WorldWideScience

Sample records for prep suite predictive

  1. SUIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers; Wedebrunn, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Leaflet om project SUIT udgivet af European Commission. Tryksagen forklarer i korte ord resultatet af projektet SUIT. Kulturværdier i Miljøspørgsmål. Vurdering af projekter og indvirkning på miljø....

  2. Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    , the suited performance trends were comparable between the model and the suited subjects. With the three off-nominal bearing configurations compared to the nominal bearing configurations, human subjects showed decreases in hip flexion of 64%, 6%, and 13% and in hip abduction of 59%, 2%, and 20%. Likewise the solid model showed decreases in hip flexion of 58%, 1%, and 25% and in hip abduction of 56%, 0%, and 30%, under the same condition changes from the nominal configuration. Differences seen between the model predictions and the human subject performance data could be attributed to the model lacking dynamic elements and performing kinematic analysis only, the level of fit of the subjects with the suit, the levels of the subject s suit experience.

  3. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  4. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  5. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  6. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; Liu, F.; Saint, K.; Vertenstein, M.; Chen, J.; Oehmke, R.; Doyle, J.; Whitcomb, T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users.The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model.

  7. Airport Gate Activity Monitoring Tool Suite for Improved Turnaround Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to create a suite of tools for monitoring airport gate activities with the objective of improving aircraft turnaround. Airport ramp...

  8. PMP exam prep

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, Rita

    2013-01-01

    This book has been FULLY updated to reflect PMI's changes to the PMP exam, and should be used to prepare for all PMP exams delivered on or after July 30th of 2013. Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a Thank You letter? Hundreds of thousands of project managers know and understand why PMP Exam Prep is a worldwide best-seller. Years of PMP exam preparation experience, endless hours of ongoing research, interviews with project managers who failed the exam to identify gaps in their knowledge, and a razor-sharp focus on making sure project managers don't waste a single minute of their time studying are THE reasons this book is the best-selling PMP exam preparation guide in the world. PMP Exam Prep, Eighth Edition contains hundreds of updates and improvements from previous editions--including new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering hundreds of sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus games and activities available nowhere else, this book will help y...

  9. A comprehensive software suite for protein family construction and functional site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Renfrew Haft

    Full Text Available In functionally diverse protein families, conservation in short signature regions may outperform full-length sequence comparisons for identifying proteins that belong to a subgroup within which one specific aspect of their function is conserved. The SIMBAL workflow (Sites Inferred by Metabolic Background Assertion Labeling is a data-mining procedure for finding such signature regions. It begins by using clues from genomic context, such as co-occurrence or conserved gene neighborhoods, to build a useful training set from a large number of uncharacterized but mutually homologous proteins. When training set construction is successful, the YES partition is enriched in proteins that share function with the user's query sequence, while the NO partition is depleted. A selected query sequence is then mined for short signature regions whose closest matches overwhelmingly favor proteins from the YES partition. High-scoring signature regions typically contain key residues critical to functional specificity, so proteins with the highest sequence similarity across these regions tend to share the same function. The SIMBAL algorithm was described previously, but significant manual effort, expertise, and a supporting software infrastructure were required to prepare the requisite training sets. Here, we describe a new, distributable software suite that speeds up and simplifies the process for using SIMBAL, most notably by providing tools that automate training set construction. These tools have broad utility for comparative genomics, allowing for flexible collection of proteins or protein domains based on genomic context as well as homology, a capability that can greatly assist in protein family construction. Armed with this new software suite, SIMBAL can serve as a fast and powerful in silico alternative to direct experimentation for characterizing proteins and their functional interactions.

  10. An online re-linearization scheme suited for Model Predictive and Linear Quadratic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    This technical note documents the equations for primal-dual interior-point quadratic programming problem solver used for MPC. The algorithm exploits the special structure of the MPC problem and is able to reduce the computational burden such that the computational burden scales with prediction...... horizon length in a linear way rather than cubic, which would be the case if the structure was not exploited. It is also shown how models used for design of model-based controllers, e.g. linear quadratic and model predictive, can be linearized both at equilibrium and non-equilibrium points, making...

  11. Development and evaluation of SBLINE, a suite of models for the prediction of pollution concentrations from vehicles in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namdeo, A.K.; Colls, J.J. [Environmental Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-06

    The assessment of air quality impacts from roadways is a major concern to urban planners, developers, health officials and engineers. This paper describes the development of a suite of models, called SBLINE, for prediction of pollution concentrations from vehicles in urban road networks. The first component of the suite is ROADFAC, an emission model for calculating emission rates for a road link with known vehicle fleet structure and operational details. ROADFAC can also calculate modal emission rates, caused by deceleration, idle, acceleration and cruise operational modes, by determining queue length and vehicle delay from traffic volume and signal phasing information. The other components of SBLINE are two dispersion models, called NOTLINE and CPB, for prediction of pollution concentrations contributed by different roadlinks in the network. These models use site geometry, meteorology, and traffic emissions calculated by ROADFAC to predict pollutant concentrations. The contribution from a given link is calculated by using NOTLINE if that link is situated in simple topography, or CPB is run if the link is inside a canyon or a cut-section. Finally, cumulative concentrations at any receptor location are calculated by adding the contributions from all roadlinks. SBLINE can be applied to any urban network of roads, with roadlinks located in either simple topography or street canyons. The program has been evaluated in one region of Leicester in the UK. The region represents a typical urban network of roads with some roads located in plain topography and some inside medium size canyons. Observed values of pollutant concentrations are compared with predictions made from detailed measurements of the vehicle population parameters, meteorology, and local street and building topography. Well-established statistical techniques have been used to show the potential of SBLINE for application to other road networks

  12. Distill: a suite of web servers for the prediction of one-, two- and three-dimensional structural features of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Ian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe Distill, a suite of servers for the prediction of protein structural features: secondary structure; relative solvent accessibility; contact density; backbone structural motifs; residue contact maps at 6, 8 and 12 Angstrom; coarse protein topology. The servers are based on large-scale ensembles of recursive neural networks and trained on large, up-to-date, non-redundant subsets of the Protein Data Bank. Together with structural feature predictions, Distill includes a server for prediction of Cα traces for short proteins (up to 200 amino acids. Results The servers are state-of-the-art, with secondary structure predicted correctly for nearly 80% of residues (currently the top performance on EVA, 2-class solvent accessibility nearly 80% correct, and contact maps exceeding 50% precision on the top non-diagonal contacts. A preliminary implementation of the predictor of protein Cα traces featured among the top 20 Novel Fold predictors at the last CASP6 experiment as group Distill (ID 0348. The majority of the servers, including the Cα trace predictor, now take into account homology information from the PDB, when available, resulting in greatly improved reliability. Conclusion All predictions are freely available through a simple joint web interface and the results are returned by email. In a single submission the user can send protein sequences for a total of up to 32k residues to all or a selection of the servers. Distill is accessible at the address: http://distill.ucd.ie/distill/.

  13. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 70%. Your risk of getting HIV from sex can be even lower if you combine PrEP with condoms and other prevention methods. Download PrEP 101 Consumer Info Sheet Vital Signs Fact Sheet on Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV (PrEP) Expand All Collapse All Video Introductions to PrEP What is PrEP? A Brief ...

  14. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and predictability of laser in situ keratomileusis using two laser suites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meidani A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Meidani,1–3 Chara Tzavara3 1Hypervision Laser Centre, 2Eye Day Clinic, 3Department of Hygiene, University of Athens Medical School, Centre for Health Services Research, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Athens, Greece Purpose: The main aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and predictability of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis performed by two different laser suites in the treatment of myopia for up to 6 months.Methods: In this two-site retrospective nonrandomized study, myopic eyes that underwent laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis using IntraLase FS 60 kHz formed group 1 and those using WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser system formed group 2. Ablation was performed with Visx Star S4 IR and WaveLight EX500 Excimer lasers, respectively, in groups 1 and 2. Both groups were well matched for age, sex, and mean level of preoperative refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE. Uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and MRSE were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after treatment.Results: Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients were included in the study. At 6-month follow-up postop, 78.6% of eyes in group 1 and 92.8% of eyes in group 2 achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better (P=0.252. 35.7% and 50% in group 1 and group 2, respectively, gained one line (P=0.179. No eye lost lines of corrected distance visual acuity. Twenty-five eyes in group 1 (92.7% and 27 eyes in group 2 (96.3% had MRSE within ±0.5 D in the 6-month follow-up (P>0.999. The mean efficacy index at 6 months was similar in group 1 and group 2 (mean 1.10±0.12 [standard deviation] vs 1.10±0.1 (P=0.799. The mean safety index was similar in group 1 and group 2 (mean 1.10±0.10 [standard deviation] vs 1.10±0.09 (P=0.407.Conclusion: The outcomes were excellent between the two laser suites. There were no significant differences at 6-month follow-up postop between the two

  15. [College Discovery: America's First PREP Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James J., Jr.

    The Predischarge Education Program (PREP) is a federally funded program, approved in 1970, to help educationally disadvantaged servicemen continue their education. Many junior colleges are running or planning PREP projects in cooperation with military installations and the Veterans Administration. This paper describes the first year of one PREP…

  16. Tech Prep Compendium of Models. [Revised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Technical and Community Coll., Dover.

    This publication discusses four models for technical preparation (tech prep): program organization; student progress; tech prep data collection and evaluation model; and school/community. The program organization model is divided into four sections. Section I, the business industry, and labor section, shows the flow from craft committee and…

  17. Process to Obtain Quick Counts from PREP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez–Cruz M.Á.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the Preliminary Electoral Results Program (PERP as a database of the federal elections for president of the Mexican Republic, a methodology was developed in order to find representative samples of ballot boxes installed in the election’s day (quick count in different hours, due to its characteristics of gathering of information, the PREP in the first hours forms a non-representative sample of data. In a particular way, in the election of July 2, 2006, after 3 hours of opening the PREP, it was observed that the accuracy of the process of the quick counts was better than the one obtained by the IFE. Among other things, this allows to lower the cost, to increase the confidentiality of the ballot boxes used in the sampling and to distinguish in a precise moment the winning candidate long before PREP finishes.

  18. Best Practices: A Cure for the New Prep Headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alan T.; Steinbach, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of a new course is colloquially known among faculty as a "new prep." New preps are often time-consuming and laborious for instructors. They can be particularly frustrating when this effort does not yield results in the classroom. This research explores how a best practice approach can make the transfer of new preps across…

  19. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  20. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Arnold

    Full Text Available A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States.Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time.Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations.While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor PrEP

  1. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Hazelton, Patrick; Lane, Tim; Christopoulos, Katerina A; Galindo, Gabriel R; Steward, Wayne T; Morin, Stephen F

    2012-01-01

    A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC) can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States. Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time. Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations. While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor PrEP in their

  2. Electronics Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers the occupation of electronics technician. Section 1 provides the occupation definition. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes--abbreviations for grade level, (by the end of grade 12, by the end of associate degree), academic codes (communications, math, or…

  3. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  4. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  5. Tech Prep Marketing Guide. The Complete Book of Strategies and Practical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Patty

    This guide explains the concept of marketing tech prep and provides marketing principles and strategies to promote tech prep programs. The guide covers the following topics: (1) why it is necessary to market tech prep; (2) what a comprehensive tech prep marketing plan should include; (3) targeting the benefits message; (4) marketing tech prep to…

  6. PrEP Whores and HIV Prevention: The Queer Communication of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. Whereas other such tools-including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

  7. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  8. Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription complex Prep1-Pbx1

    OpenAIRE

    Cabaro, Serena

    2011-01-01

    Prep1 is an homeodomain transcription factor belonging to the TALE proteins, including also Pbx1, which plays an essential role in hematopoiesis, organogenesis and development. Prep1 forms transcriptionally active complexes with Pbx1 and regulates the activity of several genes. The Prep1 null mutation leads to embryonic death at a very early stage. Therefore, Prep1 hypomorphic (Prep1i/i) mice have been generated. Prep1 heterozygous (Prep1i/+) mice, which express only 55-57% of protein, have a...

  9. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) in industry trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris

    2006-12-01

    To identify patterns in trial testimony that may reflect on the intentions or expectations of tobacco manufacturers with regard to the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). Research was conducted using the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) collection of trial testimony and depositions housed online at Tobacco Documents Online (www.tobaccodocuments.org). Relevant testimony was identified through full-text searches of terms indicating PREPs or harm reduction strategies. The role and function of PREPs in testimony were classified according to common and contrasting themes. These were analysed in the context of broader trial arguments and against changes in time period and the market. Analysis of testimony suggests that the failure of PREPs in the market tempered initial industry enthusiasm and made protection of the conventional cigarette market its major priority. The "breakthrough" character of PREPs has been de-emphasised, with trial arguments instead positioning PREPs as simply another choice for consumers. This framework legitimises the sale of conventional brands, and shifts the responsibility for adoption of safer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Likewise, testimony has abandoned earlier dramatic health claims made with regard to PREPs, which had undermined industry arguments regarding efforts to reduce harm in conventional products. More recent testimony advocates the broad acceptance of independent guidelines that would validate use of health claims and enable the industry to market PREPs to consumers. Trial testimony reflects the changing role and positioning of PREPs by the tobacco industry. The findings are of particular importance with regard to future evaluation and potential regulation of reduced harm products.

  10. Validation suite for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, Russell D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  11. Pharmacy settles suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-02

    A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.

  12. What Is the Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the nature, importance, and future of the Tech Prep/Associate Degree program. Suggests that these programs must move beyond simple articulation and become aggressive in jointly examining, developing, and sustaining high quality educational programs. (JOW)

  13. PrEP implementation research in Africa: what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Frances M; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Sanders, Eduard J; Mugo, Nelly R; Guedou, Fernand A; Alary, Michel; Behanzin, Luc; Mugurungi, Owen; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP. In addition, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at substantial risk in some parts of the continent. It has been estimated that at least three million individuals in Africa are likely to be eligible for PrEP according to WHO's criteria. Tens of demonstration projects are planned or underway across the continent among a range of countries, populations and delivery settings. In each of the target populations, there are overarching issues related to (i) creating demand for PrEP, (ii) addressing supply-side issues and (iii) providing appropriate and tailored adherence support. Critical for creating demand for PrEP is the normalization of HIV prevention. Community-level interventions which engage opinion leaders as well as empowerment interventions for those at highest risk will be key. Critical to supply of PrEP is that services are accessible for all, including for stigmatized populations. Establishing accessible integrated services provides the opportunity to address other public health priorities including the unmet need for HIV testing, contraception and sexually transmitted infections treatment. National policies need to include minimum standards for training and quality assurance for PrEP implementation and to address supply chain issues. Adherence support needs to recognize that social and structural factors are likely to have an important influence

  14. PREP-45, Input Preparation for CITATION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho Carlos, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A Fortran program has been created, which saves much effort in preparing sections 004 (intervals in the coordinates) and 005 (zone numbers) of the input data file for the multigroup theory code CITATION (version CITATION-2, NESC0387/09), particularly when a thin complicated mesh is used. 2 - Method of solution: A domain is defined for CITATION calculations through specifying its sub-domains (e.g. graphite, lead, beryllium, water and fuel sub-domains) in a compact and simple way. An independent and previous geometrical specification is made of the various types of elements which are envisaged to constitute the contents of the reactor core grid positions. Then the load table for the configuration is input and scanned throughout, thus enabling the geometric mesh description to be produced (section 004). Also the zone placement (section 005) is achieved by means of element description subroutines for the different types of element (which may require appropriate but simple changes in the actual cases). The output of PREP45 is directly obtained in a format which is compatible with CITATION-2 input. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only rectangular two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates are considered. A maximum of 12 sub-domains in the x direction (18 in the y direction) and up to 8 distinct element types are considered in this version. Other limitations exist which can nevertheless be overcome with simple changes in the source program

  15. RAJA Performance Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-01

    The RAJA Performance Suite is designed to evaluate performance of the RAJA performance portability library on a wide variety of important high performance computing (HPC) algorithmic lulmels. These kernels assess compiler optimizations and various parallel programming model backends accessible through RAJA, such as OpenMP, CUDA, etc. The Initial version of the suite contains 25 computational kernels, each of which appears in 6 variants: Baseline SequcntiaJ, RAJA SequentiaJ, Baseline OpenMP, RAJA OpenMP, Baseline CUDA, RAJA CUDA. All variants of each kernel perform essentially the same mathematical operations and the loop body code for each kernel is identical across all variants. There are a few kernels, such as those that contain reduction operations, that require CUDA-specific coding for their CUDA variants. ActuaJ computer instructions executed and how they run in parallel differs depending on the parallel programming model backend used and which optimizations are perfonned by the compiler used to build the Perfonnance Suite executable. The Suite will be used primarily by RAJA developers to perform regular assessments of RAJA performance across a range of hardware platforms and compilers as RAJA features are being developed. It will also be used by LLNL hardware and software vendor panners for new defining requirements for future computing platform procurements and acceptance testing. In particular, the RAJA Performance Suite will be used for compiler acceptance testing of the upcoming CORAUSierra machine {initial LLNL delivery expected in late-2017/early 2018) and the CORAL-2 procurement. The Suite will aJso be used to generate concise source code reproducers of compiler and runtime issues we uncover so that we may provide them to relevant vendors to be fixed.

  16. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  17. Get on Board the Cost Effective Way: A Tech Prep Replication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne A.; Szul, Linda F.; Rivosecchi, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The Northwestern Pennsylvania Tech Prep Consortium model for replicating tech prep programs includes these steps: fact finding, local industry analysis, curriculum development, detailed description, marketing strategies, implementation, and program evaluation. (SK)

  18. Assessment of the APCC Coupled MME Suite in Predicting the Distinctive Climate Impacts of Two Flavors of ENSO during Boreal Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-In; Lee, Doo Young; Karumuri, Ashok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, June-Yi; Luo, Jing-Jia; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.; Hendon, Harry H.; Braganza, Karl; Ham, Yoo-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Forecast skill of the APEC Climate Center (APCC) Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) seasonal forecast system in predicting two main types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), namely canonical (or cold tongue) and Modoki ENSO, and their regional climate impacts is assessed for boreal winter. The APCC MME is constructed by simple composite of ensemble forecasts from five independent coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Based on a hindcast set targeting boreal winter prediction for the period 19822004, we show that the MME can predict and discern the important differences in the patterns of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly between the canonical and Modoki ENSO one and four month ahead. Importantly, the four month lead MME beats the persistent forecast. The MME reasonably predicts the distinct impacts of the canonical ENSO, including the strong winter monsoon rainfall over East Asia, the below normal rainfall and above normal temperature over Australia, the anomalously wet conditions across the south and cold conditions over the whole area of USA, and the anomalously dry conditions over South America. However, there are some limitations in capturing its regional impacts, especially, over Australasia and tropical South America at a lead time of one and four months. Nonetheless, forecast skills for rainfall and temperature over East Asia and North America during ENSO Modoki are comparable to or slightly higher than those during canonical ENSO events.

  19. PrEP in Europe - expectations, opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Sheena Mary; Noseda, Veronica; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access. Health systems and government commitment to HIV prevention and care, both financial and political, differ considerably between the countries that make up Europe. A common feature is that funds for prevention are a small fraction of funds for care. Although care is generally good, access is limited in the middle-income countries of Eastern Europe and central Asia, and only 19% of people living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy in 2014. It is challenging to motivate governments or civil society to implement PrEP in the context of this unmet treatment need, which is driven by limited national health budgets and diminishing assistance from foreign aid. The high-income countries of Western Europe have hesitated to embrace PrEP for different reasons, initially due to key gaps in the evidence. Now that PrEP has been shown to be highly effective in European MSM in two randomized controlled trials, it is clear that the major barrier is the cost of the drug which is still on patent, although inadequate health systems and diminishing investment in civil society are also key challenges to overcome. The momentum to implement PrEP in European countries is increasing and provides a welcome opportunity to expand and improve clinical services and civil society support focused on HIV and related infections including other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.

  20. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  1. Learning DHTMLX suite UI

    CERN Document Server

    Geske, Eli

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning DHTMLX.""Learning DHTMLX Suite UI"" is for web designers who have a basic knowledge of JavaScript and who are looking for powerful tools that will give them an extra edge in their own application development. This book is also useful for experienced developers who wish to get started with DHTMLX without going through the trouble of learning its quirks through trial and error. Readers are expected to have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, Document Object Model, and the ability to install a local web server.

  2. Gynecological applications of helical CT using SmartPrep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Akira; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    SmartPrep is software program for scanning a given region of interest (ROI) at optimal contrast density. An operator can arbitrarily define ROI and preset the CT value at which scanning should be started. After the injection of a contrast medium, system conducts continuous monitoring of the ROI and the operator starts helical scanning of the planned region when the present CT value has been reached. In comparison with conventional helical CT that requires a period of time from the beginning of contrast medium injection to the beginning of scanning, SmartPrep minimizes personal error and better depicts the artery-predominant phase under optimal conditions. In this study we examine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in the evaluation of gynecological disease. When the contrast medium was injected into the dorsal vein of the hand at a rate of 3 ml/sec, strong staining of pelvic arteries was observed in the CT images started at 17 to 23 sec after injection. The early-phase helical CT obtained under these conditions provided good depiction of lesions in cases of placenta accreta and invasive mole, as well as clear demonstration of tumor angiogenesis and evaluation of laterality in cases of cervical cancer. Comparison of the early and delayed phase also facilitated easier evaluation of lymph nodes than conventional comparison of simple and contrast-enhanced CT. The results thus suggest the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in gynecology. (author)

  3. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  4. The intention to use HIV-pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men in Switzerland: testing an extended explanatory model drawing on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nideröst, Sibylle; Gredig, Daniel; Hassler, Benedikt; Uggowitzer, Franziska; Weber, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intention to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) when available and to identify predictors of the intention to use PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Switzerland. The theoretical model drew on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and considered additional variables related specifically to PrEP, HIV protection and the resources of MSM. For data collection, we used an anonymous, standardized self-administered online questionnaire. In 2015, we gathered a convenience sample of 556 HIV-negative MSM living in Switzerland. We analyzed the data using descriptive and bivariate statistics and used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized model. Predictors of respondents' moderate intention to use PrEP were performance expectancy, effort expectancy, perceived social influence, concerns about using PrEP, attitudes toward condom use, negative experiences of condom use and age. These variables were predicted by HIV protection-related aspects and resources. The findings provide insights into the complex dynamic underlying the intention to use PrEP.

  5. Review of HIV Pre exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and example of HIV PrEP Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    at Initiation of Sexual Activity Correct & Consistent Condom Use Prevention of mother-to- child transmission July 16, 2012: FDA approves...Okulicz JF, Medicine 2016 PrEP Utilization in a Managed Care System (Kaiser Permanente) 1200 ~ 1045 1000 . 800 600 . 400 200 0 835 657 0

  6. Clementine sensor suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  7. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  8. Family planning providers' role in offering PrEP to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2018-03-09

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  10. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  11. Home-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP services for gay and bisexual men: An opportunity to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A John

    Full Text Available Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV transmission risk, barriers for uptake and persistence exist. We sought to identify whether GBM in a nationwide cohort who have not yet initiated PrEP (n = 906 would prefer to get PrEP-related care from a primary care provider (PCP compared to a specialist clinic or provider. We then sought to identify their level of interest and factors associated with preference for using home-based PrEP services (i.e., HB-PrEP, defined to participants as conducting HIV/STI self-testing from home with PrEP prescription mailing after an initial in-person clinic visit. We examined the associations of demographics, sexual HIV transmission risk, concern about frequent medical checkups associated with PrEP, health care access, and PrEP intentions with preferences for healthcare provider type and HB-PrEP. Concern about frequent medical checkups were associated with preferring a PCP for PrEP-related care, but men who perceived a barrier to bringing up the topic of PrEP with a doctor preferred a specialist clinic or provider more than a PCP. HB-PrEP was more appealing for younger men and those engaged in sexual HIV transmission risk, suggesting HB-PrEP could help reach GBM most vulnerable to HIV and in need of PrEP. HB-PrEP expansion has potential to increase PrEP uptake and persistence among GBM, particularly for men with barriers to clinic-based care and higher intentions to initiate PrEP. Clinical guidelines regarding HB-PrEP are needed to expand its use.

  12. Automated SmartPrep tracker positioning in liver MRI scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takao; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for automated SmartPrep tracker positioning in liver MRI scans. SmartPrep is used to monitor the contrast bolus signal in order to detect the arrival time of the bolus. Accurately placing the tracker in the aorta while viewing three planar scout images is a difficult task for the operator and is an important problem from the workflow standpoint. The development of an automated SmartPrep tracker would therefore help to improve workflow in liver MRI scans. In our proposed method, the aorta is detected using AdaBoost (which is a machine learning technique) by searching around the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal cord. Analysis of scout scan images showed that our detection method functioned properly for a variety of axial MR images without intensity correction. A total of 234 images reconstructed from the datasets of 64 volunteers were analyzed, and the results showed that the detection error for the aorta was approximately 3 mm. (author)

  13. Implications of HIV PrEP Trials Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Peter; Fletcher, Courtney V.; DeGruttola, Victor; McGowan, Ian; Becker, Stephen; Zwerski, Sheryl; Burns, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Six randomized clinical trials have been implemented to examine the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or TDF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection (PrEP). Although largely complementary, the six trials have many similar features. As the earliest results become available, an urgent question may arise regarding whether changes should be made in the conduct of the other trials. To consider this in advance, a Consultation on the Implications of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trials Results sponsored by the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) was held on January 29, 2010, at the Natcher Conference Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD. Participants included basic scientists, clinical researchers (including investigators performing the current PrEP trials), and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the agencies sponsoring the trials: the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the BMGF, and the U.S. NIH. We report here a summary of the presentations and highlights of salient discussion topics from this workshop. PMID:20969483

  14. Apparatus for storing protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englemann, H.J.; Koller, J.; Schrader, H.R.; Schade, G.; Pedrerol, J.

    1975-01-01

    Arrangements are described for storing one or more protective suits when contaminated on the outside. In order to permit a person wearing a contaminated suit to leave a contaminated area safely, and without contaminating the environment, it has hitherto been the practice for the suit to be passed through a 'lock' and cleansed under decontaminating showers whilst still being worn. This procedure is time wasting and not always completely effective, and it may be necessary to provide a second suit for use whilst the first suit is being decontaminated. Repeated decontamination may also result in undue wear and tear. The arrangements described provide a 'lock' chamber in which a contaminated suit may be stowed away without its interior becoming contaminated, thus allowing repeated use by persons donning and shedding it. (U.K.)

