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Sample records for preparation affect peer

  1. HOW DOES PEER PRESSURE AFFECT EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENTS?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Leonardo; Jensen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent performance decline, while poor performing students improved slightly. We next consider a field experiment that offered students complimentary access to an online SAT preparatory course. Sign-up forms differed randomly across students only in whether they said the decision would be kept private from classmates. In nonhonors classes, sign-up was 11 percentage points lower when decisions were public rather than private. Honors class sign-up was unaffected. For students taking honors and nonhonors classes, the response depended on which peers they were with at the time of the offer, and thus to whom their decision would be revealed. When offered the course in a nonhonors class (where peer sign-up rates are low), they were 15 percentage points less likely to sign up if the decision was public. But when offered the course in an honors class (where peer sign-up rates are high), they were 8 percentage points more likely to sign up if the decision was public. Thus, students are highly responsive to their peers are the prevailing norm when they make decisions. PMID:26740727

  2. HOW DOES PEER PRESSURE AFFECT EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENTS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Leonardo; Jensen, Robert

    When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent performance decline, while poor performing students improved slightly. We next consider a field experiment that offered students complimentary access to an online SAT preparatory course. Sign-up forms differed randomly across students only in whether they said the decision would be kept private from classmates. In nonhonors classes, sign-up was 11 percentage points lower when decisions were public rather than private. Honors class sign-up was unaffected. For students taking honors and nonhonors classes, the response depended on which peers they were with at the time of the offer, and thus to whom their decision would be revealed. When offered the course in a nonhonors class (where peer sign-up rates are low), they were 15 percentage points less likely to sign up if the decision was public. But when offered the course in an honors class (where peer sign-up rates are high), they were 8 percentage points more likely to sign up if the decision was public. Thus, students are highly responsive to their peers are the prevailing norm when they make decisions.

  3. HOW DOES PEER PRESSURE AFFECT EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENTS?*

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Bursztyn; Robert Jensen

    2015-01-01

    When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent pe...

  4. Attitudes and Affect toward Peer Evaluation in EFL Reading Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praver, Max; Rouault, Greg; Eidswick, John

    2011-01-01

    Teachers often use peer evaluation as a way to increase opportunities for constructive feedback. However, few studies have investigated student attitudes toward such evaluation. This study examined preferences among Japanese university students (N = 86) in an intensive English-language program (intermediate proficiency) toward peer evaluation for…

  5. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  6. How does feedback and peer feedback affect collaborative writing in a virtual learning environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasch, Teresa; Espasa, Anna; Alvarez, Ibis; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Guasch, T., Espasa, A., Alvarez, I., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 31 May). How does feedback and peer feedback affect collaborative writing in a virtual learning environment? Presentation at a Learning & Cognition meeting, Open Universiteit in the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  7. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  8. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S

    2014-04-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  9. Expanding Capacity and Promoting Inclusion in Introductory Computer Science: A Focus on Near-Peer Mentor Preparation and Code Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…

  10. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  11. How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

  12. How Individual Performance Affects Variability of Peer Evaluations in Classroom Teams: A Distributive Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, H. Kristl; Mishra, Vipanchi; Bing, Mark N.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Business school courses often require team projects, both for pedagogical reasons as well as to prepare students for the kinds of team-based activities that are common in organizations these days. However, social loafing is a common problem in teams, and peer evaluations by team members are sometimes used in such team settings to assess…

  13. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  14. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journal editors, authors, and peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Norton, Melissa L; Vickers, Andrew J; Altman, Douglas G

    2010-01-29

    In recognition of the benefits of transparent reporting, many peer-reviewed journals require that their authors be prepared to share their raw, unprocessed data with other scientists and/or state the availability of raw data in published articles. But little information on how data should be prepared for publication - or sharing - has emerged. In clinical research patient privacy and consent for use of personal health information are key considerations, but agreed-upon definitions of what constitutes anonymised patient information do not appear to have been established. We aim to address this issue by providing practical guidance for those involved in the publication process, by proposing a minimum standard for de-identifying datasets for the purposes of publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal, or sharing with other researchers. Basic advice on file preparation is provided along with procedural guidance on prospective and retrospective publication of raw data, with an emphasis on randomised controlled trials.

  15. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  16. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  17. The trauma of peer abuse: Effects of relational peer victimization and social anxiety disorder on physiological and affective reactions to social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eIffland

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74 were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball were recorded.Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure.Conclusions: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats.

  18. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  19. Voluntary peer-led exam preparation course for international first year students: Tutees' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Daniel; Eckart, Wolfgang; Karimian-Jazi, Kianush; Amr, Ali; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-06-18

    While the number of international students has increased over the last decade, such students face diverse challenges due to language and cultural barriers. International medical students suffer from personal distress and a lack of support. Their performance is significantly lower than non-international peers in clinical examinations. We investigated whether international students benefit from a peer-led exam preparation course. An exam preparation course was designed, and relevant learning objectives were defined. Two evaluations were undertaken: Using a qualitative approach, tutees (N = 10) were asked for their thoughts and comments in a semi-structured interview at the end of the semester. From a quantitative perspective, all participants (N = 22) were asked to complete questionnaires at the end of each course session. International students reported a range of significant benefits from the course as they prepared for upcoming exams. They benefited from technical and didactic, as well as social learning experiences. They also considered aspects of the tutorial's framework helpful. Social and cognitive congruence seem to be the key factors to success within international medical students' education. If tutors have a migration background, they can operate as authentic role models. Furthermore, because they are still students themselves, they can offer support using relevant and understandable language.

  20. Measuring affective language in known peer feedback on L2 Academic writing courses: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Michael Alan Yallop

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Publishing scientific articles in English is often a prerequisite for academic success. Thus, developing effective pedagogies to support Estonian university students develop writing skills in L2 (English is becoming increasingly more important. One such method is by forming small writing groups where each member periodically gives written feedback on their colleague’s writing. Here, the affective language used in the written communication between the reviewer and writer may strongly influence their relationship. This in turn may have a significant impact on the writing process. This study describes the development of a novel taxonomy to measure the cumulative effect of affective factors by accounting for the uniqueness of each individual, and how they project their distinct personalities or ‘social presence’ to build rapport within the group. The hypothesis is that individuals exhibiting a high social presence are more likely to produce higher-quality feedback and more improved subsequent texts than those with a lower social presence. The paper concludes by illustrating how this taxonomy can be used to both test this hypothesis and gain further insight into the peer feedback process in future studies.

  1. How Proficiency-Pairing Affects Students' Peer-Mediated Revisions of EFL Writing: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on a teacher's classroom-based research into the influence of proficiency-pairing on students' peer-mediated draft revisions. Three students of an EFL writing course at a Chinese university, who formed into peer dyads with their classmates voluntarily, participated in the study. Throughout the EFL writing course, they…

  2. Preparing English Learners for Effective Peer Review in the Writers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyon

    2015-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) often face challenges when participating in peer review activities in writers' workshops. This article identifies some of the potential difficulties that ELL writers may experience, and provides teachers with strategies to address these problems. The author describes a simple three-step peer review training model…

  3. Preparing English Learners for Effective Peer Review in the Writers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyon

    2015-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELLs) often face challenges when participating in peer review activities in writers' workshops. This article identifies some of the potential difficulties that ELL writers may experience, and provides teachers with strategies to address these problems. The author describes a simple three-step peer review training model…

  4. Social Support and Behavioral and Affective School Engagement: The Effects of Peers, Parents, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, David B.; Perdue, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    School engagement has long been seen as an important component of school completion, and research shows that social support in the home and school promotes engagement. However, many researchers have argued that it is not a unitary construct but rather a multifaceted phenomenon, and the role of peer social support has not been as well studied as…

  5. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking.

  6. The Long Shadow of Peer Review on the Preparation of Artist Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Loretta Niebur

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of the highest-quality artist educators in colleges and universities is a key element in supporting strong K-12 arts education programs. Artist educators must be expert in at least two disciplines: their art forms and education. However, the peer review processes commonly employed to recommend higher education faculty…

  7. Grief and attitudes toward suicide in peers affected by a cluster of suicides as adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Caroline H; Zakriski, Audrey L

    2014-12-01

    Eighty-five young adults exposed to a cluster of peer suicides as adolescents completed measures of attitudes toward suicide, grief, and social support. Closeness to the peers lost to suicide was positively correlated with grief and the belief that suicide is not preventable, with grief further elevated in close individuals with high social support from friends. Overall, social support was related to healthy attitudes about suicide including preventability, yet it was also related to some stigmatizing beliefs. Compared with 67 young adults who had not been exposed to a suicide cluster, the exposed sample was more likely to think that suicide is normal but more likely to think of it as incomprehensible. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bugge Henriksen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Freshwaters (REEF, the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM. The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.

  9. How revealing rankings affects student attitude and rerformance in a peer review learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2015-01-01

    findings, students’ performance between the groups were comparable, however, the Ranking group revealed differences in the resulted behavior among its members. Specifically, awareness of ranking information mostly benefited students which were relatively in favor of ranking, motivating them to further......This paper investigates the possible benefits as well as the overall impact on the behaviour of students within a learning environment, which is based on double-blinding reviewing of freely selected peer works. Fifty-six sophomore students majoring in Informatics and Telecommunications Engi......-neering volunteered to participate in the study. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment, according to which students were divided into three groups of different conditions: control, usage data, usage and ranking data. No additional information was made available to students in the control condition...

  10. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  11. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  12. Evaluation of the severity of malocclusions in children affected by osteogenesis imperfecta with the peer assessment rating and discrepancy indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis; Vu, Duy-Dat; Muller, Katia; Retrouvey, Jean-Marc

    2013-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder affecting bone and tooth development. Malocclusion is frequent in those affected by osteogenesis imperfecta, but this has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify the severity of malocclusions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Articulated dental casts were obtained from 49 patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (ages 5-19 years; 28 female) and 49 age- and sex-matched control subjects who did not have osteogenesis imperfecta. Both groups were seeking orthodontic treatment. Malocclusions were scored by using the peer assessment rating (PAR) and the discrepancy index (DI). The average United Kingdom weighted PAR scores were 31.1 (SD, 14.5) for the osteogenesis imperfecta group and 22.7 (SD, 10.7) for the control group (P osteogenesis imperfecta and 21.6 (SD, 9.6) for the controls (P osteogenesis imperfecta group and 12.4 (SD, 6.8) for the control group (P osteogenesis imperfecta group, 7.1; control group, 0.3) for the DI parameters and anterior crossbite (osteogenesis imperfecta group, 13.0; control group, 3.8 [United Kingdom]) for the PAR. Both the PAR and the DI showed that malocclusions were significantly more severe in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta than in the control group. There was a higher incidence of Class III malocclusion associated with anterior and lateral open bites in patients affected by osteogenesis imperfecta. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  14. Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; T. Bergen; T. Wubbels; R.C. Zwart

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching

  15. Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; T. Bergen; T. Wubbels; R.C. Zwart

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dya

  16. Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Wubbels, Theo; Bergen, Theo; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dyads). A mixed-method approach was adopted…

  17. Which Characteristics of a Reciprocal Peer Coaching Context Affect Teacher Learning as Perceived by Teachers and Their Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, R.C.; Wubbels, T.; Bergen, T.; Bolhuis, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the role of five categories of characteristics of a reciprocal peer coaching context was studied in relation to teacher learning. Both self-reports and student perceptions were used to measure teacher learning. Data were gathered on 28 secondary school teachers (14 coaching dya

  18. Online Self-testing Resources Prepared by Peer Tutors as a Formative Assessment Tool in Pharmacology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of optional online quizzes written by peer tutors in a pharmacology course for doctor of pharmacy students. Methods. Online quizzes were written by peer tutors for second-year pharmacy students. Quizzes reflected the material taught during lecture and were in a format similar to that of the examinations. Data related to performance on each quiz and each examination were collected throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, students and peer tutors were surveyed to gather information on the utility and success of the quizzes. Results. Students taking online quizzes performed significantly better on examinations than those who did not take quizzes. In addition, students received higher scores on examinations than when practicing with the quizzes. Surveys suggest that students liked the quizzes and felt they increased their confidence and performance on examinations. Conclusion. The quizzes were beneficial to student performance on examinations as well as student perception of performance and confidence going into the examinations. Quizzes were also beneficial learning experiences for peer tutors. PMID:27756932

  19. Online Self-testing Resources Prepared by Peer Tutors as a Formative Assessment Tool in Pharmacology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Melinda E; Mathews, Jennifer L

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of optional online quizzes written by peer tutors in a pharmacology course for doctor of pharmacy students. Methods. Online quizzes were written by peer tutors for second-year pharmacy students. Quizzes reflected the material taught during lecture and were in a format similar to that of the examinations. Data related to performance on each quiz and each examination were collected throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, students and peer tutors were surveyed to gather information on the utility and success of the quizzes. Results. Students taking online quizzes performed significantly better on examinations than those who did not take quizzes. In addition, students received higher scores on examinations than when practicing with the quizzes. Surveys suggest that students liked the quizzes and felt they increased their confidence and performance on examinations. Conclusion. The quizzes were beneficial to student performance on examinations as well as student perception of performance and confidence going into the examinations. Quizzes were also beneficial learning experiences for peer tutors.

  20. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghazali, Shahin; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Johansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. METHODS: A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA) was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010). After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham's F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm™, Innovative Biotech, Iran). Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. RESULTS: There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm™ (P = 0.03), whereas no significant difference was found against Ham's F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm™ (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs. PMID:28216914

  1. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Anbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. Methods: A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010. After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham′s F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm TM , Innovative Biotech, Iran. Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. Results: There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm TM (P = 0.03, whereas no significant difference was found against Ham′s F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm TM (P = 0.02. Conclusions: The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs.

  2. The quality of sperm preparation medium affects the motility, viability, and DNA integrity of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbari, Fatemeh; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghazali, Shahin; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Johansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The goal was to compare the effects of three different sperm preparation media on sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity of semen samples from normozoospermic men. A total of 15 normozoospermic males were included in the study. The semen analysis (SA) was performed in accordance with the WHO guidelines (2010). After SA, each sample was divided into three aliquots, and swim-up was performed with three different sperm preparation media (Sperm Preparation Media, Origio, Denmark; Ham's F10, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany; and VitaSperm™, Innovative Biotech, Iran). Sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 24 h after swim-up. There were no significant differences, at any time intervals, in the total sperm motility between the different sperm preparation media. However, the rate of progressive motility was significantly higher in spermatozoa prepared using the media from Origio in comparison with VitaSperm™ (P = 0.03), whereas no significant difference was found against Ham's F10 medium. No significant differences in sperm viability were seen between the media products. However, 1 h after swim-up, the extent of sperm DNA fragmentation was lower in the medium from Origio versus VitaSperm™ (P = 0.02). The data showed that the quality of medium for preparation of semen samples from normozoospermic men significantly affects the performance of spermatozoa in assisted conception programs.

  3. Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.

  4. Are Peer Educators Really Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Amy Badura; Millard, Michele; Shah, Kinjal

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants and Methods: To determine whether peer educators are considered peers by their audiences, the authors compared 28 peer educators and 28 college students on their personal qualities using self-report surveys. Results: Students who wanted to become peer educators reported higher self-esteem, greater leadership skills, and…

  5. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  6. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  7. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubinga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118 participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  8. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M

    2016-12-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.

  9. Factors affecting peer-reviewed publication of abstracts presented at meetings of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, Ron; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Yair, Nadav

    2017-03-01

    To review abstracts presented at five consecutive meetings of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ECVO), and identify abstract characteristics that affect the probability of their publication in peer-reviewed journals. An online search was conducted for peer-reviewed publications (PRPs) stemming from abstracts from five ECVO meetings (2008-2012). Time to publication and journal were noted. Effects of ocular tissue/discipline, species, type of presentation and study, funding acknowledgment and affiliation, professional qualifications, and nationality of the first and last authors on probability of publication were analyzed. Of presented abstracts, 29% (87/299) were published as PRPs in Veterinary Ophthalmology (n = 50), other veterinary journals (n = 22), and nonveterinary journals (n = 15). During the 5 years studied, there was no significant difference between the impact factor of Veterinary Ophthalmology and the 25 other journals in which PRPs were published (P = 0.369). Median time to PRP acceptance or publication was 468 days. Independent variables most significant in determining the probability of PRP were oral presentation (P = 0.002), resident authorship (P < 0.0001), and species (P = 0.002), with food animal abstracts having the highest odds ratio. Ocular tissue/discipline (P = 0.13) and type of study (P = 0.33) did not affect publication probability. Funding acknowledgment (P = 0.02), author nationality (P = 0.02), and academic affiliation (P = 0.04) were also significant factors. Publication rate of ECVO abstracts is lower, but time to publication is similar, compared with most biomedical meetings. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Peer-instructed seminar attendance is associated with improved preparation, deeper learning and higher exam scores : A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Rianne A M; De Kleijn, Renske A M; Van Rijen, Harold V M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active engagement in education improves learning outcomes. To enhance active participation in seminars, a student-centered course design was implemented and evaluated in terms of self-reported preparation, student motivation and exam scores. We hypothesized that small group learning with

  11. Peer-instructed seminar attendance is associated with improved preparation, deeper learning and higher exam scores: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, RAM; de Kleijn, R.A.M.; van Rijen, HVM

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active engagement in education improves learning outcomes. To enhance active participation in seminars, a student-centered course design was implemented and evaluated in terms of self-reported preparation, student motivation and exam scores. We hypothesized that small group learning with

  12. Effects of a Peer Competition-based Mobile Learning Approach on Students' Affective Domain Exhibition in Social Studies Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…

  13. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  14. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Asher Silberman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer comment on: Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online by Meg Lambert and Donna Yates

  15. Anxious Solitude and Peer Exclusion Predict Social Helplessness, Upset Affect, and Vagal Regulation in Response to Behavioral Rejection by a Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J.

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more…

  16. The Effects of Peer Teaching on the University Students' Achievements in Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor Domains and Game Performances in Volleyball Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzeoglu, Ayse Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    This study is related to one of the teaching models, peer teaching which is used in physical education courses. The fundamental feature of peer teaching is defined "to structure a learning environment in which some students assume and carry out many of the key operations of instruction to assist other students in the learning process".…

  17. The Effects of Peer Teaching on the University Students' Achievements in Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor Domains and Game Performances in Volleyball Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzeoglu, Ayse Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    This study is related to one of the teaching models, peer teaching which is used in physical education courses. The fundamental feature of peer teaching is defined "to structure a learning environment in which some students assume and carry out many of the key operations of instruction to assist other students in the learning process".…

  18. Peer to Peer Network Mergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYunfei; CHENChangjia

    2005-01-01

    We propose the conception and infrastructure of peer-to-peer network mergence. We show that Peer to peer (P2P for short) mergence is possible and advantageous in file sharing, balance of scalability and performance, higher searching efficiency and security. We alsoput forward four possible mergence schemes-bigger chord,gateway chord, overlay chord and line chord and compare their performance. We find that overlay chord could achieve the same performance as that of bigger chord. Finally one practical solution is proposed to illustrate our idea.

  19. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are unsure of themselves, new to the group, or inexperienced with peer pressure may also be more likely to give in. ... stand that makes you look uncool to your group. But these situations can be ... up to peer pressure, but it does take courage — yours: Listen to ...

  20. Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  1. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  2. Extension of mental preparation positively affects motor imagery as compared to motor execution: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; Scholkmann, Felix; Shalóm, Diego E; Wolf, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is widely used to study cognitive action control. Although, the neural simulation theory assumes that MI and motor execution (ME) share many common features, the extent of similarity and whether it spreads into the preparation phase is still under investigation. Here we asked, whether an extension of physiological mental preparation has a comparable effect on MI and ME. Data were recorded using wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a two-stage task design where subjects were cued with or without preparatory stimuli to either execute or imagine complex sequential thumb-finger tasks. The main finding is that the extended mental preparation has a significant positive effect on oxy-hemoglobin (∆[O(2)Hb]) in response to MI, which is proportionally larger as that found in response to ME. Furthermore, fNIRS was capable to discriminate within each task whether it was preceded by preparatory stimuli or not. Transition from mental preparation to actual performance (ME or MI) was reflected by a dip of the fNIRS signal presumably related to underlying cortical processes changing between preparation and task performance. Statistically significant main effects of 'Preparation' and 'Task' showed that ∆[O(2)Hb] during preparation was preparation-specific, i.e., positively affected by the presence of preparatory stimuli, whereas during task performance ∆[O(2)Hb] was both preparation- and task-specific, i.e., additionally affected by the task mode. These results are particularly appealing from a practical point of view for making use of MI in neuroscientific applications. Especially neurorehabilitation and neural interfaces may benefit from utilizing positive interactions between mental preparation and MI performance.

  3. Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-04-01

    The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.

  4. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing...

  7. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-07-05

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them.

  8. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  9. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  10. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  11. Does smoking within an individual's peer group affect intervention effectiveness? An evaluation of the Smoke-Free Class Competition among Swiss adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stucki, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Archimi, A.; Kuntsche, S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test whether participation in the Smoke-Free Class Competition (SFC), a classroom-based smoking prevention program, reduced smoking and increased smoking-related knowledge among those with and without smoking peers compared to control groups. METHOD: Including

  12. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Winata, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Review Microbiological analysis of Dringking Water and Soybean Milk, Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio- Eco- Health System for Stabilizing animal health and Productivity to support public health, ISBN: 978-602-8967-69-3, Surabaya-Indonesia 19-20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary medicine- Universitas Airlangga

  13. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Understanding The Dynamics Interaction Within Indonesia Healthcare Competition (Penulis: Indrianty Sudirman). Jurnal International: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN: 2222-1905 (Paper), 2222-2839 (Online), Vol. 4, No.11. Tahun 2012. Hal. 94-100. Penerbit: IISTE www.iiste.org

  14. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Judul: Environmental Risk Assessment of transgenic cotton in South Sulawesi, Indonesia : Impact on Soil microorganisms (Key Note Lecture) Penulis: Antonius Suwanto, Yusminah hala and Nur Amin. SPIN : Scientific Programme Indonesia Netherlands BIORIN : Biotechnology Research Indonesian Netherlands, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 25 th Februari 2003. Hal. 1-9.

  15. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  16. Anticipatory affect during action preparation: evidence from backward compatibility in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Pfister, Roland; Dignath, David; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-07-14

    Upcoming responses in the second of two subsequently performed tasks can speed up compatible responses in the temporally preceding first task. Two experiments extend previous demonstration of such backward compatibility to affective features: responses to affective stimuli were faster in Task 1 when an affectively compatible response effect was anticipated for Task 2. This emotional backward-compatibility effect demonstrates that representations of the affective consequences of the Task 2 response were activated before the selection of a response in Task 1 was completed. This finding is problematic for the assumption of a serial stimulus-response translation stage. It also shows that the affective consequence of a response is anticipated during, and has an impact on stimulus-response translation, which implies that action planning considers codes representing and predicting the emotional consequences of actions. Implications for the control of emotional actions are discussed.

