B were (51. 56 ± 2. 14) ,(51. 61 ± 1. 21) ,(54. 66 ± 1. 02) ,(56. 00 ± 0. 38) U/mL respectively, showing statistical difference compared with the group C,D and E(P<0. 05). Furthermore,the group B had the highest tumor formation rate(83. 3%). In addition,the pancreatic pathological slices showed the pathological features such as the nucleus deformity,different cell size,dikaryocyte with 1-2 nucle-oli, large nucleus and deep staining. At same time, enlarged lymph nodes also found at the site of transplant and peripancreas. Conclusion AZA concentration of 2. 6 mg/kg is most conducive to prepare the rat model of pancreatic cancer.%目的 筛选建立胰腺癌动物模型最适合成瘤的硫唑嘌呤(AZA)浓度.方法 将40只SD大鼠按照AZA浓度的不同分为5组:空白对照组(A组)、2.6 mg/kg AZA组(B组)、2.2 mg/kg AZA组(C组)、1.8 mg/kg AZA组(D组)、1.4 mg/kg AZA组(E组),每组8只.A组每天灌服2 mL生理盐水,B、C、D、E组每天灌服相应浓度的AZA生理盐水液2 mL.第30天后进行SD大鼠皮下移植Mia PACAⅡ胰腺癌细胞悬液,通过检测大鼠血浆CA24-2和制作胰腺组织病理切片的方

  12. Preparation of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane cross-linked poly(aspartic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels without organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongyu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Shenyu; Tan, Tianwei; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) hydrogel is a type of biodegradable and biocompatible polymer with high water absorbing ability. Traditionally, the production of PASP hydrogel is expensive, complex, environmentally unfriendly, and consumes a large amount of organic solvents, e.g. dimethylformamide or dimethylsulfoxide. This study introduces a one-step synthesis of PASP resin, in which the organic phase was replaced by distilled water and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was used as the cross-linker. Absorbent ability and characteristics were determined by swelling ratio, FTIR, (13)C SSNMR, and SEM. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and animal skin irritation tests showed the hydrogel has body-friendly properties. Preparing PASP hydrogel in aqueous solution is promising and finds its use in many applications.

  13. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  14. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  15. Approaches for Generating Animations for Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessling, Guido; Freisleben, Bernd

    This paper provides a short review of the following basic approaches for generating animations so that teachers can determine the way best suited for them and be better prepared to select a tool addressing their needs: (1) using classical presentation tools such as PowerPoint; (2) visual editing using drag and drop or selection of options; (3)…

  16. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  17. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium.

  18. ZETA POTENTIAL AND COLOR INVESTIGATIONS OF VEGETABLE OIL BASED EMULSIONS AS ECO-FRIENDLY LUBRICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  19. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  20. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.