  15. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Asterias: A Parallelized Web-based Suite for the Analysis of Expression and aCGH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz-Uriarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of expression and CGH arrays plays a central role in the study of complex diseases, especially cancer, including finding markers for early diagnosis and prognosis, choosing an optimal therapy, or increasing our understanding of cancer development and metastasis. Asterias (http://www.asterias.info is an integrated collection of freely-accessible web tools for the analysis of gene expression and aCGH data. Most of the tools use parallel computing (via MPI and run on a server with 60 CPUs for computation; compared to a desktop or server-based but not parallelized application, parallelization provides speed ups of factors up to 50. Most of our applications allow the user to obtain additional information for user-selected genes (chromosomal location, PubMed ids, Gene Ontology terms, etc. by using clickable links in tables and/or fi gures. Our tools include: normalization of expression and aCGH data (DNMAD; converting between different types of gene/clone and protein identifi ers (IDconverter/IDClight; fi ltering and imputation (preP; finding differentially expressed genes related to patient class and survival data (Pomelo II; searching for models of class prediction (Tnasas; using random forests to search for minimal models for class prediction or for large subsets of genes with predictive capacity (GeneSrF; searching for molecular signatures and predictive genes with survival data (SignS; detecting regions of genomic DNA gain or loss (ADaCGH. The capability to send results between different applications, access to additional functional information, and parallelized computation make our suite unique and exploit features only available to web-based applications.

  17. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... determined that Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium... kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... that the Agency determine whether Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium...

  18. SWATMOD-PREP: Graphical user interface for preparing coupled SWAT-modflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents SWATMOD-Prep, a graphical user interface that couples a SWAT watershed model with a MODFLOW groundwater flow model. The interface is based on a recently published SWAT-MODFLOW code that couples the models via mapping schemes. The spatial layout of SWATMOD-Prep guides the user t...

  19. Learning to Trust. On the Treasure Coast, Tech Prep Proves a Trove for Educators Long Divided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterburn, Patty

    1995-01-01

    Based on the "High Schools That Work" model, the Quad County Tech Prep Consortium in Florida has won several awards for its comprehensive tech prep program. The partnership enables technical students from four school districts to flow smoothly into an associate degree program at Indian River Community College. (JOW)

  20. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  1. Adobe Creative Suite 4 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Padova, Ted

    2009-01-01

    As one of the few books to cover integration and workflow issues between Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, GoLive, Acrobat, and Version Cue, this comprehensive reference is the one book that Creative Suite users need; Two well-known and respected authors cover topics such as developing consistent color-managed workflows, moving files among the Creative Suite applications, preparing files for print or the Web, repurposing documents, and using the Creative Suite with Microsoft Office documents; More than 1,200 pages are packed with valuable advice and techniques for tackling common everyday issu

  2. The impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on HIV epidemics in Africa and India: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J. Vissers (Debby); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new HIV prevention method, especially for women. An urgent demand for implementation of PrEP is expected at the moment efficacy has been demonstrated in clinical trials. We explored the long-term impact of PrEP on HIV

  3. A tale of TALE, PREP1, PBX1, and MEIS1: Interconnections and competition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bruckmann, Chiara; Penkov, Dmitry; Dardaei, Leila

    2017-05-01

    We report the latest structural information on PREP1 tumor suppressor, the specific "oncogene" and "tumor suppressive" signatures of MEIS1 and PREP1, the molecular rules regulating PREP1 and MEIS1 binding to DNA, and how these can change depending on the interaction with PBX1, cell-type, neoplastic transformation, and intracellular concentration. As both PREP1 and MEIS1 interact with PBX1 they functionally compete with each other. PREP1, PBX1, and MEIS1 TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors act in an interdependent and integrated way in experimental tumorigenesis. We also pool together the plethora of data available in human cancer databanks and connect them with the available molecular information. The emerging picture suggests that a similarly basic approach might be used to better dissect and define other oncogenes and suppressors and better understand human cancer. © 2017 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. EDL Sensor Suite, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Air Data Systems (OADS) L.L.C. proposes a LIDAR based remote measurement sensor suite capable of satisfying a significant number of the desired sensing...

  5. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  6. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during...

  7. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  8. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  9. Development of Power Assisting Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

    In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

  10. The future of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdener, Ayşe Elif; Park, Tae Eun; Kalabalik, Julie; Gupta, Rachna

    2017-05-01

    People at high risk for HIV acquisition should be offered pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) is currently the only medication recommended for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in people at high risk for HIV acquisition. This article will review medications currently under investigation and the future landscape of PrEP therapy. Areas covered: This article will review clinical trials that have investigated nontraditional regimens of TDF/FTC, antiretroviral agents from different drug classes such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) as potential PrEP therapies. Expert commentary: Currently, there are several investigational drugs in the pipeline for PrEP against HIV infection. Increased utilization of PrEP therapy depends on provider identification of people at high risk for HIV transmission. Advances in PrEP development will expand options and access for people and reduce the risk of HIV acquisition.

  11. From modeling to morals: imagining the future of HIV PREP in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J; Bulled, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Amidst growing global endorsements of new biomedical HIV prevention strategies, ARV-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (ARV PrEP) has garnered considerable attention as a potentially promising prevention strategy. Though it may offer more effective protection for certain at-risk groups than conventional prevention strategies (such as sexual partner reduction, condom use, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission), PrEP is more costly. PrEP requires more ongoing contact between individuals and providers, and a level of surveillance from the health system that is not necessary with other preventive measures. In this sense, it represents a new bio-technology for HIV prevention that poses particular challenges for worldwide implementation, given developing countries' struggling health systems and incomplete HIV treatment programs. Since the emergence of PrEP has stimulated ethical discussions premised on incomplete knowledge of efficacy and implementation, this paper explores the ethical parameters of a likely scenario for PrEP usage in a single, resource-poor country. We first develop a plausible model for PrEP deployment and utilization based on current PrEP research, while carefully considering the reigning institutional values of feasibility and effectiveness in global health approaches. Drawing on ethnographic research of HIV treatment and prevention approaches in Lesotho, we address ethical questions arising from this scenario of PrEP delivery. Lesotho presents a compelling and emblematic case study of PrEP's potential successes and pitfalls in a developing country, given the country's high HIV prevalence, struggles to achieve universal access to HIV treatment regimes, continued existence of stigma around the epidemic, and difficulties in addressing persistent social inequalities that fuel infections. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PREP inside and out: marriage education for inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Lindsey; Williams, Tamara; Stanley, Scott; Wunderlin, Nicole; Markman, Howard; Eason, Joanne

    2008-09-01

    Although research has demonstrated that marriage education has positive effects on relationship quality, little is known about how such services impact relationships where one partner is incarcerated. The current study implemented an adapted version of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP Inside and Out) for inmates in Oklahoma correctional facilities. Inmates, with or without their partners, participated in the 12-hour program. The impact of the program was investigated on a range of relationship variables including satisfaction with relationship, dedication, confidence, communication skills, friendship, and negative interactions as reported by the inmate partner. Participants reported substantial gains in all variables and in overall satisfaction with their relationship after completing the program, regardless of their gender and racial/ethnic background. Implications for future marriage education programs and research in prisons are discussed.

  13. NPT: the issues facing the Geneva PrepCom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    The second session of the Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) for the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) will meet from 22 April-3 May 2013 in Geneva, and will be chaired by Ambassador Cornel Feruta of Romania. Three years on from the adoption by consensus at the end of the 8. NPT Review Conference in New York of an Action Plan on non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy - the three pillars of the NPT - as well as the Middle East, this session provides the opportunity both to take stock of the commitments undertaken in 2010 and to prepare the ground for the 2015 meeting. It is first worth noting that the beginning of the 9. five-year NPT review cycle in Vienna last year was marked by tangible optimism and revealed a constructive mindset on the part of the 110 delegations present. This was largely to be expected as a result of the success of the 2010 Review Conference. The two final PrepComs of 2010 cycle (Geneva in 2008 and New York in 2009) were also deemed a success by the delegations present, characterised by the rich and constructive nature of the discussion. Overall, the tension that marred the 2005 cycle has eased over the last few years. Yet, this positive development is sadly insufficient to ensure that the Treaty remains topical. Regarding the commitments undertaken in 2010 under the Action Plan, it is well known that it was impossible for the States concerned to come together in 2012 at a conference on establishment of a weapon-of-mass-destruction-free zone (WMDFZ) in the Middle East (chapter 4, 'The Middle East, particularly implementation of the 1995 Resolution on the Middle East'). Nevertheless, in accordance with the Action Plan, H.E. Mr Jaakko Laajava was appointed as the facilitator, Finland was named as the host country, and a rigorous consultative process is underway. Moreover, the EU has maintained its commitment to support this process by

  14. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  15. The ZPIC educational code suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, R.; Pardal, M.; Ninhos, P.; Helm, A.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. Leveraging on our expertise and experience from the development and use of the OSIRIS PIC code, we have developed a suite of 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes, as well as 1D electrostatic. These codes are self-contained and require only a standard laptop/desktop computer with a C compiler to be run. The output files are written in a new file format called ZDF that can be easily read using the supplied routines in a number of languages, such as Python, and IDL. The code suite also includes a number of example problems that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms, including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the input files comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/zambzamb/zpic. Work partially supported by PICKSC.

  16. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references.

  17. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references

  18. Commentary: the value of PrEP for people who inject drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalind L Coleman; Susie McLean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection. What ...

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Oral PrEP Use Among Transgender Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Martinez, Michelle; Giguere, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter; MacCrate, Caitlin; Mellman, Will; Valente, Pablo; Greene, George J; Sherman, Susan; Footer, Katherine H A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2018-03-27

    Transgender women may face a disparate risk for HIV/AIDS compared to other groups. In 2012, Truvada was approved for daily use as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, there is a dearth of research about barriers and facilitators to PrEP in transgender women. This paper will shed light on transgender women living in New York City's perceived and actual challenges to using PrEP and potential strategies to overcome them. After completing an initial screening process, four 90-min focus groups were completed with n = 18 transgender women. Participants were asked what they like and dislike about PrEP. Participants identified the following barriers: uncomfortable side effects, difficulty taking pills, stigma, exclusion of transgender women in advertising, and lack of research on transgender women and PrEP. Facilitators included: reducing pill size, increasing the types of available HIV prevention products, and conducting scientific studies to evaluate PrEP in transgender women.

  20. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, E; Penkov, D; Mateos, D; De Florian, G; Torres, M; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Herzeel

    Full Text Available elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878, we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878, elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost.

  2. Explaining the Efficacy of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: A Qualitative Study of Message Framing and Messaging Preferences Among US Men Who have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Salovey, Peter; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical paraphrases, efficacy ranges versus point estimates, and success- versus failure-framed messages. Our findings indicated a range of comprehension and operational understandings of efficacy messages. Participants tended to prefer percentage-based and success-framed messages, although preferences varied for communicating about efficacy using a single percentage versus a range. Participants reported uncertainty about how to interpret numerical estimates, and many questioned whether trial results would predict personal effectiveness. These results suggest that providers and researchers implementing PrEP may face challenges in communicating with users about efficacy. Efforts to educate MSM about PrEP should incorporate percentage-based information, and message framing decisions may influence message credibility and overall PrEP acceptability.

  3. PREP: Production and Reprocessing management tool for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossutti, F; Lenzi, P; Naziridis, N; Samyn, D; Stöckli, F

    2012-01-01

    The production of simulated samples for physics analysis at LHC represents a noticeable organization challenge, because it requires the management of several thousands different workflows. The submission of a workflow to the grid based computing infrastructure starts with the definition of the general characteristics of a given set of coherent samples (called a ‘campaign'), up to the definition of the physics settings to be used for each sample corresponding to a specific process to be simulated, both at hard event generation and detector simulation level. In order to have an organized control of the of the definition of the large number of MC samples needed by CMS, a dedicated management tool, called PREP, has been built. Its basic component is a database storing all the relevant information about the sample and the actions implied by the workflow definition, approval and production. A web based interface allows the database to be used from experts involved in production to trigger all the different actions needed, as well as by normal physicists involved in analyses to retrieve the relevant information. The tool is integrated through a set of dedicated APIs with the production agent and information storage utilities of CMS.

  4. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP therapy for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauson KA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies. They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an “evening before pill”. The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy

  5. Evaluating the impact of prioritization of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the value and effectiveness of different prioritization strategies of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in New York City (NYC). Design Mathematical modeling utilized as clinical trial is not feasible. Methods Using a model accounting for both sexual and parenteral transmission of HIV we compare different prioritization strategies (PPS) for PrEP to two scenarios—no PrEP and PrEP for all susceptible at-risk individuals. The PPS included PrEP for all MSM, only high-risk MSM, high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users, and all combinations of these four strategies. Outcomes included HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness (per-infection averted) ratios. Initial assumptions regarding PrEP included a 44% reduction in HIV transmission, 50% uptake in the prioritized population and an annual cost per person of $9,762. Sensitivity analyses on key parameters were conducted. Results Prioritization to all MSM results in a 19% reduction in new HIV infections. Compared to PrEP for all persons at-risk this PPS retains 79% of the preventative effect at 15% of the total cost. PrEP prioritized to only high-risk MSM results in a reduction in new HIV infections of 15%. This PPS retains 60% of the preventative effect at 6% of the total cost. There are diminishing returns when PrEP utilization is expanded beyond this group. Conclusions PrEP implementation is relatively cost-inefficient under our initial assumptions. Our results suggest that PrEP should first be promoted among MSM who are at particularly high-risk of HIV acquisition. Further expansion beyond this group may be cost-effective, but is unlikely to be cost-saving. PMID:25493594

  6. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  7. The DELTA PREP Initiative: Accelerating Coalition Capacity for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakocs, Ronda; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2018-01-01

    Background The DELTA PREP Project aimed to build the prevention capacity of 19 state domestic violence coalitions by offering eight supports designed to promote prevention integration over a 3-year period: modest grant awards, training events, technical assistance, action planning, coaching hubs, the Coalition Prevention Capacity Assessment, an online workstation, and the online documentation support system. Objectives Using quantitative and qualitative data, we sought to explain how coalitions integrated prevention within their structures and functions and document how DELTA PREP supports contributed to coalitions’ integration process. Results We found that coalitions followed a common pathway to integrate prevention. First, coalitions exhibited precursors of organizational readiness, especially having prevention champions. Second, coalitions engaged in five critical actions: engaging in dialogue, learning about prevention, forming teams, soliciting input from the coalition, and action planning. Last, by engaging in these critical actions, coalitions enhanced two key organizational readiness factors—developing a common understanding of prevention and an organizational commitment to prevention. We also found that DELTA PREP supports contributed to coalitions’ abilities to integrate prevention by supporting learning about prevention, fostering a prevention team, and engaging in action planning by leveraging existing opportunities. Two DELTA PREP supports—coaching hubs and the workstation—did not work as initially intended. From the DELTA PREP experience, we offer several lessons to consider when designing future prevention capacity-building initiatives. PMID:26245934

  8. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  9. Prep1, A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Involved in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oriente

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The three-amino acid loop extension (TALE homeodomain proteins are a family of transcription factor including the mammalian Pbx, MEIS and Prep proteins. TALE proteins can bind other transcription factors such as Pdx-1 and play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Experiments performed in mutant mice have shown that while the single Pbx1 or Pdx-1 knockout mice feature pancreatic islet malformations, impaired glucose tolerance and hypoinsulinemia, the trans-heterozygous Pbx1+/−Pdx1+/− mice develop age-dependent overt diabetes mellitus. In contrast, Prep1 plays a different role with respect to these proteins. Indeed, Prep1 hypomorphic mice, expressing low levels of protein, feature pancreatic islet hypoplasia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia similar to Pbx1 or Pdx1. Nevertheless, these animals show increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue accompanied by protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In addition, Prep1 hypomorphic mice feature reduced triglyceride synthesis and do not develop steatohepatitis after a methionine and coline deficient diet. In this review we have underlined how important metabolic functions are controlled by TALE proteins, in particular by Prep1, leading to hypothesis that its suppression might represent beneficial effect in the care of metabolic diseases.

  10. Safety in the use of pressurized suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code of Practice describes the procedures relating to the safe operation of Pressurized Suit Areas and their supporting services. It is directed at personnel responsible for the design and/or operation of Pressurized Suit Areas. (author)

  11. Probabilistic empirical prediction of seasonal climate: evaluation and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieppois, B.; Eden, J.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Preparing for episodes with risks of anomalous weather a month to a year ahead is an important challenge for governments, non-governmental organisations, and private companies and is dependent on the availability of reliable forecasts. The majority of operational seasonal forecasts are made using process-based dynamical models, which are complex, computationally challenging and prone to biases. Empirical forecast approaches built on statistical models to represent physical processes offer an alternative to dynamical systems and can provide either a benchmark for comparison or independent supplementary forecasts. Here, we present a new evaluation of an established empirical system used to predict seasonal climate across the globe. Forecasts for surface air temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure are produced by the KNMI Probabilistic Empirical Prediction (K-PREP) system every month and disseminated via the KNMI Climate Explorer (climexp.knmi.nl). K-PREP is based on multiple linear regression and built on physical principles to the fullest extent with predictive information taken from the global CO2-equivalent concentration, large-scale modes of variability in the climate system and regional-scale information. K-PREP seasonal forecasts for the period 1981-2016 will be compared with corresponding dynamically generated forecasts produced by operational forecast systems. While there are many regions of the world where empirical forecast skill is extremely limited, several areas are identified where K-PREP offers comparable skill to dynamical systems. We discuss two key points in the future development and application of the K-PREP system: (a) the potential for K-PREP to provide a more useful basis for reference forecasts than those based on persistence or climatology, and (b) the added value of including K-PREP forecast information in multi-model forecast products, at least for known regions of good skill. We also discuss the potential development of

  12. Automated integration of lidar into the LANDFIRE product suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgit Peterson; Kurtis J. Nelson; Carl Seielstad; Jason Stoker; W. Matt Jolly; Russell Parsons

    2015-01-01

    Accurate information about three-dimensional canopy structure and wildland fuel across the landscape is necessary for fire behaviour modelling system predictions. Remotely sensed data are invaluable for assessing these canopy characteristics over large areas; lidar data, in particular, are uniquely suited for quantifying three-dimensional canopy structure. Although...

  13. 75 FR 13292 - Determination That HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing 4 Bisacodyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... determined that HALFLYTELY AND BISACODYL TABLETS BOWEL PREP KIT (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium... kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... whether HALFLYTELY AND BISACODYL TABLETS BOWEL PREP KIT (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate...

  14. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus.

  15. Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Q.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

  16. ThinPrep Pap-smear and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in reproductive-aged Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugpao, S; Koonlertkit, S; Ruengkrist, T; Lamlertkittikul, S; Pinjaroen, S; Limtrakul, A; Werawatakul, Y; Sinchai, W

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology by ThinPrep Pap-tests and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young adult reproductive-aged Thai women. A total of 1254 women distributed in all regions of Thailand were monitored from 2002 through 2004. Women were screened for abnormal cervical cytology using the ThinPrep method every 6 months. Interpretation of cervical cytology was based on the Bethesda system, version 2001. Women who had the ThinPrep Pap results as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse underwent colposcopic examination. The ThinPrep and all cervical tissue samples obtained from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were analyzed and reviewed by Covance Central Laboratory Service, Inc., Indianapolis, USA. The cumulative incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-tests was as follows: 15.3 per 100 woman years (WY) (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3, 18.9) at 6 months; 12.3 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.3, 14.6) at 12 months; and 11.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.0, 13.5) at 18 months. Of 1448.6 woman years of follow up, the incidence of CIN1 was 4.1 per 100 WY (95% CI 3.2, 5.3); CIN2 0.8 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.4, 1.4); and CIN3 0.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.3, 1.2). The incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-test and CIN in young adult Thai women had been reported. No comparable data is available.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV-1 infections in rural Zambia: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, B.E.; Boucher, C.A.B.; van Dijk, J.H.; Thuma, P.E.; Nouwen, J.L.; Baltussen, R.; van de Wijgert, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van de Vijver, D.A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine effectively prevents new HIV infections. The optimal scenario for implementing PrEP where most infections are averted at the lowest cost is unknown. We determined the impact of different PrEP strategies on averting new

  18. PrEP implementation: moving from trials to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baggaley, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced. For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic.In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today. This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers, researchers and activists around the

  19. Cytomorphology of cervicovaginal melanoma: ThinPrep versus conventional Papanicolaou tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Goulart, Robert A; Leiman, Gladywn; Otis, Christopher N; Modem, Rukmini; Pantanowtiz, Liron

    2010-12-31

    Primary cervicovaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy associated with a high risk of recurrence. Prior studies discussing the cytomorphology of cervicovaginal melanoma have been based primarily on review of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The aim of this study was to evaluate cervicovaginal melanomas identified in liquid-based Pap tests, in comparison with features seen on conventional Pap smear preparation. Cases of cervicovaginal melanoma identified on Pap tests with concurrent or subsequent histopathologic confirmation were collected from the Baystate Medical Center cytopathology files and personal archives of the authors over a total period of 34 years. All cytopathology (n = 6) and the available histology slides (n = 5) were reviewed. Cases were analyzed regarding clinical, histopathologic and cytomorphological findings. A total of six cases with invasive cervicovaginal melanoma diagnosed on Pap tests were identified. Most patients were postmenopausal with contact bleeding, correlating with surface ulceration (identified in biopsy/excision material in 5/5 cases). Most cases had deeply invasive tumors (5/5: modified Breslow's thickness > 5 mm and Chung's level of invasion IV/V). Pap tests included four ThinPrep and two conventional smears. Overall, ThinPrep Pap tests exhibited a higher ratio of tumor cells to background squamous cells. While all Pap tests were bloodstained, tumor diathesis was prominent only within conventional smears. Melanoma cells were present both as clusters and scattered single cells in each Pap test type. Both the preparations contained epithelioid tumor cells, whereas spindled tumor cells were seen in only two ThinPrep cases. Prominent nucleoli and binucleation of tumor cells were seen in both the preparations. Melanin pigment was identified in only ThinPrep (3/4) cases and nuclear pseudo-inclusions in one conventional Pap smear. Cell blocks were made in three ThinPrep cases and immunocytochemistry (S-100, HMB45, Melan

  20. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  1. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. - Highlights: • A novel model of liver-specific Prep1 knockout is established. • Ablation of Prep1 in hepatocytes increases insulin sensitivity. • Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity by regulating localization of FOXO1. • Prep1 regulates

  2. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  3. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  4. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Frankis

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM, whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK, using a mixed methods design.Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically.Under one third (29.7% of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8% were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use.These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity, as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  5. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal suit fit is a known risk factor for crewmember shoulder injury. Suit fit assessment is however prohibitively time consuming and cannot be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. In this work, we have developed a new design tool based on the statistical analysis of body shape scans. This tool is aimed at predicting the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population. This new process, when incorporated with CAD software, will enable virtual suit fit assessments, predictively quantifying the contact volume, and clearance between the suit and body surface at reduced time and cost.

  6. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: A Narrative Review of Provider Behavior and Interventions to Increase PrEP Implementation in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapaswan, Andrew; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-02-01

    Since FDA approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, attention has been focused on PrEP implementation. The CDC estimates that 1.2 million U.S. adults might benefit from PrEP, but only a minority are using PrEP, so there is a significant unmet need to increase access for those at risk for HIV. Given the large numbers of individuals who have indications for PrEP, there are not enough practicing specialists to meet the growing need for providers trained in providing PrEP. Moreover, since PrEP is a preventive intervention for otherwise healthy individuals, primary care providers (PCPs) should be primary prescribers of PrEP. There are important clinical considerations that providers should take into account when planning to prescribe PrEP, which are highlighted in the clinical case discussed. A growing body of research also suggests that some providers may be cautious about prescribing PrEP because of concerns regarding its "real-world" effectiveness, anticipated unintended consequences associated with its use, and ambiguity as to who should prescribe it. This review summarizes findings from studies that have assessed prescriber behavior regarding provision of PrEP, and offers recommendations on how to optimize PrEP implementation in primary care settings. Development and dissemination of educational interventions for PCPs and potential PrEP users are needed, including improved methods to assist clinicians in identifying appropriate PrEP candidates, and programs to promote medication adherence and access to social and behavioral health services. PCPs are well-positioned to prescribe PrEP and coordinate health-related services to improve the sexual health of their patients, but tailored educational programs are needed.

  7. Preferences for Long-Acting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), Daily Oral PrEP, or Condoms for HIV Prevention Among U.S. Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George J; Swann, Greg; Fought, Angela J; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hope, Thomas J; Kiser, Patrick F; Mustanski, Brian; D'Aquila, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants. In a follow-up question comparing the four PrEP options only, daily oral pills and non-visible implants were most frequently preferred (35.5 and 34.3 %, respectively), followed by injections (25.2 %) and visible implants (4.3 %). An inductive, open-coding approach determined that convenience, duration of protection, and privacy were the most commonly cited reasons for a PrEP method choice, and associated with self-report of HIV risk. Tailoring PrEP product development to privacy and other concerns important to those at highest HIV risk may improve HIV prevention.

  8. The BRITNeY Suite Animation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the BRITNeY suite, a tool which enables users to create visualizations of formal models. BRITNeY suite is integrated with CPN Tools, and we give an example of how to extend a simple stop-and-wait protocol with a visualization in the form of message sequence charts. We also sh...... examples of animations created during industrial projects to give an impression of what is possible with the BRITNeY suite....

  9. Moving beyond Test-Prep Pedagogy: Dialoguing with Multicultural Preservice Teachers for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Louie F.

    2013-01-01

    In a "post-NCLB era," the schooling experiences of mostly low-income students of color continue to be consumed by a test-prep pedagogy--narrowed curriculum, low expectations, and ignored relationships. In this article the author describes a pedagogical approach using educational dialogues to engage preservice teachers to critically…

  10. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  11. A Culture of High Expectations: Teacher Leadership at Pritzker College Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Relying on teachers as culture leaders is a solution embraced by many high-performing charter schools. This profile focuses on the design of the Grade Level Lead roles at Pritzker College Prep, a member of the Noble Network of Schools in Chicago. The successes of this school and network are well-documented: Of non-selective public high schools in…

  12. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for benchmarking current and...

  13. ASDA - Advanced Suit Design Analyzer computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.; Chang, Chi-Min

    1992-01-01

    An ASDA model developed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer characteristics of advanced pressurized suit design concepts for low pressure or vacuum planetary applications is presented. The model is based on a generalized 3-layer suit that uses the Systems Integrated Numerical Differencing Analyzer '85 in conjunction with a 41-node FORTRAN routine. The latter simulates the transient heat transfer and respiratory processes of a human body in a suited environment. The user options for the suit encompass a liquid cooled garment, a removable jacket, a CO2/H2O permeable layer, and a phase change layer.

  14. PrEP as a feature in the optimal landscape of combination HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Jessica B; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape. We use a model that was previously developed to capture subnational HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. With this model, we can consider how prevention funds could be distributed across and within countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa to enable optimal HIV prevention (that is, avert the greatest number of infections for the lowest cost). Here, we focus on PrEP to elucidate where, and to whom, it would optimally be offered in portfolios of interventions (alongside voluntary medical male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and behaviour change communication). Over a range of continental expenditure levels, we use our model to explore prevention patterns that incorporate PrEP, exclude PrEP, or implement PrEP according to a fixed incidence threshold. At low-to-moderate levels of total prevention expenditure, we find that the optimal intervention portfolios would include PrEP in only a few regions and primarily for female sex workers (FSW). Prioritisation of PrEP would expand with increasing total expenditure, such that the optimal prevention portfolios would offer PrEP in more subnational regions and increasingly for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the lower incidence general population. The marginal benefit of including PrEP among the available interventions increases with overall expenditure by up to 14% (relative to excluding PrEP). The minimum baseline incidence for the optimal offer of PrEP declines for all population groups as expenditure increases. We find that using

  15. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK ? A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background:\\ud Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design.\\ud Methods:\\ud Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social a...