  17. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure Print ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  18. Controlled release metformin hydrochloride microspheres of ethyl cellulose prepared by different methods and study on the polymer affected parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pratim K; Kar, Mousumi

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to prepare microspheres of the anti-diabetic drug, metformin hydrochloride, using ethyl cellulose as the polymer and evaluate the encapsulation efficiency and release characteristics in vitro and in vivo; utilizing different microencapsulation techniques. Different proportions of polymer were used to obtain varying drug-polymer ratios. Physical properties, loading efficiency and dissolution rate were dependent on the method chosen for preparation and also on the drug-to-polymer ratio. The addition of surfactant during emulsification and petroleum ether in non-solvent addition process affected release of drug and also size distribution of microspheres. To investigate the type of mechanism that occurs, dissolution data were plotted according to different kinetic models. In vitro release studies show first order and Higuchi model release characteristics being exhibited. All the results were treated statistically to validate the findings. Significant differences in percentage yield, entrapment efficiency and sustaining capacity were seen with microspheres prepared by two different methods. In vivo studies in normal and hyperglycemic mice show faster glucose reduction with microspheres prepared by the evaporation method, whereas the release sustaining effect was more pronounced with microspheres prepared by the non-solvent addition method.

  19. Preparation of testate amoebae samples affects water table depth reconstructions in peatland palaeoecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Avel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In peatland palaeoecological studies, the preparation of peat samples for testate amoebae (TA analysis involves boiling of samples and microsieving them through a 15-μm sieve. We studied the effect of these preparation stages on the estimation of TA assemblages and on the reconstruction of water table depths (WTD. Our results indicate that the TA assemblages of boiled and unboiled samples are not significantly different, while microsieving reduces the concentration of small TA taxa and results in significantly different TA assemblages. The differences between microsieved and unsieved TA assemblages were reflected also in predicted values of WTD, which indicated drier conditions in case of unsieved samples than in microsieved samples. We conclude that the boiling of samples might be omitted if TA are extracted from the fresh peat samples. Microsieving may lead to erroneous palaeoecological WTD reconstructions and should be avoided if small TA taxa are present in samples.

  20. Task complexity differentially affects executed and imagined movement preparation: evidence from movement-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Kranczioch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural simulation theory predicts similarity for the neural mechanisms subserving overt (motor execution and covert (movement imagination actions. Here we tested this prediction for movement preparation, a key characteristic of motor cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-density electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded during covert and overt actions. Movement preparation was studied with a motor priming paradigm, which varied task complexity and amount of advance information. Participants performed simple or complex sequential finger movements either overtly or covertly. Advance information was either fully predictive or partially predictive. Stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP data showed the typical pattern of foreperiod activation for overt and covert movements. The foreperiod contingent negative variation (CNV differed between simple and complex movements only in the execution task. ERP topographies differed between execution and imagination only when advance information was fully predictive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest a differential contribution of the movement preparation network to action imagination and execution. Overt and covert actions seem to involve similar though not identical mechanisms, where overt actions engage a more fine-grained modulation of covert preparatory states.

  1. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  2. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR, ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR

    2013-01-01

    - Peer Review IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICHAL ANALYSIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS IN THE PITUITARY PARS DISTALIS OF THE OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS), Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio-Eco-Health system for stabilizing animal health and productivity to support public health, Surabaya- Indonesia, 19- 20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine- Universitas Airlangga, Centre Publishing and Printing of Airlangga University (AUP)

  3. Coping Mediates the Association of Mindfulness with Psychological Stress, Affect, and Depression Among Smokers Preparing to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cao, Yumei; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Marcus, Marianne T.; Li, Yisheng; Wetter, David W.

    2017-01-01

    It is not surprising that smoking abstinence rates are low given that smoking cessation is associated with increases in negative affect and stress that can persist for months. Mindfulness is one factor that has been broadly linked with enhanced emotional regulation. This study examined baseline associations of self-reported trait mindfulness with psychological stress, negative affect, positive affect, and depression among 158 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment trial. Several coping dimensions were evaluated as potential mediators of these associations. Results indicated that mindfulness was negatively associated with psychological stress, negative affect and depression, and positively associated with positive affect. Furthermore, the use of relaxation as a coping strategy independently mediated the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, positive affect, and depression. The robust and consistent pattern that emerged suggests that greater mindfulness may facilitate cessation and attenuate vulnerability to relapse among smokers preparing for cessation. Furthermore, relaxation appears to be a key mechanism underlying these associations. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00297479. PMID:28191263

  4. How preparation and modification parameters affect PB-PEO polymersome properties in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    faster to structures extrusion, which was more pronounced at 5 mg mL−1, compared to 10, 20, and 25 mg mL−1. Our results indicate that the bilayer of SE-prepared polymersomes has a lower apparent fluidity. We also investigated the role of n-octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (OG......), a detergent typically used for reconstitution of membrane proteins into lipid bilayers. Specifically, we compared dialysis and biobeads for OG removal to investigate the influence of these methods on bilayer conformation and polymer rearrangement following detergent removal. There was no significant...

  5. Relationship Among Trait Affect Types, Peer Relationship and School Attitude%青少年特质情感类型、同伴关系与学校态度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云运; 王海梅; 孙铃; 陈会昌

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察特质情感类型及其与同伴关系、学校态度的关系.方法:以638名小学四年级至初中三年级学生为对象进行问卷测查.结果:①特质情感类型包括四种:高-低型(37.0%)、低-高型(28.9%)、双低型(24.9%)和双高型(9.2%);②不同特质情感类型的儿童在同伴接纳、友谊和学校态度上差异显著,高-低型在学校态度、同伴接纳、友谊质量上均好于其他类型,双低型在同伴接纳和友谊质量上都差于其他三类;低-高型的学校态度得分最低;③特质情感类型能够预测同伴接纳和友谊,也能预测学校态度,友谊质量在特质情感类型与学校态度的关系中起部分中介作用.结论:不同特质情感类型对于学校态度有预测作用,这种预测作用部分是以友谊质量为中介的.%Objective: To investigate the types of trait affect, and its relationship with peer relationship and school attitude. Methods: 638 students participated in the current study. Questionnaires were used to explore the characteristics of students' types of trait affect, and its relationship with peer relationship and school attitude. Results: ①The students' trait affect could be classified into 4 types: including high-positive and low-negative type(37.0%), low-positive and high-negative type(28.9%), low-positive and low-negative type(24.9%), and high-positive and high-negative type(9.2%). ②The 4 types differed significantly in peer relationship and school attitude. High-positive and low-negative type showed the highest scores on school attitude, peer acceptation and friendship quality; low-positive and low-negative type scored the lowest on peer acceptation and friendship quality; and low-positive and high-negative type had the worst school attitude. ③ Friendship quality but not peer acceptation served as a partial mediator in the relationship between types of trait affect and school attitude. Conclusion: Trait affect types can

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6: READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  7. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...... importance for the resulting oxidation. This presentation will give an overview of parameters that are expected to change the properties and structure of milk protein components at the interface of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Results from three different studies will be included. The first study...... compared the effect of two different high pressure homogenizers on oxidation in caseinate and whey protein isolate emulsions. The second study evaluated the effect of homogenization pressure and temperature on emulsions prepared either with whey proteins or a combination of caseinate and β...

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6 READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese proficiency test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the authors personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  9. Quality Assurance of Peer Health Education Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Saunders, Cynthia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether college level peer educators were adequately prepared to teach peers about sexual health, sexual assault, and substance abuse. They completed 20 hours of training on the issues and on public speaking, leadership, and presentation skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that the program increased students' factual…

  10. Peer Review: Structured, Informal, Confidential, Helpful!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Alice; Lee, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an introductory workshop, Preparing to be a Peer Reviewer, presented at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to give hands-on practice to faculty members and others in order to provide formative peer review upon request. This workshop, which was designed at the request of a faculty member, is complemented by an Advanced…

  11. Quality Assurance of Peer Health Education Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Saunders, Cynthia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether college level peer educators were adequately prepared to teach peers about sexual health, sexual assault, and substance abuse. They completed 20 hours of training on the issues and on public speaking, leadership, and presentation skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that the program increased students' factual…

  12. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy.

  13. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis.

  14. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate mat...

  15. PEER REVISION OF WRITING IN L2 CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Peer revision,a supplementary strategy to teacher revisionof writing in L2 classroom,makes passive receivers of teacherrevision become active revisers,enabling students to involve inmore motivated language learning.Benefits of peer revision andits implications for teacher and student roles are discussed.Thisarticle also tentatively analyzes ways of preparing students foreffective peer revision.

  16. Internet psychoeducation for bipolar affective disorder: basis for preparation and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Ociskova, Marie; Sedlackova, Zuzana

    2014-06-01

    There is growing evidence that patients with bipolar affective disorder (BAD), who use medication, respond well to further psychotherapeutic interventions. Internet-based psychoeducation is typically centered on the interaction between a client and therapist via the Internet. Multiple methods were required to investigate existing psychoeducational and psychotherapeutic strategies used on patients suffering from BAD. Systematic reviews and original reports of all trials of psychoeducation in BAD patients were retrieved. Patients with BAD, who were hospitalized in a psychiatric department or attended a day hospital program, were exposed to the first version of the program during the treatment, and then questioned about understandability, comprehensibility, and usefulness of each lecture. Twelve modules of the Internet E-Program for BAD were developed and the intervention was a pilot tested with twelve patients. Internet psychoeducation program for BAD is an intervention designed for universal implementation that addresses heightened learning needs of patients suffering from BAD. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce the number of episodes of the disorder by providing skills in monitoring warning signs, planning daily activities and practicing communication skills.

  17. Preparing computers for affective communication: a psychophysiological concept and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Min Cheol; Lim, Joa Sang; Boucsein, Wolfram

    Despite rapid advances in technology, computers remain incapable of responding to human emotions. An exploratory study was conducted to find out what physiological parameters might be useful to differentiate among 4 emotional states, based on 2 dimensions: pleasantness versus unpleasantness and arousal versus relaxation. The 4 emotions were induced by exposing 26 undergraduate students to different combinations of olfactory and auditory stimuli, selected in a pretest from 12 stimuli by subjective ratings of arousal and valence. Changes in electroencephalographic (EEG), heart rate variability, and electrodermal measures were used to differentiate the 4 emotions. EEG activity separates pleasantness from unpleasantness only in the aroused but not in the relaxed domain, where electrodermal parameters are the differentiating ones. All three classes of parameters contribute to a separation between arousal and relaxation in the positive valence domain, whereas the latency of the electrodermal response is the only differentiating parameter in the negative domain. We discuss how such a psychophysiological approach may be incorporated into a systemic model of a computer responsive to affective communication from the user.

  18. A Cross-Case Analysis of Peer Coaching in Two Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Sammy Lee

    2007-01-01

    Sammy Shields Abstract The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the variables affecting peer coaching, (2) the characteristics of peer coaching, and (3) to determine the outcomes of peer coaching. Participants were interviewed individually, face-to-face to gain insight into peer coaching. The interview questions were developed around the three domains in the conceptual framework: variables affecting peer coaching, the characteristics of peer coaching, and the o...

  19. CDMRP: Fostering Innovation Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    objectives. Research proposals (applications) are reviewed using a two-tiered process that includes peer review panels that evaluate scientific merit...that will have an impact on the communities affected by the relevant illness, injury, or disorder. Scientific peer review is executed using a dynamic...CDMRP’s peer review processes support the organization’s mission to fund innovative, high-impact research.

  20. [Adaptation of a peer pressure scale in French and German: the Peer Pressure Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, S; Studer, J; Daeppen, J-B; Gmel, G

    2013-06-01

    Peer pressure is regarded as an important determinant of substance use, sexual behavior and juvenile delinquency. However, few peer pressure scales are validated, especially in French or German. Little is known about the factor structure of such scales or the kind of scale needed: some scales takes into account both peer pressure to do and peer pressure not to do, while others consider only peer pressure to do. The aim of the present study was to adapt French and German versions of the Peer Pressure Inventory, which is one of the most widely used scales in this field. We considered its factor structure and concurrent validity. Five thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven young Swiss men filled in a questionnaire on peer pressure, substance use, and other variables (conformity, involvement) in a cohort study. We identified a four-factor structure, with the three factors of the initial Peer Pressure Inventory (involvement, conformity, misconduct) and adding a new one (relationship with girls). A non-valued scale (from no peer pressure to peer pressure to do only) showed stronger psychometric qualities than a valued scale (from peer pressure not to do to peer pressure to do). Concurrent validity was also good. Each behavior or attitude was significantly associated with peer pressure. Peer pressure seems to be a multidimensional concept. In this study, peer pressure to do showed the strongest influence on participants. Indeed, peer pressure not to do did not add anything useful. Only peer pressure to do affected young Swiss men's behaviors and attitudes and was reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Peer-to-Peer Simulation Architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed parallel and soft real-time simulation architecture is presented. It employs a publish-subscribe communication framework layered on a peer-to-peer Transport Control Protocol-based message passing architecture. Mechanisms for efficient...

  2. Peer Feedback Marking: Developing Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Reviews studies of peer assessment in higher education and describes a study that attempted to capitalize on the benefits of peer assessment in terms of improving the learning process, sharpening critical abilities, and increasing student autonomy. Results indicate a close correspondence between lecturer and peer assessment. (Author/LRW)

  3. The effect of diagnostic labels on the affective responses of college students towards peers with 'Asperger's Syndrome' and 'Autism Spectrum Disorder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition, the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum disorder. In one vignette, they were informed that the character was a typical college student and in the other, the character had a clinical disorder (either autism spectrum disorder, Asperger's Syndrome or Schizophrenia). Participants' affective responses were measured on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. No significant differences in positive and negative affective responses were found between the clinical labels. However, affective responses were significantly more positive and less negative towards behaviours associated with clinical groups compared to the typical college student. The implications for students disclosing their diagnosis at university are discussed.

  4. SPED 590 Peer Coaching Seminar: An Online Course about Peer Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askvig, Brent A.; Garnes, Lori

    This manual presents an online course about peer coaching derived from the Interactive Peer Coaching/Mentoring (IPCM) Project, a program designed to prepare teachers of students with severe behavioral disorders residing in a rural, remote area in North Dakota. The IPCM project was conducted from July 1997 through July 2000 and developed an…

  5. Leveraging position bias to improve peer recommendation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lerman

    Full Text Available With the advent of social media and peer production, the amount of new online content has grown dramatically. To identify interesting items in the vast stream of new content, providers must rely on peer recommendation to aggregate opinions of their many users. Due to human cognitive biases, the presentation order strongly affects how people allocate attention to the available content. Moreover, we can manipulate attention through the presentation order of items to change the way peer recommendation works. We experimentally evaluate this effect using Amazon Mechanical Turk. We find that different policies for ordering content can steer user attention so as to improve the outcomes of peer recommendation.

  6. Peer to Peer Networks Management Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Amad, Mourad; Aïssani, Djamil

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are based on the concept of resources localization and mutualisation in dynamic context. In specific environment such as mobile networks, characterized by high variability and dynamicity of network conditions and performances, where nodes can join and leave the network dynamically, resources reliability and availability constitute a critical issue. The resource discovery problem arises in the context of peer to peer (P2P) networks, where at any point of time a peer may be placed at or removed from any location over a general purpose network. Locating a resource or service efficiently is one of the most important issues related to peer-to-peer networks. The objective of a search mechanism is to successfully locate resources while incurring low overhead and low delay. This paper presents a survey on P2P networks management: classification, applications, platforms, simulators and security.

  7. Preparing the Field for Feasibility Testing of a Parenting Intervention for War-Affected Mothers in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Yumbul, Cigdem; Möllerherm, Julia; Ertl, Verena; Laura, Achan; Forgatch, Marion; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-10-26

    In this article, we discuss the successful implementation of an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for families affected by two decades of war in Northern Uganda. The adaptation and adoption of such interventions to support mental health and family functioning is widely endorsed by prevention scientists and considered a priority in global mental health. The preparation and early adoption phases of engaging with a highly vulnerable community affected by war trauma are documented in this paper along with a discussion of the steps taken to adapt a parenting intervention for cultural and contextual fit. This study is a component of an overall program of research aimed at reducing the long-term negative effects of war on parenting practices and childhood outcomes, which have considerable implications for preventing mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders. The processes described here cover a 4-year period culminating in the implementation of the nine-session Enhancing Family Connection intervention piloted with a group of 14 mothers. The lessons in cultural adaptation have been valuable and the feasibility results promising for further testing the intervention.

  8. Peer-review thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  9. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  10. Modeling structured peer-to-peer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Li; LEI Zhen-ming

    2006-01-01

    Distributed network architecture and dynamic change of nodes makes the operation of structured peer-to-peer networks unpredictable. This article aims to present a research on the running rule of structured peer-to-peer networks through a mathematical model. The proposed model provides a low-complexity means to estimate the performance of a structured peer-to-peer network from two aspects: the average existent time of a node and probability of returning to a temporarily steady state of network. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the proposed structured peer-to-peer network is suitable for those conditions where the frequency of node change is under limited value, and this value mainly depends on the initializing time of the node. Otherwise,structured peer-to-peer network can be abstracted as a network queuing system, which is composed of many node queuing systems in a meshy way and the relation between the throughput of the node system and network system is analyzed.

  11. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  12. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  13. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  14. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  15. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  16. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  17. Children's Development within Peer Groups: Using Composite Social Maps to Identify Peer Networks and to Study Their Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Presents a network-assessment technique and examples showing how group experiences affect children's behavior. Compares classical sociometry and the use of composite social maps. Discusses quantifying peer-network information, using peer-network profiles as context descriptors, and identifying change in children and networks. Shows that peer-group…

  18. Peer-to-Peer Science Data Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. B.; Holland, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of P2PSDE is to provide a convenient and extensible Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture that allows: distributed science-data services-seamlessly incorporating collaborative value-added services with search-oriented access to remote science data. P2PSDE features the real-time discovery of data-serving peers (plus peer-groups and peer-group services), in addition to the searching for and transferring of science data. These features are implemented using "Project JXTA", the first and only standardized set of open, generalized P2P protocols that allow arbitrary network devices to communicate and collaborate as peers. The JXTA protocols standardize the manner in which peers discover each other, self-organize into peer groups, advertise and discover network services, and securely communicate with and monitor each other-even across network firewalls. The key benefits include: Potential for dramatic improvements in science-data dissemination; Real-time-discoverable, potentially redundant (reliable), science-data services; Openness/Extensibility; Decentralized use of small, inexpensive, readily-available desktop machines; and Inherently secure-with ability to create variable levels of security by group.

  19. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  20. Peer Leadership Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  1. The Peer Influence Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Maureen T.

    1981-01-01

    Outlining a conceptual scheme specifying how peer influences mediate the effects of organizational characteristics of schools on student outcomes, with social psychological theories of interpersonal attraction and influence as the basis for the outline, is the aim of this paper. Selection of peers and influence of peers is outlined. (CE)

  2. Early sensory-perceptual processing deficits for affectively valenced inputs are more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with a history of violence than in their non-violent peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Foxe, John J; Czobor, Pal; Wylie, Glenn R; Kamiel, Stephanie M; Huening, Jessica; Nair-Collins, Mike; Krakowski, Menahem I

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are more prone to violent behaviors than the general population. It is increasingly recognized that processing of emotionally valenced stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, a deficit that may play a role in aggressive behavior. Our goal was to establish whether patients with a history of violence would show more severe deficits in processing emotionally valenced inputs than non-violent patients. Using event-related potentials, we measured how early during processing of emotional valence, evidence of aberrant function was observed. A total of 42 schizophrenia patients (21 with history of violence; 21 without) and 28 healthy controls were tested. Participants performed an inhibitory control task, making speeded responses to pictorial stimuli. Pictures occasionally repeated twice and participants withheld responses to these repeats. Valenced pictures from the International Affective Picture System were presented. Results in controls showed modulations during the earliest phases of sensory processing (schizophrenia group showed early differentiation. Non-violent patients showed earliest modulations beginning ∼150 ms. For violent patients, however, earliest modulations were further delayed and highly attenuated. The current study reveals sensory-perceptual processing dysfunction for negatively valenced inputs, which is particularly pronounced in aggressive patients.

  3. Adolescents Prefer More Immediate Rewards when in the Presence of Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…

  4. Nonverbal Assessment of Interpersonal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)

  5. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  6. Peer Feedback in Computer Aided College English Writing Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    This study is to examine the acceptability of peer feedback in computer aided college English writing instruction. For the whole writing procedure, subjects in language labs were to take preparation, writing and evaluation stages, undergoing three editions suggested by peer feedbacks. For the first time reading, peers would comment on such general scale as subject and content of drafts, and the second focuses on specific items, for example the morphological, lexical and syntactical aspects, e...

  7. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.

  8. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments.

  9. Managing Peer to Peer and Overlay Content Traffic in ISP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kaosoluchukwu Ogbuokebe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer content distribution systems are major source of traffic in today’s internet services, Peer-to-peer (P2P traffic consumes network resources without creating additional revenue. It is estimated that high percentage of broadband bandwidth is consumed by downloads of music, games, video, and other content. The use of peer to peer systems introduces many new problems related to traffic engineering or network optimization. This research work will investigate characteristics and behavioural interactions between Peer to Peer overlay content distribution operations, as well as suggests/discuss algorithms for optimizing P2P content distribution overlay infrastructure and the internet service provider “ISP” network. Techniques to harmonise the relationship between P2P overlay content distribution services and the underlying network is also discussed. Indeed the system performance of a P2P network is critically affected by its overload, thus the processing load of the peers, the communication load and the system management load, must be carefully handled to obtain satisfactory system performance.

  10. Peer Tutoring in the CIS Sandbox: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a student-created and facilitated peer-tutoring activity to assist first-year students in preparing for their final exam in an introductory information technology course. Tutors at the CIS Sandbox, a collaborative learning lab at an American university, offered a series of "Crunch Sessions" to their peers. This…

  11. Peer reviewing made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Neel; Ramsay, Rosalind; Tyrer, Peter; Casey, Patricia R.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review in scientific journals has existed for over 200 years. This process is currently the accepted way of assessing scientific manuscripts prior to publication for most journals. Despite this, little has been written about the process of peer reviewing, with hardly anything specific to psychiatric journals. This article answers fundamental questions related to peer reviewing and includes practical tips to writing reviews. It will be helpful for those keen on improving their knowledge a...

  12. The personal and contextual variables affecting the relationships between mentors and proteges in a regional program for the preparation of principals

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Fred W.