  16. What Primary Care Providers Need to Know about Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    As HIV prevalence climbs globally, including more than 50,000 new infections per year in the United States, we need effective HIV prevention strategies. The use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis (known as “PrEP”) among high-risk HIV-uninfected persons is emerging as one such strategy. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that once daily oral PrEP decreased HIV incidence among at-risk MSM and African heterosexuals, including HIV serodiscordant couples. An additional randomized control trial of a pericoital topical application of antiretroviral microbicide gel reduced HIV incidence among at-risk heterosexual South African women. Two other studies in African women did not demonstrate the efficacy of oral or topical PrEP, raising concerns about adherence patterns and efficacy in this population. The FDA Antiretroviral Advisory Panel reviewed these studies and additional data in May 2012 and recommended the approval of oral tenofovir-emtricitabine for PrEP in high-risk populations. Patients may seek PrEP from their primary care providers and those on PrEP require monitoring. Thus, primary care providers should become familiar with PrEP. This review outlines the current state of knowledge about PrEP as it pertains to primary care including identification of individuals likely to benefit from PrEP, counseling to maximize adherence and minimize potential increases in risky behavior, and monitoring for potential drug toxicities, HIV acquisition, and antiretroviral drug resistance. Issues related to cost and insurance coverage are also discussed. Recent data suggest that PrEP, in conjunction with other prevention strategies, holds promise in helping to curtail the HIV epidemic. PMID:22821365

  17. The Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis-Stigma Paradox: Learning from Canada's First Wave of PrEP Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Daniel; Jollimore, Jody; MacPherson, Paul; Strang, Matthew J P; Tan, Darrell H S

    2018-01-01

    With the emergence of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in Canada, questions have emerged concerning the impacts of this HIV prevention tool on gay men's social and sexual lives. We conducted small focus groups and individual qualitative interviews with 16 gay men in Toronto who were part of the 'first wave' of Canadian PrEP users. Participants were on PrEP for at least one year as part of a demonstration project (November 2014-June 2016). These participants accessed PrEP before regulatory approval by Health Canada in February 2016. The mean age of participants was 37.6 years (SD 11.02); 94% completed secondary education, and 69% were white. Sex-stigma emerged as a complex theme in men's accounts of PrEP use across three overlapping domains: (1) PrEP-related stigma, including discussions of concealment and stigma from friends, family, and sexual partners, (2) PrEP as a perceived tool for combating HIV-related stigma, where some men said that they no longer discussed HIV status with sexual partners, and (3) PrEP as illuminating structural stigma, where it was attributed to unmasking stigma related to sex and sexuality. For some participants, PrEP has allowed for liberating sex and a self-described return to normalcy-normal, exciting, pleasurable sex that was no longer reliant on condom use. Paradoxically, some men said that PrEP use both led them to experience stigmatizing reactions within their social and sexual networks, while also helping to remove stigma, shame, and fear related to HIV, sexuality, and sex with gay men living with HIV.

  18. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Y Liu

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP trials using tenofovir-based regimens have demonstrated that high levels of adherence are required to evaluate efficacy; the incorporation of objective biomarkers of adherence in trial design has been essential to interpretation, given the inaccuracy of self-report. Antiretroviral measurements in scalp hair have been useful as a marker of long-term exposure in the HIV treatment setting, and hair samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect, transport, and store for analysis. To evaluate the relationship between dose and tenofovir concentrations in hair, we examined the dose proportionality of tenofovir in hair in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults.A phase I, crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed in 24 HIV-negative adults receiving directly-observed oral tenofovir tablets administered 2, 4, and 7 doses/week for 6 weeks, with a ≥3-week break between periods. Small samples of hair were collected after each six-week period and analyzed for tenofovir concentrations. Geometric-mean-ratios compared levels between each pair of dosing conditions. Intensive plasma pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the daily-dosing period to calculate areas-under-the-time-concentration curves (AUCs.Over 90% of doses were observed per protocol. Median tenofovir concentrations in hair increased monotonically with dose. A log-linear relationship was seen between dose and hair levels, with an estimated 76% (95% CI 60-93% increase in hair level per 2-fold dose increase. Tenofovir plasma AUCs modestly predicted drug concentrations in hair.This study found a strong linear relationship between frequency of dosing and tenofovir levels in scalp hair. The analysis of quantitative drug levels in hair has the potential to improve adherence measurement in the PrEP field and may be helpful in determining exposure thresholds for protection and explaining failures in PrEP trials. Hair measures for adherence monitoring may also

  19. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use and Condomless Anal Sex: Evidence of Risk Compensation in a Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Moran, Kevin; Feinstein, Brian A; Forscher, Emily; Mustanski, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at preventing HIV acquisition. It remains unclear if PrEP use increases rates of condomless sex (ie, risk compensation), which may increase risk of infection if PrEP adherence is not optimal. This study aimed to examine whether PrEP use and PrEP adherence were associated with change in sexual risk behaviors in a large longitudinal cohort of YMSM reporting on multiple sexual partnerships over time. Data were obtained from the first 3 visits of an ongoing cohort study of YMSM in Chicago (analytic N = 953; 14.1% HIV-positive at baseline). Participants reported up to 4 sexual partnerships at each visit, including sexual behavior, PrEP use, and PrEP adherence within partnerships. YMSM reported higher rates of receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) in partnerships during which they were on PrEP compared with those when they were not on PrEP. This association was consistent across both HIV-negative and HIV-positive participants reporting on partnerships with both perceived HIV-negative/unknown and HIV-positive partners. The rate of receptive CAS was higher in PrEP nonadherent partnerships compared with non-PrEP partnerships. The rate of receptive CAS was also higher in PrEP nonadherent than adherent partnerships, but this was not statistically significant. These analyses provide compelling data suggesting that YMSM are engaging in risk compensation when on PrEP. If rates of receptive CAS are highest among YMSM who are PrEP nonadherent, PrEP as a prevention strategy could fail to curb HIV incidence among YMSM.

  20. PrEP adopted by the brazilian national health system: What is the size of the demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Benzaken, Adele; Alencar, Tatianna M de; Pimenta, Cristina; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2018-05-01

    Brazil's response to the HIV epidemic now includes free access to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to populations at substantial risk for HIV infection including men who have sex with men (MSM). We used nationally representative demographic, epidemiologic, and surveillance data to offer estimates for the number of MSM at substantial risk for HIV infection who might be eligible and willing to use PrEP in Brazil. Starting from the age/sex-stratified population, we calculated the number of men aged 15 to 64 years, in 5-year age groups, and the proportion of those who report sex with other men during their lifetime. We focused on 11 cities (representing all regions) that are responsible for a significant fraction of the HIV burden of the country and used city-specific HIV prevalence estimates to infer the fraction of MSM who are HIV-negative. We then derived the proportion of HIV-negative MSM under substantial risk for HIV infection defined as having unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the 6 months before study participation. Finally, PrEP uptake among the eligible was inferred from the PrEP Brazil study. Our results show that PrEP demand in these 11 cities is of 66,120 men aged 15 to 64 years. When we consider the lower and upper bounds for the available parameters, we find that PrEP demand in these 11 cities might vary from 33,378 to 97,962 men. If PrEP is restricted to those aged 15 to 49 years, demand drops by 20%. PrEP demand varies considerably by city, mostly because of the differences in population size and city-specific HIV prevalence. We have shed light on the probable size of PrEP demand in Brazil certain that the incorporation of PrEP as part of Brazil's combination prevention for populations at substantial risk for HIV infection is a necessary challenge. PrEP will not only prevent HIV infections, it will also expand testing among the most vulnerable with the added benefit of offering combination prevention for the uninfected and immediate treatment for

  1. Towards a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Baruch, Ricardo; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Luque, Ricardo; Cáceres, Carlos F; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America. Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and procurement of antiretrovirals

  2. Engineering Software Suite Validates System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    EDAptive Computing Inc.'s (ECI) EDAstar engineering software tool suite, created to capture and validate system design requirements, was significantly funded by NASA's Ames Research Center through five Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. These programs specifically developed Syscape, used to capture executable specifications of multi-disciplinary systems, and VectorGen, used to automatically generate tests to ensure system implementations meet specifications. According to the company, the VectorGen tests considerably reduce the time and effort required to validate implementation of components, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. EDASHIELD, an additional product offering from ECI, can be used to diagnose, predict, and correct errors after a system has been deployed using EDASTAR -created models. Initial commercialization for EDASTAR included application by a large prime contractor in a military setting, and customers include various branches within the U.S. Department of Defense, industry giants like the Lockheed Martin Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, as well as NASA's Langley and Glenn Research Centers

  3. Sibelius. Karelia Suite, Op. 11 / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius. Karelia Suite, Op. 11. Luonnotar, Op. 70 a. Andante festivo. The Oceanides, Op. 73. King Christian II, Op. 27-Suite. Finlandia, Op. 26a. Gothenburg Symphony Orchester, Neeme Järvi" DG 447 760-2GH (72 minutes: DDD)

  4. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  5. Preparing for the Rollout of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP: A Vignette Survey to Identify Intended Sexual Behaviors among Women in Kenya and South Africa if Using PrEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Corneli

    Full Text Available Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV risk. One concern with introducing PrEP is whether users will engage in riskier sexual behaviors.We assessed the effect that PrEP may have on sexual risk behaviors by administering a survey to 799 women in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants were asked about their sexual behavior intentions twice--once as if they were taking PrEP and once as if they were not taking PrEP--within four risk situations (vignettes. They responded using a 5-point ordinal scale. We used a series of linear mixed effects models with an unstructured residual covariance matrix to estimate the between- and within-subject differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior across the PrEP and non-PrEP contexts. We also calculated the total percentage of participants who reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP, by vignette.We found statistically significant differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior with the between-subject comparison (-0.17, p < 0.01 and with the within-subject comparison (-0.31, p < 0.001. Depending on the vignette, 27% to 40% of participants reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP.Our findings indicate that modest increases in risky sexual behavior could occur with PrEP. Although responses from the majority of participants suggest they would not be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior if they took PrEP, a substantial proportion might. Programs rolling out PrEP should be prepared to assist similar women in making informed choices about reducing their risk of HIV and about their sexual health beyond HIV prevention.

  6. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  7. PreP+07: improvements of a user friendly tool to preprocess and analyse microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, microarray gene expression analysis is a widely used technology that scientists handle but whose final interpretation usually requires the participation of a specialist. The need for this participation is due to the requirement of some background in statistics that most users lack or have a very vague notion of. Moreover, programming skills could also be essential to analyse these data. An interactive, easy to use application seems therefore necessary to help researchers to extract full information from data and analyse them in a simple, powerful and confident way. Results PreP+07 is a standalone Windows XP application that presents a friendly interface for spot filtration, inter- and intra-slide normalization, duplicate resolution, dye-swapping, error removal and statistical analyses. Additionally, it contains two unique implementation of the procedures – double scan and Supervised Lowess-, a complete set of graphical representations – MA plot, RG plot, QQ plot, PP plot, PN plot – and can deal with many data formats, such as tabulated text, GenePix GPR and ArrayPRO. PreP+07 performance has been compared with the equivalent functions in Bioconductor using a tomato chip with 13056 spots. The number of differentially expressed genes considering p-values coming from the PreP+07 and Bioconductor Limma packages were statistically identical when the data set was only normalized; however, a slight variability was appreciated when the data was both normalized and scaled. Conclusion PreP+07 implementation provides a high degree of freedom in selecting and organizing a small set of widely used data processing protocols, and can handle many data formats. Its reliability has been proven so that a laboratory researcher can afford a statistical pre-processing of his/her microarray results and obtain a list of differentially expressed genes using PreP+07 without any programming skills. All of this gives support to scientists

  8. Commentary: the value of PrEP for people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Rosalind L; McLean, Susie

    2016-01-01

    The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection. What does this recommendation mean in terms of the diverse range of HIV prevention needs of key populations, some of whom are so discriminated against that they exist essentially outside formal systems such as national public health services, and for whom a substantial risk of HIV is part of a larger adverse and hostile situation? We discuss this question with reference to people who inject drugs, informed by concerns and comments that emerged from a series of consultations. HIV prevention is part of a spectrum of injecting drug users' priorities, and their access and uptake of HIV prevention services is contingent on their wider "risk environment." The need to address structural barriers to services and human rights violations, and to improve access to comprehensive harm reduction programmes are of prime importance and would have higher value than a mono-focus on HIV prevention. Where existing harm reduction activities are inadequate, fragile or dependent on external donors, shifts in funding priorities, including, for example, towards PrEP, could threaten investment in the broader programmes. For these reasons, it cannot be assumed that PrEP promotion will always be supported by people who inject drugs.The sexual partners of people who inject drugs, non-opioid users who also inject and for whom there is no established substitution treatment, as well as drug users who are unable to negotiate safe sex may value PrEP. As for all key populations, the involvement of people who inject drugs in

  9. Threefold Increase in PrEP Uptake Over Time with High Adherence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Moran, Kevin; Ryan, Daniel T; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-04

    The goal of this work is to better understand utilization and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women (TGW). We assessed trends and correlates of PrEP use and adherence across three time points of longitudinal data collection among 885 YMSM and TGW (aged 16-29) from the RADAR cohort in Chicago, 2015-2017. Past 6-month PrEP use increased across three visits: from 6.6 to 17.5%. In multivariable models, past 6-month PrEP use was significantly associated with participation in condomless sex, having more sexual partners, and older age. At least three-quarters of current PrEP users reported being ≥ 90% adherent to PrEP medication across all visits. Past 6-month PrEP use increased over time with those who participated in high-risk HIV behaviors also those most likely to have taken PrEP. As PrEP uptake continues to rise, more research will be needed to understand predictors of PrEP usage, as well as patterns of sexual behavior change following uptake.

  10. A Closer Look at Racism and Heterosexism in Medical Students' Clinical Decision-Making Related to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Implications for PrEP Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Vincent, Wilson; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2018-04-01

    Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics. Minimal evidence for racism affecting clinical decision-making emerged. In unadjusted analyses, heterosexism indirectly affected prescribing intention via all anticipated behaviors, tested as parallel mediators. Participants expressing greater heterosexism more strongly anticipated increased risk behavior and adherence problems, which were associated with lower prescribing intention. The indirect effect via condomless sex remained significant adjusting for background characteristics. Prior PrEP education did not buffer any indirect effects. Heterosexism may compromise PrEP provision to MSM and should be addressed in PrEP-related medical education.

  11. Oracle SOA Suite 11g performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brasier, Matthew; Wright, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with interesting, hands-on recipes, giving detailed descriptions and lots of practical walkthroughs for boosting the performance of your Oracle SOA Suite.This book is for Oracle SOA Suite 11g administrators, developers, and architects who want to understand how they can maximise the performance of their SOA Suite infrastructure. The recipes contain easy to follow step-by-step instructions and include many helpful and practical tips. It is suitable for anyone with basic operating system and application server administration experience.

  12. Are Thai MSM willing to take PrEP for HIV prevention? An analysis of attitudes, preferences and acceptance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Wheelock

    Full Text Available We aimed to understand the attitudes, preferences and acceptance of oral and parenteral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM in Thailand.Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, the use of antiretrovirals to prevent HIV acquisition, has shown promising results in recent trials. To assess the potential impact of this new HIV prevention method, in addition to efficacy data, we need to understand which psychosocial factors are likely to determine its uptake among members of potential user groups.Surveys of willingness to use PrEP products were administered to MSM. Spearman's rank tests were used to uncover associations between questionnaire items. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to ascertain differences between groups. Conjoint analysis was used to examine the attitudes and preferences of MSM towards PrEP attributes. Most participants were willing to consider taking PrEP (39.2% "yes, definitely" and 49.2% "yes, probably" and perceived PrEP as giving them new possibilities in their lives (38.5% "a lot of hope" and 55.8% "some hope", even after being instructed of potential side effects and costs. HIV testing was considered the most important attribute and a daily pill and longer lasting injection in the arm were the preferred routes of administration.Despite its multiple challenges, MSM in Thailand would be willing to take PrEP, even if they had to experience inconvenience and expense. If PrEP were to be implemented in Thailand, our findings show that its uptake could be considerable.

  13. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, C J; Zhang, H L; Jr, J Abdallah; Clark, R E H; Kilcrease, D P; Colgan, J; Cunningham, R T; Hakel, P; Magee, N H; Sherrill, M E

    2015-01-01

    The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions. (paper)

  14. Heat and mass transfer in air-fed pressurised suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesch, K.; Collins, M.W.; Karayiannis, T.G.; Atherton, M.A.; Edwards, P.

    2009-01-01

    Air-fed pressurised suits are used to protect workers against contamination and hazardous environments. The specific application here is the necessity for regular clean-up maintenance within the torus chamber of fusion reactors. The current design of suiting has been developed empirically. It is, therefore, very desirable to formulate a thermo-fluids model, which will be able to define optimum designs and operating parameters. Two factors indicate that the modelling should be as comprehensive as possible. Firstly, the overall thermo-fluids problem is three-dimensional and includes mass as well as heat transfer. The fluid field is complex, bounded on one side by the human body and on the other by what may be distensible, porous and multi-layer clothing. In this paper, we report firstly the modelling necessary for the additional mass and heat transport processes. This involves the use of Fick's and Fourier's laws and conjugate heat transfer. The results of an initial validation study are presented. Temperatures at the outlet of the suits were obtained experimentally and compared with those predicted by the overall CFD model. Realistic three-dimensional geometries were used for the suit and human body. Calculations were for turbulent flow with single- and two-component (species) models

  15. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the phase II effort, Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for...

  16. Coupled Human-Space Suit Mobility Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current EVA mobility studies only allow for comparisons of how the suit moves when actuated by a human and how the human moves when unsuited. There are now new...

  17. Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier - Suite / Michael Kennedy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kennedy, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier - Suite, Salome-Dance of the seven veils, Capriccio-Prelude, Intermezzo, Morgen Mittag um elf! Felicity Lott, Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABRD 1397. ABTD 1397. CHAN 8758

  18. Comparison of Plasmagel with LeucoPREP-Macrodex methods for separation of leukocytes for virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G L; Proffitt, M R

    1987-10-01

    Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, NY), which can separate both polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells from other blood components, and LeucoPREP (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, Mountain View, CA), which can separate mononuclear cells from other blood components, were used to harvest leukocytes from whole blood for the purpose of virus isolation. Macrodex was combined with the later, in a second step, for recovery of PMN. Of 90 peripheral blood specimens examined, cytomegalovirus was recovered from 10: in six by both methods, in three from Plasmagel prepared cells only, and in one from cells from the LeucoPREP-Macrodex preparation only. Total leukocyte counts, differential counts, and leukocyte viability did not differ significantly for the two methods. Plasmagel provided an efficient, inexpensive means of harvesting leukocytes from whole blood for virus isolation.

  19. Wearing long sleeves while prepping a patient in the operating room decreases airborne contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Gormley, Thomas; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Wagner, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The use of long sleeves by nonscrubbed personnel in the operating room has been called into question. We hypothesized that wearing long sleeves and gloves, compared with having bare arms without gloves, while applying the skin preparation solution would decrease particulate and microbial contamination. A mock patient skin prep was performed in 3 different operating rooms. A long-sleeved gown and gloves, or bare arms, were used to perform the procedure. Particle counters were used to assess airborne particulate contamination, and active and passive microbial assessment was achieved through air samplers and settle plate analysis. Data were compared with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U, and P airborne contamination while the skin prep is applied, which may lead to decreased surgical site infections. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interoperative efficiency in minimally invasive surgery suites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Det, M J; Meijerink, W J H J; Hoff, C; Pierie, J P E N

    2009-10-01

    Performing minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in a conventional operating room (OR) requires additional specialized equipment otherwise stored outside the OR. Before the procedure, the OR team must collect, prepare, and connect the equipment, then take it away afterward. These extra tasks pose a thread to OR efficiency and may lengthen turnover times. The dedicated MIS suite has permanently installed laparoscopic equipment that is operational on demand. This study presents two experiments that quantify the superior efficiency of the MIS suite in the interoperative period. Preoperative setup and postoperative breakdown times in the conventional OR and the MIS suite in an experimental setting and in daily practice were analyzed. In the experimental setting, randomly chosen OR teams simulated the setup and breakdown for a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and a complex laparoscopic sigmoid resection (LS). In the clinical setting, the interoperative period for 66 LCs randomly assigned to the conventional OR or the MIS suite were analyzed. In the experimental setting, the setup and breakdown times were significantly shorter in the MIS suite. The difference between the two types of OR increased for the complex procedure: 2:41 min for the LC (p < 0.001) and 10:47 min for the LS (p < 0.001). In the clinical setting, the setup and breakdown times as a whole were not reduced in the MIS suite. Laparoscopic setup and breakdown times were significantly shorter in the MIS suite (mean difference, 5:39 min; p < 0.001). Efficiency during the interoperative period is significantly improved in the MIS suite. The OR nurses' tasks are relieved, which may reduce mental and physical workload and improve job satisfaction and patient safety. Due to simultaneous tasks of other disciplines, an overall turnover time reduction could not be achieved.

  1. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  2. Swords, Shields, and the Fight for Our Children: Lessons from Urban Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The grim statistics are well known, but bear repeating: in Chicago, close to 60% of Black boys do not graduate from high school, and only one in forty receive a bachelor's degree by age 25. In the fall of 2006, Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men-Englewood Campus, the nation's first all-male charter public high school, was opened. In 2010 and…

  3. [PrEP Forum: an on-line debate on pre-exposure prophylaxis in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Sousa, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to identify health-promoting contents focused on HIV/Aids prevention in messages posted in a Facebook group for debates on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This was a prospective observational study using systematic non-participant observation. From July 2015 to June 2016, all the posts in the group were catalogued and formed a corpus. Everything was processed in IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. The collected data were grouped in three classes: (1) HIV/Aids prevention: discussing prophylaxis, treatment, target public, and side effects; (2) universal access to PrEP in Brazil: discussing government responsibilities; (3) on-line purchase of truvada: exposing a situation of vulnerability. The findings call attention to a potential public health problem and provide backing for understanding facilitators and barriers to the use of PrEP in Brazil through the identification of health-promoting content linked to individual, social, and institutional markers.

  4. No association between the PREP gene and lithium responsive bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grof Paul

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorder (BD is a major psychiatric condition that commonly requires prophylactic and episodic treatment. Lithium (Li has been used for over 40 years now as an effective prophylactic agent. Response to Li treatment seems to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Although we ignore how Li specifically prevents mood episodes, it has previously been suggested that Li exerts an effect on the phosphoinositide pathway, and more recently, it has been proposed that Li may modulate prolyl endopeptidase (PREP. Methods In this study we carried out an association study looking at the PREP gene, located on ch 6q22. Five intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, three coding SNPs and one SNP in the 5' UTR were investigated for their frequency in a BD sample of 180 excellent Li responders, 69 Li nonresponders and 126 controls. Genotyping was carried out using the SNaPshot reaction from Applied Biosystems, which is a modified fluorescent single base pair extension procedure. Results Following correction for multiple testing, no significant genotypic, allelic or estimated haplotypic differences were found between responders and nonresponders or between BD patients and controls. Conclusion PREP is an interesting candidate gene to investigate in genetic studies of BD, but our findings do not support the hypothesis that genetic variation in this gene plays a major role in the etiology of BD or Li response.

  5. 'PrEP is not ready for our community, and our community is not ready for PrEP': pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV for people who inject drugs and limits to the HIV prevention response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Andy; Albers, Eliot Ross; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2017-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, or 'PrEP', is the use of antiretroviral medicines by people who are HIV-negative to protect themselves against acquiring HIV. PrEP has shown efficacy for preventing HIV acquisition. Despite the potential, many concerns have been voiced by people who inject drugs (PWID) and their organizations. There is a need to engage with these views and ensure their integration in to policy and strategy. This paper presents PWID views on PrEP to foster the uptake of these opinions into scientific and policy debate around PrEP METHODS: Critical analysis of a report of a community consultation led by the International Network of People who Use Drugs (INPUD). The INPUD report highlights enthusiasm from PWID for PrEP, but also three main concerns: the feasibility and ethics of PrEP, its potential use as a substitute for other harm reduction strategies and how a focus on PrEP heralds a re-medicalization of HIV. Each concern relates to evidenced gaps in essential services or opposition to harm reduction and PWID human rights. People who use drugs have fundamental concerns about the potential impacts of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV which reflect a 'fault line' in HIV prevention: a predominance of biomedical approaches over community perspectives. Greater community engagement in HIV prevention strategy is needed, or we risk continuing to ignore the need for action on the underlying structural drivers and social context of the HIV epidemic. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  7. Lessons learned from the experiences of informal PrEP users in France: results from the ANRS-PrEPage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivierez, I; Quatremere, G; Spire, B; Ghosn, J; Rojas Castro, D

    2018-05-30

    Before January 2016, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical HIV-prevention tool, was only available in France via ANRS-Ipergay clinical study but informal use was reported outside this setting. PrEPage qualitative study reports profiles and experiences of participants who used PrEP outside of a biomedical trial before this prevention method was authorized. Between March 2015 and February 2016, a cross-section of twenty-four informal PrEP users, mostly MSM, was recruited to complete in-depth semi-structured interviews. While ANRS-Ipergay was still ongoing (2012-2016), participants described their initiation to PrEP, the way they used it and the difficulties they faced to acquire antiretroviral drugs in an environment where PrEP was still not widely known and often criticized . Through the testimonies, different user profiles and motivation toward informal PrEP use emerged: (a) participants who have increasing difficulties using condoms, (b) "opportunists" who tried PrEP without the intention of using it regularly and (c) participants with a risk aversion who sought additional protection against HIV. Participants chose to use PrEP and/or their usual prevention strategies depending on available supplies, type of partners and individual attitudes toward risk. The feeling of living a safer sex life helped participants to outweigh the fear of possible toxicity and drug resistance. Participants' needs and expectations about PrEP implementation in France were also presented.

  8. Acceptability of Daily Use of Free Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Transgender Women Sex Workers in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Yang, Xueying; Cai, Yong; Gross, Danielle L; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP. A total of 183 HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was 61.2%. Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP (i.e., having concerns about the side-effects of PrEP) [Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0.26], perceived subjective norms (i.e., perceiving support from male partners to take PrEP) (AOR: 2.08), and perceived behavioral control (e.g., perceiving complete control over using PrEP) (AOR: 2.10-16.72) were significantly associated with acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP. In addition, experiencing violence during sex work, perceived risk of contracting HIV from clients and probable anxiety were also significant. Future PrEP promotion campaigns should consider these factors.

  9. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention.

  10. Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlesta Pilgrim

    Full Text Available Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW in sub-Saharan Africa. However, health care providers' (HCPs perspectives and interactions with potential clients can substantially influence effective provision of quality health services. We examine if HCPs' knowledge, attitude, and skills, as well as their perceptions of facility readiness to provide PrEP are associated with their willingness to provide PrEP to AGYW at high risk of HIV in Tanzania.A self-administered questionnaire was given to 316 HCPs from 74 clinics in two districts and 24 HCPs participated in follow-up in-depth interviews (IDIs. We conducted bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression to assess factors associated with willingness to provide PrEP to AGYW. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the IDIs, which expanded upon the quantitative results.Few HCPs (3.5% had prior PrEP knowledge, but once informed, 61.1% were willing to prescribe PrEP to AGYW. Higher negative attitudes toward adolescent sexuality and greater concerns about behavioral disinhibition due to PrEP use were associated with lower willingness to prescribe PrEP. Qualitatively, HCPs acknowledged that biases, rooted in cultural norms, often result in stigmatizing and discriminatory care toward AGYW, a potential barrier for PrEP provision. However, better training to provide HIV services was associated with greater willingness to prescribe PrEP. Conversely, HCPs feared the potential negative impact of PrEP on the provision of existing HIV services (e.g., overburdened staff, and suggested the integration of PrEP into non-HIV services and the use of paramedical professionals to facilitate PrEP provision.Preparing for PrEP introduction requires more than solely training HCPs on the clinical aspects of providing PrEP. It requires a two-pronged strategy: addressing HCPs' biases regarding sexual health services to AGYW; and preparing

  11. The Role of Social Relationships in PrEP Uptake and Use Among Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Megha L; Rivet Amico, K; McMahan, Vanessa; Glidden, David V; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V; Grant, Robert M

    2018-05-12

    Qualitative studies suggest that social relationships play an important role in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, but there have been few quantitative assessments of the role of social relationships in PrEP uptake or adherence. We examined the association between disclosure of study participation or LGBT identity and PrEP use in the 1603 HIV-negative participants enrolled in the iPrEx OLE study. We also evaluated the association between LGBT social group involvement and PrEP use. Study participation disclosure to parents and LGBT identity disclosure to anyone in a participant's social network were associated with greater PrEP uptake. Study participation disclosure to partners was associated with higher probability of having protective PrEP drug concentrations compared [risk difference 0.15 95% CI (0.01, 0.30)]. For each additional type of LGBT organization a participant was involved in, the probability of PrEP uptake and having protective drug concentrations increased by 0.04 [95% CI (0.03, 0.06)] and 0.04 (95% CI (0.02, 0.07)] respectively. Overall, social context was associated with PrEP use in iPrEx OLE, and should be taken into consideration when designing future PrEP implementation programs.

  12. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  13. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

  14. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  15. Immersion Suit Usage Within the RAAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS 202. in 12 Sizes, held by ALSS 492SQN REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE POLICY REFERENCE DIRAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C...held by ALSS 492SQN. REQUIREMENTS No comment ISACE POLICY REFERENCE DIIAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C Flight Manual) RAAF Supplement No 92 USAGE POUICY UVIC...TYPE P3C REFERENCE Telecon FLTLT Toft I I SQNfRESO AVMED Dated 22 Mar 91 IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS No comment REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE

  16. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  17. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts' Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir T Dimitrov

    Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance.We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations.Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20-180 days in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%; and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%. These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%-6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17-23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence.There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However, individuals who become

  18. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2017-06-29

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used. Bivariable analyses, using chi-squared statistics, were conducted to examine correlates of awareness of PrEP with socio-demographic, behavioral, and health care variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted associations and determine differences in awareness of PrEP. The analysis consisted of 118 WWID. Awareness of PrEP was relatively low (31%), and risk factors were high. In the last 12 months, almost two thirds (65%) reported condomless sex, approximately one third (31%) reported transactional sex, and one third (32%) reported sharing injection equipment. In multivariable logistic regression, increased PrEP awareness was associated with reported transactional sex (AOR 3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) and having a conversation about HIV prevention at a syringe exchange program (SEP) (AOR 7.61, 95% CI 2.65-21.84). We did not find race, education, household income, age, binge drinking, or sexual identity to be significantly associated with PrEP awareness. Large proportions of WWID were unaware of PrEP. These findings suggest that social networks (specifically sex work and SEP networks) are an efficient means for disseminating messaging about prevention materials such as PrEP. We recommend that SEP access increase, SEP processes be adopted in other health care settings, and WWID networks be utilized to increase PrEP awareness.

  19. Acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Implementation Challenges Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Varghese, Jarvis; Nelson, Ruban; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM in India, and identified facilitators and barriers to future PrEP uptake. In 2014, we conducted 10 focus groups (n=61) among a purposive sample of diverse MSM recruited through community-based organizations in Chennai and Mumbai, and 10 key informant interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Participants' mean age was 26.1 years (SD 4.8); 62% completed secondary education, and 42% engaged in sex work. No focus group participants had heard of PrEP, but once explained, most reported they would likely use it. PrEP was alternately perceived as a 'back-up plan', a condom substitute, or a burden with concurrent condom use. Facilitators were potential for covert use, sex without condoms, and anxiety-less sex. Potential barriers emerged around stigma associated with PrEP use, fear of disclosures to one's family, wife, or male steady partner, and being labeled as HIV-positive or promiscuous by peers. Preferences emerged for intermittent rather than daily PrEP use, injectable PrEP, and free or subsidized access through community organizations or government hospitals. Key informants expressed additional concerns about risk compensation, non-adherence, and impact on ART availability for treatment. Demonstration projects are needed in India to support PrEP implementation tailored for at-risk MSM. Educational interventions for MSM should address concerns about PrEP effectiveness, side effects, and mitigate risk compensation. Community engagement may facilitate broad acceptability and challenge stigma around PrEP use. Importantly, provision of free or subsidized PrEP is necessary to making implementation feasible among low socioeconomic status MSM in India.

  20. Exploring strategies for PrEP adherence and dosing preferences in the context of sexualized recreational drug use among MSM: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Mitty, Jennifer A; Malone, Jowanna; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2018-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs while having sex is associated with increased HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Taking a daily antiretroviral pill, or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention to prevent HIV. However, the efficacy of PrEP is closely tied with high levels of adherence. While PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition, the use of recreational drugs may impede adherence. We explored perceptions of PrEP utilization and regimen preferences among 40 HIV-negative, MSM who reported concurrent recreational drug use and condomless anal sex with a man. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Participants perceived that it would be challenging to take PrEP while high on crystal meth, crack, powder cocaine, ecstasy and/or GHB. However, men identified strategies for using PrEP when they were not high on these drugs, including taking the pill when they started their day and integrating PrEP into an established routine, such as when taking other medications or preparing for sex. PrEP regimen preferences seemed to be shaped by the frequency in which participants used drugs and their ability to plan for sex. Taking PrEP everyday was appealing for those who regularly engaged in sexualized recreational drug use. Accounts depict these sexual interactions as frequent but unpredictable. A daily regimen would allow them to be prepared for sex without having to plan. An event-driven regimen was acceptable to men who occasionally used recreational drugs in the context of sex. For this group, sex usually occurred was generally prearranged. Patterns of sex and recreational drug use figured largely into participants' framings of how they would use PrEP. These behaviors will likely play a role in the uptake of and adherence to PrEP among this population.

  1. Fertility Intentions, Pregnancy, and Use of PrEP and ART for Safer Conception Among East African HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Thomson, Kerry; Celum, Connie; Haberer, Jessica; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Asiimwe, Stephen; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-09-11

    African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence. At enrollment, 80% of couples indicated a desire for more children. Pregnancy incidence rates were 18.5 and 18.7 per 100 person years among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, and higher among women who recently reported fertility intention (adjusted odds ratio 3.43, 95% CI 2.38-4.93) in multivariable GEE models. During the 6 months preceding pregnancy, 82.9% of couples used PrEP or ART and there were no HIV seroconversions. In this cohort with high pregnancy rates, integrated PrEP and ART was readily used by HIV serodiscordant couples, including during peri-conception periods. Widespread scale-up of safer conception counseling and services is warranted to respond to strong desires for pregnancy among HIV-affected men and women.

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trial Participants in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Lauren; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Henderson, Faith L; Kebaabetswe, Poloko M

    2015-03-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that a daily dose of oral TDF/FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing human immunodeficiency (HIV) risk. Understanding trial participants' perspectives about retention and PrEP adherence is critical to inform future PrEP trials and the scale-up and implementation of PrEP programs. We analyzed 53 in-depth interviews conducted in April 2010 with participants in the TDF2 study, a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of daily oral TDF/FTC with heterosexual men and women in Francistown and Gaborone, Botswana. We examined participants' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of the trial, identified facilitators and barriers to enrollment and retention, and compared participant responses by study site, sex, and study drug adherence. Our findings point to several factors to consider for participant retention and adherence in PrEP trials and programs, including conducting pre-enrollment education and myth reduction counseling, providing accurate estimates of participant obligations and side effect symptoms, ensuring participant understanding of the effects of non-adherence, gauging personal commitment and interest in study outcomes, and developing a strong external social support network for participants.

  3. Advanced Sensor Platform to Evaluate Manloads for Exploration Suit Architectures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space suit manloads are defined as the outer bounds of force that the human occupant of a suit is able to exert onto the suit during motion. They are defined on a...

  4. What's New with MS Office Suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2012-01-01

    If one buys a new PC, laptop, or netbook computer today, it probably comes preloaded with Microsoft Office 2010 Starter Edition. This is a significantly limited, advertising-laden version of Microsoft's suite of productivity programs, Microsoft Office. This continues the trend of PC makers providing ever more crippled versions of Microsoft's…

  5. Antigravity Suits For Studies Of Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, Stein E.; Greenleaf, John

    1992-01-01

    Report presents results of research on use of "antigravity" suit, one applying positive pressure to lower body to simulate some effects of microgravity. Research suggests lower-body positive pressure is alternative to bed rest or immersion in water in terrestrial studies of cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes induced in humans by microgravity.

  6. Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites / Iran March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Iran

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites: N 1 Op. 64 bis a; N 2 Op. 64 ter b; N 3 Op. 101 c. Royal Scottish National Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandos cassette ABTD 1536; CD CHAN 8940 (78 minutes) etc

  7. A Suite of Tools for Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Saden, Povinelli & Rosen, 1989). • This was a significant change in emphasis on the part of NASA, where technology had previously viewed as merely...Cost Analysis Symposium, April 13, 2005. A Suite of Tools for Technology Assessment 24 Bibliography - continued: • Sadin, Stanley T.; Povinelli

  8. 28 CFR 36.501 - Private suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.501 Private suits. (a) General. Any person who is... order. Upon timely application, the court may, in its discretion, permit the Attorney General to... general public importance. Upon application by the complainant and in such circumstances as the court may...

  9. Open architecture of smart sensor suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Kuwertz, Achim; Grönwall, Christina; Petersson, Henrik; Dekker, Rob; Reinert, Frank; Ditzel, Maarten

    2017-10-01

    Experiences from recent conflicts show the strong need for smart sensor suites comprising different multi-spectral imaging sensors as core elements as well as additional non-imaging sensors. Smart sensor suites should be part of a smart sensor network - a network of sensors, databases, evaluation stations and user terminals. Its goal is to optimize the use of various information sources for military operations such as situation assessment, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, target recognition and tracking. Such a smart sensor network will enable commanders to achieve higher levels of situational awareness. Within the study at hand, an open system architecture was developed in order to increase the efficiency of sensor suites. The open system architecture for smart sensor suites, based on a system-of-systems approach, enables combining different sensors in multiple physical configurations, such as distributed sensors, co-located sensors combined in a single package, tower-mounted sensors, sensors integrated in a mobile platform, and trigger sensors. The architecture was derived from a set of system requirements and relevant scenarios. Its mode of operation is adaptable to a series of scenarios with respect to relevant objects of interest, activities to be observed, available transmission bandwidth, etc. The presented open architecture is designed in accordance with the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). The architecture allows smart sensor suites to be part of a surveillance network, linked e.g. to a sensor planning system and a C4ISR center, and to be used in combination with future RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems) for supporting a more flexible dynamic configuration of RPAS payloads.

  10. Statistical Evaluation of Causal Factors Associated with Astronaut Shoulder Injury in Space Suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Newman, Dava J; Welsch, Roy E

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder injuries due to working inside the space suit are some of the most serious and debilitating injuries astronauts encounter. Space suit injuries occur primarily in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) underwater training facility due to accumulated musculoskeletal stress. We quantitatively explored the underlying causal mechanisms of injury. Logistic regression was used to identify relevant space suit components, training environment variables, and anthropometric dimensions related to an increased propensity for space-suited injury. Two groups of subjects were analyzed: those whose reported shoulder incident is attributable to the NBL or working in the space suit, and those whose shoulder incidence began in active duty, meaning working in the suit could be a contributing factor. For both groups, percent of training performed in the space suit planar hard upper torso (HUT) was the most important predictor variable for injury. Frequency of training and recovery between training were also significant metrics. The most relevant anthropometric dimensions were bideltoid breadth, expanded chest depth, and shoulder circumference. Finally, record of previous injury was found to be a relevant predictor for subsequent injury. The first statistical model correctly identifies 39% of injured subjects, while the second model correctly identifies 68% of injured subjects. A review of the literature suggests this is the first work to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesized causal mechanisms of all space-suited shoulder injuries. Although limited in predictive capability, each of the identified variables can be monitored and modified operationally to reduce future impacts on an astronaut's health.

  11. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Sexually Active Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Keosha T.; Gunn, Alana J.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continues to remain scarce among Black women who are disproportionally affected by HIV in the United States. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions from a sample of Black women (n=119) who completed a mix-methods, online, e-health study was conducted to examine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using PrEP. Being a female controlled method, empowerment, option for women with risky sex partners, and serodiscordant couples were advantages described. Disadvantages of PrEP were identified as the complexity of the choice, encouragement of sex with risky partners, increased burden, promotion of unprotected sex, and newness of the drug. PMID:28725660

  12. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  13. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  14. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  15. 'WTF is PrEP?': attitudes towards pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Matthew; Grosso, Ashley; Zapata, Richard; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2017-10-06

    In the USA, gay and other men who have sex with men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV-negative individuals from seroconverting if exposed to HIV, by members of this population remains low, particularly among African-Americans. We conducted two focus groups to assess responses to an online social media campaign focusing on PrEP use in New York City. We designed, produced and disseminated the campaign to address knowledge of PrEP; its physical and psychological side effects; and psychosocial barriers related to PrEP adherence and sex shaming. Focus group participants demonstrated a relatively high knowledge of PrEP, although considerable concern remained about side effects, particularly among Black participants. Participants suggested that stigma against PrEP users was declining as PrEP use became more common, but stigma remained, particularly for those not using condoms. Many focus group participants reported distrust of medical providers and were critical of the commodification of HIV prevention by the pharmaceutical industry. Participants reported that those in romantic relationships confronted unique issues regarding PrEP, namely suspicions of infidelity. Finally, Black participants spoke of the need for more tailored and sensitive representations of Black gay men in future programmes and interventions.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Çileroğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits

  17. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-12-02

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  19. Enhancements to the opera-3d suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules emdash a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. The BTeV Software Tutorial Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschke, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    The BTeV Collaboration is starting to develop its C++ based offline software suite, an integral part of which is a series of tutorials. These tutorials are targeted at a diverse audience, including new graduate students, experienced physicists with little or no C++ experience, those with just enough C++ to be dangerous, and experts who need only an overview of the available tools. The tutorials must both teach C++ in general and the BTeV specific tools in particular. Finally, they must teach physicists how to find and use the detailed documentation. This report will review the status of the BTeV experiment, give an overview of the plans for and the state of the software and will then describe the plans for the tutorial suite

  1. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  2. Role of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in current and future HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David N; Grossman, Cynthia; Turpin, Jim; Elharrar, Vanessa; Veronese, Fulvia

    2014-12-01

    Treatment as prevention is expected to have a major role in reducing HIV incidence, but other prevention interventions will also be required to bring the epidemic under control, particularly among key populations. One or more forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will likely play a critical role. Oral PrEP with emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada®) is currently available in the US and some other countries, but uptake has been slow. We review the concerns that have contributed to this slow uptake and discuss current and future research in this critical area of HIV prevention research.

  3. Poppers and PrEP: Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Inhaled Nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Schneider, John A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carrico, Adam W; Sherman, Scott E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-05-09

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use inhaled nitrites, or poppers, though their use is a risk factor HIV seroconversion. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is effective for HIV prevention, but is not widely used, and little is known regarding PrEP use and acceptability among MSM who use inhaled nitrites. We surveyed 580 MSM in Paris, France in 2016 about popper use, sexual behaviors including condomless anal intercourse (CAI), serosorting, and sexual positioning, PrEP use, PrEP candidacy, and interest in alternate PrEP delivery modalities. We included 444 HIV negative participants for the current study. 46.2% reported popper use in the prior 3 months. Using multivariate adjusted logistic regression, we found that popper users were more likely than non-users to consider themselves candidates for PrEP [adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.73; 95% CI 1.54-4.83], but they were not more likely to be current (aRRR = 1.54; 95% CI 0.71-3.33) or past (aRRR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.44-4.28) PrEP users. Mediation analyses indicated that increased CAI and serosorting partly explained the relationship between popper use and PrEP candidacy. There was considerable interest in alternate proposed PrEP delivery modalities, particularly long-acting injectable PrEP [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.15-1.79].

  4. Values and Preferences on the Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Multiple Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechlin, Florence M; Fonner, Virginia A; Dalglish, Sarah L; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Baggaley, Rachel; Grant, Robert M; Rodolph, Michelle; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2017-05-01

    Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV infection. WHO released new guidelines in 2015 recommending PrEP for all populations at substantial risk of HIV infection. To prepare these guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of values and preferences among populations that might benefit from PrEP, women, heterosexual men, young women and adolescent girls, female sex workers, serodiscordant couples, transgender people and people who inject drugs, and among healthcare providers who may prescribe PrEP. A comprehensive search strategy reviewed three electronic databases of articles and HIV-related conference abstracts (January 1990-April 2015). Data abstraction used standardised forms to categorise by population groups and relevant themes. Of 3068 citations screened, 76 peer-reviewed articles and 28 conference abstracts were included. Geographic coverage was global. Most studies (N = 78) evaluated hypothetical use of PrEP, while 26 studies included individuals who actually took PrEP or placebo. Awareness of PrEP was low, but once participants were presented with information about PrEP, the majority said they would consider using it. Concerns about safety, side effects, cost and effectiveness were the most frequently cited barriers to use. There was little indication of risk compensation. Healthcare providers would consider prescribing PrEP, but need more information before doing so. Findings from a rapidly expanding evidence base suggest that the majority of populations most likely to benefit from PrEP feel positively towards it. These same populations would benefit from overcoming current implementation challenges with the shortest possible delay.

  5. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  6. Does Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men (MSM) change risk behavior? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Kellie; Portillo, Carmen J

    2017-08-03

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV has been available since 2012. Even so, PrEP has not been widely accepted among healthcare providers and MSM some of whom are convinced that PrEP decreases condom use, and increases sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A systematic review of the state of the evidence regarding the association of PrEP with condom use, STI incidence and change in sexual risk behaviors in MSM. A structured search of databases resulted in 142 potential citations, but only ten publications met inclusion criteria and underwent data abstraction and critical appraisal. An adapted Cochrane Collaboration domain based assessment tool was used to critically appraise the methodological components of each quantitative study, and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to critically appraise qualitative and mixed-methods studies. Condom use in MSM utilizing PrEP is influenced by multiple factors. Studies indicate rates of STIs in treatment and placebo groups were high. PrEP did not significantly change STI rates between baseline and follow-up. Reporting of sexual risk improved when questionnaires were completed in private by clients. Our review found that PrEP may provide an opportunity for MSM to access sexual health care, testing, treatment and counselling services. We did not find any conclusive evidence that PrEP users increase sexual risk behaviors. The perception among healthcare providers that PrEP leads to increased sexual risk behaviors has yet to be confirmed. In order to provide effective sexual health services, clinicians need to be knowledgeable about PrEP as an HIV prevention tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. A new device for the inflation of the antigravity suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, P M

    1986-02-01

    The 'Schuco' orthopaedic tourniquet inflator can be simply converted into a suitable device for inflating an antigravity suit (G-suit). The antigravity suit may be used on neurosurgical patients undergoing procedures in the sitting position to help prevent hypotension and air embolism. The availability of this device may encourage the more widespread use of an antigravity suit in neuro-anaesthetic practice.

  8. The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g, running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The walk-run transition (denoted * correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v(2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L. Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (approximately 0.5 with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below approximately 0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g or completely (lunar-g support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0 and run (1, yielding Fr* (0.36+/-0.11, mean+/-95% CI and Ap* (0.68+/-0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

  9. Improved removal of blood contamination from ThinPrep cervical cytology samples for Raman spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Damien; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    There is an unmet need for methods to help in the early detection of cervical precancer. Optical spectroscopy-based techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, have shown great potential for diagnosis of different cancers, including cervical cancer. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on liquid-based cytology (LBC) pap test specimens and confounding factors, such as blood contamination, have been identified. Previous work reported a method to remove blood contamination before Raman spectroscopy by pretreatment of the slides with hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the present study was to extend this work to excessively bloody samples to see if these could be rendered suitable for Raman spectroscopy. LBC ThinPrep specimens were treated by adding hydrogen peroxide directly to the vial before slide preparation. Good quality Raman spectra were recorded from negative and high grade (HG) cytology samples with no blood contamination and with heavy blood contamination. Good classification between negative and HG cytology could be achieved for samples with no blood contamination (sensitivity 92%, specificity 93%) and heavy blood contamination (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) with poorer classification when samples were combined (sensitivity 82%, specificity 87%). This study demonstrates for the first time the improved potential of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of ThinPrep specimens regardless of blood contamination. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  11. The PREP Pipeline: Standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdelys Shamlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode/.

  12. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode.

  13. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting.

  14. Using data from a behavioural survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) to estimate the number likely to present for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Ireland, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura; O'Donnell, Kate; Hurley, Caroline; Lyons, Fiona; Igoe, Derval

    2017-11-01

    In Ireland, men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased HIV risk. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), combined with safe sex practices, can reduce HIV acquisition. We estimated MSM numbers likely to present for PrEP by applying French PrEP criteria to Irish MSM behavioural survey data. We adjusted for survey bias, calculated proportions accessing testing services and those likely to take PrEP. We estimated 1-3% of MSM in Ireland were likely to present for PrEP.

  15. NIH bows to part of Rifkin suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M

    1984-11-30

    Having lost a round in its legal battle with Jeremy Rifkin over field tests of genetically engineered bacteria, the National Institutes of Health will conduct the simpler of two ecological analyses required by the National Environmental Policy Act on three proposed experiments. In May 1984 a federal district court ruling halted a University of California field test pending a decision on Rifkin's 1983 suit, which alleged that NIH had violated the Act by approving experiments without studying the ecological consequences. Still to be decided by the U.S. Court of Appeals is whether NIH must also issue full-scale environmental impact statements.

  16. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  17. Implementing Sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of socalled sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. Sentinels are a novel type of rules that can warn a user if one or more measure changes in a multi-dimensional data cube are expected to cause a change to another measure critical to the user. Sentinels notify u...... pattern mining or correlation techniques. We demonstrate, through extensive experiments, that mining and usage of sentinels is feasible with good performance for the typical users on a real, operational data warehouse....

  18. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Çileroğlu, Birsen; Kelleci Özeren, Figen; Kıvılcımlar, İnci Seda

    2015-01-01

    Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing against the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period.  By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee-length skirts worn over the golf trousers.  Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influe...

  19. Vulnerable infected populations and street markets for ARVs: Potential implications for PrEP rollout in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-04-01

    Widespread diversion of antiretroviral (ARV) medications to illicit markets has recently been documented among indigent patients in South Florida. The recent approval of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to broaden these illicit markets, as high-risk individuals seek ARVs without a prescription or medical supervision. Nonadherence among diverters and unsupervised use of ARVs for treatment or PrEP increase risks of treatment failure, drug resistance, and disease transmission. We report the scope of ARV diversion among substance-using men who have sex with men in South Florida. Structured interviews (N = 515) queried demographics, HIV status, mental distress, substance dependence, and sexual risks. HIV-positive participants answered questions about medical care, treatment, and ARV adherence and diversion. Median age was 39. Of 46.4% who were HIV-positive, 79.1% were prescribed ARVs. Of these, 27% reported selling/trading ARVs. Reasons for diversion were sharing/trading with friends, sale/trade for money/drugs, and sale/trade of unused medications. ARV diverters, compared to nondiverters, were more likely to be substance dependent (74.5% vs. 58.7%, p = 0.046) and have traded sex for money/drugs (60.8% vs. 32.6%, p increased risks of treatment failure, disease transmission, and PrEP failure should be carefully considered in developing policy and behavioral supports to scaling up treatment as prevention and PrEP.

  20. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  1. Cervical cancer incidence after normal cytological sample in routine screening using SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Penning, Corine

    2017-01-01

    of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA), January 2000 to March 2013.Population Women with 5 924 474 normal screening samples (23 833 123 person years).Exposure Use of SurePath or ThinPrep versus conventional cytology as screening test.Main outcome measure 72 month cumulative incidence...

  2. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R.; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35

  3. Geographic and Individual Associations with PrEP Stigma: Results from the RADAR Cohort of Diverse Young Men Who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Hayford, Christina; Phillips, Gregory; Newcomb, Michael E; Smith, Justin D

    2018-05-22

    Increasing the uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition among at-risk populations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM), is of vital importance to slowing the HIV epidemic. Stigma and negative injunctive norms, such as the so called "Truvada Whore" phenomenon, hamper this effort. We examined the prevalence and types of PrEP stigma and injunctive norm beliefs among YMSM and transgender women and associated individual and geospatial factors. A newly created measure of PrEP Stigma and Positive Attitudes was administered to 620 participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Results indicated lower stigma among White, compared to Black and Latino participants, and among participants not identifying as male. Prior knowledge about PrEP was associated with lower stigma and higher positive attitudes. PrEP stigma had significant geospatial clustering and hotspots were identified in neighborhoods with high HIV incidence and concentration of racial minorities, whereas coldspots were identified in areas with high HIV incidence and low LGBT stigma. These results provide important information about PrEP attitudes and how PrEP stigma differs between individuals and across communities.