    1994-01-01

    The resurgence of public concern about the effectiveness of schools has brought with it a renewed appreciation of the importance of the principal in the educational process. Most preparation programs for school administrators now require some type of internship or field experience. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding about mentor-protege relationships and the personal and contextual factors affecting those relationships in a regional program for the ...

  13. An Evaluation of Participation in a Schools-Based Youth Mental Health Peer Education Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey

    2016-01-01

    The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…

  14. From Integrative to Game-Based Integrative Peer Response: High Ability versus Low Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, S. Y.; Chang, B.; Chan, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Peer response is useful to improve student writing. However, traditional peer response takes a single mode, which has some problems, such as effort for preparation of documents or ambiguous feedback. To address these problems, this study presents two peer response approaches, that is, an integrative approach and a game-based integrative approach.…

  15. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  16. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the des

  17. Peer Evaluation in CMC Learning Environment and Writing Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mellati; Marzieh Khademi

    2014-01-01

    Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were p...

  18. Blog enabled peer-to-peer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to simulate development of a community oral health plan using technology-based tools at the students' disposal. The specific research questions were: Will students use the Internet to identify community oral health issues and develop solutions to address the issues? Will blogs be a good tool to discuss and engage students in conversation with each other and to connect them with community oral health resources? How will blogging impact future academic and personal communications for the student? Dental hygiene students (n=30) participated in a community oral health course for 7 weeks. Students were asked to create a blog on which they would post weekly assignments and respond to 2 of their peer's blogs each week. Methods for data collection were post-treatment survey (15 items) analyzed for descriptive statistics and an analysis of written blog content according to a counting and coding scheme. Students used the Internet to identify issues and problem solving scenarios. Blogs were a good tool to engage students in discussions on oral health issues and peer-to-peer learning. Qualitative discourse analysis revealed evidence of critical thought and discourse throughout blog posts. Students referenced the Internet in blogs, while specific instances of resource sharing and provision of solutions to peers were less common. Students felt blogging encouraged them to engage with one another. Twenty percent of participating students have extended their use of blogging for both academic and personal purposes.

  19. Structured Query Translation in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Masud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a query translation mechanism between heterogeneous peers in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems (PDSSs. A PDSS combines a database management system with P2P functionalities. The local databases on peers are called peer databases. In a PDSS, each peer chooses its own data model and schema and maintains data independently without any global coordinator. One of the problems in such a system is translating queries between peers, taking into account both the schema and data heterogeneity. Query translation is the problem of rewriting a query posed in terms of one peer schema to a query in terms of another peer schema. This paper proposes a query translation mechanism between peers where peers are acquainted in data sharing systems through data-level mappings for sharing data.

  20. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness' of sample. Standard plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements. Parameters investigated related to sample preparation included consistent mechanical compression of samples within the sample cup and film thickness. Parameters investigated related to XRF analysis included the XRF machine selected and measurement exposure duration. As XRF is a non-destructive technique, wherever possible the same sample material was used to test different

  1. Disorders of sex development peer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz, Arlene B; Sharp, Melissa K; Sandberg, David E

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders describes peer support as integral to a comprehensive model of care for disorders of sex development (DSD). Affected adults and families look to peer support groups (PSG) for informational, emotional and social support to strengthen coping and assist with the process of shared and informed decision making. Peer support for DSD is relatively new and much can potentially be learned from studies examining the relationship between PSG characteristics and their benefits in other medical conditions. Healthcare providers' awareness of and attitudes toward PSG can influence the degree to which families value such support. This chapter begins with a brief history of peer support for DSD, followed by a summary of the evidence-based literature on PSG across varied medical conditions. We then summarize findings from a recently conducted poll of key DSD peer support and advocacy organizations. The chapter concludes with recommendations for further development of DSD-specific PSG, opportunities for more complete integration of peer support in the model of healthcare and the advantages of input of patient stakeholders in establishing clinical research priorities.

  2. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  3. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  4. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause perform

  5. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  6. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  7. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao;

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional skyl...

  8. Middle School Students' Perceptions of a Peer Who Stutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Healey, E. Charles; Kawai, Norimune; Rowland, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about how middle school students perceive a similar-aged peer who stutters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of stuttering frequency, Likert statement type (affective, behavioral, cognitive), and the gender of the listener on middle school students' perceptions of a peer who stutters. Sixty-four…

  9. Peer Relations of Adolescents from Nuclear and Separated Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Peter; Krettek, Christine; Walper, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    Examined peer relations of young people from nuclear families, step families, and single-parent families. Findings suggest peer relations were affected by parental separation only to a minor extent as compared to, e.g. gender- or age-specific effects. A central aspect of friendship quality, however, namely admiration by friends, clearly suffered…

  10. Technology and peer review: the open and participatory dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedeli Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peer review is a consolidated procedure in the academic context and its process affects various range of research outputs from project funding applications to manuscript publication. Peer review can be developed through modalities that imply a different level of transparency in the relationship between anonymity of the author and the reviewer/s.

  11. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations

  12. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and Dutch adolescents' relationship with peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bos; T. Sandfort

    2014-01-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because

  13. Young People Smokers’ Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. Objectives: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young

  14. Young People Smokers’ Reactions on Peer Influence Not to Smoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297964283; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071920129

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. Objectives: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young

  15. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the relations

  16. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres......På Bioanalytikeruddannelsen på Professionshøjskolen Metropol har vi på ti-ugers modulet ”Molekylærbiologiske og genetiske analyser”, udviklet en digital portfolio som didaktisk redskab. Portfolien er blevet afprøvet på fire forløb, og har været med til at skabe større engagement blandt de...

  17. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case......, the security protocol runs over one-hop radio links. We further show that mobility can be used for the periodic renewal of vital security information (e.g., the distribution of hash chain/Merkle tree roots). In the second scenario, we consider fully self-organized security: Users authenticate each other...

  18. Rebound peer review: a viable recourse for aggrieved authors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Chandan K

    2012-02-15

    Scholarly peer review represents the linchpin of academic publishing. Recognized benefits of the peer review system are manifold. Critics raise several valid concerns that deserve attention. Several studies show that the current peer review system lacks robustness and is subject to bias in favor of well-established research groups and "mainstream" theories. Hypotheses that harmonize with that of the leaders in the field are more likely to be accepted for publication in prestigious journals than heretic or radical ones. Then, there is the risk posed by the potentially unscrupulous reviewer. Alternatives to traditional peer review have been tried but the outcomes fall much short of expectations. Postreview rejection can be equally frustrating for the author and editor particularly when they are victims of limitations of the blinded forms of review. To provide recourse for authors who felt that their work has been rejected not because of the quality of science but because of the constraints of the peer review system, ARS introduces a rebound track for peer review ( www.liebertpub.com/ars ). The rebound peer review track is a two-tier process that represents a hybrid of partially blinded and open peer review systems. The goal is to make sure that every author has the opportunity to rescue their rejected work which they feel may have been victimized by the glitches of the current peer review system. I invite affected authors to make full use of this experimental mechanism so we know whether the rebound peer review should prevail as a viable recourse.

  19. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  20. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  1. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  2. Preparing for Ebola Virus Disease in West African countries not yet affected: perspectives from Ghanaian health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Yaw; Goldfrank, Lewis; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Soghoian, Sari; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-02-26

    The current Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged the social fabric of three West African countries and affected people worldwide. We report key themes from an agenda-setting, multi-disciplinary roundtable convened to examine experiences and implications for health systems in Ghana, a nation without cases but where risk for spread is high and the economic, social and political impact of the impending threat is already felt. Participants' personal stories and the broader debates to define fundamental issues and opportunities for preparedness focused on three inter-related themes. First, the dangers of the fear response itself were highlighted as a threat to the integrity and continuity of quality care. Second, healthcare workers' fears were compounded by a demonstrable lack of societal and personal protections for infection prevention and control in communities and healthcare facilities, as evidenced by an ongoing cholera epidemic affecting over 20,000 patients in the capital Accra alone since June 2014. Third, a lack of coherent messaging and direction from leadership seems to have limited coordination and reinforced a level of mistrust in the government's ability and commitment to mobilize an adequate response. Initial recommendations include urgent investment in the needed supplies and infrastructure for basic, routine infection control in communities and healthcare facilities, provision of assurances with securities for frontline healthcare workers, establishment of a multi-sector, "all-hazards" outbreak surveillance system, and engaging directly with key community groups to co-produce contextually relevant educational messages that will help decrease stigma, fear, and the demoralizing perception that the disease defies remedy or control. The EVD epidemic provides an unprecedented opportunity for West African countries not yet affected by EVD cases to make progress on tackling long-standing health systems weaknesses. This roundtable discussion

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  4. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  5. Production Conditions Affect the In Vitro Anti-Tumoral Effects of a High Concentration Multi-Strain Probiotic Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Van der Rest, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A careful selection of the probiotic agent, standardization of the dose and detailed characterization of the beneficial effects are essential when considering use of a probiotic for the dietary management of serious diseases. However, changes in the manufacturing processes, equipment or facilities can result in differences in the product itself due to the live nature of probiotics. The need to reconfirm safety and/or efficacy for any probiotic product made at a different factory is therefore mandatory. Recently, under the brand VSL#3®, a formulation produced by a manufacturer different from the previous one, has been commercialized in some European countries (the UK and Holland). VSL#3 is a high concentration multi-strain preparation which has been recognized by the main Gastroenterology Associations for the dietary management of pouchitis as well as ulcerative colitis. We have compared the “original” VSL#3 produced in USA with the “newfound” VSL#3 produced in Italy. According to our results, the “newfound” VSL#3 has 130–150% more “dead bacteria” compared to the “original” product, raising concerns for the well-known association between dead microbes with adverse effects. The abilities of bacterial lysates from the two formulations to influence in vitro viability and proliferation of different tumor cell lines also resulted different. The repair of previously scratched monolayers of various adherent tumor cell lines (i.e. HT1080, and Caco-2 cells) was inhibited more significantly by the “original” VSL#3 when compared to the “newfound” VSL#3. Tumor cell cycle profile, in particular cell cycle arrest and apoptotic death of the cancer cells, further confirms that the “original” VSL#3 has a better functional profile than the “newfound” VSL#3, at least in in vitro. Our data stress the importance of the production conditions for the “newfound” VSL#3 considering that this product is intended to be used for the dietary management

  6. Template Preparation Affects 16S rRNA High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of Phyllosphere Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllosphere microbial communities are highly diverse and have important ecological implications; in that context, bacterial identification based on 16S rRNA genes is an important research issue. In studies of phyllosphere microbial communities, microporous filtration and centrifugation are used to collect microorganism samples, but it is unclear which one has a better collection efficiency. In this study, we compared these two microorganism collection methods and investigated the effects of the DNA extraction process on the estimation of microbial community composition and organization. The following four treatments were examined: (A filtration, resuspension, and direct PCR; (B filtration, DNA isolation, and PCR; (C centrifugation, resuspension, and direct PCR; (D centrifugation, DNA isolation, and PCR. Our results showed that the percentage of chloroplast sequence contaminants was affected by the DNA extraction process. The bacterial compositions clearly differed between treatments A and C, suggesting that the collection method has an influence on the determination of community structure. Compared with treatments B and D, treatments A and C resulted in higher Shannon index values, indicating that the DNA extraction process might reduce the observed phyllosphere microbial alpha diversity. However, with respect to community structure, treatments B and D yielded very similar results, suggesting that the DNA extraction process erases the effect of the collection method. Our findings provide key information to ensure accurate estimates of diversity and community composition in studies of phyllosphere microorganisms.

  7. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  8. Language Skills, Peer Rejection, and the Development of Externalizing Behavior from Kindergarten to Fourth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with poorer language skills are more likely to show externalizing behavior problems, as well as to become rejected by their peers. Peer rejection has also been found to affect the development of externalizing behavior. This study explored the role of peer rejection in the link between language skills and the development of…

  9. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking Even When the Probabilities of Negative Outcomes Are Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…

  10. Metal availability in technosols prepared with composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop affected by the presence of barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Alejandro; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge (SSC), and limestone outcrop residue (LOR), is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Both wastes are used to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of impoverished soils (Karaca 2004; Jordão et al. 2006; Lovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost may have some negative effects on the environment (Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004; Elridge et al. 2009). Moreover, plants cultivated in technosols can produced changes on the availability of essential and harmful metals and, for this reason, is necessary to made studies to evaluate the availability of metals and the effect of plants in their mobility and toxicity. In this experiment, it has been analyzed the effect of barley in metals availability in four technosols prepared mixing volumes of LOR (100, 98, 95 and 90 %) and SSC (0, 2, 5 and 10%). To determine the solubility and availability, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured by Lindsay-Norvell extraction procedure. For each technosoil, tree pots with barley (three plants) and three without barley were checked after 3 months A of them were irrigated with 1.5 L/week of tap water. At the end of this time, the metal solubility and availability were higher in soils with the presence of barley than the others. This was especially notorious for Fe and Zn. The presence of root exudates and the reduction of lixiviation due to plant transpiration can explain the highest presence of metals. This result may be considered in rhizosphere related to possible metal toxicity. Keywords: compost, limestone outcrop residues, heavy metals, barley. References: Eldridge SM, Chan KY, Barchia I, Pengelly PK, Katupitiya S, Davis JM (2009) A comparison of surface applied granulated biosolids and poultry litter in terms of risk to runoff water quality on turf farms in Western Sydney, Australia. Agr Ecosyst Environ doi:10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.007 Iovieno

  11. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. PMID:26171331

  12. Measuring change in vulnerable adolescents: Findings from a peer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... as well as information and decision-making skills otherwise limited by scarce social and material resources. ... at norms and peer group influences that affect health behaviours and attitudes.

  13. Changing the social contexts of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Hoglund, Wendy

    2006-02-01

    While school-based prevention programs often target deficits in individual children's social skills in order to limit their aggression or exposure to peer victimization, there is increasing evidence that school-wide and classroom-level factors can affect the success of these programs. We describe the WITS Primary Program which takes a community development approach for the prevention of victimization. It was designed for kindergarten to grade 3 students, and aims to create responsive communities for the prevention of peer victimization by engaging the support of parents, teachers, school counselors, older student, and emergency services personnel. Evidence supporting the program's feasibility and effectiveness are reported. The prevention of peer victimization and bullying may require targeted programs with demonstrated support from many adults in young children's social networks.

  14. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  15. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  16. Peer-to-Peer Data Mining, Privacy Issues, and Games

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increasing popularity in many distributed applications such as file-sharing, network storage, web caching, sear- ching and...

  17. 同伴依恋在受艾滋病影响儿童自尊和学校适应间的中介作用%The mediation effect of the peer attachment between the self-esteem and the school adjustment of the children affected by AIDS/HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳辉; 李巧灵; 郭腾飞; 赵俊峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应的影响及同伴依恋在该过程中的作用.方法 从河南省某受艾滋病影响严重地区选取符合条件的250名受艾滋病影响儿童作为研究对象,用自尊量表、同伴依恋量表和学校适应量表进行调查.结果 ①受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应具有显著的正向影响(β=0.227,P<0.01).②受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对同伴依恋具有显著的正向影响(β=0.236,P<0.01).③在控制同伴依恋的间接作用后,自尊对学校适应的影响仍然显著(β=0.145,P<0.05),表明同伴依恋在自尊影响学校适应的内在机制中起部分中介作用.结论 受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应具有显著的影响,自尊既可以直接对学校适应产生影响,又可以通过同伴依恋的间接作用产生影响.%Objective To explore the mediation effect of the peer attachment between the self-esteem and the school adjustment of the children affected by AIDS/HIV.Methods 250 children affected by the AIDS/HIV were investigated in the research in a district affected by AIDS/HIV in the Henan province.Self-esteem scale,peer attachment questionnaire and school adjustment questionnaire was adopted in the study.Results ①Self-esteem had a positive significant effect on the school adjustment (β=0.227,P<0.01).(②)self-esteem had a positive significant effect on the peer attachment (β=0.236,P< 0.01).(③When controlled the indirect effect of peer attachment,the effect of the self-esteem on the school adjustment had still been significant (β =0.145,P<0.05),it proved that the peer attachment played a partly mediation between the relationship of the self-esteem and the school adjustment.Conclusion Self-esteem has a positive significant effect on the school adjustment; and self-esteem can not only affect the school adjustment directly,but also affect the school adjustment through the peer attachment.

  18. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.

  19. Reflections on Peer Teaching and Peer Assessment: An Undergraduate Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A study of 14 students in a business administration course shows that peer teaching and peer evaluation may enhance student motivation, satisfaction, and achievement. Learning about oneself is found to be a valuable outcome of peer teaching. Student involvement in determining evaluation criteria is encouraged. (MSE)

  20. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascual-Ezama

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1. Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2, suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3.

  1. Peer effects in unethical behavior: standing or reputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ezama, David; Dunfield, Derek; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Prelec, Drazen

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker's self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals' behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3).

  2. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  3. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  4. Peer assessment in het basisonderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée

    2011-01-01

    Meusen-Beekman, K., & Joosten-ten Brinke, D. (2010). Peer assessment in het basisonderwijs. Het effect van peer assessmenttraining op het geven van een spreekbeurt. Examens, Tijdschrift voor de toetspraktijk, 3, 13-16.

  5. Perchlorate Peer Review Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA believes that peer review is an important component of the scientific process. EPA will ask peer reviewers to comment on products that the agency will use to derive a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) for perchlorate.

  6. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  7. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  8. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  9. Peer Reviewer Recognition 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Dear CPCJ Peer Reviewers, As we start 2017, it is again time to say thank you to all the 2016 peer reviewers. Published bimonthly with a global readership, CPCJ is the official organ of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. For the six issues of Volume 53, 2016, 114 articles were published in 963 pages with 756 print pages and 207 online-only pages. Three hundred and forty-six manuscripts were received and 321 were processed by 23 Section Editors and reviewed by 355 peer reviewers. Through your collective efforts and expertise, the quality of CPCJ continues to grow. The journal website had a 0.5% increase in the number of total site visits, with 142,916 visits (as compared to 142,156 in 2015), and the AllenTrack submission site also experienced an increase in usage-new users increased 3.4% during 2016, from 1203 to 1244. Together with the entire editorial team, Dr. Stephen Conley, the Associate Editor of CPCJ, and I would like to thank all the peer reviewers for your tremendous work for the journal over the past twelve months. Because of you our journal is growing and poised to undergo a critical metamorphosis. CPCJ is our journal and it will serve the global readership even better on all matters related to craniofacial conditions by increasing in both quantity and quality in the years to come. Sincerely, Jack C. Yu, Editor, CPCJ Stephen F. Conley, Associate Editor, CPCJ.

  10. Computerized Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the introduction of a computerized peer assessment system as part of an undergraduate module in computer studies in the United Kingdom. Analyzes student responses to modification of the tutor-student relationship to a student-student relationship for assessment purposes, discusses plagiarism and the Web, and investigates effects on…

  11. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  12. Children's Perceptions of Hypothetical Peers With Undesirable Characteristics: Role of the Peers' Desire to Change, Source of Effort to Change, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Wadian, Taylor W; Jones, Tucker L; Langley, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    The present study, involving sixth- to eighth-grade students, is an extension of a prior investigation (Barnett, Livengood, Sonnentag, Barlett, & Witham, 2010) that examined children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with various undesirable characteristics. Results indicate that children's perceptions of hypothetical peers with an undesirable characteristic are influenced by the peers' desire to change, the source of effort to change, and the peers' success or failure in changing the characteristic. The children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who were successful in overcoming an undesirable characteristic than peers who were unsuccessful. Regardless of the peers' outcome, the children anticipated responding more favorably to peers who tried to change than peers who relied on the effort of adult authorities to motivate change. The children perceived successful peers as experiencing more positive affect than their unsuccessful counterparts, especially if the success was presented as a fulfillment of the peers' desire to change their undesirable characteristic. Finally, the children's ratings reflected the belief that, among peers who failed to change their undesirable characteristic, lacking the desire to change increases the relative likelihood that the characteristic will be permanent.

  13. Further thoughts on peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan; noamsoker

    2016-04-01

    In reply to the news article “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too quickly (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17, http://ow.ly/Ya9gg).

  14. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  15. Peer Coaching: Teachers Supporting Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Mary M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes peer coaching as a method for teacher improvement and offers guidelines for establishing a peer coaching program for early childhood and early childhood special education teachers and related services professionals. It also identifies common problems and possible solutions of peer coaching programs. Sample forms for use in…

  16. Peer review online, wat werkt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J.; van den Berg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Bij peer review geven studenten elkaar feedback op elkaars werkstukken. Er bestaan verschillende systemen om dit online te organiseren. In deze workshop gaan we in op selectiecriteria voor peer review systemen. In het PROOF-project (Peer Review Online Opschalen en Faciliteren) is gewerkt met twee so

  17. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  18. The impact of active and passive peer influence on young adult smoking: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-03-01

    Peers influence adolescent and young adult smoking, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand whether the current assumption of peer pressure is valid, or whether an alternative explanation as imitation is more appropriate. We examined whether passive (imitation) and/or active (pressure) peer influence affects young adult smoking. An experiment was conducted among 68 daily-smoking students aged 16-24. The actual study aim was masked. Participants had to do a 30-min music task with a confederate. The experiment consisted of a 2 (smoking condition: confederate smokes or not) by 2 (pressure condition: confederate offers the participant a cigarette or not) factorial design, resulting in four conditions: (1) no smoking and no pressure (N=15); (2) smoking but no pressure (N=16); (3) pressure but no smoking (N=20); and (4) smoking and pressure (N=17). The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during this music assignment. Peer smoking significantly predicted the total number of cigarettes smoked by young adults while peer pressure did not. The interaction effect of peer pressure and peer smoking was not significant. Peer pressure did not have a significant additional contribution, over and above smoking of the peer. Passive (imitation) peer influence affected young adult smoking rather than active (pressure) peer influence. Thus, smoking cessation efforts should aim at preventing interaction with smoking peers and raising awareness about its impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Peer Revision as a Strategy in the ESL Writing Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attan Anie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the issues affecting the efficacy of peer revision in the writing classroom is that of the knowledge of peer reviewers. Do peer reviewers have sufficient knowledge of content and language to critique the works of their peer writers? Do they provide feedback on content as much as they do for language? Proponents of social constructivism posit that learners learn best when they are involved in exploring, discovering and transforming their ideas and those of their peers through interaction, negotiation and collaboration. In the writing classroom, student writers and reviewers are given the opportunity to build meaning based on their own experiences. This study examined the types of comments made by Malay ESL peer reviewers and their perceived usefulness towards improving peer writers’ composition. Comments on peer writing were collected from ten upper secondary school peer reviewers for equal number of peer writers through reviewer feedback form, peer conferencing session, reviewer field notes and writers’ multiple drafts. Findings of the study show that peer reviewers were able to provide revisions in both areas of content and language. Additionally, the strategies used to providing feedback on content included alteration and reordering, clarification and suggestion, as well as praise and criticism. Overall peer revision has a positive impact on writing and this has implications for teaching and learning, more so for teachers who are overburdened with marking.

  20. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  1. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  2. Security properties in an open peer-to-peer network

    CERN Document Server

    Lalande, Jean-Francois; Toinard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to address new requirements of confidentiality, integrity and availability properties fitting to peer-to-peer domains of resources. The enforcement of security properties in an open peer-topeer network remains an open problem as the literature have mainly proposed contribution on availability of resources and anonymity of users. That paper proposes a novel architecture that eases the administration of a peer-to-peer network. It considers a network of safe peer-to-peer clients in the sense that it is a commune client software that is shared by all the participants to cope with the sharing of various resources associated with different security requirements. However, our proposal deals with possible malicious peers that attempt to compromise the requested security properties. Despite the safety of an open peer-to-peer network cannot be formally guaranteed, since a end user has privileges on the target host, our solution provides several advanced security enforcement. First, it enables to for...

  3. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  4. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results fr...... a case study on social robots as persuasive social actors in education an extension of the persuasive principles is proposed and related design guidelines for Persuasive Technology as social actors in teaching are presented....

  5. 2015 Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    In the spring and summer of 2015, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO or the Office) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an external peer review of the projects in its research, development and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio. The Office manages a diverse portfolio of technologies across the spectrum of applied RD&D within the dynamic context of changing budgets and Administration priorities. The Office portfolio is organized according to the biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain—from the feedstock source to the end user (see Figure 1)—with major focus on feedstock supply and biomass conversion. The 2015 Project Peer Review took place March 23-27, 2015, outside of Washington, D.C., in Alexandria, Virginia, and evaluated most of the publicly funded projects in BETO’s portfolio. The subsequent Program Management Review took place on June 25, 2015, in Washington, D.C., and provided an Office- level assessment of strategic planning and programmatic initiatives. The peer review process enables external stakeholders to provide feedback on the responsible use of taxpayer funding and develop recommendations for the most efficient and effective ways to accelerate the development of an advanced bioenergy industry. The planning and execution of these reviews was completed over the course of 10 months, and this report includes the results of both events.

  6. Peer Feedback in Computer Aided College English Writing Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to examine the acceptability of peer feedback in computer aided college English writing instruction. For the whole writing procedure, subjects in language labs were to take preparation, writing and evaluation stages, undergoing three editions suggested by peer feedbacks. For the first time reading, peers would comment on such general scale as subject and content of drafts, and the second focuses on specific items, for example the morphological, lexical and syntactical aspects, etc. To compare students’ attitudes towards the trial, before and after the experiment, Pre-Questionnaire and Post-Questionnaire were adopted to analyze differences. From the frequency of students’ views on ten statements, it is drawn that majority of subjects accept and enjoy the innovative writing process, since peer feedback is an essential and encouraging part for writing.

  7. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  8. Collaborative work model based on peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-zhong; FU Li; ZHANG Xuan-peng; XU Chuan-yun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporated peer-to-peer (P2P) concept with agent technology and put forward a collaborative work model based on peer-to-peer network (P2PCWM) after investigating into business demands of modern enterprises and problems prevailing in mainstream collaborative work systems based on central server. Theoretically, the P2PCWM can effectively overcome the problems in a conventional system with a central server and meet the practical demands of modern businesses. It is distinguished from other systems by its features of equality, openness, promptness, fairness, expandability and convenience.

  9. The missing piece syndrome in peer-to-peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical protocols for peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet divide files to be shared into pieces. New peers strive to obtain a complete collection of pieces from other peers and from a seed. In this paper we investigate a problem that can occur if the seeding rate is not large enough. The problem is that, even if the statistics of the system are symmetric in the pieces, there can be symmetry breaking, with one piece becoming very rare. If peers depart after obtaining a complete collection, they can tend to leave before helping other peers receive the rare piece. Assuming that peers arrive with no pieces, there is a single seed, random peer contacts are made, random useful pieces are downloaded, and peers depart upon receiving the complete file, the system is stable if the seeding rate (in pieces per time unit is greater than the arrival rate, and is unstable if the seeding rate is less than the arrival rate. The result persists for any piece selection policy that selects from among useful pieces, such as rarest first, and it persists with the use of network coding.

  10. The Role of Self- and Peer Assessment in Dental Students' Reflective Practice Using Standardized Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Karin K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the nature of the role played by self- and peer assessment in the development of dental students' reflective practice skills and the value gained through structured encounters with standardized patients. Four standardized patient encounters in an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) format served as a learning experience for students to demonstrate decision making and communication skills in complex scenarios regarding issues of ethics. Self- and peer assessment and peer-to-peer discourse were used to enhance student reflection. A sample of 16 peer pairs was randomly selected from the population of 108 fourth-year students who participated in the 2014 Clinical Dental Ethics OSCE. Data were collected from self- and peer assessment forms. Five overall performance themes (personal affect, verbal communication, professional demeanor, relationship-building, and patient management) and three student learning themes (application and knowledge, ways to change, and impressed with peer/increased confidence in self) were identified. The results showed that peer assessment ratings were consistently higher than those in the self-assessments, but overall the students deemed both their peers' and their own decision making and communication skills to be quite good. These students rated their experience with the OSCE and self- and peer assessments as positive, appreciating the importance of reflection and learning from their peers. These results provide support for the continued formative use of standardized patient OSCEs and self- and peer assessment to help students develop skills in decision making, communication, professionalism, and reflection.

  11. Preparing towards Preventing and Containing an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak: What Socio-cultural Practices May Affect Containment Efforts in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices.We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region with community members (4 in each region and nurses (1 in each region were conducted. In addition, forty (40 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis.We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health.The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social mobilization to modify these

  12. Depressed Adolescents' Pupillary Response to Peer Acceptance and Rejection: The Role of Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P

    2016-06-01

    Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback.

  13. Registered nurse peer evaluation in the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Melanie B

    2006-09-01

    ANNUAL PERFORMANCE evaluations can be difficult to prepare and may rely, in part, on anecdotal information. PERIOPERATIVE RNs at CHRISTUS St Patrick Hospital, Lake Charles, La, developed and implemented a peer evaluation as part of nurses' annual performance evaluations. THE EVALUATION FORMS created were considered to be useful and fair by both staff members and managers.

  14. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  15. Hybrid Peer-to-peer Streaming System for Mobile Peers with Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study in hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P streaming system, which includes fixed peers and mobile peers in the same network, and propose a flow rate allocation algorithm to optimize the streaming system. In the proposed algorithm, based on transcoding technique, we describe how to exchange original and transcoded data among video source server, fixed and mobile peers. The purpose of our algorithm is to reduce the bandwidth demand of video source server, while ensuring the flow rate of video data sending to any peer no less than its video coding rate. We compare the performance of P2P streaming system using our algorithm with traditional design in various situations in the simulation experiment, and test how much benefit the system can get from the new algorithm. The results show that, if the flow rate of video data is allocated appropriately, better performance of streaming system can be achieved.

  16. Managing a Team of Former Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Becoming a manager of former peers is a common occurrence in medical practice management, but it can be awkward and challenging. This article describes the specific staff management challenges that recently promoted practice managers encounter. It urges promoted managers to seek support outside the practice through new friendships, mentoring, and leadership networks. This article also describes how best to announce the promotion and suggests that new managers hold one-on-one meetings with each employee. It offers the agenda for those meetings and for the manager's first whole-team leadership kickoff meeting. This article also describes smart first tasks for a promoted practice manager and considers the possibility that some employees may not come on board with the changing social and leadership structures in the practice, and what to do about them. Finally, this article suggests that preparation to become a medical practice manager should start early. It offers a strategy for handling former peers who continue to overshare personal information with the manager. It describes how to handle four common authority challenges newly promoted practice managers may face, with sample dialogue. And it suggests a social media strategy medical practice managers can use when they are connected electronically to their former peers.

  17. Peer-to-Peer System Design: A Socioeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, R.

    2011-01-01

    It has gradually become clear that Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems should not be conceived in the manner of conventional computing systems. Consequently, over the years, ideas from social science in general and economics in particular have made their way to P2P systems to deal with the novel challenges

  18. Network-aware SuperPeers-Peers Geometric Overlay Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lua, E.K.; Zhou, X.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks can be utilized to deploy massive Internet overlay services such as multicast, content distribution, file sharing, etc. efficiently without any underlying network support. The crucial step to meet this objective is to design network-aware overlay network

  19. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  20. Peer-to-Peer System Design: A Socioeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, R.

    2011-01-01

    It has gradually become clear that Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems should not be conceived in the manner of conventional computing systems. Consequently, over the years, ideas from social science in general and economics in particular have made their way to P2P systems to deal with the novel challenges t

  1. Network-aware SuperPeers-Peers Geometric Overlay Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lua, E.K.; Zhou, X.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks can be utilized to deploy massive Internet overlay services such as multicast, content distribution, file sharing, etc. efficiently without any underlying network support. The crucial step to meet this objective is to design network-aware overlay network topologie

  2. Computer-Mediated Peer-to-Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Francesco; Tan, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    An online collaborative writing project was carried between two report writing classes from two separate institutions, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Singapore Polytechnic (SP). The aim was to test how successfully a peer-to-peer mentoring system could be established using asynchronous and synchronous communication features. The…

  3. Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of high-bandwidth Internet connections has enabled new applications like the online delivery of high-quality audio and video content. Conventional server-client approaches place the entire burden of delivery on the content provider's server, making these services expensive to provide. A peer-to-peer approach allows end…

  4. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  5. Network-aware SuperPeers-Peers Geometric Overlay Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lua, E.K.; Zhou, X.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks can be utilized to deploy massive Internet overlay services such as multicast, content distribution, file sharing, etc. efficiently without any underlying network support. The crucial step to meet this objective is to design network-aware overlay network topologie

  6. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had…

  7. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had…

  8. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  9. Fitting in: exploring the emotional dimension of adolescent peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrook, J T

    2000-01-01

    The general public and academic researchers alike have long recognized the importance of peer relations in the lives of young people. However, three issues are notably absent from the dominant models of peer influence. First, these models neglect the affective dimension of a youth's experiences. Second, the models tend to ascribe a passive role to the youth, a stance also reflected methodologically by the absence of the youth's voice. Third, the motivational component remains unspecified; that is, why does a youth conform to peer influence? Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, the present study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. The findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which may be indicative of shame. Thus, shame-related feelings may be instrumental in motivating individuals to conform. A variety of directions for future research are suggested.

  10. Measuring peer caring behaviors of nursing students: scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Lin; Turton, Michael A; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Hsu, Chin-Lung

    2007-01-01

    Caring is one of the most important domains of nursing research, peer caring among student nurses, and its potential effects on nurse caring behaviors remains largely unexplored. Few tools in the literature target peer caring interactions, and which were either irrelevant to our research purpose or culturally inappropriate for nursing student population in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument to measure peer caring behavior from the student perspective and to offer a descriptive answer to "what is peer caring in Taiwan." The study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods in developing the "Peer Caring Measurement (PCM)" questionnaire. Students from a 5-year associate degree nursing program in a university of technology in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Thirteen first- through fourth-year student volunteers between the ages of 16 and 20 were interviewed to explore caring behavior in student peer-to-peer interactions. Two classes from each of the first, second, third, and fourth year students, a total of 360 students were randomly selected to assess the internal consistency of "PCM", and 47 first-year students were conveniently selected to examine the stability of the tool. Interviews were conducted in an unstructured manner. Qualitative data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. The questionnaire survey was used to assess the validity and reliability of "PCM". A 17-item "PCM" was developed; the content validity, construct validity, and reliability of the tool were ensured by expert review, factor analysis, and internal consistency. Three factors, labeled assistant caring, academic caring, and affective caring, accounted for 63.197% of the variance. The "PCM" addressed the multidimensional construct of peer caring. It was validated in a Chinese language version and can be used in college settings to evaluate student interactions and their peer caring behaviors.

  11. Resurrecting the chimera: Progressions in parenting and peer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Snyder, James J; Patterson, Gerald R; Pauldine, Michael R; Chaw, Yvonne; Elish, Katie; Harris, Jasmine B; Richardson, Eric B

    2016-08-01

    This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.

  12. Improving your journal article using feedback from peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2014-09-30

    While preparation of a journal article for submission may often include informal review by colleagues, an article is not accepted for publication until it has been formally peer reviewed. Peer review is the process whereby journal editors ask expert reviewers to examine the work submitted and prepare a report on its suitability for publication. Two or more revisions of the article may be required following peer review, with the author reworking the article in the light of feedback received on each occasion. This can be challenging for some authors, but used well, it offers a chance to improve the work to the required standard of the journal, and help the author present a more precise and coherent account of the arguments. The extent to which the author responds to the critical commentary of peer reviewers is important, because this may determine whether or not the article is published. This article explores the aims of peer reviewers and recommends ways in which authors can respond to the feedback provided.

  13. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  14. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...

  15. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  16. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume......Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...

  17. Peer review in cardiothoracic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-01

    A variety of peer review methods can be used as part of quality assurance and quality improvement in cardiothoracic radiology. Traditionally, peer review in radiology is a retrospective process relying primarily on review of previously interpreted studies at the time of follow-up or additional imaging. However, peer review can be enhanced with other methods such as double reads, focused practice review, practice audit, and correlation with operative and pathologic findings. Furthermore, feedback from referring physicians can be extremely useful in improving the quality of a radiology practice. This article discusses peer review in radiology with a focus on cardiothoracic imaging. Types of peer review, advantages and shortcomings, and future challenges are addressed.

  18. Learning clinical skills in the simulation suite: the lived experiences of student nurses involved in peer teaching and peer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Dianne; Thomson, Anna; Jackson, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of peer teaching and assessment are well documented within nurse education literature. However, research to date has predominantly focused on the advantages and disadvantages for the inexperienced learner, with a dearth of knowledge relating to the perceptions of senior nursing students involved in teaching their peers. This study sought to investigate the student experience of taking part in a peer teaching and assessment initiative to include the perceptions of both first year nursing students and second/third year participants. Data were collected via open-ended questionnaires and analysed with qualitative 'Framework' analysis. This initiative received a generally positive response both from students being taught and also from those acting as facilitators. Perceived benefits included the social learning experience, development of teaching skills, self-awareness and the opportunity to communicate both good and bad news. Suggestions for improvement included additional time working in small groups, specific supplementary learning materials and the introduction of peer teaching and assessment into other areas of the Adult Nursing Programme. Peer teaching and assessment principles represent valuable strategies which can be utilised in nurse education to develop clinical skills and prepare nurses for real-life scenarios. Further research needs to investigate how to enhance the student learning experience and to fully exploit the potential for simulated experience to prepare students for their future role as registered nurses in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovative Rated-Resource Peer-to-Peer Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2206

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a server documents on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but it was complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed which attaches ratings to the uploaded document directly. These ratings then become as element in its XML advertisement which has several child elements for information classification. The attached element is extracted from the advertisement in real time and the document is then sorted accordingly. Therefore, the information can be easily sorted based on a request by a peer according to the relevance of matter. The information regarding relevance is obtained by the peer issuing the query. This research leads to a smart P...

  20. Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Sharing based on Social Norms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data shows that in the absence of incentives, a peer participating in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network wishes to free-riding. Most solutions for providing incentives in P2P networks are based on direct reciprocity, which are not appropriate for most P2P multimedia sharing networks due to the unique features exhibited by such networks: large populations of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, asymmetric interests of peers, network errors, and multiple concurrent transactions. In this paper, we design and rigorously analyze a new family of incentive protocols that utilizes indirect reciprocity which is based on the design of efficient social norms. In the proposed P2P protocols, the social norms consist of a social strategy, which represents the rule prescribing to the peers when they should or should not provide content to other peers, and a reputation scheme, which rewards or punishes peers depending on whether they comply or not with the social strategy. We first define the concept of a sustainab...

  1. Data Management in Peer-to-Peer Environment:A Perspective of BestPeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU AoYing(周傲英); QIAN WeiNing(钱卫宁); ZHOU ShuiGeng(周水庚); LING Bo(凌波); XU LinHao(徐林昊); Ng Wee Siong(黄维雄); Ooi Beng Chin(黄铭钧); Tan Kian-Lee(陈建利)

    2003-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems have attracted much attention in academic community and industry circles due to their promising applications in various domains. This paper presents the authors' research efforts on introducing complex query capabilities in a P2P environment consisting of numerous peers with large volume of data. An underlying hybrid P2P computing platform, named BestPeer is described first. The connection among peers within BestPeer is selfconfigurable through maintaining the nearest neighbor of peers, and the agent techniques employed in the system ensure its capability of providing sophisticated services. The designs of three P2P data management systems which are all based on BestPeer are described in detail. They provide support for information retrieval, query processing and Web services respectively. Advantages and limitations are discussed, while ongoing work is presented. Current systems can provide basic functions for keyword-based search, SQL-like query processing, and Web services querying and discovery. Some further topics on providing fully-fledged data management functionalities for P2P distributed computing systems with security guarantee are also discussed.

  2. Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yi Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks often means extra cost in terms of transfer efficiency, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy consideration. By comparison and analysis of existing approaches,we investigate the properties of unstructured P2P anonymity, and summarize current attack models on these designs. Most of these approaches are path-based, which require peers to pre-construct anonymous paths before transmission, thus suffering significant overhead and poor reliability. We also discuss the open problems in this field and propose several future research directions.

  3. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bivas Mitra; Sujoy Ghose; Niloy Ganguly; Fernando Peruani

    2008-08-01

    Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as degree-dependent node failure. Lately, superpeer networks are becoming the most widely used topology among the p2p networks. Therefore, we perform the stability analysis of superpeer networks as a case study. We validate the analytically derived results with the help of simulation.

  4. An initial peer configuration algorithm for multi-streaming peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The growth of the Internet technology enables us to use network applications for streaming audio and video. Especially, real-time streaming services using peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are currently emerging. An important issue on P2P streaming is how to construct a logical network (overlay network) on a physical network (IP network). In this paper, we propose an initial peer configuration algorithm for a multi-streaming peer-to-peer network. The proposed algorithm is based on a mesh-pull approach where any node has multiple parent and child nodes as neighboring nodes, and content transmitted between these neighboring nodes depends on their parent-child relationships. Our simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the number of joining node and traffic load.

  5. Peer-to-Peer Secure Multi-Party Numerical Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny

    2008-01-01

    We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and numerous other tasks, where the computing nodes would like to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we examine several possible approaches and discuss their feasibility. Among the possible approaches, we identify a single approach which is both scalable and theoretically secure. An additional novel contribution is that we show how to compute the neighborhood based collaborative filtering, a state-of-the-art collaborative filtering algorithm, winner of the Netflix progress ...

  6. Willingness to Communicate: Tracking Movement through Peer Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Niknejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer assessment on willingness to communicate (WTC among Iranian advanced EFL learners in the context of classroom. In order to serve the main purpose of the study, two groups of advanced learners participated in this study. Primarily, a pre-test was administered to both groups, then the participants of experimental group received a treatment of 10 sessions. In these sessions the participants assessed their peers according to the peer assessment form. On the other hand, the participants of control group did not receive any treatment. The quasi-experimental, pre-test, and post-test were applied to these two groups. The obtained data was analyzed with two sample independent t-test statistical methods. The results revealed a meaningful significant difference among Iranian advanced EFL learners' willingness to communicate of the participants who assessed their peer's performances, so peer assessment significantly affected their achievement in oral communication. Teachers deal with learners that are willing to communicate orally in their foreign language, while some learners do not use their foreign language, even with high linguistic competence. Peer assessment can be a good form of assessment to enhance willingness to communicate among EFL learners.

  7. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard T. Klapwijk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Additionally, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a ‘proself’ orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than ‘prosocial’ participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction.

  8. Peer to peer networking in Ethernet broadband access networks

    OpenAIRE

    Damola, Ayodele

    2005-01-01

    The use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications is growing dramatically, particularly for sharing content such as video, audio, and software. The traffic generated by these applications represents a large proportion of Internet traffic. For the broadband access network providers P2P traffic presents several problems. This thesis identifies the performance and business issues that P2P traffic has on broadband access networks employing the McCircuit separation technique. A mechanism for managing P2P...

  9. Stature System Protocols for Peer to Peer Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Thadani; Vinit Gupta; IndraJeet Rajput

    2014-01-01

    There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advan...

  10. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  11. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  12. Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Niewalda; Ines Jeske; Birgit Michels; Bertram Gerber

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group ...

  13. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  14. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  15. An Analysis of Peer-Submitted and Peer-Reviewed Answer Rationales, in an Asynchronous Peer Instruction Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…

  16. Helicopter Parenting: The Effect of an Overbearing Caregiving Style on Peer Attachment and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…

  17. Positive Teacher and Peer Relations Combine to Predict Primary School Students' Academic Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…

  18. Attitude of Nigerian Secondary School Teachers to Peer Evaluation of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…

  19. Impact of Discussion on Peer Evaluations: Perceptions of Low Achievement and Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenecke, Todd M.; Waas, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors placed 5th-grade students into small groups of 3 in order to examine the impact of group discussion and displayed effort on children's evaluations of a low-achieving peer. Low effort by a target peer resulted in negative evaluations across attributional, affective, help-giving, and social response dimensions. Children who participated…

  20. Peer Mentors in a Postsecondary Education Program for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Justina A.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cihak, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Few researchers have examined peer mentors in a postsecondary program for students with intellectual disabilities. Peer mentors (N=39) were surveyed regarding their TypeFocus personality type and how the experience of mentoring affected them. The mentoring experience was assessed qualitatively and results are reported. Results indicated a strong…

  1. Positive Teacher and Peer Relations Combine to Predict Primary School Students' Academic Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…

  2. Peer bullying in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Gökler

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc.The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.

  3. Peer bullying in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Gökler

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.

  4. Peer Communication through Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Steven D.; Anderson, Janice

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of mobile technologies, students' access to computing devices is omnipresent, as is their ability to collaborate through multiple modalities. This 21st-century affordance has generated a shift in the way preservice teachers are prepared to use, understand. and interact with social media (e.g., blogs) during their academic years.…

  5. Aggression and social withdrawal as viewed by children's peers: conceptual issues in assessment and implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, A J; Schneider, B H; Daniels, T

    1991-01-01

    Children's peer assessments of aggressive and withdrawn behavior are fundamentally related to developmental changes in their understanding of others. This article synthesizes research relevant to the thesis that peer assessments are dependent on children's ability both to recall the previous behavior of their peers and to predict their likely future behavior. Social schema theory, borrowed from adult social psychology, is highly relevant to such recall and prediction. Age differences, affective biases, and gender roles may color children's assessments of their peers' social behavior. Such influences should be taken into account when conceptualizing interventions aimed at enhancing children's peer status, and in measuring the success of these interventions. PMID:1958647

  6. Theory and Practice of Peer Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rey A.

    1984-01-01

    The rationale, origins, and practice of peer counseling, a system of training people to help each other through empathy and decision making, are detailed. Specific applications are described, with particular attention to involving adolescents as peer counselors. Peer counselor training as practiced by the Peer Counselling Project (University of…

  7. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  8. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... barrier evaluation as required in § 194.44. (b) Peer review processes required in paragraph (a) of...