  4. Knowledge of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Denver, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Thrun, Mark W.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Walls, N. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Denver, Colorado, we assessed knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); willingness to use PrEP; and potential changes in risk behaviors among HIV-negative participants reporting sexual activity with a male partner in the preceding 12 months. We examined knowledge of PrEP before (2008) and after (2011) results of the iPrEx trial were available. Of the 425 participants in the 2008 sample, 91 (21 %) were aware of PrEP compared to 131 (28 %) of the 461 participants in the 2011 sample (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.43, 95 % confidence interval: 1.18, 1.72). Despite the increase in 2011, few MSM in Denver were aware of PrEP. Educating high-risk MSM about the potential utility of PrEP as an adjunct to other effective prevention methods is needed when considering the addition of PrEP to the HIV prevention arsenal. PMID:23824227

  5. Awareness and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; De Boni, Raquel B; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Madruga, José Valdez; Kallas, Esper G; Goulart, Silvia Pereira; Cerqueira, Natalia; Torres, Thiago S; Luz, Paula M; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Liu, Albert Y; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G

    2017-05-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended to prevent HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) though not available in Brazil where the HIV epidemic persists unabated in this group. This cross-sectional study describes PrEP awareness and willingness and associated factors among MSM and transvestite/transgender women (trans women) pre-screened for the PrEP Brasil study. Awareness was reported by 61.3 % of the participants and was associated with age, education, site, study period and prior HIV testing. Most participants (82.1 %) were willing to use PrEP, which was associated with site, study period, number of male condomless anal sexual partners and anal sex with HIV positive/unknown partners. PrEP information is need among young and less educated individuals. Willingness to use PrEP was high and future studies should be conducted to confirm PrEP acceptability and the characteristics of the population who chose to adopt this intervention.

  6. Sex, PrEP, and Stigma: Experiences with HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among New York City MSM Participating in the HPTN 067/ADAPT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Julie; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Loquere, Avelino S; Amico, K Rivet; Grant, Robert M; Dye, Bonnie J; Rivera, Yan; Gamboa, Robert; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2018-04-01

    The HPTN 067/Alternative Dosing to Augment Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Pill Taking (ADAPT) study evaluated daily and non-daily dosing schedules for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV. A qualitative sub-study including focus groups and in-depth interviews was conducted among men who have sex with men participating in New York City to understand their experience with PrEP and study dosing schedules. The 37 sub-study participants were 68% black, 11% white, and 8% Asian; 27% were of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Mean age was 34 years. Themes resulting from qualitative analysis include: PrEP is a significant advance for HIV prevention; non-daily dosing of PrEP is congruent with HIV risk; and pervasive stigma connected to HIV and risk behavior is a barrier to PrEP adherence, especially for non-daily dosing schedules. The findings underscore how PrEP intersects with other HIV prevention practices and highlight the need to understand and address multidimensional stigma related to PrEP use.

  7. Durable Suit Bladder with Improved Water Permeability for Pressure and Environment Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Kuznetz, Larry; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry; Aitchison, Lindsay; Ross, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Water vapor permeability is shown to be useful in rejecting heat and managing moisture accumulation in launch-and-entry pressure suits. Currently this is accomplished through a porous Gortex layer in the Advanced Crew and Escape Suit (ACES) and in the baseline design of the Constellation Suit System Element (CSSE) Suit 1. Non-porous dense monolithic membranes (DMM) that are available offer potential improvements for water vapor permeability with reduced gas leak. Accordingly, three different pressure bladder materials were investigated for water vapor permeability and oxygen leak: ElasthaneTM 80A (thermoplastic polyether urethane) provided from stock polymer material and two custom thermoplastic polyether urethanes. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and oxygen permeability of the DMM's was measured in a 0.13 mm thick stand-alone layer, a 0.08 mm and 0.05 mm thick layer each bonded to two different nylon and polyester woven reinforcing materials. Additional water vapor permeability and mechanical compression measurements were made with the reinforced 0.05 mm thick layers, further bonded with a polyester wicking and overlaid with moistened polyester fleece thermal underwear .This simulated the pressure from a supine crew person. The 0.05 mm thick nylon reinforced sample with polyester wicking layer was further mechanically tested for wear and abrasion. Concepts for incorporating these materials in launch/entry and Extravehicular Activity pressure suits are presented.

  8. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  9. The Effect of PrEP on HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Context of Condom Use, Treatment as Prevention, and Seroadaptive Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, Michael T; Goldstein, Neal D; Tabb, Loni P; Olivieri-Mui, Brianne L; Welles, Seth L

    2018-01-01

    HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool in preventing HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). It is unknown how effective PrEP is in the context of other implemented HIV prevention strategies, including condom use, seroadaption, and treatment as prevention (TasP). We evaluate the impact of increasing uptake of PrEP in conjunction with established prevention strategies on HIV incidence in a high-risk population of MSM through simulation. Agent-based simulation models representing the sexual behavior of high-risk, urban MSM in the United States over the period of 1 year were used to evaluate the effect of PrEP on HIV infection rates. Simulations included data for 10,000 MSM and compared increasing rates of PrEP uptake under 8 prevention paradigms: no additional strategies, TasP, condom use, seroadaptive behavior, and combinations thereof. We observed a mean of 103.2 infections per 10,000 MSM in the absence of any prevention method. PrEP uptake at 25% without any additional prevention strategies prevented 30.7% of infections. In the absence of PrEP, TasP, condom use, and seroadaptive behavior independently prevented 27.1%, 48.8%, and 37.7% of infections, respectively, and together prevented 72.2%. The addition of PrEP to the 3 aforementioned prevention methods, at 25% uptake, prevented an additional 5.0% of infections. To achieve a 25% reduction in HIV infections by 2020, HIV prevention efforts should focus on significantly scaling up access to PrEP in addition to HIV testing, access to antiretroviral therapy, and promoting condom use.

  10. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lazarus, Lisa; Doshi, Monika; Hafeez Ur Rahman, Syed; Ramaiah, Manjula; Maiya, Raviprakash; Ms, Venugopal; Venukumar, K T; Sundararaman, Sundar; Becker, Marissa; Moses, Stephen; Lorway, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka. From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data. Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95%) expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%), those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%), who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%), who drink alcohol regularly (49%), and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%). This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means of

  11. Preferences for Injectable PrEP Among Young U.S. Cisgender Men and Transgender Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Hosek, Sybil; Drucker, Morgan T; Belzer, Marvin; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Marrow, Elliot; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Brothers, Jennifer; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-19

    Young men who have sex with men account for approximately 20% of incident HIV infections in the U.S. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) administered as a daily pill has been shown to decrease HIV acquisition in at-risk individuals. New modalities for PrEP are being developed and tested, including injectable PrEP; however, acceptability of these emerging modalities has not yet been examined in youth. We conducted six focus groups with 36 young men and transgender men and women who have sex with men in Boston, Chicago, and Los Angeles in 2016 to assess interest in and preference for different PrEP modalities. Youth were purposively recruited based on diversity of age, race/ethnicity, and prior PrEP experience. Data were coded using content coding based on key domains of the interview guide, in particular around the central themes of interest in and barriers and facilitators to injectable PrEP use. Participants were knowledgeable about oral PrEP but suggested barriers to broader uptake, including stigma, marginalization, and access to information. While participants were split on preference for injectable versus oral PrEP, they agreed quarterly injections may be more manageable and better for those who have adherence difficulties and for those who engage in sex more frequently. Concerns specific to injectable PrEP included: severity/duration of side effects, pain, level of protection prior to next injection, distrust of medical system and injections, and cost. Understanding barriers to and preferences for diverse prevention modalities will allow for more HIV prevention options, improved products, and better interventions, thus allowing individuals to make informed HIV prevention choices.

  12. "I Did Not Want to Give Birth to a Child Who has HIV": Experiences Using PrEP During Pregnancy Among HIV-Uninfected Kenyan Women in HIV-Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Kimemia, Grace; Ngure, Kenneth; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Heffron, Renee A; Baeten, Jared M; Odoyo, Josephine; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kelley, Maureen C; John-Stewart, Grace C

    2017-11-01

    The perceptions, motivations, and beliefs of HIV-uninfected women about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy can influence its uptake and adherence. This study elicited the views of HIV-uninfected women with personal experience taking PrEP during pregnancy. Qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-uninfected women who had personal experience taking PrEP while pregnant. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open-label PrEP demonstration project who became pregnant while using PrEP and continued PrEP through their pregnancy. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into English. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed, using a constant comparison approach to identify key themes related to PrEP use in pregnancy. Desire to remain HIV uninfected and have an HIV-free infant were strong motivators influencing continued use of PrEP during pregnancy. Supporting HIV-infected partners and childbearing within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship were also motivators. Women had challenges distinguishing normal pregnancy symptoms from PrEP side effects and were concerned that observed side effects could be signs of danger for the infant related to PrEP exposure. Health care providers were important conduits of knowledge about PrEP, and continuity of PrEP providers throughout pregnancy facilitated adherence. HIV-uninfected women in HIV-serodiscordant couples were motivated to use PrEP during pregnancy to remain HIV uninfected and to have an HIV-free child but had concerns about side effects. Health care providers will be important for PrEP messaging and adherence support in this unique population.

  13. Perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi; Daramilas, C.

    2016-01-01

    open access article Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel bio-medical HIV prevention op- tion for individuals at high risk of HIV exposure. This qualitative interview study ex- plores perceptions and understandings of PrEP among a sample of 20 HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK, where there is a debate about the feasibility of o ering PrEP on the NHS. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and social representations theory from soci...

  14. A Fast Solution to NGS Library Prep with Low Nanogram DNA Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingfang; Lohman, Gregory J.S.; Cantor, Eric; Langhorst, Bradley W.; Yigit, Erbay; Apone, Lynne M.; Munafo, Daniela B.; Stewart, Fiona J.; Evans, Thomas C.; Nichols, Nicole; Dimalanta, Eileen T.; Davis, Theodore B.; Sumner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has significantly impacted human genetics, enabling a comprehensive characterization of the human genome as well as a better understanding of many genomic abnormalities. By delivering massive DNA sequences at unprecedented speed and cost, NGS promises to make personalized medicine a reality in the foreseeable future. To date, library construction with clinical samples has been a challenge, primarily due to the limited quantities of sample DNA available. Our objective here was to overcome this challenge by developing NEBNext® Ultra DNA Library Prep Kit, a fast library preparation method. Specifically, we streamlined the workflow utilizing novel NEBNext reagents and adaptors, including a new DNA polymerase that has been optimized to minimize GC bias. As a result of this work, we have developed a simple method for library construction from an amount of DNA as low as 5 ng, which can be used for both intact and fragmented DNA. Moreover, the workflow is compatible with multiple NGS platforms.

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP against HIV: efficacy, safety and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Moreno Guillen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global stabilization of the number of new HIV infections in recent years, there has been an increase in new infections among men who have sex with men. This fact indicates the lack of effectiveness of the measures and prevention campaigns established so far for this group. It is therefore necessary to implement alternative preventive measures for them. Pre-exposure pharmacological prophylaxis (PrEP is one of the best evaluated options and has had high protection rates in both clinical and real-life trials. The strategy has also shown an adequate profile in terms of safety, tolerance, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness in the studies carried out to assess this important topic.

  16. PREPS2 - a PC-based computer program for performing economic analysis of capital projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, M.W.; Brand, D.O.; Chastain, E.T.; Johnson, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    In these times of increased spending to finance new capacity and to meet clean air act legislation, many electric utilities are giving a high priority to controlling capital expenditures at existing generating facilities. Determining the level of capital expenditures which are economically justified is very difficult; units which have higher capacity factors are worth more to the utility. Therefore, the utility can more readily justify higher capital expenditures to improve or maintain reliability and heat rate than on units with lower capacity factors. This paper describes a PC-based computer program (PREPS2) which performs an economic analysis of individual capital projects. The program incorporates tables which describe the worth to the system of making improvements in each unit. This computer program is currently being used by the six Southern Company operating companies to evaluate all production capital projects over $50,000. Approximately 500 projects representing about $300 million are being analyzed each year

  17. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  18. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  19. MODEL: A software suite for data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendall, D M; Boissat, C; Bozzoli, W; Burkimsher, P; Jones, R; Matheys, J P; Mornacchi, G; Nguyen, T; Vyvre, P vande; Vascotto, A; Weaver, D [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). DD Div.

    1989-12-01

    MODEL is a new suite of modular data-acquisition software. It is aimed at the needs of LEP experiments, and is also general enough to be more widely used. It can accomodate a variety of users styles. It runs on a set of loosely coupled processors, and makes use of the remote procedure call technique. Implemented originally for the VAX family, some of its services have already been extended to other systems, including embedded microprocessors. The software modules available include facilities for data-flow management, a framework for monitoring programs, a window-oriented human interface, an error message utility, a process control utility and a run control scheme. It is already in use in a variety of experiments, and is still under development in the light of user experience. (orig.).

  20. UniPOPS: Unified data reduction suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Salter, Christopher J.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Cram, Thomas R.; Morgan, Lorrie; Vance, Bob; Hudson, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    UniPOPS, a suite of programs and utilities developed at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), reduced data from the observatory's single-dish telescopes: the Tucson 12-m, the Green Bank 140-ft, and archived data from the Green Bank 300-ft. The primary reduction programs, 'line' (for spectral-line reduction) and 'condar' (for continuum reduction), used the People-Oriented Parsing Service (POPS) as the command line interpreter. UniPOPS unified previous analysis packages and provided new capabilities; development of UniPOPS continued within the NRAO until 2004 when the 12-m was turned over to the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The submitted code is version 3.5 from 2004, the last supported by the NRAO.

  1. Vadose zone flow convergence test suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-05

    Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.

  2. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, G.; Pascholati, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  3. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  4. Instrumented Suit Hard Upper Torso (HUT) for Ergonomic Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is well known that the EVA suit (EMU) has the potential to cause crew injury and decreased performance. Engineering data on the suit interaction of the human...

  5. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space missions by...

  6. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  7. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use, Seroadaptation, and Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration approved pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has presented PrEP as a prevention option for groups at high risk such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Intervention data provide some information on how PrEP affects sexual behavior of MSM in trials, open label extensions, or clinics. However, it is unclear whether sexual risk and preventive behavioral patterns are changing in the population as a whole as PrEP becomes more widely available, whether due to PrEP use or other factors. We examined trends in PrEP use, numbers of condomless anal sex partners, consistent condom use, and seroadaptive strategies in San Francisco-a city which has actively promoted PrEP-using data from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS). NHBS recruited 1211, 383, 373, and 268 HIV-negative MSM in 2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014, respectively. PrEP use increased from zero in 2004, 2008, and 2011 to 9.6 % in 2014. The proportion of men with no condomless anal sex partners dropped from 60.6 % in 2004, to 58.2 % in 2008, to 54.2 % in 2011, to 40.2 % in 2014. Consistent condom use decreased from 36.8 % in 2004, and 30.5 % in 2008 and 2011, to 18.3 % in 2014. PrEP's introduction and scale-up enters in a pre-existing trend of decreasing condom use and increasing sexually transmitted infections among MSM which may be accelerating in recent years. While PrEP use should be scaled up as a prevention option among those who would benefit most, we believe that public health officials need to be realistic about the possibility that condom use could very well continue to decline as PrEP use increases, and to an extent that may not be directly or indirectly offset by PrEP.

  8. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  9. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia: findings from a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Bourne; Matteo Cassolato; Clayton Koh Thuan Wei; Bangyuan Wang; Joselyn Pang; Sin How Lim; Iskandar Azwa; Ilias Yee; Gitau Mburu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers t...

  10. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use

  11. [Antigravity suit used for neurosurgical operations in sitting position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpiro-Zurkowska, A; Milczarek, Z; Marchel, A; Jagielski, J

    1996-01-01

    The aviator's antigravity suit (G-suit) was used for 40 operations on neurosurgical patients operated on in sitting position. The G-suit was filled with air to 0.2 atmosphere (20 kPa) pressure in 26 cases, and 0.3 atm. (30 kPa) in 14 cases. In all cases G-suit filling was followed by central venous pressure rise and mean arterial pressure rise. Venous air embolism was found in 5 (12.5%) patients. No other complications connected with the use of G-suit were observed.

  12. The Inelastic Instrument suite at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Garrett E; Abernathy, Douglas L; Ehlers, Georg; Hagen, Mark E; Herwig, Kenneth W; Mamontov, Eugene; Ohl, Michael E; Wildgruber, Christoph U

    2008-01-01

    The instruments in the extensive suite of spectrometers at the SNS are in various stages of installation and commissioning. The Back Scattering Spectrometer (BASIS) is installed and is in commissioning. It's near backscattering analyzer crystals provide the 3 eV resolution as expected. BASIS will enter the user program in the fall of 2007. The ARCS wide angular-range thermal to epithermal neutron spectrometer will come on line in the fall of 2007 followed shortly by the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer. These two direct geometry instruments provide moderate resolution and the ability to trade resolution for flux. In addition both instruments have detector coverage out to 140o to provide a large Q range. The SEQUOIA spectrometer, complete in 2008, is the direct geometry instrument that will provide fine resolution in the thermal to epithermal range. The Spin-Echo spectrometer, to be completed on a similar time scale, will provide the finest energy resolution worldwide. The HYSPEC spectrometer, available no later than 2011, will provide polarized capabilities and optimized flux in the thermal energy range. Finally, the Vision chemical spectrometer will use crystal analyzers to study energy transfers into the epithermal range

  13. Automated Structure Solution with the PHENIX Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, Peter H.; Zwart, Peter H.; Afonine, Pavel; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Hung, Li-Wei; Ioerger, Tom R.; McCoy, A.J.; McKee, Eric; Moriarty, Nigel; Read, Randy J.; Sacchettini, James C.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Storoni, L.C.; Terwilliger, Tomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-06-09

    Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix.refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

  14. Automated structure solution with the PHENIX suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zwart, Peter H [LBNL; Afonine, Pavel V [LBNL; Grosse - Kunstleve, Ralf W [LBNL

    2008-01-01

    Significant time and effort are often required to solve and complete a macromolecular crystal structure. The development of automated computational methods for the analysis, solution, and completion of crystallographic structures has the potential to produce minimally biased models in a short time without the need for manual intervention. The PHENIX software suite is a highly automated system for macromolecular structure determination that can rapidly arrive at an initial partial model of a structure without significant human intervention, given moderate resolution, and good quality data. This achievement has been made possible by the development of new algorithms for structure determination, maximum-likelihood molecular replacement (PHASER), heavy-atom search (HySS), template- and pattern-based automated model-building (RESOLVE, TEXTAL), automated macromolecular refinement (phenix. refine), and iterative model-building, density modification and refinement that can operate at moderate resolution (RESOLVE, AutoBuild). These algorithms are based on a highly integrated and comprehensive set of crystallographic libraries that have been built and made available to the community. The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI.

  15. A comparison of temporal Facebook networks of young men who have sex with men (MSM), differentiated by awareness and use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditya S.; Schumm, Phil; Schneider, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the U.S. who have experienced rising HIV incidence over the past decade. Consistent preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from the “uConnect” study – a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n=266). While PrEP awareness increased from 45% at baseline to 75% at follow-up, its use remained low (4% and 6%). There were 88 PrEP-unaware individuals at baseline who became aware (BA) by follow-up, and 56 who remained persistently unaware (PU). While the PUs had a higher median number of total Facebook friends, the BAs had a higher median numbers of friends who participated in uConnect, who were PrEP-aware, and who practiced behaviors previously found to be associated with individual-level awareness of PrEP at baseline. The BAs also had substantially more “influential” friends. These findings demonstrate the potential of social networks in raising PrEP awareness and use among YBMSM. PMID:28003117

  16. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention.

  17. Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men is Associated with Race, Sexual Risk Behavior and Peer Network Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna L; Schneider, John; Garofalo, Robert; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2017-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious to prevent HIV infection, however, uptake among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is relatively low. The purpose of this study was to describe PrEP use and related factors in a representative sample of YMSM in two cities, Chicago and Houston. YMSM, ages 16-29, were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2014 to 2016. Correlates of PrEP uptake were assessed in weighted multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 12.2% of participants (of 394) reported ever taking PrEP; Black YMSM had the lowest rates of uptake (4.7%) and Whites the highest (29.5%). In a multivariable regression model, having an HIV positive sex partner, reporting recent group sex, peer network size, and city (Chicago) were significantly and positively associated with use of PrEP, while Black race was negatively associated with it. Given evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP uptake in this study, further research is needed to identify potential mechanisms of action and points of intervention.

  18. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  19. Appraisal of the PREP, KITT, and SAMPLE computer codes for the evaluation of the reliability characteristics of engineered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P; White, R F

    1976-01-01

    For the probabilistic approach to reactor safety assessment by the use of event tree and fault tree techniques it is essential to be able to estimate the probabilities of failure of the various engineered safety features provided to mitigate the effects of postulated accident sequences. The PREP, KITT and SAMPLE computer codes, which incorporate Kinetic Tree Theory, perform these calculations and have been used extensively to evaluate the reliability characteristics of engineered safety features of American nuclear reactors. Working versions of these computer codes are now available in SRD, and this report explains the merits, capabilities and ease of application of the PREP, KITT, and SAMPLE programs for the solution of system reliability problems.

  20. Distinguishing hypothetical willingness from behavioral intentions to initiate HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): Findings from a large cohort of gay and bisexual men in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Grov, Christian; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Much of the data on the acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is based on willingness to take PrEP (i.e., hypothetical receptivity) rather than actual intentions (i.e., planned behavioral action) to do so. We sought to examine differences between hypothetical willingness and behavioral intentions to begin PrEP in a national sample of gay and bisexual men (GBM) across the U.S. We utilized data collected in 2015 to examine differences between those Unwilling (42.6% n = 375), Willing but not intending (41.4%, n = 365), and willing and Intending to take PrEP (15.9%, n = 140) in a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression. Men with less education had higher odds of Intending to take PrEP. Compared to men unsure about PrEP's efficacy, those who believed PrEP was at least 90% efficacious had higher odds of Intending to take PrEP. Those who saw themselves as appropriate candidates for PrEP had higher odds of Intending to take PrEP while those who saw themselves as inappropriate candidates for PrEP had lower odds of Intending to take PrEP in comparison to men unsure if they were appropriate candidates. Increased motivation for condom non-use because of perceived sexual pressure by partners was associated with higher odds of Intending to take PrEP. The groups did not differ by risk behavior nor recent STI diagnosis. Overall, the distinction between willingness and intentions to take PrEP was meaningful and may help explain disparities between PrEP acceptability and uptake. While much of the literature has focused on hypothetical willingness to take PrEP, these results highlight the importance of simultaneously assessing willingness and intentions when examining correspondence with uptake and developing interventions to increase PrEP uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated integration of lidar into the LANDFIRE product suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Birgit; Nelson, Kurtis; Seielstad, Carl; Stoker, Jason M.; Jolly, W. Matt; Parsons, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Accurate information about three-dimensional canopy structure and wildland fuel across the landscape is necessary for fire behaviour modelling system predictions. Remotely sensed data are invaluable for assessing these canopy characteristics over large areas; lidar data, in particular, are uniquely suited for quantifying three-dimensional canopy structure. Although lidar data are increasingly available, they have rarely been applied to wildland fuels mapping efforts, mostly due to two issues. First, the Landscape Fire and Resource Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) program, which has become the default source of large-scale fire behaviour modelling inputs for the US, does not currently incorporate lidar data into the vegetation and fuel mapping process because spatially continuous lidar data are not available at the national scale. Second, while lidar data are available for many land management units across the US, these data are underutilized for fire behaviour applications. This is partly due to a lack of local personnel trained to process and analyse lidar data. This investigation addresses these issues by developing the Creating Hybrid Structure from LANDFIRE/lidar Combinations (CHISLIC) tool. CHISLIC allows individuals to automatically generate a suite of vegetation structure and wildland fuel parameters from lidar data and infuse them into existing LANDFIRE data sets. CHISLIC will become available for wider distribution to the public through a partnership with the U.S. Forest Service’s Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS) and may be incorporated into the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) with additional design and testing. WFAS and WFDSS are the primary systems used to support tactical and strategic wildland fire management decisions.

  2. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  3. Brief Report: Medication Sharing Is Rare Among African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples Enrolled in an Efficacy Trial of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kerry A; Haberer, Jessica E; Marzinke, Mark A; Mujugira, Andrew; Hendrix, Craig W; Celum, Connie; Ndase, Patrick; Ronald, Allan; Bangsberg, David R; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-06-01

    Sharing of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medications is a concern for PrEP implementation. For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, sharing may undermine the HIV-1 prevention benefit and also cause antiretroviral resistance if taken by HIV-1 infected partners. Within a PrEP efficacy trial among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed the occurrence of PrEP sharing by self-report and plasma tenofovir concentrations in HIV-1 infected partners. PrEP sharing was self-reported at <0.01% of visits, and 0%-1.6% of randomly selected and 0% of purposively selected specimens from HIV-1 infected participants had detectable tenofovir concentrations (median: 66.5 ng/mL, range: 1.3-292 ng/mL). PrEP sharing within HIV-1 serodiscordant couples was extremely rare.

  4. OCAMS: The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, B.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; Golish, D.; Fellows, C.; Merrill, C.; Smith, P.; Walker, M. S.; Hendershot, J. E.; Hancock, J.; Bailey, S. H.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Lauretta, D. S.; Tanner, R.; Williams, M.; Harshman, K.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Verts, W.; Chen, J.; Connors, T.; Hamara, D.; Dowd, A.; Lowman, A.; Dubin, M.; Burt, R.; Whiteley, M.; Watson, M.; McMahon, T.; Ward, M.; Booher, D.; Read, M.; Williams, B.; Hunten, M.; Little, E.; Saltzman, T.; Alfred, D.; O'Dougherty, S.; Walthall, M.; Kenagy, K.; Peterson, S.; Crowther, B.; Perry, M. L.; See, C.; Selznick, S.; Sauve, C.; Beiser, M.; Black, W.; Pfisterer, R. N.; Lancaster, A.; Oliver, S.; Oquest, C.; Crowley, D.; Morgan, C.; Castle, C.; Dominguez, R.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-02-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) will acquire images essential to collecting a sample from the surface of Bennu. During proximity operations, these images will document the presence of satellites and plumes, record spin state, enable an accurate model of the asteroid's shape, and identify any surface hazards. They will confirm the presence of sampleable regolith on the surface, observe the sampling event itself, and image the sample head in order to verify its readiness to be stowed. They will document Bennu's history as an example of early solar system material, as a microgravity body with a planetesimal size-scale, and as a carbonaceous object. OCAMS is fitted with three cameras. The MapCam will record color images of Bennu as a point source on approach to the asteroid in order to connect Bennu's ground-based point-source observational record to later higher-resolution surface spectral imaging. The SamCam will document the sample site before, during, and after it is disturbed by the sample mechanism. The PolyCam, using its focus mechanism, will observe the sample site at sub-centimeter resolutions, revealing surface texture and morphology. While their imaging requirements divide naturally between the three cameras, they preserve a strong degree of functional overlap. OCAMS and the other spacecraft instruments will allow the OSIRIS-REx mission to collect a sample from a microgravity body on the same visit during which it was first optically acquired from long range, a useful capability as humanity reaches out to explore near-Earth, Main-Belt and Jupiter Trojan asteroids.