  9. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  10. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.

  11. Using technology to explore social networks and mechanisms underlying peer effects in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryan, Jonathan; Jacob, Brian; Klopfer, Eric; Groff, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Peer interactions among children have long interested social scientists. Identifying causal peer effects is difficult, and a number of studies have used random assignment to produce evidence that peers affect each other's outcomes. This focus by sociologists and economists on whether peers affect each other has not been matched by direct evidence on how these effects operate. The authors argue that one reason for the small number of studies in sociology and economics on the mechanisms underlying peer effects is the difficulty of collecting data on microinteractions. They argue technology reduces data collection costs relative to direct observation and allows for realistic school activities with randomly assigned peers. The authors describe a novel strategy for collecting data on peer interactions and discuss how this approach might shed light on mechanisms underlying peer influence. The centerpiece of this strategy is the use of handheld computers by middle and high school students as part of interactive math and science lessons called the Discussion Game. The handhelds collect data on interactions between students and track how students' answers evolve as they interact with different peers.

  12. Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation, and Dutch Adolescents’ Relationship with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents’ relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents’ social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066

  13. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peer-Assisted Learning in a Gross Anatomy Dissection Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning encourages students to participate more actively in the dissection process and promotes thoughtful dissection. We implemented peer-assisted dissection in 2012 and compared its effects on students' self-assessments of learning and their academic achievement with those of faculty-led dissection. All subjects performed dissections after a lecture about upper-limb gross anatomy. Experimental group (n = 134) dissected a cadaver while guided by peer tutors who had prepared for the dissection in advance, and control group (n = 71) dissected a cadaver after the introduction by a faculty via prosection. Self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives related to upper limbs were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group. Additionally, experimental group received significantly higher academic scores than did control group. The students in peer-assisted learning perceived themselves as having a better understanding of course content and achieved better academic results compared with those who participated in faculty-led dissection. Peer-assisted dissection contributed to self-perception and to the ability to retain and explain anatomical knowledge.

  15. Peers, Pressure, and Performance at the National Spelling Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how individuals' performances of a cognitive task in a high-pressure competition are affected by their peers' performances. To do so, I use novel data from the National Spelling Bee, in which students attempt to spell words correctly in a tournament setting. Across OLS and instrumental variables approaches, I…

  16. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  17. Holding On to Our Kids in a Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    The chief and most damaging of the competing attachments undermining parental and elder authority and love is the increasing bonding of children with their peers. The disorder affecting today's young children and adolescents is rooted in their loss of orientation toward the nurturing adults in their lives. For the first time in history, young…

  18. Play Chronotopes: Laughter-Talk in Peer Group Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Although research has investigated laughter in professional communication settings, fewer studies have explored laughter-talk in second language (L2) classrooms. This study examines L2 university students' use of laughter-talk in peer group conversation to understand the linguistics of affect and its interactional effects. The author draws upon…

  19. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  20. Peers, Pressure, and Performance at the National Spelling Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how individuals' performances of a cognitive task in a high-pressure competition are affected by their peers' performances. To do so, I use novel data from the National Spelling Bee, in which students attempt to spell words correctly in a tournament setting. Across OLS and instrumental variables approaches, I…

  1. PARENT AND PEER GROUP PRESSURES TOWARD DEVIANT STUDENT BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILL, ROBERT B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE FOLLOWING FOUR FACTORS, SIMULTANEOUSLY AND SEPARATELY, AFFECT THE RATES OF CHEATING AMONG 10TH GRADE STUDENTS--(1) INDIVIDUAL ROLE ADAPTATIONS, (2) PEER GROUP INFLUENCE, (3) SOCIAL CONTEXT, AND (4) FAMILY INFLUENCE. A PARADIGM (MERTON'S) THAT RELATES INDIVIDUAL ANOMIA, SOCIAL…

  2. Play Chronotopes: Laughter-Talk in Peer Group Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Although research has investigated laughter in professional communication settings, fewer studies have explored laughter-talk in second language (L2) classrooms. This study examines L2 university students' use of laughter-talk in peer group conversation to understand the linguistics of affect and its interactional effects. The author draws upon…

  3. Decentralised internet governance: the case of a ‘peer-to-peer cloud’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article retraces the early stages of development of the 'peer-to-peer cloud' storage service Drizzle, with the aim of providing an example of decentralised network architecture as internet governance 'in practice'. More specifically, this paper sheds light on how changes in the architectural design of networked services affect the circulation, storage and privacy of data, as well as the rights and responsibilities exerted by different actors on them. This article does not mean to be a compendium of the implications of the decentralisation option in building a cloud platform, which entails a number of technical complications as well as advantages, including how to ensure the reliability and redundancy of data, and the soundness of the encryption mechanism. However, the privacy-related design choices described here are some of the many possible ways to illustrate the extent to which changes in network architecture are, indeed, changes in network governance.

  4. A Social Relations Analysis of Liking for and by Peers: Associations with Gender, Depression, Peer Perception, and Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Waters, Allison M.; Kindermann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We used social relations modeling (SRM; mixed modeling and SOREMO) to examine liking among peers ("affective preferences") in relation to gender and socioemotional problems. Participants (N = 278, age 10 to 13) rated how much they liked each other and reported depressive symptoms, negative beliefs, and social worries. Boys and girls were equally…

  5. On Democracy in Peer-to-Peer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baraglia, Ranieri; Mordacchini, Matteo; Ricci, Laura; Alessi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The information flow inside a P2P network is highly dependent on the network structure. In order to ease the diffusion of relevant data toward interested peers, many P2P protocols gather similar nodes by putting them in direct contact. With this approach the similarity between nodes is computed in a point-to-point fashion: each peer individually identifies the nodes that share similar interests with it. This leads to the creation of a sort of "private" communities, limited to each peer neighbors list. This "private" knowledge do not allow to identify the features needed to discover and characterize the correlations that collect similar peers in broader groups. In order to let these correlations to emerge, the collective knowledge of peers must be exploited. One common problem to overcome in order to avoid the "private" vision of the network, is related to how distributively determine the representation of a community and how nodes may decide to belong to it. We propose to use a gossip-like approach in order t...

  6. Peer-Implemented Time Delay Procedures on the Acquisition of Chained Tasks by Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Janet Read; Schuster, John W.; Lingo, Amy Shearer; Collins, Belva C.; Kleinert, Harold L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of and reliability of peer tutors implementing a constant time delay procedure when teaching four high school students with moderate and severe disabilities to prepare foods using picture recipes. We used a multiple probe design across subjects to determine the effectiveness of the peer tutor implemented…

  7. Neural Responses to Witnessing Peer Rejection after Being Socially Excluded: fMRI as a Window into Adolescents' Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in…

  8. Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitigating Free Riding in Peer-To-Peer Networks: Game Theory Approach. ... Through extensive simulations, we show that this mechanism can increase fairness and encourage resource contribution by peers to the network. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Peer Review of Teaching: Best Practices for a Non-Programmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaena Alabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many academic librarians who provide library instruction have never received formal training in educational theory and methods. In an effort to bridge this gap and improve the teaching skills of instruction librarians, some academic libraries have established peer review of teaching programs. Despite the recognized benefits of peer review, it may not be feasible for every library to establish such a program. In an effort to aid those who are interested in peer review, but who may not be able to participate in a formal program, the authors identify the principles of peer review that can be applied on a non-programmatic basis. Six areas of best practice are described: establishing an environment of trust, respect, and confidentiality; selecting a suitable partner for the process; communicating with a peer reviewer; focusing on specific aspects of teaching where feedback is desired; making time for the process; and preparing oneself to accept criticism.

  10. The role of peer assessment and peer review in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, N

    With the implementation of clinical governance and professional self-regulation, substantial responsibility is devolved on to clinical nurses. Central to these two concepts is accountability for practice. We are accountable for our professional competence and knowledge to various parties such as the professional statutory body, the employer, society as well as ourselves. Although self-assessment provides each individual with a medium for ascertaining his/her own level of performance and, therefore, identifying his/her learning needs, peer review and peer assessment provide healthy means for obtaining feedback and external perceptions. They also bring with them several other benefits and meet other recommended professional requirements. Peer review is an intrinsic component of clinical governance, and it can be initiated and implemented at one-to-one, departmental or organizational level.

  11. Peer-to-Peer Time-shifted Streaming Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yaning

    2009-01-01

    In live streaming systems (IPTV, life-stream services, etc.), an attractive service consists in allowing users to access past portions of the stream. This is called a time-shifted streaming system. In our vision, a centralized time-shifted streaming system face scalability and ethical issues, therefore, we address the problem of designing a peer-to-peer system where peers store and deliver past chunks. We first attempt to identify the main characteristics of time-shifted streaming system from well-known measurements of VoD and IPTV systems. These overlays are the first structures specifically designed for time-shifted streaming system. Although no evaluation is presented, these preliminary description aim to foster discussions on a critical service.

  12. Universal Peer-to-Peer Network Investigation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Scanlon, Mark; Kechadi, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking has fast become a useful technological advancement for a vast range of cyber criminal activities. Cyber crimes from copyright infringement and spamming, to serious, high financial impact crimes, such as fraud, distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) and phishing can all be aided by applications and systems based on the technology. The requirement for investigating P2P based systems is not limited to the more well known cyber crimes listed above, as many more...

  13. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  14. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any......: the first is based on visual comparison of short strings, the second on distance bounding, and the third on integrity codes; in each case, the users do not need to enter any password or other data, nor do they need physical or infrared connectivity between their devices. We base our analysis on a well...

  15. STATURE SYSTEM PROTOCOLS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Thadani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it concludes by comparison of all these stature system protocols.

  16. Stature System Protocols for Peer to Peer Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Thadani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it concludes by comparison of all these stature system protocols.

  17. Near-peer medical student simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas; Brand, Eleanor; Wong, Emma; Richardson, Jay; Athorn, Sam; Chowdhury, Faiza

    2017-06-01

    There is growing concern that medical students are inadequately prepared for life as a junior doctor. A lack of confidence managing acutely unwell patients is often cited as a barrier to good clinical care. With medical schools investing heavily in simulation equipment, we set out to explore if near-peer simulation training is an effective teaching format. Medical students in their third year of study and above were invited to attend a 90-minute simulation teaching session. The sessions were designed and delivered by final-year medical students using clinical scenarios mapped to the Sheffield MBChB curriculum. Candidates were required to assess, investigate and manage an acutely unwell simulated patient. Pre- and post-simulation training Likert scale questionnaires were completed relating to self-reported confidence levels. There is growing concern that medical students are inadequately prepared for life as a junior doctor RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 25 students (100% response rate); 52 per cent of students had no prior simulation experience. There were statistically significant improvements in self-reported confidence levels in each of the six areas assessed (p < 0.005). Thematic analysis of free-text comments indicated that candidates enjoyed the practical format of the sessions and found the experience useful. Our results suggest that near-peer medical student simulation training benefits both teacher and learner and that this simplistic model could easily be replicated at other medical schools. As the most junior members of the team, medical students are often confined to observer status. Simulation empowers students to practise independently in a safe and protected environment. Furthermore, it may help to alleviate anxiety about starting work as a junior doctor and improve future patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. Peer assessment enhances student learning

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Dennis L; Walther, Guenther; Baiocchi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Feedback has a powerful influence on learning, but it is also expensive to provide. In large classes, it may even be impossible for instructors to provide individualized feedback. Peer assessment has received attention lately as a way of providing personalized feedback that scales to large classes. Besides these obvious benefits, some researchers have also conjectured that students learn by peer assessing, although no studies have ever conclusively demonstrated this effect. By conducting a randomized controlled trial in an introductory statistics class, we provide evidence that peer assessment causes significant gains in student achievement. The strength of our conclusions depends critically on the careful design of the experiment, which was made possible by a web-based platform that we developed. Hence, our study is also a proof of concept of the high-quality experiments that are possible with online tools.

  19. Trust in social computing. The case of peer-to-peer file sharing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Social computing and online communities are changing the fundamental way people share information and communicate with each other. Social computing focuses on how users may have more autonomy to express their ideas and participate in social exchanges in various ways, one of which may be peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing. Given the greater risk of opportunistic behavior by malicious or criminal communities in P2P networks, it is crucial to understand the factors that affect individual’s use of P2P file sharing software. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a research model that includes trust beliefs and perceived risks as two major antecedent beliefs to the usage intention. Six trust antecedents are assessed including knowledge-based trust, cognitive trust, and both organizational and peer-network factors of institutional trust. Our preliminary results show general support for the model and offer some important implications for software vendors in P2P sharing industry and regulatory bodies.

  20. A Peer-Instruction-Based Physics Lecture at High School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ruita; Nitta, Hideo

    We have implemented Peer Instruction to a physics course for high school students in Japan. For facilitating students' learning "Preparation" as the advanced organizer and "Reflection" as metacognition have been introduced. The effect of Reflection is measured by the number of words (Japanese letters) written by students and by the "depth" of students' thinking determined by a certain criteria. It is found that Peer Instruction promotes students to write more words on the Reflection sheets.

  1. A comparison of peer-to-peer query response modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hoschek, W

    2002-01-01

    In a large distributed system spanning many administrative domains such as a Grid (Foster et al., 2001), it is desirable to maintain and query dynamic and timely information about active participants such as services, resources and user communities. However, in such a database system, the set of information tuples in the universe is partitioned over one or more distributed nodes, for reasons including autonomy, scalability, availability, performance and security. This suggests the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) query technology. A variety of query response modes can be used to return matching query results from P2P nodes to an originator. Although from the functional perspective all response modes are equivalent, no mode is optimal under all circumstances. Which query response modes allow to express suitable trade-offs for a wide range ofP2P application? We answer this question by systematically describing and characterizing four query response modes for the unified peer-to-peer database framework (UPDF) proposed ...

  2. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  3. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  4. Peer Counseling: Trained Teenagers Reaching Peers in Human Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Barbara B.

    The Palo Alto Peer Counseling program, now finishing its third year of operation, is described. The first year was a pilot year in which the idea was tested and the beginning draft of a curriculum developed. The second year was a developmental year, in which the practicum groups were started as students who had taken the 12-week training the…

  5. Peer Collaboration: Improving Teaching through Comprehensive Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…

  6. [Adaptation of peer evaluation to small group discussion (SGD) and its validity for summative evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Sone, Tomomichi; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kurio, Wasako; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-01-01

    We adopted peer evaluation (mutual evaluation between students) for small group discussion (SGD) among first graders. The peer evaluation criteria were 5 grade scales for 5 fields: "preparation," "remark," "listening," "activeness," and "role." A comparison with tutor evaluation clarified the validity of peer evaluation for summative evaluation. Although the average of peer evaluation (4.2 (4.0-4.4)) was higher than that of tutor evaluation (3.8 (3.7-4.1)) (p=0.0601, Mann-Whitney U test), the value of the correlation coefficient between peer evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.35 (0.12-0.54)) was almost the same as that of the coefficient between tutor evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.36 (0.24-0.42)) (p=0.6761, Mann-Whitney U test). Principal component analysis showed that the tutor could not evaluate "remark" and "listening" independently, while students evaluate "listening" independently from other evaluation criteria. The combination of peer and tutor evaluation may be multilateral evaluation for SGD. The questionnaire about peer evaluation for students showed that they recognized the value of peer evaluation and favorably accepted its use.

  7. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH4(-) oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92AgPt(-1)) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15AgPt(-1)) in NaBH4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH4 and 2M H2O2 (133.38mWcm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-16

    Jun 16, 2016 ... Keywords: beliefs, comprehension, health messages, interpersonal discussions, female adolescents, prevention. Résumé ... prehension of the participants (do they understand the message?), on their perceived comprehension (do they think ... relationships on decision making among individuals. The Diffu-.

  9. Research on load optimization of DHT-based hierarchy peer-to-peer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haifeng; Luo, Dongjian; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    The main reason of causing the cost in p2p system is the maintenance cost that nodes build their routing information. In a large-scale system or a dynamic environment, p2p system generates considerable maintenance workload, which not only increase the bandwidth consumption but also affect the routing efficiency. So we present here a new Hierarchy_based maintenance method to minimize the maintenance cost which combines the hierarchical DHT algorithm with a peer proximity mechanism. The analysis results show our design can significantly decrease maintenance cost and improve scalability of the P2P system.

  10. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had powerful effects on…

  11. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  12. Peer Counselor Training with the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a peer counselor training program for five older adult volunteers. Presents suggestions for advertising, screening, program format, and development of practica, and examines the role and helpfulness of the peer counselors who provided in-home counseling services. (JAC)

  13. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  14. ISP-Unterstützte Auswahl von Peer Knoten in Peer-to-Peer Systemen

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Systeme verursachen heutzutage mehr als die Hälfte des Internetverkehrs, und eine wachsende Anzahl von Applikationen, z.B. Bittorrent, eDonkey, Joost, Skype, GoogleTalk und P2P-TV nutzen die P2P-Methodik. P2P-Systeme errichten Overlays auf der Applikationsschicht, unabhängig von Internet-Routing und ISP-Topologien. Dies führt zu zusätzlichen Verkehr aufgrund der Messungen sowie ineffizientes Routing für P2P-Benutzer. Während auf der einen Seite die P2P-Applikationen den Bro...

  15. Vaccine-Mediated Activation of Human TLR4 Is Affected by Modulation of Culture Conditions during Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marieke E.; Verhagen, Lisa M.; Pupo, Elder; de Haan, Alex; Metz, Bernard; Hendriksen, Coenraad F. M.; Han, Wanda G. H.; Sloots, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    The potency of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines is still determined by an intracerebral mouse protection test. To allow development of suitable in vitro alternatives to this test, insight into relevant parameters to monitor the consistency of vaccine quality is essential. To this end, a panel of experimental wP vaccines of varying quality was prepared by sulfate-mediated suppression of the BvgASR master virulence regulatory system of Bordetella pertussis during cultivation. This system regulates the transcription of a range of virulence proteins, many of which are considered important for the induction of effective host immunity. The protein compositions and in vivo potencies of the vaccines were BvgASR dependent, with the vaccine containing the highest amount of virulence proteins having the highest in vivo potency. Here, the capacities of these vaccines to stimulate human Toll-like receptors (hTLR) 2 and 4 and the role these receptors play in wP vaccine-mediated activation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro were studied. Prolonged BvgASR suppression was associated with a decreased capacity of vaccines to activate hTLR4. In contrast, no significant differences in hTLR2 activation were observed. Similarly, vaccine-induced activation of MonoMac-6 and monocyte-derived dendritic cells was strongest with the highest potency vaccine. Blocking of TLR2 and TLR4 showed that differences in antigen-presenting cell activation could be largely attributed to vaccine-dependent variation in hTLR4 signalling. Interestingly, this BvgASR-dependent decrease in hTLR4 activation coincided with a reduction in GlcN-modified lipopolysaccharides in these vaccines. Accordingly, expression of the lgmA-C genes, required for this glucosamine modification, was significantly reduced in bacteria exposed to sulfate. Together, these findings demonstrate that the BvgASR status of bacteria during wP vaccine preparation is critical for their hTLR4 activation capacity and suggest that including

  16. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  17. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the

  18. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-S. Hsieh (Chih-Sheng); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSocial interactions are widely recognized to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we hypothesize that individual with `stronger' personalities (i.e. emotionally stable, conscientious individuals) are better able to resist peer pressure in the upta

  19. The Power of Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  20. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  1. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  2. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  3. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  4. Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulpolder, M.

    2011-01-01

    On today's Internet, millions of people participate in peer-to-peer communities where they share content such as audio and video files. Contrary to websites such as Youtube, which rely on large and expensive computer servers to store and deliver all of their content, peer-to-peer communities rely on

  5. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  6. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  7. Peer acceptance among Chinese adolescents: the role of emotional empathy, cognitive empathy and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results on the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance. Emotional and cognitive components of empathy were hypothesised to play different roles in peer acceptance, and the relationship between empathy and peer acceptance differed across genders. In this study, 375 Chinese adolescents completed self-report measures of emotional and cognitive empathy. They also provided peer nominations that allowed for the determination of social preference and social impact scores. The results showed that a boy's cognitive empathy positively correlated with the extent to which he was liked by his male classmates, whereas a girl's cognitive empathy positively correlated with her social impact among her female classmates. This study suggests that empathy does not affect peer acceptance among adolescents uniformly; instead, gender plays a determinative role in the dialectics between social acceptance and empathy.

  8. Architecture and Performance Models for QoS-Driven Effective Peering of Content Delivery Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Mukaddim

    2009-01-01

    The proprietary nature of existing Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) means they are closed and do not naturally cooperate. A CDN is expected to provide high performance Internet content delivery through global coverage, which might be an obstacle for new CDN providers, as well as affecting commercial viability of existing ones. Finding ways for distinct CDNs to coordinate and cooperate with other CDNs is necessary to achieve better overall service, as perceived by end-users, at lower cost. In this paper, we present an architecture to support peering arrangements between CDNs, based on a Virtual Organization (VO) model. Our approach promotes peering among providers, while upholding user perceived performance. This is achieved through proper policy management of negotiated Service Level Agreements (SLAs) between peers. We also present a Quality of Service (QoS)-driven performance modeling approach for peering CDNs in order to predict the user perceived performance. We show that peering between CDNs upholds user ...

  9. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  10. Peer Reviewers Learn from Giving Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Hoan; Cho, Kwangsu

    2011-01-01

    Research on peer reviewing has revealed that comments received from peer reviewers are helpful when it comes to making revisions in an individual's writing, but the role of providing comments to peer writers has been little explored despite the potential value of such research. In this study, we explored how student reviewers learn by reviewing…

  11. Peer Tutoring: An Economical Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Kerth T.; Brown, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A peer tutoring model is described and suggestions for implementing peer tutoring programs are provided. The seven steps in the development of a peer tutoring program are: establishing a need, considering curriculum, assessing, selecting learners, selecting tutors, monitoring, and coordinating. (PHR)

  12. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  13. Developing Reflection and Teaching through Peer Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca P.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter highlights the development of reflection and teaching skills in preservice teachers via peer coaching. Peer coaching in preservice programs can serve as an induction program, while with experienced teachers it can serve as professional development. Research suggests that peer coaching contributes to the development of effective…

  14. Preservice Teacher Observations in Peer Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jayne M.; Garn, Alex; Jenkins, Patience

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what and how preservice teachers observe when peer coaching during an early field experience. Twenty-three male and 14 female preservice teachers trained in peer coaching participated in the study. Coaches observed a peer partner teach five 40-min lessons to small groups of elementary or junior high school…

  15. Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2002-01-01

    An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

  16. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…

  17. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  18. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  19. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  20. 42 CFR 24.5 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 24.5 Section 24.5 Public Health PUBLIC....5 Peer review. An individual may not be considered for appointment into the SBRS unless his/her qualifications have been reviewed by a PHS peer review committee and the committee has recommended appointment...