  5. Vehicle-network defensive aids suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John

    2005-05-01

    Defensive Aids Suites (DAS) developed for vehicles can be extended to the vehicle network level. The vehicle network, typically comprising four platoon vehicles, will benefit from improved communications and automation based on low latency response to threats from a flexible, dynamic, self-healing network environment. Improved DAS performance and reliability relies on four complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics, laser detection and radar. Long-range passive threat detection and avoidance is based on dual-purpose optics, primarily designed for manoeuvring, targeting and surveillance, combined with dazzling, obscuration and countermanoeuvres. Short-range active armour is based on search and track radar and intercepting grenades to defeat the threat. Acoustic threat detection increases the overall robustness of the DAS and extends the detection range to include small calibers. Finally, detection of active targeting systems is carried out with laser and radar warning receivers. Synthetic scene generation will provide the integrated environment needed to investigate, develop and validate these new capabilities. Computer generated imagery, based on validated models and an acceptable set of benchmark vignettes, can be used to investigate and develop fieldable sensors driven by real-time algorithms and countermeasure strategies. The synthetic scene environment will be suitable for sensor and countermeasure development in hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The research effort focuses on two key technical areas: a) computing aspects of the synthetic scene generation and b) and development of adapted models and databases. OneSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure

  6. Advanced Sensor Platform to Evaluate Manloads For Exploration Suit Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Space suit manloads are defined as the outer bounds of force that the human occupant of a suit is able to exert onto the suit during motion. They are defined on a suit-component basis as a unit of maximum force that the suit component in question must withstand without failure. Existing legacy manloads requirements are specific to the suit architecture of the EMU and were developed in an iterative fashion; however, future exploration needs dictate a new suit architecture with bearings, load paths, and entry capability not previously used in any flight suit. No capability currently exists to easily evaluate manloads imparted by a suited occupant, which would be required to develop requirements for a flight-rated design. However, sensor technology has now progressed to the point where an easily-deployable, repeatable and flexible manloads measuring technique could be developed leveraging recent advances in sensor technology. INNOVATION: This development positively impacts schedule, cost and safety risk associated with new suit exploration architectures. For a final flight design, a comprehensive and accurate man loads requirements set must be communicated to the contractor; failing that, a suit design which does not meet necessary manloads limits is prone to failure during testing or worse, during an EVA, which could cause catastrophic failure of the pressure garment posing risk to the crew. This work facilitates a viable means of developing manloads requirements using a range of human sizes & strengths. OUTCOME / RESULTS: Performed sensor market research. Highlighted three viable options (primary, secondary, and flexible packaging option). Designed/fabricated custom bracket to evaluate primary option on a single suit axial. Manned suited manload testing completed and general approach verified.

  7. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Adam; Cassolato, Matteo; Thuan Wei, Clayton Koh; Wang, Bangyuan; Pang, Joselyn; Lim, Sin How; Azwa, Iskandar; Yee, Ilias; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-08-02

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers to access or uptake. As part of a larger mixed-methods study exploring acceptability and willingness to use PrEP among MSM in Malaysia, 19 men took part in audio-recorded focus group discussions hosted by a community-based HIV organization and facilitated by a trained researcher. Discussions focussed on awareness and potential information management, general perceptions of PrEP and potential motivations or barriers to the use of PrEP, including those at the personal, social, health system or structural level. Data were transcribed verbatim and underwent a detailed thematic analysis. Rather than perceiving PrEP as a replacement for condoms in terms of having safer sex, many participants viewed it as an additional layer protection, serving as a crucial barrier to infection on occasions where condom use was intended, but did not occur. It was also perceived as more valuable to "at-risk" men, such as those in HIV sero-discordant relationships or those with a higher number of sexual partners. Elements of discussion tended to suggest that some men taking PrEP may be subject to stigma from others, on the assumption they may be promiscuous or engage in high-risk sexual behaviours. This qualitative study indicates that, broadly speaking, PrEP may be acceptable to MSM in Malaysia. However, in order for its potential to be realized, and uptake achieved, educative interventions are required to inform the target population as to the efficacy and potential, positive impact of PrEP. Given concerns for how those

  8. Transitioning to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) from Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (nPEP) in a Comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Murphy, Pauline; Sharp, Andrea; Walach, Christine; Placido, Tania; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-08-01

    The uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention remains low. We hypothesized that a high proportion of patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) would be candidates for PrEP based on current CDC guidelines. Outcomes from a comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic are described. We evaluated all patients who attended the HIV Prevention Clinic for nPEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Each patient was evaluated for PrEP candidacy based on current CDC-guidelines and subjectively based on physician opinion. Patients were then evaluated for initiation of PrEP if they met guideline suggestions. Demographic, social, and behavioral factors were then analyzed with logistic regression for associations with PrEP candidacy and initiation. 99 individuals who attended the nPEP clinic were evaluated for PrEP. The average age was 32 years (range, 18-62), 83 (84%) were male, of whom 46 (55%) men who had have sex with men (MSM). 31 (31%) met CDC guidelines for PrEP initiation, which had very good agreement with physician recommendation (kappa=0.88, 0.78-0.98). Factors associated with PrEP candidacy included sexual exposure to HIV, prior nPEP use, and lack of drug insurance (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Combining nPEP and PrEP services in a dedicated clinic can lead to identification of PrEP candidates and may facilitate PrEP uptake. Strategies to ensure equitable access of PrEP should be explored such that those without drug coverage may also benefit from this effective HIV prevention modality.

  9. An overview of recent projects to study thermal protection in life rafts, lifeboats and immersion suits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, L.; DuCharme, M. B.; Farnworth, B.; Wissler, E. H.; Brown, R.; Kuczora, A. [Maritime and Arctic Survival Scientific and Engineering Ressearch Team (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Survival during a marine evacuation in cold regions is very challenging. However international regulations do not require specific thermal protection or ventilation performance criteria for lifeboats. In the same way, the testing methods for approval testing of immersion suits are not standardised. This paper investigated recent projects completed or on-going to study thermal protection in life rafts, lifeboats and immersion suits. An overview of several projects from the Maritime and Arctic Survival Scientific and Engineering Research Team (MASSERT) was conducted. This review provided the necessary knowledge to advance international standards and develop the thermal protection requirements for survival in the Arctic. The results showed the MASSERT correlated thermal insulation values between human subjects and thermal manikins in life rafts and in immersion suits. It was found that the manikins are a valuable evaluation tool, as well as the computerised models used as prediction tools.

  10. Innovative technology summary report: Sealed-seam sack suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Sealed-seam sack suits are an improved/innovative safety and industrial hygiene technology designed to protect workers from dermal exposure to contamination. Most of these disposable, synthetic-fabric suits are more protective than cotton suits, and are also water-resistant and gas permeable. Some fabrics provide a filter to aerosols, which is important to protection against contamination, while allowing air to pass, increasing comfort level of workers. It is easier to detect body-moisture breakthrough with the disposable suits than with cotton, which is also important to protecting workers from contamination. These suits present a safe and cost-effective (6% to 17% less expensive than the baseline) alternative to traditional protective clothing. This report covers the period from October 1996 to August 1997. During that time, sealed-seam sack suits were demonstrated during daily activities under normal working conditions at the C Reactor and under environmentally controlled conditions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  11. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes.

  12. Problem of Office Suite Training at the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Nastashchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Te paper considers the problem of office suite applications training, caused by a rapid change of their versions, variety of software developers and a rapid development of software and hardware platforms. The content of office suite applications training, based on the system of office suite notions, its basic functional and standards of information technologies development (OpenDocument Format Standard, ISO 26300-200Х is presented.

  13. Study guide for 1Z0-071 Oracle Database 12c SQL : Oracle Certification Prep

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This Study Guide is targeted at IT professionals who are working towards becoming an Oracle Database 12c SQL Certified Associate. The book provides information covering all of the exam topics for the Oracle certification exam: "1Z0-071: Oracle Database 12c SQL". The books in the Oracle Certification Prep series are built in lockstep with the test topics provided by Oracle Education's certification program. Each book is intended to provide the information that will be tested in a clean and concise format. The guides introduce the subject you'll be tested on, follow that with the information you'll need to know for it, and then move on to the next topic. They contain no drills or unrealistic self-tests to bump the page count without adding value. The series is intended to provide a concentrated source of exam information that is compact enough to be read through multiple times. This series is ideal for experienced Oracle professionals that are familiar with the topic being tested, but want a means to rapidly re...

  14. Examination of hepatic contrast-enhanced CT monitored by Smart Prep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakizaki, Dai; Saito, Kazuhiro; Sakurada, Toru; Abe, Kimihiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to obtain the time density curves of the contrast-enhanced CT of hepatic portal vein, hepatic and splenic parenchyma, and to examine the relation with age, body weight, type of liver dysfunction. Subjects were 32 patients with liver tumors or liver diseases. For this purpose, the procedure of hepatic CT was monitored by Smart Prep and the images of whole liver was taken when the level of the contrast at the hepatic portal vein reached to the enhancement threshold. The contrast medium used was Iomeprol 300. The adverse reactions by Iomeprol 300 were mild and any treatment did not need. There was no correlation age and weight with enhancement threshold at the hepatic portal vein and peak time at the splenic parenchyma. The enhancement threshold at the hepatic portal vein was various in patients with chrrhosis and chronic hepatitis, and tended to be delayed in patients with chrrhosis. The peak time of the splenic parenchyma was up to 52 seconds in all patients with chronic hepatitis. The shortage of the enhancement threshold and the increase in blood flow at arterial early phase were observed in the patients with advanced acute hepatitis. This method should be examined more cases with various hepatic diseases. (K.H.)

  15. Miniature Flexible Humidity Sensitive Patches for Space Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suit technologies demand improved, simplified, long-life regenerative sensing technologies, including humidity sensors, that exceed the performance of...

  16. Leveraging Active Knit Technologies for Aerospace Pressure Suit Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anti-Gravity Suits (AGS) are garments used in astronautics to prevent crew from experiencing orthostatic intolerance (OI) and consequential blackouts while...

  17. Risk Perception, Sexual Behaviors, and PrEP Adherence Among Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik D; Volk, Jonathan E; Marcus, Julia L; Silverberg, Michael J; Satre, Derek D

    2017-08-01

    The antiretroviral drug combination emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF/FTC) taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV infection, yet it also requires adherence and potentially decreases condom use. This study sought to examine these issues among a key population at risk of HIV infection, substance-using men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of 30 young (aged 20-35) MSM prescribed PrEP within a large integrated healthcare system in San Francisco, who had reported recent drug use or hazardous drinking and one or more missed doses of PrEP. We explored participants' risk perception and sexual risk behavior, drug and alcohol use, and PrEP adherence in the context of substance use. Interviews were transcribed and coded using a directed content analysis approach to identify key categories and commonalities, and differences across participants. Salient subcategories included positive psychological effects of being on PrEP (e.g., decreased anxiety, feelings of empowerment), social effects (e.g., reduced HIV stigma), and reduction in overall perceptions of HIV risk. While overall reported use of condoms went down and many reported a brief period of increased condomless sex following PrEP initiation, others continued condom use with most of their sexual partners. Contextual factors influencing their decision to engage in condomless sex included how well they knew the partner and whether the partner was on PrEP or HIV antiretroviral treatment. Factors associated with poor adherence included disruptions in daily routine and use of alcohol and methamphetamine. PrEP-prescribing clinicians should support their patients in making informed decisions about condom use and identifying strategies to maximize adherence in the context of substance use.

  18. Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

  19. Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2006-01-01

    The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

  20. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushena Reza-Paul

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka.From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data.Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95% expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%, those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%, who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%, who drink alcohol regularly (49%, and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%.This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means

  1. STELLTRANS: A Transport Analysis Suite for Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstaedt, Joseph; Lazerson, Samuel; Pablant, Novimir; Weir, Gavin; W7-X Team

    2016-10-01

    The stellarator transport code STELLTRANS allows us to better analyze the power balance in W7-X. Although profiles of temperature and density are measured experimentally, geometrical factors are needed in conjunction with these measurements to properly analyze heat flux densities in stellarators. The STELLTRANS code interfaces with VMEC to find an equilibrium flux surface configuration and with TRAVIS to determine the RF heating and current drive in the plasma. Stationary transport equations are then considered which are solved using a boundary value differential equation solver. The equations and quantities considered are averaged over flux surfaces to reduce the system to an essentially one dimensional problem. We have applied this code to data from W-7X and were able to calculate the heat flux coefficients. We will also present extensions of the code to a predictive capacity which would utilize DKES to find neoclassical transport coefficients to update the temperature and density profiles.

  2. The BRITNeY Suite: A Platfor for Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a platform, the BRITNeY Suite, for experimenting with Coloured Petri nets. The BRITNeY Suite provides access to data-structures and a simulator for Coloured Petri nets via a powerful scripting language and plug-in-mechanism, thereby making it easy to perform customized...

  3. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for men who have sex with men in Europe: review of evidence for a much needed prevention tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyniers, Thijs; Hoornenborg, Elske; Vuylsteke, Bea; Wouters, Kristien; Laga, Marie

    2017-08-01

    In many Western countries with good coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes the annual number of HIV infections is still high and not (yet) declining among men who have sex with men (MSM). This might indicate that antiretroviral treatment roll-out alone will not turn around the course of the epidemic and that new, additional tools are needed. Antiretrovirals used as prevention tools for people not yet infected with HIV, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be such important additional tools. PrEP is a new type of biomedical prevention, which involves the use of antiretrovirals before, during and after (periods of) sexual exposure to HIV. In this review, we will focus on PrEP as a new prevention tool for MSM at high risk in Europe, including its evidence for effectiveness, challenges for implementation, ongoing European demonstration studies; as well as how PrEP relates to other existing prevention tools. In light of European Medicines Agency's recent recommendation for approval of PrEP we briefly review the potential implications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, K R; Knoepfler, P; McGrath, S; Kamps, M P

    1999-12-23

    The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.

  6. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  7. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Sexually Active Black Women: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Keosha T; Gunn, Alana J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continues to remain scarce among Black women who are disproportionally affected by HIV in the United States. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions from a sample of Black women (n=119) who completed a mix-methods, online, e-health study was conducted to examine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using PrEP. Being a female controlled method, empowerment, option for women with risky sex partners, and serodiscordant couples were advantages described. Disadvantages of PrEP were identified as the complexity of the choice, encouragement of sex with risky partners, increased burden, promotion of unprotected sex, and newness of the drug.

  8. Evaluation of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography using the timing monitoring function of contrast material (Smart Prep technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    The Smart Prep technique for gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (3D-MRA) was evaluated in clinical practice. By monitoring signal intensity in the region of interest (tracking volume) in the target vessel, start timing after contrast injection can be optimized using the Smart Prep technique. Successful triggering was obtained in the chest, abdomen, and pelvic areas in about 80% of the cases in this study. Failures with this technique were mainly due to changes in tracking volume caused by patient motion and respiration. We noted that the scan started earlier than expected in the thoracic aorta when part of the heart or pulmonary artery was included in the tracking volume. Thus, care must be taken in defining the size and location of the tracking volume in gadolinium-enhanced 3D-MRA using the Smart Prep technique. (author)

  9. PREP-PWR-1.0: a WIMS-D/4 pre-processor code for the generation of data for PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.

    1991-06-01

    The PREP-PWR-1.0 computer code is a substantially modified version of the PREWIM code which formed part of the original MARIA System (Report J.E.N. 543). PREP-PWR-1.0 is a comprehensive pre-processor code which generates input data for the WIMS-D/4.1 code (Report PEL 294) for PWR fuel assemblies, with or without control and burnable poison rods. This data is generated at various base and off-base conditions. The overall cross section generation methodology is described, followed by a brief overview of the model. Aspects of the base/off-base calculational scheme are outlined. Additional features of the code are described while the input data format of PREP-PWR-1.0 is listed. The sample problems and suggestions for further improvements to the code are also described. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  10. Acceptability of Condoms, Circumcision and PrEP among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Descriptive Study Based on Effectiveness and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crosby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined and compared the willingness of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM to accept pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, adult male circumcision, and condoms for reducing their risk of HIV acquisition. The majority (67% reported unprotected receptive anal sex in the last six months. About three-quarters (71% would accept using PrEP if it was 100% effective. Cost influenced PrEP acceptance with 19% indicating acceptance at $100 per month co-pay. Of those not circumcised, 50% indicated willingness if circumcision was 100% effective. Acceptance of circumcision decreased markedly to 17% with co-pays of $100. About 73% of men were willing to use condoms if they were 100% effective and 50% indicated a willingness at the cost of $10 per month. The findings suggest that condom use promotion strategies should remain at the forefront of public health efforts to control HIV incidence among YBMSM.

  11. Performance evaluation of the new Roche cobas AmpliPrep/cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, for detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D. Pas (Suzan); R. Molenkamp (Richard); J. Schinkel (Janke); S. Rebers; C. Copra (Cederick); S. Seven-Deniz; D. Thamke (Diana); R.J. de Knegt (Robert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M. Schutten (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTo evaluate the analytical performance and explore the clinical applicability of the new Roche cobas AmpliPrep/cobas TaqMan HCV test, v2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0), a platform comparison was performed on panels and diagnostic samples with the Roche cobas AmpliPrep/cobas TaqMan HCV test (CAP/CTM

  12. Enabling interoperability in Geoscience with GI-suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Santoro, Mattia; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    GI-suite is a brokering framework targeting interoperability of heterogeneous systems in the Geoscience domain. The framework is composed by different brokers each one focusing on a specific functionality: discovery, access and semantics (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem). The brokering takes place between a set of heterogeneous publishing services and a set of heterogeneous consumer applications: the brokering target is represented by resources (e.g. coverages, features, or metadata information) required to seamlessly flow from the providers to the consumers. Different international and community standards are now supported by GI-suite, making possible the successful deployment of GI-suite in many international projects and initiatives (such as GEOSS, NSF BCube and several EU funded projects). As for the publisher side more than 40 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. Dublin Core, OAI-PMH, OGC W*S, Geonetwork, THREDDS Data Server, Hyrax Server, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific GI-suite components, called accessors. As for the consumer applications side more than 15 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. ESRI ArcGIS, Openlayers, OGC W*S, OAI-PMH clients, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific profiler components. The GI-suite can be used in different scenarios by different actors: - A data provider having a pre-existent data repository can deploy and configure GI-suite to broker it and making thus available its data resources through different protocols to many different users (e.g. for data discovery and/or data access) - A data consumer can use GI-suite to discover and/or access resources from a variety of publishing services that are already publishing data according to well-known standards. - A community can deploy and configure GI-suite to build a community (or project-specific) broker: GI-suite can broker a set of community related repositories and

  13. A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Lo Duca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead.

  14. Development on smart suit for dairy work assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Hiroyuki; Kusaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yamagishi, Takayuki; Ogura, Shotaroh

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this study is to achieve an independent life and a social involvement for the elderly using KEIROKA Technology(fatigue-reduction) which makes it possible to improve the quality of chores and occupations by removing excessive strain and tiredness. The authors have developed power assist suits named "smart suit". The authors have evaluated the effect that the purpose of dairy work assistance, to measure EMG of the worker, compared to the potential of the surface of the non-wearing and wearing "smart suit".

  15. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  16. Effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite based generated by existing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rozmie R.; Ahmad, Mohd Zamri Zahir; Ali, Mohd Shaiful Aziz Rashid; Zakaria, Hasneeza Liza; Rahman, Md. Mostafijur

    2015-05-01

    Consuming 40 to 50 percent of software development cost, software testing is one of the most resource consuming activities in software development lifecycle. To ensure an acceptable level of quality and reliability of a typical software product, it is desirable to test every possible combination of input data under various configurations. Due to combinatorial explosion problem, considering all exhaustive testing is practically impossible. Resource constraints, costing factors as well as strict time-to-market deadlines are amongst the main factors that inhibit such consideration. Earlier work suggests that sampling strategy (i.e. based on t-way parameter interaction or called as t-way testing) can be effective to reduce number of test cases without effecting the fault detection capability. However, for a very large system, even t-way strategy will produce a large test suite that need to be executed. In the end, only part of the planned test suite can be executed in order to meet the aforementioned constraints. Here, there is a need for test engineers to measure the effectiveness of partially executed test suite in order for them to assess the risk they have to take. Motivated by the abovementioned problem, this paper presents the effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite generated by existing strategies using tuples coverage method. Here, test engineers can predict the effectiveness of the testing process if only part of the original test cases is executed.

  17. Improvements to the APBS biomolecular solvation software suite: Improvements to the APBS Software Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurrus, Elizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Engel, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Star, Keith [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Monson, Kyle [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Brandi, Juan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Felberg, Lisa E. [University of California, Berkeley California; Brookes, David H. [University of California, Berkeley California; Wilson, Leighton [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan; Chen, Jiahui [Southern Methodist University, Dallas Texas; Liles, Karina [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Chun, Minju [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Li, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Gohara, David W. [St. Louis University, St. Louis Missouri; Dolinsky, Todd [FoodLogiQ, Durham North Carolina; Konecny, Robert [University of California San Diego, San Diego California; Koes, David R. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania; Nielsen, Jens Erik [Protein Engineering, Novozymes A/S, Copenhagen Denmark; Head-Gordon, Teresa [University of California, Berkeley California; Geng, Weihua [Southern Methodist University, Dallas Texas; Krasny, Robert [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan; Wei, Guo-Wei [Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan; Holst, Michael J. [University of California San Diego, San Diego California; McCammon, J. Andrew [University of California San Diego, San Diego California; Baker, Nathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Brown University, Providence Rhode Island

    2017-10-24

    The Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver (APBS) software was developed to solve the equations of continuum electrostatics for large biomolecular assemblages that has provided impact in the study of a broad range of chemical, biological, and biomedical applications. APBS addresses three key technology challenges for understanding solvation and electrostatics in biomedical applications: accurate and efficient models for biomolecular solvation and electrostatics, robust and scalable software for applying those theories to biomolecular systems, and mechanisms for sharing and analyzing biomolecular electrostatics data in the scientific community. To address new research applications and advancing computational capabilities, we have continually updated APBS and its suite of accompanying software since its release in 2001. In this manuscript, we discuss the models and capabilities that have recently been implemented within the APBS software package including: a Poisson-Boltzmann analytical and a semi-analytical solver, an optimized boundary element solver, a geometry-based geometric flow solvation model, a graph theory based algorithm for determining pKa values, and an improved web-based visualization tool for viewing electrostatics.

  18. PREP KITT, System Reliability by Fault Tree Analysis. PREP, Min Path Set and Min Cut Set for Fault Tree Analysis, Monte-Carlo Method. KITT, Component and System Reliability Information from Kinetic Fault Tree Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Narum, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The PREP/KITT computer program package obtains system reliability information from a system fault tree. The PREP program finds the minimal cut sets and/or the minimal path sets of the system fault tree. (A minimal cut set is a smallest set of components such that if all the components are simultaneously failed the system is failed. A minimal path set is a smallest set of components such that if all of the components are simultaneously functioning the system is functioning.) The KITT programs determine reliability information for the components of each minimal cut or path set, for each minimal cut or path set, and for the system. Exact, time-dependent reliability information is determined for each component and for each minimal cut set or path set. For the system, reliability results are obtained by upper bound approximations or by a bracketing procedure in which various upper and lower bounds may be obtained as close to one another as desired. The KITT programs can handle independent components which are non-repairable or which have a constant repair time. Any assortment of non-repairable components and components having constant repair times can be considered. Any inhibit conditions having constant probabilities of occurrence can be handled. The failure intensity of each component is assumed to be constant with respect to time. The KITT2 program can also handle components which during different time intervals, called phases, may have different reliability properties. 2 - Method of solution: The PREP program obtains minimal cut sets by either direct deterministic testing or by an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm. The minimal path sets are obtained using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The reliability information is obtained by the KITT programs from numerical solution of the simple integral balance equations of kinetic tree theory. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The PREP program will obtain the minimal cut and

  19. CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) Software Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CAMEO is the umbrella name for a system of software applications used widely to plan for and respond to chemical emergencies. All of the programs in the suite work...

  20. Segane saksa-eesti kirjakeel ja eesti lauluraamat / Gustav Suits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suits, Gustav, 1883-1956

    1999-01-01

    Varem ilmunud: Suits, Gustav. Eesti kirjanduslugu I. Lund : Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv, 1953. Heinrich Stahli käsiraamatu Hand-, Hausz- und Kirchenbuch (1654-1656) osana ilmunud lauluraamatust Neu Ehstnisches Gesangbuch (1656)

  1. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  2. Arensky. Silhouettes (Suite N 2), Op. 23 / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Arensky. Silhouettes (Suite N 2), Op. 23. Scrjabin. Symphony N 3 in C minor, Op. 43 "Le divin poeme". Danish National Radio Symphony Orchestra. Neeme Järvi. Chandos cassette ABTD 1509; CD CHAN 8898 (66 minutes)

  3. 33 CFR 144.20-5 - Exposure suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light that is approved under 46 CFR 161.012. Each light must be securely attached to the front shoulder... lanyard coiled and stopped off. (f) No stowage container for exposure suits may be capable of being locked...

  4. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  5. Advanced Gas Sensing Technology for Space Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suits require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical life support materials. No current compact sensors have the tolerance...

  6. Virtual Suit Fit Assessment Using Body Shape Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shoulder injury is one of the most serious risks for crewmembers in long-duration spaceflight. While suboptimal suit fit and contact pressures between the shoulder...

  7. Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55 / Terry Williams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Williams, Terry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55. Francesca di Rimini op. 32. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos CHAN 9 419, distribution Media 7 (CD: 160F). TT: 1h 09'20"

  8. Prokofiev: War and Peace - Symphonic Suite (arr. Palmer) / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: War and Peace - Symphonic Suite (arr. Palmer), Summer Night, Op. 123. Russian Overture, Op. 72. Philharmonia Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Chandos ABTD 1598 CHAN9096 (64 minutes:DDD) Igor - Polovtsian Dances

  9. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  10. Nonventing Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these...

  11. U.S. Climate Normals Product Suite (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Normals are a large suite of data products that provide users with many tools to understand typical climate conditions for thousands of locations...

  12. Assuring Condition and Inventory Accountability of Chemical Protective Suits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... As part of the Defense Logistics Agency's efforts to consolidate depot operations and improve inventory accuracy, chemical protective suits were transferred to the Defense Depot, Albany, Georgia, during FY 1991.

  13. Corrections of the NIST Statistical Test Suite for Randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Song-Ju; Umeno, Ken; Hasegawa, Akio

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the NIST statistical test suite was used for the evaluation of AES candidate algorithms. We have found that the test setting of Discrete Fourier Transform test and Lempel-Ziv test of this test suite are wrong. We give four corrections of mistakes in the test settings. This suggests that re-evaluation of the test results should be needed.

  14. Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev receives assistance from suit technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Sergei Krikalev, alternative mission specialist for STS-63, gets help from Dawn Mays, a Boeing suit technician. The cosmonaut was about to participate in a training session at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). Wearing the training version of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) space suit, weighted to allow neutral buoyancy in the 25 feet deep WETF pool, Krikalev minutes later was underwater simulating a contingency spacewalk, or extravehicular activity (EVA).

  15. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  16. STS-74 M.S. Jerry L. Ross suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Spaceflight veteran Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist 2 on Shuttle Mission STS-74, is assisted by a suit technician as he finishes getting into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. Ross and four fellow astronauts will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits a second liftoff attempt during a seven-minute window scheduled to open at approximately 7:30 a.m. EST, Nov. 12.

  17. A Test Suite for Safety-Critical Java using JML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Development techniques are presented for a test suite for the draft specification of the Java profile for Safety-Critical Systems. Distinguishing features are: specification of conformance constraints in the Java Modeling Language, encoding of infrastructure concepts without implementation bias......, and corresponding specifications of implicitly stated behavioral and real-time properties. The test programs are auto-generated from the specification, while concrete values for test parameters are selected manually. The suite is open source and publicly accessible....

  18. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2018-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states. Objective DELTA PREP’s summative evaluation addressed four major questions: (1) Did coalitions improve their prevention capacity during the project period? (2) Did coalitions serve as catalysts for prevention activities within their states during the project period? (3) Was initial prevention capacity associated with the number of prevention activity types initiated by coalitions by the end of the project? (4) Did coalitions sustain their prevention activities 6 months after the end of the project period? Results DELTA PREP achieved its capacity-building goal, with all 19 participant coalitions integrating prevention within their organizations and serving as catalysts for prevention activities in their states. At 6 months follow up, coalitions had sustained almost all prevention activities they initiated during the project. Baseline prevention capacity (Beginner vs. Intermediate) was not associated with the number of prevention activity types coalitions implemented by the end of the project. Conclusion Service and treatment organizations are increasingly asked to integrate a full spectrum of prevention strategies. Selecting organizations that have high levels of general capacity and readiness for an innovation like integrating a public health approach to IPV prevention will likely increase success in building an innovation-specific capacity, and in turn implementing an innovation. PMID:26245932

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of PrepSTART for promoting oral language and emergent literacy skills in disadvantaged preparatory students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Maria; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom-based intervention programme aimed at improving the oral language and emergent literacy skills of students from low socio-economic, culturally diverse backgrounds within their first formal year of schooling ("prep"). Data from 137 students were available for analysis. Participants were from three primary schools located in Queensland, Australia. Eight classes were allocated to intervention and two classes acted as a business as usual control. All students received literacy instruction as per the Australian Curriculum. However, the intervention group received 24 weeks of scripted, classroom-based, book-based intervention targeting code- and meaning-related emergent literacy skills. All students were assessed individually pre- and post-intervention on code-related measures (i.e. letter identification and phonological awareness) and meaning-related measures (i.e. vocabulary, oral narrative comprehension and retell). All students made significant improvement over time for all measures. Students in the intervention group showed significantly more progress than the business as usual group on all measures, except for letter identification and oral narrative comprehension. This classroom-based book-based intervention can improve the code- and meaning-related emergent literacy skills of prep students from low socio-economic backgrounds and provide these students with the building blocks for successful literacy acquisition.

  20. Impact of the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR Test, Version 1.5, on Clinical Laboratory Operations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Jeffrey J.; Bendel, Jordan L.; Dolenc, Craig A.; Nelson, Sarah R.; Masters, Amanda L.; Gerads, Tara M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Mitchell, P. Shawn; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR Test, version 1.5 (CAP/CA), and the COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR Test, version 1.5, were compared. CAP/CA reduced and consolidated labor while modestly increasing assay throughput without increased failure rates or direct costs, regardless of batch size and assay format. PMID:17634308

  1. The Effects of Advance Graphic Organizers Strategy Intervention on Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy, and Motivation to Learn Social Studies in Learning Disabled Second Year Prep Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…

  2. "Get a Blue and You Will See Your Money Back Again": Staffing and Marketing the English Prep School, 1890-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers…

  3. A Multi-US City Assessment of Awareness and Uptake of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Black Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Driffin, Daniel D; Bukowski, Leigh; Wilson, Patrick A; Stall, Ron D

    2017-07-01

    The HIV epidemic among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW) demands an urgent public health response. HIV point prevalence among this population ranges from 25 to 43%-a rate far exceeding any other group. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a very promising prevention tool; however, its full potential to slow the epidemic has yet to be realized. For the current study, random time-location sampling at Black Gay Pride Events was used to collect data from N = 1274 BMTW, from five US cities, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status. In-field HIV testing was also provided to participants. Participants were assessed on awareness and use of PrEP, health care factors, HIV testing history, psychosocial variables, and sex behaviors. About one third of participants were aware of PrEP (39%), and a small percentage of participants were users of PrEP (4.6%). In multivariable analyses, being in a relationship, testing for HIV in the past 6 months, and others being aware of one's sexuality were positively associated with PrEP awareness. Higher levels of internalized homophobia and greater numbers of female sex partners were positively associated with PrEP use, while education and condom use were negatively associated. Based on study findings, messaging and uptake of PrEP needs greater expansion and requires novel approaches for scale-up. Improving linkage to HIV testing services is likely critical for engaging BMTW with PrEP. The potential for PrEP to slow the HIV epidemic is high; however, we must strengthen efforts to ensure universal availability and uptake.

  4. Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

  5. NetSuite OneWorld Implementation 2011 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Foydel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This book is a focused, step-by step tutorial that shows you how to successfully implement NetSuite OneWorld into your organization. It is written in an easy-to-read style, with a strong emphasis on real-world, practical examples with step-by-step explanations. The book focuses on NetSuite OneWorld 2011 R1. If you are an application administrator, business analyst, project team member or business process owner who wants to implement NetSuite OneWorld into your organization, then this book is for you. This book might also be useful if you are a business manager considering a new system for your

  6. Can an inadequate cervical cytology sample in ThinPrep be converted to a satisfactory sample by processing it with a SurePath preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Pedersen, Mette Kristin; Ekeberg, Bente; Williams, Merete E Johansen; Sauer, Torill; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Program recommends screening every 3 years for women between 25 and 69 years of age. There is a large difference in the percentage of unsatisfactory samples between laboratories that use different brands of liquid-based cytology. We wished to examine if inadequate ThinPrep samples could be satisfactory by processing them with the SurePath protocol. A total of 187 inadequate ThinPrep specimens from the Department of Clinical Pathology at University Hospital of North Norway were sent to Akershus University Hospital for conversion to SurePath medium. Ninety-one (48.7%) were processed through the automated "gynecologic" application for cervix cytology samples, and 96 (51.3%) were processed with the "nongynecological" automatic program. Out of 187 samples that had been unsatisfactory by ThinPrep, 93 (49.7%) were satisfactory after being converted to SurePath. The rate of satisfactory cytology was 36.6% and 62.5% for samples run through the "gynecology" program and "nongynecology" program, respectively. Of the 93 samples that became satisfactory after conversion from ThinPrep to SurePath, 80 (86.0%) were screened as normal while 13 samples (14.0%) were given an abnormal diagnosis, which included 5 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 5 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 2 atypical glandular cells not otherwise specified, and 1 atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. A total of 2.1% (4/187) of the women got a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or higher at a later follow-up. Converting cytology samples from ThinPrep to SurePath processing can reduce the number of unsatisfactory samples. The samples should be run through the "nongynecology" program to ensure an adequate number of cells.

  7. Safety and adherence to intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV-1 in African men who have sex with men and female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudensia Mutua

    Full Text Available Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM and female sex workers (FSW.MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS. Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63-92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28-78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p = 0.003, while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14-50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen.Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230.

  8. Partner Disclosure of PrEP Use and Undetectable Viral Load on Geosocial Networking Apps: Frequency of Disclosure and Decisions About Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mongrella, Melissa C; Weis, Benjamin; McMillen, Samuel J; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in biomedical prevention strategies, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) among HIV-infected persons, show promise in curbing the rising incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the frequency with which MSM encounter potential sex partners on geosocial networking apps who disclose biomedical prevention use, and how MSM make decisions about condom use after these disclosures. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on a large geosocial networking app for MSM. A total of 668 and 727 participants, respectively, responded to questionnaires assessing partner disclosure of PrEP use and UVL. Each questionnaire included an open-ended item assessing reasons for condomless anal sex (CAS) with partners using biomedical prevention. Across both surveys, most respondents encountered potential sex partners who disclosed PrEP use or UVL, and the majority of those who met up with these partners engaged in CAS at least once. Qualitative analyses found that most participants who reported CAS did so after making a calculated risk about HIV transmission. We also describe a novel risk reduction strategy, "biomed-matching," or having CAS only when both individuals use PrEP or have UVL. We report serostatus differences in both quantitative and qualitative findings. Disclosure of PrEP use and UVL is not uncommon among MSM. Many MSM make accurate appraisals of the risks of CAS with biomedical prevention, and mobile apps may aid with disclosing biomedical prevention use.

  9. Safety and adherence to intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African men who have sex with men and female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard; Mugo, Peter; Anzala, Omu; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David; Barin, Burc; Rooney, James F; Mark, David; Chetty, Paramesh; Fast, Patricia; Priddy, Frances H

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63-92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28-78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p = 0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14-50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230.

  10. Ultraviolet Testing of Space Suit Materials for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine; Fries, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars may require radical changes in the approach to extra-vehicular (EVA) suit design. A major challenge is the balance of building a suit robust enough to complete multiple EVAs under intense ultraviolet (UV) light exposure without losing mechanical strength or compromising the suit's mobility. To study how the materials degrade on Mars in-situ, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invited the Advanced Space Suit team at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to place space suit materials on the Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC) instrument's calibration target of the Mars 2020 rover. In order to select materials for the rover and understand the effects from Mars equivalent UV exposure, JSC conducted ground testing on both current and new space suit materials when exposed to 2500 hours of Mars mission equivalent UV. To complete this testing, JSC partnered with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to utilize their UV vacuum chambers. Materials tested were Orthofabric, polycarbonate, Teflon, Dacron, Vectran, spectra, bladder, nGimat coated Teflon, and nGimat coated Orthofabric. All samples were measured for mass, tensile strength, and chemical composition before and after radiation. Mass loss was insignificant (less than 0.5%) among the materials. Most materials loss tensile strength after radiation and became more brittle with a loss of elongation. Changes in chemical composition were seen in all radiated materials through Spectral Analysis. Results from this testing helped select the materials that will fly on the Mars 2020 rover. In addition, JSC can use this data to create a correlation to the chemical changes after radiation-which is what the rover will send back while on Mars-to the mechanical changes, such as tensile strength.

  11. Designing a suite of measurements to understand the critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L.; DiBiase, Roman A.; Russo, Tess A.; Shi, Yuning; Lin, Henry; Davis, Kenneth J.; Kaye, Margot; Hill, Lillian; Kaye, Jason; Eissenstat, David M.; Hoagland, Beth; Dere, Ashlee L.; Neal, Andrew L.; Brubaker, Kristen M.; Arthur, Dan K.

    2016-03-01

    Many scientists have begun to refer to the earth surface environment from the upper canopy to the depths of bedrock as the critical zone (CZ). Identification of the CZ as an integral object worthy of study implicitly posits that the study of the whole earth surface will provide benefits that do not arise when studying the individual parts. To study the CZ, however, requires prioritizing among the measurements that can be made - and we do not generally agree on the priorities. Currently, the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) is expanding from a small original focus area (0.08 km2, Shale Hills catchment), to a larger watershed (164 km2, Shavers Creek watershed) and is grappling with the prioritization. This effort is an expansion from a monolithologic first-order forested catchment to a watershed that encompasses several lithologies (shale, sandstone, limestone) and land use types (forest, agriculture). The goal of the project remains the same: to understand water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment (WEGSS) fluxes that are occurring today in the context of the record of those fluxes over geologic time as recorded in soil profiles, the sedimentary record, and landscape morphology. Given the small size of the Shale Hills catchment, the original design incorporated measurement of as many parameters as possible at high temporal and spatial density. In the larger Shavers Creek watershed, however, we must focus the measurements. We describe a strategy of data collection and modeling based on a geomorphological and land use framework that builds on the hillslope as the basic unit. Interpolation and extrapolation beyond specific sites relies on geophysical surveying, remote sensing, geomorphic analysis, the study of natural integrators such as streams, groundwaters or air, and application of a suite of CZ models. We hypothesize that measurements of a few important variables at strategic locations within a geomorphological framework will allow

  12. STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz Suit Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz puts on a glove of his launch and entry suit with assistance from a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Horowitz''';s second space flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Discovery awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This will be the second HST servicing mission. Four back-to-back spacewalks are planned.

  13. STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

  14. Extending the GI Brokering Suite to Support New Interoperability Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Papeschi, F.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The GI brokering suite provides the discovery, access, and semantic Brokers (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem) that empower a Brokering framework for multi-disciplinary and multi-organizational interoperability. GI suite has been successfully deployed in the framework of several programmes and initiatives, such as European Union funded projects, NSF BCube, and the intergovernmental coordinated effort Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Each GI suite Broker facilitates interoperability for a particular functionality (i.e. discovery, access, semantic extension) among a set of brokered resources published by autonomous providers (e.g. data repositories, web services, semantic assets) and a set of heterogeneous consumers (e.g. client applications, portals, apps). A wide set of data models, encoding formats, and service protocols are already supported by the GI suite, such as the ones defined by international standardizing organizations like OGC and ISO (e.g. WxS, CSW, SWE, GML, netCDF) and by Community specifications (e.g. THREDDS, OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, ESRI APIs). Using GI suite, resources published by a particular Community or organization through their specific technology (e.g. OPeNDAP/netCDF) can be transparently discovered, accessed, and used by different Communities utilizing their preferred tools (e.g. a GIS visualizing WMS layers). Since Information Technology is a moving target, new standards and technologies continuously emerge and are adopted in the Earth Science context too. Therefore, GI Brokering suite was conceived to be flexible and accommodate new interoperability protocols and data models. For example, GI suite has recently added support to well-used specifications, introduced to implement Linked data, Semantic Web and precise community needs. Amongst the others, they included: DCAT: a RDF vocabulary designed to facilitate interoperability between Web data catalogs. CKAN: a data management system for data distribution, particularly used by

  15. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Kanne, Bryan; Korona, Adam; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  16. The Use of Online Posts to Identify Barriers to and Facilitators of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison to a Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Alisse; Lipshie-Williams, Madeleine; Starrels, Joanna L; Arnsten, Julia H; Rizzuto, Jessica; Cohen, Phillip; Jacobs, Damon; Patel, Viraj V

    2018-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional

  17. PLEASE: The Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE – Enabling Rapid Analysis of LEEM and LEED Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Grady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available PLEASE, the Python Low-energy Electron Analysis SuitE, provides an open source and cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI for rapid analysis and visualization of low energy electron microscopy (LEEM data sets. LEEM and the associated technique, selected area micro-spot low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED, are powerful tools for analysis of the surface structure for many novel materials. Specifically, these tools are uniquely suited for the characterization of two-dimensional materials. PLEASE offers a user-friendly point-and-click method for extracting intensity-voltage curves from LEEM and LEED data sets. Analysis of these curves provides insight into the atomic structure of the target material surface with unparalleled resolution.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Gene Encoding Transcription Factor Prep1 Is Associated with HIV-1-Associated Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Daniëlle; Bunnik, Evelien M.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sieberer, Margit; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; de Wolf, Frank; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Portegies, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with HIV-1 may result in severe cognitive and motor impairment, referred to as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). While its prevalence has dropped significantly in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, milder neurocognitive disorders persist with a high prevalence. To identify additional therapeutic targets for treating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, several candidate gene polymorphisms have been evaluated, but few have been replicated across multiple studies. Methods We here tested 7 candidate gene polymorphisms for association with HAD in a case-control study consisting of 86 HAD cases and 246 non-HAD AIDS patients as controls. Since infected monocytes and macrophages are thought to play an important role in the infection of the brain, 5 recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting HIV-1 replication in macrophages in vitro were also tested. Results The CCR5 wt/Δ32 genotype was only associated with HAD in individuals who developed AIDS prior to 1991, in agreement with the observed fading effect of this genotype on viral load set point. A significant difference in genotype distribution among all cases and controls irrespective of year of AIDS diagnosis was found only for a SNP in candidate gene PREP1 (p = 1.2×10−5). Prep1 has recently been identified as a transcription factor preferentially binding the −2,518 G allele in the promoter of the gene encoding MCP-1, a protein with a well established role in the etiology of HAD. Conclusion These results support previous findings suggesting an important role for MCP-1 in the onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:22347417

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism in gene encoding transcription factor Prep1 is associated with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan M Bol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with HIV-1 may result in severe cognitive and motor impairment, referred to as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD. While its prevalence has dropped significantly in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, milder neurocognitive disorders persist with a high prevalence. To identify additional therapeutic targets for treating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, several candidate gene polymorphisms have been evaluated, but few have been replicated across multiple studies. METHODS: We here tested 7 candidate gene polymorphisms for association with HAD in a case-control study consisting of 86 HAD cases and 246 non-HAD AIDS patients as controls. Since infected monocytes and macrophages are thought to play an important role in the infection of the brain, 5 recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting HIV-1 replication in macrophages in vitro were also tested. RESULTS: The CCR5 wt/Δ32 genotype was only associated with HAD in individuals who developed AIDS prior to 1991, in agreement with the observed fading effect of this genotype on viral load set point. A significant difference in genotype distribution among all cases and controls irrespective of year of AIDS diagnosis was found only for a SNP in candidate gene PREP1 (p = 1.2 × 10(-5. Prep1 has recently been identified as a transcription factor preferentially binding the -2,518 G allele in the promoter of the gene encoding MCP-1, a protein with a well established role in the etiology of HAD. CONCLUSION: These results support previous findings suggesting an important role for MCP-1 in the onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  20. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  1. Consensus builds on population policy as ICPD PrepCom meetings conclude. Vatican objections firm and vocal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    In April, 1994, at UN headquarters in New York, delegates from almost 200 countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) negotiated a Programme of Action to be ratified following more debate at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September. A sizable consensus emerged for this Preparatory Committee III (PrepCom) meeting. It has an expanded view of population policy that centers more on meeting individual needs and less on achieving strict demographic goals. Thus, it focuses on the unmet need for reproductive health services (family planning, basic women's health care, and services linked to sexually transmitted diseases). It considers women's status and female education as being important themselves as well as key determinants of fertility rates. Disagreement over access to abortion services and reproductive health services for adolescents remain. Unlike earlier world conferences, most of the world is working towards a consensus, while the Vatican and just a few small countries (Benin, Malta, Honduras, and Nicaragua) object to these services. Some topics that US National Conference of Catholic Bishops did not want in the Programme of Action were references to reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion, promoting condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS, and even safe motherhood. The US and Japan have committed sizable increases in population assistance. Some European countries are concerned about how their contributions would be allocated. US Undersecretary for Global Affairs and a mostly female 23-member US delegation attended PrepCom III. Most of the US delegates were from NGOs. Many country delegates were women. Many countries accepted recommendations of the women's caucus. The US's priorities are promotion of universal access to the full range of high quality family planning and reproductive health services; increasing women's status; child survival promotion; serving adolescent needs; augmenting the role and responsibility of men in

  2. Measuring Test Case Similarity to Support Test Suite Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: TOOLS 2012 - Proceedings of the 50th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, May 29-31, 2012; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30561-0_8 In order to support test suite understanding, we investigate whether we can automatically derive relations between test cases. In

  3. Knowledge Architect : A Tool Suite for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris

    2009-01-01

    Management of software architecture knowledge (AK) is vital for improving an organization’s architectural capabilities. To support the architecting process within our industrial partner: Astron, the Dutch radio astronomy institute, we implemented the Knowledge Architect (KA): a tool suite for

  4. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  5. 28 CFR 36.503 - Suit by the Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suit by the Attorney General. 36.503... discretion, the Attorney General may commence a civil action in any appropriate United States district court if the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that— (a) Any person or group of persons is...

  6. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jerry I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  7. Safety Tips: Avoiding Negligence Suits in Chemistry Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovich, Jack A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)

  8. ASIM - an Instrument Suite for the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Crosby, B.; Huang, T.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) is an instrument suite for studies of severe thunderstorms and their effects on the atmosphere and ionosphere. The instruments are designed to observe transient luminous events (TLEs)—sprites, blue jets and elves—and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs...

  9. Rimsky-Korsakov: Symphony N2 (Symphonic Suite) / Warrack, John

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Warrack, John

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Rimsky-Korsakov: Symphony N2 (Symphonic Suite), Op. 9, "Antar" Russian Easter Festival Overture, Op.36. Philharmonia Orchestra, Evgeni Svetlanov. Hyperion KA 66399. CDA 66399. Teise sümfoonia esitust võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistusega

  10. Tailoring Vantage 5 (fuel) to suit each operator's need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, D L; Secker, J R [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Philadelphia, PA (USA)

    1990-03-01

    By the end of 1989, Westinghouse Vantage 5 fuel had been reloaded into 36 nuclear power plants. The fuel offers a number of features operators can choose from to suit their own particular needs. Experience so far has shown the fuel to have performed well, with coolant activity levels remaining low. (author).

  11. Exploration Space Suit Architecture: Destination Environmental-Based Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper picks up where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars (Hill, Johnson, IEEEAC paper #1209) left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and interfaces and could be reconfigured to meet the mission or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This paper will walk though the continued development of a space suit system architecture, and how it should evolve to meeting the future exploration EVA needs of the United States space program. In looking forward to future US space exploration and determining how the work performed to date in the CxP and how this would map to a future space suit architecture with maximum re-use of technology and functionality, a series of thought exercises and analysis have provided a strong indication that the CxP space suit architecture is well postured to provide a viable solution for future exploration missions. Through the destination environmental analysis that is presented in this paper, the modular architecture approach provides the lowest mass, lowest mission cost for the protection of the crew given any human mission outside of low Earth orbit. Some of the studies presented here provide a look and validation of the non-environmental design drivers that will become every-increasingly important the further away from Earth humans venture and the longer they are away. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates a logical clustering of design environments that allows a very focused approach to technology prioritization, development and design that will maximize the return on investment independent of any particular program and provide architecture and design solutions for space suit systems in time or ahead of being required for any particular manned flight program in the future. The new approach to space suit design and interface definition the discussion will show how the architecture is very adaptable to programmatic and funding changes with

  12. Expanded HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation in communities in New South Wales, Australia (EPIC-NSW): design of an open label, single arm implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Selvey, Christine; Guy, Rebecca; Price, Karen; Holden, Jo; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; McNulty, Anna; Smith, David; Jin, Fengyi; Amin, Janaki; Cooper, David A; Grulich, Andrew E

    2018-02-02

    The New South Wales (NSW) HIV Strategy 2016-2020 aims for the virtual elimination of HIV transmission in NSW, Australia, by 2020. Despite high and increasing levels of HIV testing and treatment since 2012, the annual number of HIV diagnoses in NSW has remained generally unchanged. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM) when taken appropriately. However, there have been no population-level studies that evaluate the impact of rapid PrEP scale-up in high-risk GBM. Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities in NSW (EPIC-NSW) is a population-level evaluation of the rapid, targeted roll-out of PrEP to high-risk individuals. EPIC-NSW, is an open-label, single-arm, multi-centre prospective observational study of PrEP implementation and impact. Over 20 public and private clinics across urban and regional areas in NSW have participated in the rapid roll-out of PrEP, supported by strong community mobilization and PrEP promotion. The study began on 1 March 2016, aiming to enroll at least 3700 HIV negative people at high risk of HIV. This estimate took into consideration criteria for PrEP prescription in people at high risk for acquiring HIV as defined in the NSW PrEP guidelines. Study participants receive once daily co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and are followed for up to 24 months. Follow-up includes: testing for HIV at 1 month, HIV and other sexually transmissible infections three-monthly, HCV annually and monitoring of renal function six-monthly. Optional online behavioural surveys are conducted quarterly. The co-primary endpoints are (i) HIV diagnoses and incidence in the cohort and (ii) HIV diagnoses in NSW. EPIC-NSW is a population-based PrEP implementation trial which targets the entire estimated population of GBM at high risk for HIV infection in NSW. It will provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the population impact of PrEP on a concentrated HIV

  13. Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-11-20

    To explore the acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland, UK. Consecutive mixed qualitative methods consisting of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) explored PrEP acceptability. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically to identify anticipated and emerging themes. Participants were recruited through community sexual health and outreach support services, and from non-sexual health settings across Scotland. Inclusion criteria included identification as either MSM and/or from migrant African communities; 18 years and older; living in Scotland at the time of participation. 7 FGs were conducted (n=33): 5 with MSM (n=22) and 2 mixed-sex groups with African participants (n=11, women=8), aged 18-75 years. 34 IDIs were conducted with MSM (n=20) and African participants (n=14, women=10), aged 19-60 years. The sample included participants who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative or untested (HIV-positive FG participants, n=22; HIV-positive IDI participants, n=17). Understandings of PrEP effectiveness and concerns about maintaining regular adherence were identified as barriers to potential PrEP uptake and use. Low perception of HIV risk due to existing risk management strategies meant few participants saw themselves as PrEP candidates. Participants identified risk of other sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy as a concern which PrEP did not address for either themselves or their sexual partners. PrEP emerged as a contentious issue because of the potentially negative implications it had for HIV prevention. Many participants viewed PrEP as problematic because they perceived that others would stop using condoms if PrEP was to become available. PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy; address risk-reduction concerns and; demonstrate how PrEP can be part of a

  14. Willingness to Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): An Empirical Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model among High-Risk Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Altice, Frederick L; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. The analysis included 400 HIV-negative high-risk PWUD enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed support for the IMB model as PrEP-related behavioral skills were found to mediate the influence of PrEP-related information and motivation on willingness to use PrEP. The results provide evidence as to the utility of the IMB model to increase willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. It therefore makes an important contribution to our understanding of the applicability of theoretically-grounded models of willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD, who are one of the key risk populations who could benefit from the use of PrEP.

  15. Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / G. W.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. (AD: 1991). Chandos/Koch CD 9096

  16. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.

  17. STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency, is helped with his flight suit by suit tech Tommy McDonald in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  18. Failure to exercise due diligence costs plaintiff her suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-28

    The Mississippi State Supreme Court affirmed a lower court ruling dismissing a last-minute suit filed by a plaintiff against United Blood Services of Mississippi and the American Association of Blood Banks. A woman known as D. Doe was a recipient of a tainted transfusion. She contracted HIV in 1983 and died of AIDS-related causes in 1991. Her daughter, the plaintiff, filed a contaminated blood transfusion lawsuit just five days before the statute of limitations ran out but failed to ascertain the correct identity of the blood bank. She named two blood banks in her suit because she was unable to determine the source of the blood. The Supreme Court ruled that waiting until five days before the statute elapsed indicated that the plaintiff did not exercise reasonable diligence within a specific time frame.