  1. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  2. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  3. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  4. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  5. Preparing young people for future decision-making about cancer risk in families affected or at risk from hereditary breast cancer: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Emma; Plumridge, Gill; Considine, Anna-Marie; Metcalfe, Alison

    2016-12-01

    Women carrying the mutated BRCA gene, have approximately an 80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer with 50% risk of their children inheriting the gene mutation. Many parents find it difficult to know when and how to disclose this information to their children and how such disclosure might affect their child's future decision-making. This study explored the communication of genetic risk information in families using qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with parents, children (7-11years) and young people (12-18years) affected or at risk from a BRCA gene mutation. Thematic analysis was applied to coded transcripts producing four themes; family communication, perception of cancer risks, risk management strategies and impact of genetic risk communication in children and young people's decision making. Twenty-seven individuals from 11 families took part, recruited through purposive sampling techniques. Cancer risk caused by a BRCA gene mutation induced a sense of fear in parents about their children's future. As a result, parents with hereditary breast cancer disclosed limited information about the risks associated with prophylactic surgery and/or the psychological and emotional impacts of surgery on body image. This had implications to children and young people's perceptions of prophylactic procedures, which were already influenced by cultural understandings of the 'desirable body' and increasing acceptance and proliferation cosmetic surgery. Lack of risk management information and the acculturation of cosmetic surgery combined to limit children and young people's understanding of the impact of hereditary breast cancer; reducing their ability to actualise the physiological, psychological and emotional consequences of surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A "cluster" based search scheme in peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振武; 杨舰; 史旭东; 白英彩

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a "cluster" based search scheme in peer-to-peer network. The idea is based on the fact that data distribution in an information society has structured feature. We designed an algorithm to cluster peers that have similar interests. When receiving a query request, a peer will preferentially forward it to another peer which belongs to the same cluster and shares more similar interests. By this way search efficiency will be remarkably improved and at the same time good resilience against peer failure (the ability to withstand peer failure) is reserved.

  7. A "cluster" based search scheme in peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振武; 杨舰; 史旭东; 白英彩

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a "cluster" based search scheme in peer-to-peer network. The idea is based on the fact that data distribution in an information society has structured feature. We designed an algorithm to cluster peers that have similar interests. When receiving a query request, a peer will preferentially forward it to another peer which belongs to the same cluster and shares more similar interests. By this way search efficiency will be remarkably improved and at the same time good resilience against peer failure (the ability to withstand peer failure) is reserved.

  8. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  9. A Peer-to-Peer Distributed Collaborative Optimization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xue

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to solve design optimization problems of complex systems by using a traditional computing method because complex simulation processes usually lead to large-scale computation. Therefore the distributed computing technology based on decomposition-coordination theory has received much attention by design engineers. This paper studies a peer-to-peer collaborative optimization method based on distributed computing technology in order to examine flexible optimization. A new distributed collaborative optimization framework is proposed, and a coordination method is developed and used to deal with the conflict of related variables among sub-optimization problems. A multi-agent based distributed computing environment is implemented. The implementation of an optimization agent, in which CORBA technology is used to implement communication between the components of the optimization agent, is discussed in detail. Two examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the computing method and the reliability and flexibility of the multi-agent system.

  10. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caram, L F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-01-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agent have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations,after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to in...

  11. A Threshold Scheme under Peer-to-Peer Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yumin; SHI Feng; MING Yang; MUHAMMAD Kamran; XU Jianqiang

    2006-01-01

    Resource sharing among peers is one of important application in Peer-to-Peer(P2P) network. Inexistence of server makes P2P network to be a less trustable tool for property owners to distribute their resource. In order to protect intelligent property, reputation management strategy is adopted in many P2P network. As long as a P2P network reputation strategy is confirmed, application designer can employ a special detailed distribution scheme to fulfill content distribution within the net. Shmir (k,n) threshold scheme, for example, is an encryption scheme to enhance the distribution security of this kind of design. (k*,n) threshold scheme is a new tool similar to Shmir scheme is proposed in this paper. The new scheme based on polynomial expansion and its security is decided by the one way function used in the secret distribution procedure. The scheme efficiency and its features as well as comparison between new and Shmir scheme are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Peer-to-Peer Topology Formation Using Random Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kin-Wah; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems such as live video streaming and content sharing are usually composed of a huge number of users with heterogeneous capacities. As a result, designing a distributed algorithm to form such a giant-scale topology in a heterogeneous environment is a challenging question because, on the one hand, the algorithm should exploit the heterogeneity of users' capacities to achieve load-balancing and, on the other hand, the overhead of the algorithm should be kept as low as possible. To meet such requirements, we introduce a very simple protocol for building heterogeneous unstructured P2P networks. The basic idea behind our protocol is to exploit a simple, distributed nature of random walk sampling to assist the peers in selecting their suitable neighbors in terms of capacity and connectivity to achieve load-balancing. To gain more insights into our proposed protocol, we also develop a detailed analysis to investigate our protocol under any heterogeneous P2P environment. The analytical results are validated by the simulations. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to stimulate further research to explore the fundamental issues in heterogeneous P2P networks.

  13. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  14. Peer Assessment in Engineering Group Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since...... the administrative burden is one of the common reported challenges of peer assessment, computer assisted peer assessment is also briefly reviewed. Finally, opportunities and challenges in applying peer assessment in a project-based creative engineering program are presented based on the review of the literature....

  15. The Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Peer Review on EFL Writers' Comments and Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of face-to-face and computer-mediated peer review in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing course to examine how different interaction modes affect comment categories, students' revisions, and their perceptions of peer feedback. The participants were an intact class of 13 students at a Taiwanese university.…

  16. Peer Victimization among Adolescent Females: A Literature Review of the Significant Causes and Consequences Associated with Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Casey; Duncan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Peer victimization is an all too common occurrence in schools throughout the United States, affecting millions of adolescents every year. Involvement in peer victimization carries devastating consequences that can last a lifetime. Recent research indicates males and females engage in different forms of victimization, with males displaying more…

  17. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  18. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  19. Changes in Children's Peer Interactions Following a Natural Disaster: How Predisaster Bullying and Victimization Rates Changed Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Andrew M.; Boxer, Paul; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    Youth exposed to disasters experience stress and adjustment difficulties, which likely influence their interactions with peers. In this study, we examined changes in bullying and peer victimization in two cohorts of children. Youth from an area affected by Hurricane Katrina were assessed pre- and postdisaster (n = 96, mean [M] = 10.9 years old,…

  20. Nutritive values of corn, soybean meal, canola meal, and peas for broiler chickens as affected by a multicarbohydrase preparation of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Slominski, B A

    2005-08-01

    The effect of a new multicarbohydrase supplement of cell wall degrading activities on the nutritive value of corn, soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), and peas for broiler chickens was investigated. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous corn (69% corn), SBM (30% SBM, 59% corn), CM (30% CM, 54% corn), and pea (30% peas, 52% corn) diets, without or with enzyme supplementation, were formulated to meet NRC specifications for broiler chickens (except for AME and CP, which were at 95 and 92% of NRC requirements, respectively). The enzyme supplement supplied 1,000 U of xylanase, 400 U of glucanase, 1,000 U of pectinase, 120 U of cellulase, 280 U of mannanase, and 180 U of galactanase per kilogram of diet. Each diet was fed in a mash form to 9 replicate pens of 5 broilers from 5 to 18 d. When compared with the control treatment, enzyme addition to the corn diet improved (P enzyme-supplemented corn diet. An improvement (P enzyme supplementation was observed for the SBM diet. However, nutrient digestibilities and AMEn of CM and pea diets were not affected (P > 0.05) by enzyme addition even though the NSP digestibilities increased significantly (P enzyme-supplemented diets. It would appear from this study that the nutrient utilization of corn-SBM diet by broilers could be enhanced by using an appropriate multicarbohydrase enzyme supplement. The nutrient encapsulating effect of cell wall polysaccharides in SBM, CM, and peas may not be the only factor responsible for incomplete nutrient utilization. The improvement in feed efficiency and starch availability in birds fed corn diet likely resulted from the cell wall degrading activity of the enzyme supplement.

  1. The ethics of peer review in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin

    2014-10-01

    A good deal has been written on the ethics of peer review, especially in the scientific and medical literatures. In contrast, we are unaware of any articles on the ethics of peer review in bioethics. Recognising this gap, we evaluate the extant proposals regarding ethical standards for peer review in general and consider how they apply to bioethics. We argue that scholars have an obligation to perform peer review based on the extent to which they personally benefit from the peer review process. We also argue, contrary to existing proposals and guidelines, that it can be appropriate for peer reviewers to benefit in their own scholarship from the manuscripts they review. With respect to bioethics in particular, we endorse double-blind review and suggest several ways in which the peer review process might be improved.

  2. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Self-Organizing Tunnel Peers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tunneling is an important approach in IPv6 transition techniques. The tunnel broker model provides a way to build virtual IPv6 networks without manual configuration.However, neither it adapts performance variation on the IPv4 infrastructure,nor it is a scalable solution for a wide-area IPv6 networking environment. In this paper, a self-organizing tunnel peer (SOTP)model is presented. Tunnel peers are clustered in the SOTP system so that optimization is scalable. Four primitive operations related to cluster construction - arrest,release,division and death - endow the system with the nature of self-organization.Occurrence and behavior of the operations are decided by criteria on the IPv4 end-to-end performance; hence measurement is an indispensable component of the system. The metabolism of cluster relaxes the requirement to accuracy of measurement and optimization.

  4. Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  5. Peer coaching: an overlooked resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Linda Smith; Hanna, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The authors present an innovative pedagogical approach to peer coaching using senior leadership and junior medical/surgical nursing students within the acute care clinical setting. The collaboration among faculty, staff, and students developed awareness of thinking critically, reasoning, and using effective clinical judgment. Through the use of Lasater's Clinical Judgment Rubric, student reflections provided insight to the program's effectiveness and use of alternative clinical experiences.

  6. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  7. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There were 3 hypotheses. First, behavioral norms in both contexts affect individual behavior. Second, classroom norms have stronger effects on individual behavior than school norms. Third, classroom and s...

  8. Peer-review Platform for Astronomy Education Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Pedro; Gomez, Edward; Strubbe, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of astronomy education activities exist, but their discoverability and quality is highly variable. The web platform for astronomy education activities, astroEDU, presented in this paper tries to solve these issues. Using the familiar peer-review workflow of scientific publications, astroEDU is improving standards of quality, visibility and accessibility, while providing credibility to these astronomy education activities. astroEDU targets activity guides, tutorials and other educational activities in the area of astronomy education, prepared by teachers, educators and other education specialists. Each of the astroEDU activities is peer-reviewed by an educator as well as an astronomer to ensure a high standard in terms of scientific content and educational value. All reviewed materials are then stored in a free open online database, enabling broad distribution in a range of different formats. In this way astroEDU is not another web repository for educational resources but a mechanism for ...

  9. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Véronneau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.

  10. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  11. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  12. Student peer teaching in paediatric simulation training is a feasible low-cost alternative for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p < 0.001). The average costs for a peer tutor were six Euros per working hour, compared to 35 Euros for a physician. Using peer tutors for paediatric simulation training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Peer-to-Peer Cloud Provisioning: Service Discovery and Load-Balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Wu, Xiaomin; Liu, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents: (i) a layered peer-to-peer Cloud provisioning architecture; (ii) a summary of the current state-of-the-art in Cloud provisioning with particular emphasis on service discovery and load-balancing; (iii) a classification of the existing peer-to-peer network management model with focus on extending the DHTs for indexing and managing complex provisioning information; and (iv) the design and implementation of novel, extensible software fabric (Cloud peer) that combines public/private clouds, overlay networking and structured peer-to-peer indexing techniques for supporting scalable and self-managing service discovery and load-balancing in Cloud computing environments. Finally, an experimental evaluation is presented that demonstrates the feasibility of building next generation Cloud provisioning systems based on peer-to-peer network management and information dissemination models. The experimental test-bed has been deployed on a public cloud computing platform, Amazon EC2, which demonstrates t...

  14. Study of Reputation Based Defense Mechanism in Peer To Peer Live Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mottalib

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer live video streaming systems are having more popularity as the information technology is advancing fast. Peer-to-peer live video streaming systems are like peer-to-peer file sharing system and they are also vulnerable to content pollution attack as file sharing. In this type of attack, the attacker mixes polluted or unnecessary data into the streaming data and forwards the polluted data to normal peers and hence the perceived video quality is decreased. In this paper, a comparative study is conducted among three defense mechanisms against pollution attack in peer-to-peer live streaming systems: Blacklisting, Simple Decentralized Reputation System and Bayesian Approach to Reputation System. Finally performance analysis and the derived result has been presented.

  15. A Dynamic Self-Adjusted Buffering Mechanism for Peer-to-Peer Real-Time Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Li Kuo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia live stream multicasting and on-line real-time applications are popular recently. Real-time multicast system can use peer-to-peer technology to keep stability and scalability without any additional support from the underneath network or a server. Our proposed scheme focuses on the mesh architecture of peer-to-peer live streaming system and experiments with the buffering mechanisms. We design the dynamic buffer to substitute the traditional fixed buffer.According to the existing measurements and our simulation results, using the traditional static buffer in a dynamic peer-to-peer environment has a limit of improving quality of service. In our proposed method, the buffering mechanism can adjust buffer to avoid the frozen or reboot of streaming based on the input data rate. A self-adjusted buffer control can be suitable for the violently dynamic peer-to-peer environment. Without any support of infrastructure and modification of peer-to-peer protocols, our proposed scheme can be workable in any chunk-based peer-to-peer streaming delivery. Hence, our proposed dynamic buffering mechanism varies the existing peer-to-peer live streaming system less to improve quality of experience more.

  16. BABY EMPATHY: INFANT DISTRESS AND PEER PROSOCIAL RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. A Naturalistic Study of Affective Expression, Social Competence, and Sociometric Status in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jamie L.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2000-01-01

    Observed 56 preschool children during free play to record occurrences of four types of affect: moderate and strong positive affect, anger, and distress. Also collected teacher ratings of social competence and peer sociometrics. Found that social competence and peer acceptance were associated with strong positive affect, whereas anger and distress…

  18. Peer Learning in a MATLAB Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Shanon

    2016-11-01

    Three forms of research-based peer learning were implemented in the design of a MATLAB programming course for mechanical engineering undergraduate students. First, a peer learning program was initiated. These undergraduate peer learning leaders played two roles in the course, (I) they were in the classroom helping students' with their work, and, (II) they led optional two hour helps sessions outside of the class time. The second form of peer learning was implemented through the inclusion of a peer discussion period following in class clicker quizzes. The third form of peer learning had the students creating video project assignments and posting them on YouTube to explain course topics to their peers. Several other more informal techniques were used to encourage peer learning. Student feedback in the form of both instructor-designed survey responses and formal course evaluations (quantitative and narrative) will be presented. Finally, effectiveness will be measured by formal assessment, direct and indirect to these peer learning methods. This will include both academic data/grades and pre/post test scores. Overall, the course design and its inclusion of these peer learning techniques demonstrate effectiveness.

  19. Peer to peer deaf literacy:working with young deaf people and peer tutors in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen, Julia; Panda, Sibaji; Papen, Uta; Zeshan, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This report of research in progress introduces the project: Literacy development with deaf communities using sign language, peer tuition, and learner-generated online content: Sustainable educational innovation. The rationale, aims, and participatory approach to learning and teaching English literacy to deaf learners in India are described. Deaf learners are particularly marginalised in the mainstream educational systems of developing countries. This project responds through designing a parti...

  20. Super-proximity routing in structured peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴增德; 饶卫雄; 马范援

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are emerging as one of the most popular Intemet applications. Structured Peer-to-Peer overlay networks use identifier based routing algorithms to allow robustness, load balancing, and distributed lookup needed in this environment. However, identifier based routing that is independent of Internet topology tends to be of low efficiency. Aimed at improving the routing efficiency, the super-proximity routing algorithms presented in this paper combine Internet topology and over|ay routing table in choosing the next hop. Experimental results showed that the algorithms greatly improve the efficiency of Peer-to-Peer routing.

  1. Super-proximity routing in structured peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zeng-de(吴增德); RAO Wei-xiong(饶卫雄); MA Fan-yuan(马范援)

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are emerging as one of the most popular Internet applications. Structured Peer-to-Peer overlay networks use identifier based routing algorithms to allow robustness, load balancing, and distributed lookup needed in this environment. However, identifier based routing that is independent of Internet topology tends to be of low efficiency. Aimed at improving the routing efficiency, the super-proximity routing algorithms presented in this paper combine Internet topology and overlay routing table in choosing the next hop. Experimental results showed that the algorithms greatly improve the efficiency of Peer-to-Peer routing.

  2. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  3. An Observational Case Study of Near-peer Teaching in Medical and Pharmacy Experiential Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees’ perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care. PMID:27756922

  4. Beauty premium: Event-related potentials evidence of how physical attractiveness matters in online peer-to-peer lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Fan, Bonai; Dai, Shenyi; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-02-15

    Although it is well known that attractiveness-based impressions affect the labor market, election outcomes and many other social activities, little is known about the role physical attractiveness plays in financial transactions. With the development of online finance, peer-to-peer lending has become one of the most important ways in which businesses or individuals raise capital. However, because of information asymmetry, the lender must decide whether or not to lend money to a stranger based on limited information, resulting in their decision being influenced by many other factors. In the current study, we investigated how potential borrowers' facial attractiveness influenced lenders' attitudes toward borrowers' repayment behavior at the brain level by using event-related potentials. At the priming stage, photos of attractive borrowers induced smaller N200 amplitude than photos of unattractive borrowers. Meanwhile, at the feedback stage, compared with the condition of repaying on time, breach of repayment from unattractive borrowers induced larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, which was a frontal-central negative deflection and would be enhanced by the unexpected outcome. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitude was also elicited by the condition of not repaying on time. These differences in the FRN and P300 amplitudes were not observed between negative and positive feedback from attractive borrowers. Therefore, our findings suggest that the beauty premium phenomenon is present in online peer-to-peer lending and that lenders were more tolerant toward attractive borrowers' dishonest behavior.

  5. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  6. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...

  7. EOS: Evolutionary Overlay Service in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The peer-to-peer (P2P systems nowadays can be mainly classified into two categories: structured and structure-less systems based on their overlay organization. The structured systems can achieve determinate efficiency due to their rigorous structure with the cost of losing robustness and vice versa. We provide a semi-structured overlay based on the separation of routing structures and overlay organizations in this paper and the new overlay can achieve determinate efficiency with high robustness. Moreover, the performance of the existing overlay is determined by the initial design and the overlay can not evolve with the information collected. But the new overlay devised in this paper is evolutionary inherent and accompanied by evolving service (EOS, EOS can improve the performance with the running of the P2P systems. Finally, our evolutionary overlay structure is constructed on the basis of linear algebra. So, the EOS can be theoretically analyzed and the results indicate that EOS can work with preferable integrated performance. The experimental results gained on the simulative platform verify the performance of EOS further.

  8. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, L F; Caiafa, C F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  9. Inspiring peer-to-peer educations with film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.

  10. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, L. F.; Caiafa, C. F.; Ausloos, M.; Proto, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity.

  11. Inflammablog: peer-to-peer online learning in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Zoë; Cohen, J John

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible for students in different courses, at different academic levels, and at different universities to learn immunology together using the Internet? We teach a colloquium on inflammation for undergraduates at the University of Arizona and a lecture course on human immunology for graduate students and clinical and basic science fellows at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Students in these programs, being scattered about large campuses, have little time for student-directed discussion and peer interactions, and they never have the opportunity to meet students in the course in the other state. Instead of requiring the usual essays and term papers, we set up a blog (an online discussion group) for the two courses, and required all students to post, and comment on other posts, within and between the courses. Student writing is normally directed at a single reader, the instructor, which seems like a waste of talent; we encouraged peer exchanges. Furthermore, we were interested in observing the interactions between the Colorado students, who were older and sometimes experienced professionals, and the younger Arizonans. We used a blog because it is administratively impossible to enroll the students in two universities in a single courseware (learning management system) site. Blogging has offered insights into students' comfort with this form of social medium, and into the potential for this approach in light of the rapid adoption of blended and massively open online courses.

  12. Learning about technology: Family vs. peer pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Patricia; Padilla, Michael; Hertel, Barbara; Olstad, Roger

    Recently a number of institutions have begun sponsoring nondeficit science and/or technology learning experiences for parents and their middle school-aged children which are intended to be enriching rather than remedial or compensatory in purpose. Very little research documenting the effects of parental involvement in the education of older children has been reported, however.The intent of this article was to present two studies designed to determine whether middle school-aged children's attitudes and content achievement are different when they take a technology course with their parents (parent-child treatment) or with their peers (child-child treatment). The first study focused on learning about communications technology (primarily telegraphs, telephones and radios); the second study focused on microcomputers.Results indicate that parents have little affect in helping their children learn the subject matter of technology courses. Likewise, parents do not affect children's attitudes toward computers. Both results were attenuated by the fact that the students in the studies were high achievers who were interested in and motivated to learn the subject matter, regardless of treatment. Significant differences were noted for computer literacy favoring the parent-child group, however. Parents also seemed to effect children's attitudes toward the subject matter of the courses.Further research needs to be done with less appealing course content or with less motivated students to fully determine the effect of parent-child and child groupings in science and technology courses.

  13. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…

  14. Training Undergraduate Physics Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.

    2004-05-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program matches upper level undergraduate physics students in small study groups with students studying introductory algebra-based physics. We work with students who are potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with the course. They include students with a low exam score, learning disabilities, no high school physics, weak math backgrounds, and/or on academic probation. We also work with students from groups under represented in the sciences and who may be feeling isolated or marginal on campus such as minority, returning adult, and international students. The tutors provide a supportive learning environment, extra practice problems, and an overview of key concepts. In so doing, they help our students to build confidence and problem solving skills applicable to physics and other areas of their academic careers. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is modeled after a similar program for chemistry created by the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. Both programs are now run in collaboration. The tutors are chosen for their academic strength and excellent communication skills. Our tutors are majoring in physics, math, and secondary-level science education. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. They attend weekly discipline-specific meetings to discuss strategies for teaching the content currently being discussed in the physics course. They also participate in a weekly teaching seminar with science tutors from chemistry and biochemistry to discuss teaching methods, mentoring, and general information relating to the students with whom we work. We will describe an overview of the Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program with a focus on the teacher training program for our undergraduate tutors.

  15. Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.

  16. Peer e-assessment of oral presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In order to encourage greater peer involvement, help students practice higher order skills and provide richer feedback, peer assessment has been introduced in the assessment of oral presentations given by first year accountancy students. In order to ensure that feedback is provided quickly and with minimal administration, the process is conducted electronically with peers using an electronic assessment schedule to anonymously assess presentations. Following this, the tutor quickly collates th...

  17. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  18. On Peers, Those `Particular Friends'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Marie; Désautels, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    As an outgrowth of the institutionalisation of science, peers have come to enjoy a prerogative making them key actors in the configuration of the exercise of science. Indeed, as referees, they have been endowed with an enormous political power in that their function no longer restricts them to merely certifying or attesting: they have to assess. Scholarly writing, as conceived of by Robert Boyle, coupled with its transformation into writing bearing an imprimatur, serves as the starting point of our discussion of this aspect which is also part and parcel of science education.

  19. A Local Asynchronous Distributed Privacy Preserving Feature Selection Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we develop a local distributed privacy preserving algorithm for feature selection in a large peer-to-peer environment. Feature selection is often used...

  20. Scalable peer-to-peer resource discovering scheme for wireless self-organized networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi; JI Hong

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technologies have attracted increasing research attention with fruitful protocols and applications proposed for wired networks. As to mobile environments, there are currently no mature deployments. A novel resource managing and discovering protocol, Cheer, is proposed to realize scalable and effective peer-to-peer lookup in wireless self-organized networks. Cheer resolves the topologies mismatch problem between peer-to-peer overlay networks and actual nodes distribution, allowing for frequent nodes membership changes. With specially designed resource storage table, Cheer also supports multikey and fuzzy lookup. Its hybrid architecture and improved routing scheme based on small-world theory may realize effective lookup routing. Theoretical analysis and simulation results both prove that Cheer makes using peer-to-peer applications in large-scale self-organized mobile networks feasible and promising.

  1. PADMINI: A PEER-TO-PEER DISTRIBUTED ASTRONOMY DATA MINING SYSTEM AND A CASE STUDY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PADMINI: A PEER-TO-PEER DISTRIBUTED ASTRONOMY DATA MINING SYSTEM AND A CASE STUDY TUSHAR MAHULE*, KIRK BORNE, SANDIPAN DEY*, SUGANDHA ARORA, AND HILLOL KARGUPTA...

  2. Distributed Decision-Tree Induction in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper offers a scalable and robust distributed algorithm for decision-tree induction in large peer-to-peer (P2P) environments. Computing a decision tree in such...

  3. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  4. A Database Query Processing Model in Peer-To-Peer Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper presents an extensive evaluation of database query processing model in peer-to-peer networks using top-k query processing technique and implemented by Java,and MySql.

  5. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our goal is to adapt the peer?to?peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, as the basis for development of...

  6. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  7. Client-side Web Mining for Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we present a framework for forming interests-based Peer-to-Peer communities using client-side web browsing history. At the heart of this framework is...

  8. Multi-objective optimization based privacy preserving distributed data mining in Peer-to-Peer networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes a scalable, local privacy preserving algorithm for distributed Peer-to-Peer (P2P) data aggregation useful for many advanced data mining/analysis...

  9. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  10. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  11. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  12. Alcohol drinking in young adults: the predictive value of personality when peers come around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, Guido; Bot, Sander M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether personality traits and peer drinking affect alcohol consumption in young adults. Data were analyzed from a study that was conducted in a 'bar laboratory' in which ad-lib drinking of peer groups was observed. The findings indicate that extroversion is moderately associated with self-reported daily drinking, while low emotional stability is modestly associated with alcohol-related problems. With regard to drinking in the observational drinking setting, personality is not associated with young adults' actual alcohol consumption. Further, peer drinking levels were strongly related to young adults' drinking. Besides, agreeableness interacted with the effects of peer drinking on young adults' drinking in such a way that agreeable individuals adapted their actual alcohol consumption more easily than others when socializing in a high- or a low-drinking peer group. We concluded that drinking in a peer context, irrespective of personality, played a major role in forming young adults' drinking. However, personality (i.e. agreeableness) definitely played a role to the extent of the individuals' adaptation to peer drinking norms.

  13. The value of peer learning in undergraduate nursing education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The study examined various methods of peer learning and their effectiveness in undergraduate nursing education. Using a specifically developed search strategy, healthcare databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles, with studies involving peer learning and students in undergraduate general nursing courses (in both clinical and theoretical settings) being included. The studies were published in English between 2001 and 2010. Both study selection and quality analysis were undertaken independently by two researchers using published guidelines and data was thematically analyzed to answer the research questions. Eighteen studies comprising various research methods were included. The variety of terms used for peer learning and variations between study designs and assessment measures affected the reliability of the study. The outcome measures showing improvement in either an objective effect or subjective assessment were considered a positive result with sixteen studies demonstrating positive aspects to peer learning including increased confidence, competence, and a decrease in anxiety. We conclude that peer learning is a rapidly developing aspect of nursing education which has been shown to develop students' skills in communication, critical thinking, and self-confidence. Peer learning was shown to be as effective as the conventional classroom lecture method in teaching undergraduate nursing students.

  14. Recess Is Time-In: Using Peers to Improve Social Skills of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Christena Blauvelt; Symon, Jennifer B. G.; Frea, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism face enormous struggles when attempting to interact with their typically developing peers. More children are educated in integrated settings; however, play skills usually need to be explicitly taught, and play environments must be carefully prepared to support effective social interactions. This study incorporated the…

  15. Peer Review in Academic Promotion and Publishing: Its Meaning, Locus, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Diane; Acord, Sophia Krzys; Earl-Novell, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As part of its Andrew W. Mellon Foundation-funded Future of Scholarly Communication Project, the Center for Studies in Higher Education (CSHE) has hosted two meetings to explore how peer review relates to scholarly communication and academic values. In preparation for an April 2010 workshop, four working papers were developed and circulated. They…

  16. 28 CFR 34.106 - Number of peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number of peer reviewers. 34.106 Section 34.106 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.106 Number of peer reviewers. The number of peer reviewers will vary by program...

  17. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  18. 28 CFR 34.104 - Use of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of peer review. 34.104 Section 34.104 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.104 Use of peer review. (a) Peer review for competitive and noncompetitive applications. (1)...

  19. 28 CFR 34.102 - Peer review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review procedures. 34.102 Section 34.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.102 Peer review procedures. The OJJDP peer review process is contained in an OJJDP...

  20. Children's Sympathy for Peers Who Are the Targets of Peer Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Leff, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a goal of many aggression intervention programs is to increase children's concern (often termed sympathy or empathy) for their peers as a means of ultimately reducing aggressive behavior, there are no measures specifically of children's concern for peers who are the targets of peer aggression. A participatory action research (PAR) model…

  1. The Role of Child Characteristics and Peer Experiences in the Development of Peer Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Cox, R.F.A; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation with peers is challenging for young children, and there are large individual differences in the development of cooperation. The roles of child characteristics and peer experiences for peer interaction during free play have been studied extensively, but it is unclear which factors predict

  2. Help Seeking among Peers: The Role of Goal Structure and Peer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 373 middle school students, the present longitudinal study examined the role of the classroom peer climate in mediating the relation between perceptions of classroom goal structures and academic help seeking among peers. Classroom goal structures were measured in the fall and classroom peer climate and help seeking among peers…

  3. Information Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networking: Modeling and Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although being a young technology, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has spurred dramatic evolution on the Internet over the recent twenty years. Unlike traditional server-client mode, P2P networking applications are user-centric. Users (peers) generate their own content and share it with others across

  4. The Influence of Peer Feedback on Self- and Peer-Assessment of Oral Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Mrudula

    2002-01-01

    Investigates agreement among teacher-, self-, and peer-assessments of students in the presence of peer feedback. This is done in the context of oral presentation skills of first year undergraduate students of ethnic Chinese background. Findings how that when assessment criteria are firmly set, peer feedback enables students to judge the…

  5. Information Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networking: Modeling and Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although being a young technology, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has spurred dramatic evolution on the Internet over the recent twenty years. Unlike traditional server-client mode, P2P networking applications are user-centric. Users (peers) generate their own content and share it with others across

  6. Teaching undergraduates the process of peer review: learning by doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, P K

    2010-09-01

    An active approach allowed undergraduates in Health Sciences to learn the dynamics of peer review at first hand. A four-stage process was used. In stage 1, students formed self-selected groups to explore specific issues. In stage 2, each group posted their interim reports online on a specific date. Each student read all the other reports and prepared detailed critiques. In stage 3, each report was discussed at sessions where the lead discussant was selected at random. All students participated in the peer review process. The written critiques were collated and returned to each group, who were asked to resubmit their revised reports within 2 wk. In stage 4, final submissions accompanied by rebuttals were graded. Student responses to a questionnaire were highly positive. They recognized the individual steps in the standard peer review, appreciated the complexities involved, and got a first-hand experience of some of the inherent variabilities involved. The absence of formal presentations and the opportunity to read each other's reports permitted them to study issues in greater depth.

  7. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  8. Effects of Social Influence in Peer Online Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad

    2014-01-01

    Web site providers often use peer recommendation to help people find interesting content. A common method for leveraging opinions of others on these web sites is to display the number of prior recommendations as a social signal. How people react to these social influence signals, in combination with other effects, such as the quality of content and its presentation order, determines how many recommendations content receives. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, we experimentally measure the effects of social influence on user decisions to recommend content. Specifically, after controlling for variation in content quality and position, we find that social influence affects outcomes of peer recommendation about half as much as position and quality do. These effects are somewhat correlated, increasing the inequality of popularity in the presence of social influence. Further, we find that social influence changes people's preferences, creating a "herding" effect that biases their judgements about the content. While simi...

  9. [Double-blind peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, Tamás

    2002-02-03

    The peer review process in medical sciences is much debated. The method is not yet evidence based. Who are the reviewers and how do they perform? They are "independent" experts. As such they are bound to be involved in research similar to that outlined in the manuscript. Very often they are contestant in the same race. That is why the author consider the double blind method, where the author is blinded and the reviewer masked from each other's identity, the best choice. Nevertheless in very many scientific journals of high quality and envied impact factors do not blind the identity of the authors. Science is a race for fame, self accomplishment and also a means to get grants for pursuing the scientific research. Only success is able to provide resources for expensive scientific research. There is no fail-safe method against bias in grant giving and editorial process. In the tidal wave of electronic information it is mandatory to help in differentiating between signal and noise in science. Peer review is the best method to protect readers from the trash of uncontrolled publications in medical science.

  10. Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenau PA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patricia A Rosenau, Rita F Lisella, Tracey L Clancy, Lorelli S NowellFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.Design and method: This phenomenological study explored the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate students through the analysis of critical reflections of individual senior students and online discussions between triads of senior students teaching/learning across diverse junior-level theory and practice courses.Participants: Seventeen senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the elective course participated in the study.Results: From the critical reflections and online discussions, four themes emerged: "developing teaching philosophies and pedagogies", "learning teaching strategies", "supportive peer relationship", and "benefits of the peer mentorship program".Conclusion: The creation and promotion of peer leadership

  11. The Association Between Peer and own Aggression is Moderated by the BDNF Val-met Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D

    2014-03-01

    Peer antisocial behavior robustly predicts adolescents' own behavior but not all adolescents are equally vulnerable to their peers' influence and genetic factors may confer vulnerability. This study used data of n = 3081 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine whether BDNF, a polymorphism that affects psychological functioning, moderates the association between affiliation with aggressive peers at age 10 and own aggression at age 15. A significant gene-environment interaction was found, where those who affiliated with aggressive peers in childhood showed increased risk for being aggressive in adolescence if they carried the BDNF met-met variant compared to val-val carriers. Our findings underline the importance of both biological and social factors for adolescent development.

  12. Marital conflict and boys' peer relationships: the mediating role of mother-son emotional reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Campbell, Jessica; Frabutt, James M; Lamb, Michael E

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the role of mother-son emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and the quality of boys' peer relationships. Parents from 84 intact families with preadolescent boys reported on the level of conflict in their marital relationship. Observations of mother-son interaction were coded for emotional reciprocity, and assessments of boys' peer relationships were obtained from both teachers and classmates. No direct connection between marital conflict and boys' peer relationships was observed. Rather, marital conflict affected boys' social competence indirectly, through its effect on the emotions expressed between mother and son. The findings support the proposal that emotional processes play an important role in connections between marital conflict and children's peer relationships and suggest that family emotional expressiveness deserves greater attention in both research and intervention.

  13. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. From parent to 'peer facilitator': a qualitative study of a peer-led parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S; Michelson, D; Day, C

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led interventions are increasingly common in community health settings. Although peer-led approaches have proven benefits for service users, relatively little is known about the process and outcomes of participation for peer leaders. This study investigated experiences of parents who had participated as 'peer facilitators' in Empowering Parents, Empowering Communities (EPEC), a peer-led programme designed to improve access to evidence-based parenting support in socially disadvantaged communities. A qualitative cross-sectional design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 peer facilitators and scrutinized using thematic analysis. Peer facilitators developed their knowledge and skills through personal experience of receiving parenting support, participation in formal training and supervised practice, access to an intervention manual, and peer modelling. Peer facilitators described positive changes in their own families, confidence and social status. Transformative personal gains reinforced peer facilitators' role commitment and contributed to a cohesive 'family' identity among EPEC staff and service users. Peer facilitators' enthusiasm, openness and mutual identification with families were seen as critical to EPEC's effectiveness and sustainability. Peer facilitators also found the training emotionally and intellectually demanding. There were particular difficulties around logistical issues (e.g. finding convenient supervision times), managing psychosocial complexity and child safeguarding. The successful delivery and sustained implementation of peer-led interventions requires careful attention to the personal qualities and support of peer leaders. Based on the findings of this study, support should include training, access to intervention manuals, regular and responsive supervision, and logistical/administrative assistance. Further research is required to elaborate and extend these findings to other peer-led programmes. © 2014 John Wiley

  15. Employing peer-to-peer software distribution in ALICE Grid Services to enable opportunistic use of OSG resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Sakrejda, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE Grid infrastructure is based on AliEn, a lightweight open source framework built on Web Services and a Distributed Agent Model in which job agents are submitted onto a grid site to prepare the environment and pull work from a central task queue located at CERN. In the standard configuration, each ALICE grid site supports an ALICE-specific VO box as a single point of contact between the site and the ALICE central services. VO box processes monitor site utilization and job requests (ClusterMonitor), monitor dynamic job and site properties (MonaLisa), perform job agent submission (CE) and deploy job-specific software (PackMan). In particular, requiring a VO box at each site simplifies deployment of job software, done onto a shared file system at the site, and adds redundancy to the overall Grid system. ALICE offline computing, however, has also implemented a peer-to-peer method (based on BitTorrent) for downloading job software directly onto each worker node as needed. By utilizing both this peer-...

  16. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeezi Grace

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer

  17. An ID-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Peer-to-Peer Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang; CHAI Zhen-chuan

    2006-01-01

    Peer-to-peer computing has recently started to gain significant acceptance, since it can greatly increase the performance and reliability of overall system. However, the security issue is still a major gating factor for its full adoption. In order to guarantee the security of data exchanged between two peers in Peer-to-Peer system, this paper comes up with an ID-based authenticated key agreement from bilinear pairings and uses BAN logic to prove the protocol's security. Compared with other existing protocols, the proposed protocol seems more secure and efficient, since it adopts the static shared Diffie-Hellman key.

  18. A Comparison of Peer and Tutor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, John; Purchase, Helen; Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We report on a study comparing peer feedback with feedback written by tutors on a large, undergraduate software engineering programming class. Feedback generated by peers is generally held to be of lower quality to feedback from experienced tutors, and this study sought to explore the extent and nature of this difference. We looked at how…

  19. Ontology-Based Peer Exchange Network (OPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui

    2010-01-01

    In current Peer-to-Peer networks, distributed and semantic free indexing is widely used by systems adopting "Distributed Hash Table" ("DHT") mechanisms. Although such systems typically solve a. user query rather fast in a deterministic way, they only support a very narrow search scheme, namely the exact hash key match. Furthermore, DHT systems put…

  20. A New Perspective on Peer Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Maria J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the peer-editing behaviors of eight undergraduate students in a third-year Spanish composition and grammar review course. Data collected over four months through interviews, participant observation, artifact inventories, and questionnaires revealed a strong tendency among informants to define the peer-editing process in social and…

  1. Peer Supervision: Toward More Effective Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carol A.; Smith, James P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses peer supervision as a vehicle for increasing student responsibility for self-assessment and peer assessment, and increasing independence and interdependence among students for professional and personal growth. The article also explains a model of a master's degree program in counseling and includes rationale, definition, implementation,…

  2. Fort Lee's Comprehensive Peer Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayan, V. Alex

    This paper describes the Peer Outreach Service Team (POST), a peer multi-service, student support system organization operating in the Fort Lee schools in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The goals of the POST program are described as reducing numbers of school dropouts as well as levels of negative behavior, chemical dependency, teenage depression, and…

  3. Online Peer Discourse in a Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the interaction discourse of second language undergraduate learners in the online peer review process of a writing classroom in Hong Kong. Specifically, the writer sought to investigate the types of online discourse learners have in the peer discussions on their writing, and to examine the role of explicit…

  4. 2009 Water Power Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Michael [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Reed, Mike [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report contains the findings of the 2009 Water Power Peer Review Panel, as well as the Water Power Program's responses to those findings. This Peer Review focused on the Program's marine and hydrokinetic energy projects.

  5. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  6. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  7. 48 CFR 201.170 - Peer Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, will organize teams of reviewers and facilitate Peer Reviews for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 201.170... OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.170...

  8. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  9. Ontology-Based Peer Exchange Network (OPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui

    2010-01-01

    In current Peer-to-Peer networks, distributed and semantic free indexing is widely used by systems adopting "Distributed Hash Table" ("DHT") mechanisms. Although such systems typically solve a. user query rather fast in a deterministic way, they only support a very narrow search scheme, namely the exact hash key match. Furthermore, DHT systems put…

  10. Teaching peers to talk to peers: the time has come for science to create a respectable, full-time career track for "peer-peer communication teachers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Armando Chapin

    2012-11-01

    Scientists should learn to communicate effectively with their colleagues through long-term, sustained training instead of ad hoc, one-off "interventions" that may or may not occur during graduate school or postdoctoral work. Since such training may place unreasonable demands on research advisors, institutions should create career opportunities for "peer-peer communication teachers."

  11. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  12. Supporting peer interaction in online learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Mason, L.; Andreuzza, S.; Arfè, B.; Favero, del L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports two studies into the efficacy of sentence openers to foster online peer-to-peer interaction. Sentence openers are pre-defined ways to start an utterance that are implemented in communication facilities as menu’s or buttons. In the first study, typical opening phrases were derived

  13. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  14. Benchmarking Peer Production Mechanisms, Processes & Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Kretschmer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable identifies key approaches for quality management in peer production by benchmarking peer production practices and processes in other areas. (Contains 29 footnotes, 13 figures and 2 tables.)[This report has been authored with contributions of: Kaisa Honkonen-Ratinen, Matti Auvinen, David Riley, Jose Pinzon, Thomas Fischer, Thomas…

  15. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  16. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  17. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  18. Peer Coaching: Professional Development for Experienced Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Therese; Weaver, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    The professoriate, as a whole, is growing older and more experienced; yet institutions often overlook the professional development needs of mid-career and senior faculty. This article, based on a review of the literature and the development of a peer coaching project, examines peer coaching as a professional development opportunity for experienced…

  19. Promoting wellness of peer providers through coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, George H; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Gill, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Peer wellness coaching is workforce innovation that empowers individuals with mental and substance use disorders to achieve recovery. This article briefly describes how this approach can help peer providers develop self-care skills to improve job tenure and promote satisfaction. Promising results of this new approach are presented.

  20. Mathematical Theory of Peer-Instruction Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that…

  1. The Role of Anonymity in Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan

    2017-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the impact of anonymity and training (an alternative strategy when anonymity was unattainable) on students' performance and perceptions in formative peer assessment. The training in this study focused on educating students to understand and appreciate formative peer assessment. A sample of 77 students…

  2. Peer Observation of Teaching: A Decoupled Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; D'Artrey, Meriel; Rowe, Deborah-Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article details the findings of research into the academic teaching staff experience of peer observation of their teaching practice. Peer observation is commonly used as a tool to enhance a teacher's continuing professional development. Research participants acknowledged its ability to help develop their teaching practice, but they also…

  3. Learning through Observing Peers in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Learning through peer observation in higher education is most frequently investigated from the perspective of the teacher who is observed. What is under-examined is "how" learning arises for the observer by watching a peer in practice. This paper provides insight into this question through an interpretive-phenomenological analysis of a…

  4. Peer Learning in Specialist Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2016-01-01

    Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…

  5. Identifying Peer Institutions Using Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronico, Jess; Choksi, Shail S.

    2012-01-01

    The New York Institute of Technology's (NYIT) School of Management (SOM) wishes to develop a list of peer institutions for the purpose of benchmarking and monitoring/improving performance against other business schools. The procedure utilizes relevant criteria for the purpose of establishing this peer group by way of a cluster analysis. The…

  6. Evaluative Language in Peer Review Referee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortanet, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Most international journals and conferences currently use the peer review system to ensure the quality of their contributions. Among the various types of peer review, the "blind" and the "anonymous" review seem to be the most common. Reviewers, or referees, usually write reports anonymously to indicate to authors what they should change in their…

  7. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  8. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  9. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  10. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  11. Police peer support programs: current knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwiler, Peggy; Barocas, Briana; Mills, Linda G

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the current empirical research and literature on peer assistance programs, peer support, and peer-facilitated interventions for police officers. A literature search was conducted to identify studies on police, peer support, and peer assistance programs. Studies were examined in terms of the following criteria: description of data collection methods, findings, study limitations, implications for police, workplace assistance, and peer support. Articles on peer support in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center rescue and recovery efforts were also reviewed. The research studies reviewed in this article do not evaluate peer program effectiveness from the perspective of those officers receiving peer services. To better serve this invaluable population, efforts must be made to incorporate their views. Information is also needed on the effectiveness of peer assistance programs and peer-driven crisis intervention models. Finally, research is needed that specifically examines the effectiveness of programs that utilize trained peers in partnership with professional mental health practitioners.

  12. Multi-Data Source Fusion Approach in Peer-To-Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Nachouki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for data fusion in the context of schema-basedPeer-To-Peer (P2P systems is proposed. Schema-based systems manage andprovide query capabilities for (semi-structured information: queries have to beformulated in terms of schema. Schema-based P2P are called Peer DataManagement system (PDMS. A challenging problem in a schema-based peerto-peer (P2P system is how to locate peers who have data relevant to a givenquery.Our proposal lies in application of the multi-data source fusion approach in thecontext of PDMS. Multi-data source schemas, distributed, shared andmaintained by peers, are the basis of a semantic overlay network. The semanticoverlay network and the power of Multi-data source Fusion Language (MFLare exploited for efficient query routing towards the relevant peers. We showthe design of the Peer Multi-Data source Management System (PMDMS andwe focus on the Matchmaker and routing components. We give a performanceevaluation of the semantic query routing with respect to important criteria suchas precision, recall, response time and number of messages. We give aperformance evaluation of the semantic reconciliation between peers. Wecompare this result with other systems developed according to peer/super-peerapproach. Finally, we show a prototype developed according to PMDMS. Webuild an application that shares, data between peers, in the domain of leisuresuch as, bank, cinema, restaurant, etc.

  13. Gender bias in scholarly peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Markus; Schottdorf, Manuel; Neef, Andreas; Battaglia, Demian

    2017-01-01

    Peer review is the cornerstone of scholarly publishing and it is essential that peer reviewers are appointed on the basis of their expertise alone. However, it is difficult to check for any bias in the peer-review process because the identity of peer reviewers generally remains confidential. Here, using public information about the identities of 9000 editors and 43000 reviewers from the Frontiers series of journals, we show that women are underrepresented in the peer-review process, that editors of both genders operate with substantial same-gender preference (homophily), and that the mechanisms of this homophily are gender-dependent. We also show that homophily will persist even if numerical parity between genders is reached, highlighting the need for increased efforts to combat subtler forms of gender bias in scholarly publishing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21718.001

  14. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Peykari, Niloofar

    2013-12-01

    In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers.

  15. Censorship and the peer review system

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, K

    2002-01-01

    In the best of all worlds, peer review amounts to benign censorship, saving trees, human efforts and money spent by attempts to cope with erroneous or badly written papers. In the worst case, ``peer review'' amounts to malign censorship, impede progress, and hence to a waste of human efforts and (mostly taxpayer's) money. It is argued that, by the way it is commonly executed by editorial boards and funding agencies, peer review does often more bad than good. In an academic environment which is increasingly ``objectivized'' and administered by quality measures of private business, careful peer review is almost punished, since it amounts to ``unproductive time.'' If paid realistically, it would be excessively expensive. Very little attention is also given to the quality of the review process. Alternatives to ``peer review'' are briefly suggested and discussed.

  16. Gender bias in scholarly peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Markus; Schottdorf, Manuel; Neef, Andreas; Battaglia, Demian

    2017-03-21

    Peer review is the cornerstone of scholarly publishing and it is essential that peer reviewers are appointed on the basis of their expertise alone. However, it is difficult to check for any bias in the peer-review process because the identity of peer reviewers generally remains confidential. Here, using public information about the identities of 9000 editors and 43000 reviewers from the Frontiers series of journals, we show that women are underrepresented in the peer-review process, that editors of both genders operate with substantial same-gender preference (homophily), and that the mechanisms of this homophily are gender-dependent. We also show that homophily will persist even if numerical parity between genders is reached, highlighting the need for increased efforts to combat subtler forms of gender bias in scholarly publishing.

  17. Peer-to-peer interprofessional health policy education for Medicare part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Helene L; Lai, Cindy J; Cutler, Timothy W; Smith, Amanda R; Stebbins, Marilyn R

    2010-08-10

    To determine whether a peer-to-peer education program was an expedient and effective approach to improve knowledge and promote interprofessional communication and collaboration. Trained pharmacy students taught nursing students, medical students, and medical residents about the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit (Part D), in 1- to 2-hour lectures. Learners completed a survey instrument to assess the effectiveness of the presentation and their attitudes toward the peer-to-peer instructional format. Learners strongly or somewhat agreed that the peer-to-peer format was effective in providing Part D education (99%) and promoted interprofessional collaboration (100%). Qualitative data highlighted the program's clinical relevance, value in promoting interprofessional collaboration, and influence on changing views about the roles and contributions of pharmacists. The Part D peer educator program is an innovative way to disseminate contemporary health policy information rapidly, while fostering interprofessional collaboration.

  18. Distributed Stable-Group Differentiated Admission Control Algorithm in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.

  19. Peer review to ensure quality in forensic mental health publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R; Wettstein, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Peer reviewers have been called the gatekeepers of science. For journal publications in forensic psychiatry, as well as other disciplines, the purposes of peer review are to assist in the selection of manuscripts to publish, improve the quality of manuscripts before their publication, and promote the fairness of the process. In this article, we examine, in particular, characteristics of high-quality peer reviewers, selection of peer reviewers, recruitment and retention of peer reviewers, desired quality of peer-reviewer ratings, and the value of peer review. We conclude with specific, albeit largely untested, recommendations for improvements in peer review of forensic mental health publications.

  20. Peer Evaluation in CMC Learning Environment and Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mellati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peer evaluation and technology-based instruction as the various domains of language teaching perspectives might affect language development. Group work in a technology-based environment might be more successful when learners are involved in developing the assessment process particularly peer assessment. This study investigated the effectiveness of peer evaluation in technology-based language environment and its effects on English writing ability. To reach this goal, 70 Iranian learners were participated in English language writing context. They were divided into two groups, one group assigned to CMC (Computer-Mediated Communication language learning context and the other assigned to a traditional learning environment. Both groups were encouraged to evaluate their classmates’ writing tasks. In addition, interviews were conducted with two learners. Comparing these two groups provides comprehensive guidelines for teachers as well as curriculum designers to set adjusted writing language environment for more effective and creative language teaching and learning. E-collaboration classroom tasks have high intrinsic motivation as well as significant effects on learners’ outcomes. Cooperative tasks specifically in technology-based environment lead learners to group working and consequently group learning. Computer-Mediated Communication is meaningful, especially in contexts in which teachers stimulate group work activities. Keywords: Information communication technology (ICT, Computer-mediated communication (CMC, Technology-based environment, Writing skill, E-collaboration, Cooperative learning

  1. Peer Support for Clinicians: A Programmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jo; Galowitz, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Burnout is plaguing the culture of medicine and is linked to several primary causes including long work hours, increasingly burdensome documentation, and resource constraints. Beyond these, additional emotional stressors for physicians are involvement in an adverse event, especially one that involves a medical error, and malpractice litigation. The authors argue that it is imperative that health care institutions devote resources to programs that support physician well-being and resilience. Doing so after adverse and other emotionally stressful events, such as the death of a colleague or caring for victims of a mass trauma, is crucial as clinicians are often at their most vulnerable during such times. To this end, the Center for Professionalism and Peer Support at Brigham and Women's Hospital redesigned the peer support program in 2009 to provide one-on-one peer support. The peer support program was one of the first of its kind; over 25 national and international programs have been modeled off of it. This Perspective describes the origin, structure, and basic workings of the peer support program, including important components for the peer support conversation (outreach call, invitation/opening, listening, reflecting, reframing, sense-making, coping, closing, and resources/referrals). The authors argue that creating a peer support program is one way forward, away from a culture of invulnerability, isolation, and shame and toward a culture that truly values a sense of shared organizational responsibility for clinician well-being and patient safety.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF REPUTATION EXCHANGE PROTOCOL IN PEER-TO-PEER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Udhaya,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The motivation behind basing applications on peer-to-peer architectures derives to a large extent from their ability to function, scale and self-organize in the presence of a highly transient population of nodes, network and computer failures, without the need of a central server and the overhead of its administration. P2P networks are vulnerable to peers, who cheat, propagate malicious codes, or peers who do not cooperate. Traditional client-server security models are not sufficient to P2P networks because of their centralized nature. Absence of central authority in P2P poses unique challenges like identity management of the peers, secure reputation data management and Sybil attack for reputation management in the network. In this paper we present a cryptographic protocol for ensuring secure and timely availability of the reputation data of a peer extremely at low cost. The past behavior of the peer is encapsulated in its digital reputation and is subsequently used to predict the future actions. The cryptographic protocol is coupled with self-certification and cryptographic mechanisms for identitymanagement and countering Sybil attacks. The latency associated with a file replication in a P2P system consists of two components: the query search time and the time required by the peers to transmit the file. In order to model the peer level latency, we develop a queuing model to evaluate the time required at each peer to serve its replication requests.

  3. Head-Tail Video Streaming Over Peer To Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sianati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available P2P systems similar to file sharing applications are being used vastly due to unrestricted nature of thesesystems. Their unrestricting comes from their ability to cooperate and aggregate peer’s resources andtheir scalability. On the other side, today technologies are traditional client-server applications. Theseapplications can perform strongly but they are not scalable due to limitations on server resources. Thislimitation of the client/server technology leads designers to use alternative technologies mainly P2P. Asa streaming system, P2P streaming network can be formed into two types, Tree-based and Mesh-based.In this paper a new mesh-based P2P system named Head-Tail streaming is proposed. Head-Tailsimplifies packet scheduling and node failure recovery by using paired-peer sending and node failureprediction. Our system outperforms ordinary systems comparing as delay and receive time. Our systemperforms better than ordinary systems based on two reasons :Overlapping sequence of chunks and nodereplacement policy.

  4. Art-mediated peer-to-peer learning of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Chen, Julie

    2014-08-01

    Making experiential art in a clinical clerkship offers opportunities for students to gain self-awareness and enhance their empathic understanding of patients. The student-created art can be further used as teaching material for other students. The graduating class of 2012 from Ajou University School of Medicine in South Korea was interested in learning about medical humanities initiatives at the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (HKU), and made an educational visit in May 2012. As part of the core family medicine curriculum, third-year HKU medical students created poetry and art based on their experiences witnessing patients in pain and suffering. Twenty of the artworks and accompanying reflective writing were chosen for an exhibition. The visiting students viewed the exhibit and created their own art based on their emotional response to one piece selected from the exhibit. The combination of viewing art made by their peers and creating art in response resulted in empathic understanding of patient pain and suffering, and an appreciation of holistic care and the value of the doctor-patient relationship. Medical student-generated artwork has the potential to educate both students and professionals on humanistic aspects of medical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Adaptive peer-to-peer streaming with MutualCast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Cheng; CHOU Philip A.; LI Jin; ZHANG Cha

    2006-01-01

    Application Layer Multicast (ALM) can greatly reduce the load of a server by leveraging the outgoing bandwidth of the participating nodes. However, most proposed ALM schemes become quite complicated and lose bandwidth efficiency if they try to deal with networks that are significantly heterogeneous or time-varying. In earlier work, we proposed MutualCast, an ALM scheme with fully connected mesh that quickly adapts to the time-varying networks, while achieving provably optimal throughput performance. In this paper, we study how MutualCast can be paired with adaptive rate control for streaming media. Specifically,we combine Optimal Rate Control (ORC), our earlier control-theoretical framework for quality adaptation, with the MutualCast delivery scheme. Using multiple bit rate video content, we show that the proposed system can gracefully adjust the common quality received at all the nodes while maintaining a continuous streaming experience at each, even when the network undergoes severe, uncorrelated bandwidth fluctuations at different peer nodes.

  6. 改良白膜法制备浓缩血小板及回收率的影响因素%Improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and factors affecting platelet recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单泓; 王姣杰; 别立莉; 刘敏; 戚正; 段艳丽

    2014-01-01

    divided into improved buffy-coat group, buffer-coat group and platelet-rich plasma after 4-6 hours. The 3-step centrifugal method was used for improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates:step 1, centrifugation at 2 300 r/min for 12 minutes at (22±2)℃ with a deceleration of 5;step 2, centrifugation at 910 r/min for 10 minutes at (22±2)℃;step 3, centrifugation at 2 800 r/min for 12 minutes at (22±2)℃. After centrifugation, the upper layer containing few platelets was removed, and the rest 30 mL platelet suspension was platelet concentrates. Factors affecting platelet recovery were analyzed through literature retrieval. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There was no difference in platelet number among the three groups before preparation of platelet concentrates (P>0.05). A higher rate of platelet recovery was found in the platelet-rich plasma group and improved buffy-coat group compared with the buffy-coat group (P0.05). There were less residual red blood cells and white blood cells in the two buffy-coat groups than the platelet-rich plasma group (P0.05). The recovery rate of prepared platelet concentrates was affected by the whole blood amount, centrifugal speed, centrifugation time and methods. Improved buffy-coat method for preparation of platelet concentrates can be generalized in blood centers or blood stations, because it can reduce residual red blood cells and white blood cells and increase rate of platelet recovery.

  7. An open science peer review oath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksic, Jelena; Adrian Alexa, Adrian Alexa; Attwood, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    : specifically, we introduce a peer-review oath and accompanying manifesto. These have been designed to offer guidelines to enable reviewers (with the minimum friction or bias) to follow and apply open science principles, and support the ideas of transparency, reproducibility and ultimately greater societal...... impact. Introducing the oath and manifesto at the stage of peer review will help to check that the research being published includes everything that other researchers would need to successfully repeat the work. Peer review is the lynchpin of the publishing system: encouraging the community to consciously...

  8. Multicultural peer counseling: counseling the multicultural student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisz, R H

    1999-08-01

    This article focuses on methods of recruitment, selection, and training of multicultural peer advisors, e.g. screening, training workshops, and innovative recruitment methods are discussed. The author devotes special attention to instructional elements that are intended to provide peer advisors with those humanistic skills needed to work directly with primarily adolescent clients between the ages of 18 and 24 and to serve as a referral agent. The author believes that peer advisors can serve as an important adjunct to core services and can serve as an effective means to humanize and increase utilization of all the services available to multicultural students.

  9. How Adolescent Girls Understand and Manage Depression Within Their Peer Group: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Depression is prevalent among adolescent girls, but few receive mental health treatment. Adolescent girls often forgo needed mental health treatment because they fear responses of peers about depression. Understanding the processes of how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression is an important first step to improve access to mental health treatment. This qualitative study describes the knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adolescent girls about depression and mental health treatment within their peer group. The investigators conducted two focus groups, with adolescent girls (n=21), in a public high school in the southern U.S. Grounded theory methods were utilized to identify a beginning substantive theory about perceptions and behaviors of adolescent girls related to depression in their peers. Participants cognitively processed mental health concepts similarly to adults. However, their affective responses to peers with mental illness fluctuated between adult and child perspectives. Participants expressed concerns about individuals with depression that have previously been identified in adults, but expressed unique perspectives that reflect their transitional stage of development. Findings provide new information about how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression, define areas for further investigation, provide directions for constructing developmentally appropriate mental health educational interventions for adolescent girls, and elucidate the need to provide guidance to women with whom adolescent girls have sustained contact.

  10. Can students adequately evaluate the activities of their peers in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Rachelle J A; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Van Berkel, Henk J M; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), high-quality discussions are crucial for student learning. The quality of the discussion is affected by the quality of the contributions students make during PBL tutorials. This study investigated whether students are able to evaluate the activities of their peers in PBL groups in a reliable and valid way. For this purpose, the Maastricht-Peer Activity Rating Scale (M-PARS) was developed. The M-PARS was well-founded on the literature about effective tutorial performance. With this scale, students (N = 196) were evaluated by their peers on three main aspects: their constructive, collaborative, and motivational contributions to the group. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the data fitted the three-factor model reasonably well. The generalizability studies demonstrated good internal consistency when students were evaluated by, at least, four of their peers. Furthermore, Hancock's coefficients indicated good construct reliability. The results prove that peers are able to provide reliable and valid information about a student's active participation in the tutorial group, if at least four peer ratings are attainable, out of a group of eight students. In conclusion, the M-PARS is a valid and reliable instrument.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354

  12. The role of teacher-child interaction in promoting peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisenkova, Natalia S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system. Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study. The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys. The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children. Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.

  13. Students’Participation in Peer Feedback in EFL Writing Class:A Study on Low-Level Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe

    2016-01-01

    While studies in peer feedback in second language writing have covered a wide scope of areas, there is a paucity of re-search looking at individual peer reviewers and their specific views about peer feedback. Low-level students, in particular, have always been a group of students that receive a modicum of attention in peer feedback research. This study looks at how four low-level students participated in peer feedback sessions and explores the reasons of different kinds of student participations. Data collection methods are composed of classroom observation, analysis of students’writing assignments, and student interviews. The findings of this study indicate that among the four participants there are four kinds of participations in peer feedback ses-sions, and the possible reasons include individual personalities, past traumatic experiences, low language proficiency, and poor sense of self-awareness. It is suggested that peer feedback in second language writing is a complicated issue whereby students’ views, cognitive and affective needs should be taken into consideration, and writing teachers need to reconsider and redesign peer feedback sessions in second language writing classrooms according to specific teaching contexts.

  14. Supervising undergraduate research: a collective approach utilising groupwork and peer support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mary-Jane; Cluett, Elizabeth; Ireland, Lorraine; Reading, Sheila; Rourke, Susan

    2014-04-01

    Nursing education now requires graduate entry for professional registration. The challenge is to ensure that students develop independence and team working in a resource effective manner. The dissertation is one opportunity for this. To evaluate changing from individual dissertation supervision to group peer supervision. Group supervision was implemented for one cohort. Dissertation outcomes were compared with two previous cohorts. Student evaluative data was assessed. Group supervision did not adversely affect dissertation outcomes (p=0.85). 88% of students reported peer supervision to be helpful, with themes being 'support and sharing', and 'progress and moving forward'. Peer group support provided consistent supervision harnessing the energy and resources of the students and Faculty, without adversely affecting outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Pedagogical Anatomy of Peer-Assessment: Dissecting a peerScholar Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Joordens

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-assessment is a process wherein students grade the work of their peers rather than relying on an expert. With the recent advent of online tools for peer-assessment [1] it is possible to utilize peer-assessment within any course context, even extremely large courses, with virtually no logistic or economic barriers. Given this potential for widespread use, the present paper highlights the pedagogical value of peer-assessment by breaking down a specific assignment and highlighting the manner in which the learning experienced by students maps onto prominent categorizations of strong pedagogy. We argue that peer-assessment provides a powerful compliment to multiple-choice testing by providing support for the sort of deep, critical and creative learning that is simply not possible to either encourage or assess via multiple- choice.

  16. Evaluation of the CHOICES program of peer-to-peer tobacco education and advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jill M; Dwyer, Martha; Verna, Marie; Zimmermann, Mia Hanos; Gandhi, Kunal K; Galazyn, Magdalena; Szkodny, Nancy; Molnar, Margaret; Kley, Robert; Steinberg, Marc L

    2011-06-01

    CHOICES is a consumer driven program for addressing tobacco in people with mental illness that employs mental health peer counselors. Since 2005, CHOICES has conducted over 298 community visits reaching more than 10,000 smokers with mental illness (about 2500/year). A telephone based outcome study was conducted in 102 outpatient smokers who received a CHOICES peer-to-peer session. At 1-month follow up participants (N = 86; 84%) reported smoking an average of 13 cigarettes per day which was significantly reduced from a baseline of 19 (P peer session and another 47 (55%) reduced their smoking. Feedback from smokers about the program was positive. Most (N = 59, 71%) said it was a lot easier to talk with a consumer about smoking compared to their psychiatrist or staff. Peer-to-peer communication about tobacco use can be effective to increase awareness and change smoking behaviors.

  17. On the Degree Distribution of Faulty Peer-to-Peer Overlays

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework to model fault-tolerance in unstructured peer-to-peer overlays, represented as complex networks. We define a distributed protocol peers execute for managing the overlay and reacting to node faults. Based on the protocol, evolution equations are defined and manipulated by resorting to generating functions. Obtained outcomes provide insights on the nodes' degree probability distribution. From the study of the degree distribution, it is possible to estimate other important metrics of the peer-to-peer overlay, such as the diameter of the network. We study different networks, characterized by three specific desired degree distributions, i.e. nets with nodes having a fixed desired degree, random graphs and scale-free networks. All these networks are assessed via the analytical tool and simulation as well. Results show that the approach can be factually employed to dynamically tune the average attachment rate at peers so that they maintain their own desired degree and, in ...

  18. Supporting scientific writing and evaluation in a conceptual physics course with calibrated peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edward; Goldberg, Fred; Patterson, Scott; Heft, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Writing tasks are one way students can apply science concepts, yet evaluating students' writing can be difficult in large classes. With the web-based Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) system, students submit written work and evaluate each other. Students write a response to a prompt, read and evaluate responses prepared by the curriculum developers, and receive feedback on their evaluations, allowing students to "calibrate" their evaluation skills. Students then evaluate their peers' work and their own work. We have used CPR for two semesters in conceptual physics courses with enrollments of ˜100 students. By independently assessing students' responses, we evaluated the CPR calibration process and compared students' peer reviews with expert evaluations. Students' scores on their essays correlate with our independent evaluations. This poster describes these findings and our experiences with implementing CPR assignments.

  19. Improving Scientific Writing in Undergraduate Geosciences Degrees Through Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; Collins, G. S.; Craig, L.

    2016-12-01

    In the British educational system, students specialise early. Often geoscience undergraduates have not taken a class that requires extended writing since they were sixteen years old. This can make it difficult for students to develop the written skills necessary for a geoscience degree, which often has assessments in the form of essays and reports. To improve both the writing and editing skills of our undergraduates we have introduced a peer review system, in which seniors review the work of first year students. At Imperial College London we set written coursework in every year of the degree. Communication is taught and assessed in many courses. There are two major modules with substantial written components that bookend the undergraduate degree at Imperial; the freshmen all write an assessed essay, while all seniors take 'Science Communication', a course that aims to prepare them for a range of possible careers. In the 2015-16 academic year we linked these courses by introducing a modified form of peer marking and instruction. Seniors had to complete reviews of draft first year essays for credit in Science Communication. These reviews are completed for the department 'journal' and introduce the first and fourth years to the nature of peer review. Seniors learn how to critically, but kindly, evaluate the work of other students, and are also prepared for potentially submitting their senior theses to journals. Reviews were managed by volunteer seniors, who acted as associate editors. They allocated anonymous reviewers and wrote decision letters, which were sent to the freshmen before their final assessed essay submission. Ultimately the fourth year reviews were formally assessed and graded by members of staff, as were the revised and resubmitted first year essays. Feedback for both courses has improved since the introduction of student reviews of essays. The markers of the freshman essay have also commented on the improvement in the standard of the writing and a

  20. Airborne Network Data Availability Using Peer to Peer Database Replication on a Distributed Hash Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AODV ) were used as the three routing protocols . All routing protocols were configured with the default values of their parameters. The...Optimized Link State Routing OSI Open Systems Interconnection P2P Peer-to-Peer PDP Peer Database Protocol SAR Spatially Aware Routing UAV Unmanned Aerial...concludes that one major aspect is the interaction between two routing systems: the ad-hoc routing protocol and the DHT routing algorithms. Since