  19. STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is suited up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is assisted during suit-up activities by Lockheed Suit Technician Valerie McNeil from Johnson Space Center in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Altman and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Altman is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body - - the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  20. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski checks his flight suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski gets help with his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building from a suit technician George Brittingham. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  1. STS-76 Payload Cmdr Ronald Sega suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The third docking between the Russian Space Station Mir and the U.S. Space Shuttle marks the second trip into space for Sega, who recently served a five-month assignment in Russia as operations director for NASA activities there. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS-76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven-minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

  2. The IMBA suite: integrated modules for bioassay analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Riddell, A.E.; Battersby, W.P

    1998-07-01

    The increasing complexity of models representing the biokinetic behaviour of radionuclides in the body following intake poses problems for people who are required to implement these models. The problem is exacerbated by the current paucity of suitable software. In order to remedy this situation, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels, Westlakes Research Institute and the National Radiological Protection Board has started with the aim of producing a suite of modules for estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements using the new ICRP models. Each module will have a single purpose (e.g. to calculate respiratory tract deposition) and will interface with other software using data files. The elements to be implemented initially are plutonium, uranium, caesium, iodine and tritium. It is intended to make the software available to other parties under terms yet to be decided. This paper describes the proposed suite of integrated modules for bioassay analysis, IMBA. (author)

  3. Enhanced verification test suite for physics simulation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Brock, Jerry S.; Brandon, Scott T.; Cotrell, David L.; Johnson, Bryan; Knupp, Patrick; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy G.; Weirs, V. Gregory

    2008-09-01

    This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations.

  4. Non-Venting Thermal and Humidity Control for EVA Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Future EVA suits need processes and systems to control internal temperature and humidity without venting water to the environment. This paper describes an absorption-based cooling and dehumidification system as well as laboratory demonstrations of the key processes. There are two main components in the system: an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) that removes both sensible heat and latent heat from the pressure garment, and an absorber radiator that absorbs moisture and rejects heat to space by thermal radiation. This paper discusses the overall design of both components, and presents recent data demonstrating their operation. We developed a design and fabrication approach to produce prototypical heat/water absorbing elements for the ECDG, and demonstrated by test that these elements could absorb heat and moisture at a high flux. Proof-of-concept tests showed that an ECDG prototype absorbs heat and moisture at a rate of 85 W/ft under conditions that simulate operation in an EVA suit. The heat absorption was primarily due to direct absorption of water vapor. It is possible to construct large, flexible, durable cooling patches that can be incorporated into a cooling garment with this system. The proof-of-concept test data was scaled to calculate area needed for full metabolic loads, thus showing that it is feasible to use this technology in an EVA suit. Full-scale, lightweight absorber/radiator modules have also been built and tested. They can reject heat at a flux of 33 W/ft while maintaining ECDG operation at conditions that will provide a cool and dry environment inside the EVA suit.

  5. Compression under a mechanical counter pressure space suit glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M A.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tourbier, Dietmar; Webb, Paul; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Current gas-pressurized space suits are bulky stiff shells severely limiting astronaut function and capability. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) space suit in the form of a tight elastic garment could dramatically improve extravehicular activity (EVA) dexterity, but also be advantageous in safety, cost, mass and volume. The purpose of this study was to verify that a prototype MCP glove exerts the design compression of 200 mmHg, a pressure similar to the current NASA EVA suit. Methods: Seven male subjects donned a pressure measurement array and MCP glove on the right hand, which was placed into a partial vacuum chamber. Average compression was recorded on the palm, the bottom of the middle finger, the top of the middle finger and the dorsum of the hand at pressures of 760 (ambient), 660 and 580 mmHg. The vacuum chamber was used to simulate the pressure difference between the low breathing pressure of the current NASA space suits (approximately 200 mmHg) and an unprotected hand in space. Results: At ambient conditions, the MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand at 203.5 +/- 22.7 mmHg, the bottom of the middle finger at 179.4 +/- 16.0 mmHg, and the top of the middle finger at 183.8 +/- 22.6 mmHg. The palm compression was significantly lower (59.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, pglove compression with the chamber pressure reductions. Conclusions: The MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand and middle finger at the design pressure.

  6. Astronaut Ronald Evans is suited up for EVA training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, is assisted by technicians in suiting up for extravehicular activity (EVA) training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (49970); Evans participates in EVA training in a water tank in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The structure in the picture simulates the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Apollo 17 Service Module (49971).

  7. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  8. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Christopher R.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Arvey, Robert; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm,

  9. Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors

  10. Perfectionism, selected demographic and job characteristics as predictors of burnout in operating suite nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Włodarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed at verifying the predictive power of perfectionism for professional burnout among nurses exposed to distress resulting from work in an operating suite and testing whether this effect exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 nurses (93 women; mean age: 38.67 years. The majority in the group worked in public facilities (68%, in duty system (62%, as operating (75% or anesthesiology (25% nurses. To test perfectionism The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (AMPQ (Perfekcjonizm Adaptacyjny i Dezadaptacyjny - PAD, developed by Szczucka, was used. To examine burnout the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI by Demerouti et al. was adopted. The effects of selected demographic and job characteristics were controlled. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics maladaptive perfectionism was a significant predictor of disengagement and exhaustion whereas adaptive perfectionism predicted a better work engagement. Significant predictors were also: education, number of workplaces, duty system and marital status. Conclusions: The study allowed to confirm the hypothesis on a harmful role of maladaptive perfectionism in shaping burnout among operating suite nurses. The hypothesis on protective function of adaptive perfectionism was confirmed only partially, with regard to disengagement. The results of the study also highlighted some risk factors of burnout which may exist in this occupational group. This confirms the need to continue research in this area. Med Pr 2013;64(6:761–773

  11. A case study of chewed Truvada® for PrEP maintaining protective drug levels as measured by a novel urine tenofovir assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Clark, Devon; Zuppa, Athena F; Moorthy, Ganesh; Conyngham, Caitlin; Mounzer, Karam; Koenig, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF; Truvada ® ) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22-year-old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1,000 ng/ml, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48-week period. Data from observational studies of HIV-positive patients details the successful treatment of HIV using crushed FTC/TDF delivered via feeding and gastronomy tubes while small, randomized trials of healthy volunteers demonstrate bioequivalence between whole and crushed FTC/TDF.

  12. 46 CFR 199.214 - Immersion suits and thermal protective aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. 199.214... Passenger Vessels § 199.214 Immersion suits and thermal protective aids. (a) Each passenger vessel must... an immersion suit. (c) The immersion suits and thermal protective aids required under paragraphs (a...

  13. 33 CFR 150.518 - What are the inspection requirements for work vests and immersion suits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for work vests and immersion suits? 150.518 Section 150.518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... vests and immersion suits? (a) All work vests and immersion suits must be inspected by the owner or... a work vest or immersion suit is inspected and is in serviceable condition, then it may remain in...

  14. The Safety of Tenofovir-Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Marc M; Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y; McMahan, Vanessa M; Guanira, Juan V; Hance, Robert J; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H; Grant, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered.

  15. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  16. Comparison of a prepCheck-supported self-assessment concept with conventional faculty supervision in a pre-clinical simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgin, M; Grabowski, S; Elhadad, S; Frank, W; Kielbassa, A M

    2018-03-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the educational outcome of a digitally based self-assessment concept (prepCheck; DentsplySirona, Wals, Austria) for pre-clinical undergraduates in the context of a regular phantom-laboratory course. A sample of 47 third-year dental students participated in the course. Students were randomly divided into a prepCheck-supervised (self-assessment) intervention group (IG; n = 24); conventionally supervised students constituted the control group (CG; n = 23). During the preparation of three-surface (MOD) class II amalgam cavities, each IG participant could analyse a superimposed 3D image of his/her preparation against the "master preparation" using the prepCheck software. In the CG, several course instructors performed the evaluations according to pre-defined assessment criteria. After completing the course, a mandatory (blinded) practical examination was taken by all course participants (both IG and CG students), and this assessment involved the preparation of a MOD amalgam cavity. Then, optical impressions by means of a CEREC-Omnicam were taken to digitalize all examination preparations, followed by surveying and assessing the latter using prepCheck. The statistical analysis of the digitalized samples (Mann-Whitney U test) revealed no significant differences between the cavity dimensions achieved in the IG and CG (P = .406). Additionally, the sum score of the degree of conformity with the "master preparation" (maximum permissible 10% of plus or minus deviation) was comparable in both groups (P = .259). The implemented interactive digitally based, self-assessment learning tool for undergraduates appears to be equivalent to the conventional form of supervision. Therefore, such digital learning tools could significantly address the ever-increasing student to faculty ratio. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Risk perception and sex behaviour in pregnancy and breastfeeding in high HIV prevalence settings: Programmatic implications for PrEP delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elise; Towriss, Catriona; Gomba, Yolanda; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Gorbach, Pamina; Shoptaw, Steven; Coates, Thomas; Myer, Landon

    2018-01-01

    HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner’s serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services. Our study contextualizes factors related to risky sexual behaviours during pregnancy and postpartum periods and assesses knowledge and hypothetical acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in pregnancy. Translated and transcribed data were coded and analysed by three researchers using a thematic analysis approach. In interviews with HIV-uninfected pregnant/postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition, we identified common themes associated with sexual risk behaviours during pregnancy, including: lack of control over decisions in sex and condom use in pregnancy, low perceived risk (e.g. beliefs that their partner has the same HIV-negative serostatus), and socio-cultural beliefs around condom use during pregnancy (e.g. contact with sperm is essential for baby’s development). PrEP knowledge was low among HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women, and potential acceptability was good, though primary concerns were around the potential impact on the infant. While mothers presented a clear desire to protect themselves from HIV acquisition once pregnant, they also reported lack of control, and socio-cultural beliefs, like sex is good for the baby, that increased their risk of seroconversion. Mothers had limited PrEP awareness but reported hypothetical willingness to use PrEP because of concerns over HIV acquisition and onward mother to child transmission

  18. Evaluation of a new preparative supercritical fluid chromatography system for compound library purification: the TharSFC SFC-MS Prep-100 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Katalin; Weller, Harold N; Kiplinger, Jeffrey; Lefebvre, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Preparative HPLC-MS is often the method of choice for purification of small amounts (libraries for drug discovery. The method is robust, well proven, and widely applicable. In contrast, preparative supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) has seen only slow acceptance for the same application--despite some potential scientific and economic advantages. One of the reasons for slow adoption of SFC-MS is the lack of well-proven, robust, and commercially available instrumentation. In early 2009, TharSFC (a Waters Company, Pittsburgh, PA) introduced a new fully integrated system for preparative SFC-MS: The SFC-MS Prep-100. We report herein an objective evaluation of the SFC-MS Prep-100, including tests for pump and autosampler performance, sample recovery, sample carryover, fraction triggering, detector/fraction collector synchronization, and overall robustness. Our results suggest that the SFC-MS Prep-100 represents a significant advance over previous generation instrumentation. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of Parvovirus B19 DNA Using COBAS AmpliPrep Automated Sample Preparation and LightCycler Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorling, Stefan; Schalasta, Gunnar; Enders, Gisela; Zauke, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The COBAS AmpliPrep instrument (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany) automates the entire sample preparation process of nucleic acid isolation from serum or plasma for polymerase chain reaction analysis. We report the analytical performance of the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit (Roche Diagnostics) using nucleic acids isolated with the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit (Roche Diagnostics) and amplified with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit. The kit combination processes 72 samples per 8-hour shift. The lower detection limit is 234 IU/ml at a 95% hit-rate, linear range approximately 104-1010 IU/ml, and overall precision 16 to 40%. Relative sensitivity and specificity in routine samples from pregnant women are 100% and 93%, respectively. Identification of a persistent parvovirus B19-infected individual by the polymerase chain reaction among 51 anti-parvovirus B19 IgM-negative samples underlines the importance of additional nucleic acid testing in pregnancy and its superiority to serology in identifying the risk of parvovirus B19 transmission via blood or blood products. Combination of the Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument with the LightCycler Parvovirus B19 Quantification Kit provides a reliable and time-saving tool for sensitive and accurate detection of parvovirus B19 DNA. PMID:14736825

  20. Suited versus unsuited analog astronaut performance using the Aouda.X space suit simulator: the DELTA experiment of MARS2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Alexander; Ostkamp, Lutz; Paternesi, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Space suit simulators are used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) during Mars analog missions. Flight planning and EVA productivity require accurate time estimates of activities to be performed with such simulators, such as experiment execution or traverse walking. We present a benchmarking methodology for the Aouda.X space suit simulator of the Austrian Space Forum. By measuring and comparing the times needed to perform a set of 10 test activities with and without Aouda.X, an average time delay was derived in the form of a multiplicative factor. This statistical value (a second-over-second time ratio) is 1.30 and shows that operations in Aouda.X take on average a third longer than the same operations without the suit. We also show that activities predominantly requiring fine motor skills are associated with larger time delays (between 1.17 and 1.59) than those requiring short-distance locomotion or short-term muscle strain (between 1.10 and 1.16). The results of the DELTA experiment performed during the MARS2013 field mission increase analog mission planning reliability and thus EVA efficiency and productivity when using Aouda.X.

  1. FRHAM-TEX trademark cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit trademark manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek reg-sign suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects

  2. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  3. The PAUL Suit(©) : an experience of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Moore, Malcolm; Wenham, John

    2016-04-01

    An ageing population worldwide makes it increasingly important that health students understand issues that elderly people face and can provide empathic care to them. This teaching department in an isolated rural setting developed an interprofessional learning session to assist health students to understand issues of functional loss and social isolation that can affect elderly people. The Premature Ageing Unisex Leisure (PAUL) Suit(©) was developed as part of a 1-day learning session for undergraduate health students - including students of medicine, nursing and allied health - attending clinical placement in far-west New South Wales. The suit was developed locally and can be adjusted to simulate a wide range of functional losses in the wearer. Students undertake a range of daily tasks in the community while wearing the suit in the company of a student 'carer'. Over the past 4 years, approximately 140 students have participated in the simulation. Post-simulation evaluations report that students gain a greater understanding of some functional issues associated with ageing, and of the social isolation that can be associated with these. The experiential nature of the activity leads to some powerful insights. This activity is an innovative, experiential tool to deepen students understanding of issues related to ageing This activity is an innovative, experiential tool to deepen students understanding of issues relating to ageing. The interprofessional nature of the activity is an important factor in the success of the day, and produces a wide range of shared insights. The activity also enhances the partnerships between the university, the health service and the local community. Our experience supports the value of simulation in providing a deep learning opportunity in the area of ageing and disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. pcircle - A Suite of Scalable Parallel File System Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-01

    Most of the software related to file system are written for conventional local file system, they are serialized and can't take advantage of the benefit of a large scale parallel file system. "pcircle" software builds on top of ubiquitous MPI in cluster computing environment and "work-stealing" pattern to provide a scalable, high-performance suite of file system tools. In particular - it implemented parallel data copy and parallel data checksumming, with advanced features such as async progress report, checkpoint and restart, as well as integrity checking.

  5. The Chernobyl cloud: comments on a non-suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This article comments the non-suit decision taken by a Paris court at the benefit of Pierre Pellerin after a trial about his declarations concerning the Chernobyl cloud. It recalls the great number of controls of radioactive contamination levels performed in France at this time by the SCRPI with Mr Pellerin at its head. It states that French authorities behaved like other European authorities with respect to the contamination brought by the cloud, that no epidemiological study has ever revealed pathologies which could be due to the cloud, and that the increase of cancers in Corsica is not proved

  6. OpenMP 4.5 Validation and Verification Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-15

    OpenMP, a directive-based programming API, introduce directives for accelerator devices that programmers are starting to use more frequently in production codes. To make sure OpenMP directives work correctly across architectures, it is critical to have a mechanism that tests for an implementation's conformance to the OpenMP standard. This testing process can uncover ambiguities in the OpenMP specification, which helps compiler developers and users make a better use of the standard. We fill this gap through our validation and verification test suite that focuses on the offload directives available in OpenMP 4.5.

  7. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Koudelka, Tomas; Tholey, Andreas; Dreves, Alexander

    2017-07-15

    AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its 14 C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known 14 C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1μg and its 14 C content was 0.43±0.01 F 14 C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 14 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  9. Anesthesia and the pediatric cardiac catheterization suite: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer E; Lin, Erica P; Alexy, Ryan; Aronson, Lori A

    2015-02-01

    Advances in technology over the last couple of decades have caused a shift in pediatric cardiac catheterization from a primary focus on diagnostics to innovative therapeutic interventions. These improvements allow patients a wider range of nonsurgical options for treatment of congenital heart disease. However, these therapeutic modalities can entail higher risk in an already complex patient population, compounded by the added challenges inherent to the environment of the cardiac catheterization suite. Anesthesiologists caring for children with congenital heart disease must understand not only the pathophysiology of the disease but also the effects the anesthetics and interventions have on the patient in order to provide a safe perioperative course. It is the aim of this article to review the latest catheterization modalities offered to patients with congenital heart disease, describe the unique challenges presented in the cardiac catheterization suite, list the most common complications encountered during catheterization and finally, to review the literature regarding different anesthetic drugs used in the catheterization lab. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. SSAGES: Software Suite for Advanced General Ensemble Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; Colón, Yamil J.; Helfferich, Julian; Sikora, Benjamin J.; Bezik, Cody; Chu, Weiwei; Giberti, Federico; Guo, Ashley Z.; Jiang, Xikai; Lequieu, Joshua; Li, Jiyuan; Moller, Joshua; Quevillon, Michael J.; Rahimi, Mohammad; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Reid, Daniel R.; Sevgen, Emre; Thapar, Vikram; Webb, Michael A.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular simulation has emerged as an essential tool for modern-day research, but obtaining proper results and making reliable conclusions from simulations requires adequate sampling of the system under consideration. To this end, a variety of methods exist in the literature that can enhance sampling considerably, and increasingly sophisticated, effective algorithms continue to be developed at a rapid pace. Implementation of these techniques, however, can be challenging for experts and non-experts alike. There is a clear need for software that provides rapid, reliable, and easy access to a wide range of advanced sampling methods and that facilitates implementation of new techniques as they emerge. Here we present SSAGES, a publicly available Software Suite for Advanced General Ensemble Simulations designed to interface with multiple widely used molecular dynamics simulations packages. SSAGES allows facile application of a variety of enhanced sampling techniques—including adaptive biasing force, string methods, and forward flux sampling—that extract meaningful free energy and transition path data from all-atom and coarse-grained simulations. A noteworthy feature of SSAGES is a user-friendly framework that facilitates further development and implementation of new methods and collective variables. In this work, the use of SSAGES is illustrated in the context of simple representative applications involving distinct methods and different collective variables that are available in the current release of the suite. The code may be found at: https://github.com/MICCoM/SSAGES-public.

  11. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the second time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby waves after donning his launch and entry suit while a suit tech adjusts his boot. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS- 93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  12. STS-93 M.S. Hawley suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.)gets help donning his launch and entry suit from a suit tech. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  13. SSAGES: Software Suite for Advanced General Ensemble Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidky, Hythem [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA; Colón, Yamil J. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering and Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA; Helfferich, Julian [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Steinbuch Center for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany; Sikora, Benjamin J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA; Bezik, Cody [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Chu, Weiwei [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Giberti, Federico [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Guo, Ashley Z. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Jiang, Xikai [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lequieu, Joshua [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Li, Jiyuan [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Moller, Joshua [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Quevillon, Michael J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA; Rahimi, Mohammad [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Rathee, Vikramjit S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA; Reid, Daniel R. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Sevgen, Emre [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Thapar, Vikram [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Webb, Michael A. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering and Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA; Whitmer, Jonathan K. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA; de Pablo, Juan J. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering and Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA

    2018-01-28

    Molecular simulation has emerged as an essential tool for modern-day research, but obtaining proper results and making reliable conclusions from simulations requires adequate sampling of the system under consideration. To this end, a variety of methods exist in the literature that can enhance sampling considerably, and increasingly sophisticated, effective algorithms continue to be developed at a rapid pace. Implementation of these techniques, however, can be challenging for experts and non-experts alike. There is a clear need for software that provides rapid, reliable, and easy access to a wide range of advanced sampling methods, and that facilitates implementation of new techniques as they emerge. Here we present SSAGES, a publicly available Software Suite for Advanced General Ensemble Simulations designed to interface with multiple widely used molecular dynamics simulations packages. SSAGES allows facile application of a variety of enhanced sampling techniques—including adaptive biasing force, string methods, and forward flux sampling—that extract meaningful free energy and transition path data from all-atom and coarse grained simulations. A noteworthy feature of SSAGES is a user-friendly framework that facilitates further development and implementation of new methods and collective variables. In this work, the use of SSAGES is illustrated in the context of simple representative applications involving distinct methods and different collective variables that are available in the current release of the suite.

  14. Tier-3 Monitoring Software Suite (T3MON) proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Korenkov, V; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities concentrated so far in the “central” part of the computing system of the experiment, namely the first 3 tiers (CERN Tier0, the 10 Tier1s centres and the 60+ Tier2s). This is a coherent system to perform data processing and management on a global scale and host (re)processing, simulation activities down to group and user analysis. Many ATLAS Institutes and National Communities built (or have plans to build) Tier-3 facilities. The definition of Tier-3 concept has been outlined (REFERENCE). Tier-3 centres consist of non-pledged resources mostly dedicated for the data analysis by the geographically close or local scientific groups. Tier-3 sites comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, which would render application of Tier-2 monitoring systems useless. This document describes a strategy to develop a software suite for monitoring of the Tier3 sites. This software suite will enable local monitoring of the Tier3 sites and the global vie...

  15. Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

  16. A conceptual precipitation-runoff modeling suite: Model selection, calibration and predictive uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Jon Smith

    2008-01-01

    In Montana and much of the Rocky Mountain West, the single most important parameter in forecasting the controls on regional water resources is snowpack. Despite the heightened importance of snowpack, few studies have considered the representation of uncertainty in coupled snowmelt/hydrologic conceptual models. Uncertainty estimation provides a direct interpretation of...

  17. On Predicting the Leeway and Drift of A Survival Suit Clad Person In-Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    1977; Morgan 1978, Scobie and Thompson, 1979; Osmer, Edwards, and Breitler, 1982; and Nash and Willcox, 1985) on drifting objects. Leeway is defined...34, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 26 PP. Scobie , R.W., and D.L. Thompson, 1979. "Life Raft Study", U.S. Coast Guard, Oceanographic Unit Technical

  18. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Blackledge, Christopher; Ferrer, Mike; Margerum, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The designers of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) utilize an intensive simulation program in order to predict the launch and landing characteristics of the Crew Impact Attenuation System (CIAS). The CIAS is the energy absorbing strut concept that dampens loads to levels sustainable by the crew during landing and consists of the crew module seat pallet that accommodates four to six seated astronauts. An important parameter required for proper dynamic modeling of the CIAS is knowledge of the suited center of mass (COM) variations within the crew population. Significant center of mass variations across suited crew configurations would amplify the inertial effects of the pallet and potentially create unacceptable crew loading during launch and landing. Established suited, whole-body, and posture-based mass properties were not available due to the uncertainty of the final CEV seat posture and suit hardware configurations. While unsuited segmental center of mass values can be obtained via regression equations from previous studies, building them into a model that was posture dependent with custom anthropometry and integrated suit components proved cumbersome and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of posture, suit components, and the expected range of anthropometry on the center of mass of a seated individual. Several elements are required for the COM calculation of a suited human in a seated position: anthropometry; body segment mass; suit component mass; suit component location relative to the body; and joint angles defining the seated posture. Anthropometry and body segment masses used in this study were taken from a selection of three-dimensional human body models, called boundary manikins, which were developed in a previous project. These boundary manikins represent the critical anthropometric dimension extremes for the anticipated astronaut population. Six male manikins and 6 female manikins, representing a

  19. A comparison of two Shuttle launch and entry suits - Reach envelope, isokinetic strength, and treadmill tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Lauren E.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1992-01-01

    A quantification has been conducted of any existing differences between the performance, in operational conditions, of the Space Shuttle crew Launch Entry Suit (LES) and the new Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). While LES is a partial-pressure suit, the ACES system which is being considered as a replacement for LES is a full-pressure suit. Three tests have been conducted with six subjects to ascertain the suits' reach envelope, strength, and treadmill performance. No significant operational differences were found between the two suit designs.

  20. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  1. Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

    2008-10-10

    This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of

  2. Could FDA approval of pre-exposure prophylaxis make a difference? A qualitative study of PrEP acceptability and FDA perceptions among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    The FDA has approved tenofovir-emtricitabine for use as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, but it is unknown how approval may affect PrEP acceptability among US men who have sex with men. We conducted 8 focus groups among 38 Rhode Island MSM, including 3 groups among 16 male sex workers and 5 groups among 22 men in the general MSM community. Participants reported wide-ranging beliefs regarding consequences and meanings of FDA approval. Some participants would not use PrEP without approval, while others perceived approval as irrelevant or less significant than other sources of information. Our results suggest that FDA approval sends a signal that directly shapes PrEP acceptability among some MSM, while indirect influences of approval may affect uptake by others. Efforts to educate MSM about PrEP can increase acceptability by incorporating information about FDA approval, and outreach strategies should consider how this information may factor into personal decisions about PrEP use.

  3. Modeling Coronal Mass Ejections with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Wu, S. T.; Yalim, M. S.; Kryukov, I. A.; Colella, P. C.; Van Straalen, B.

    2017-01-01

    The solar eruptions and interacting solar wind streams are key drivers of geomagnetic storms and various related space weather disturbances that may have hazardous effects on the space-borne and ground-based technological systems as well as on human health. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their interplanetary counterparts, interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), belong to the strongest disturbances and therefore are of great importance for the space weather predictions. In this paper we show a few examples of how adaptive mesh refinement makes it possible to resolve the complex CME structure and its evolution in time while a CME propagates from the inner boundary to Earth. Simulations are performed with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS). (paper)

  4. A suite of standards for radiation monitors and their revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kimio

    1991-01-01

    A suite of standards for radiation monitors applied in nuclear facilities in Japan was compiled mainly by Health Physicists in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development (PNC) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and issued in 1971 as 'The Standard for Radiation Monitors'. PNC facilities such as Reprocessing Plant and Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility, as well as other nuclear industries have applied the standard, and contributed improvement of practical maintenability and availability of the radiation monitors. Meanwhile, the radiation monitors have remarkably progressed in its application and size of the monitors is growing. Furthermore, manufacturing techniques have significantly progressed especially in the field of system concepts and electronics elements. These progresses require revision of the standards. 'The Standard for Radiation Monitors' has been revised considering the problems in practical application and data processing capability. Considerations are given to keep compatibility of old and new modules. (author)

  5. User Guide for the STAYSL PNNL Suite of Software Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-27

    The STAYSL PNNL software suite provides a set of tools for working with neutron activation rates measured in a nuclear fission reactor, an accelerator-based neutron source, or any neutron field to determine the neutron flux spectrum through a generalized least-squares approach. This process is referred to as neutron spectral adjustment since the preferred approach is to use measured data to adjust neutron spectra provided by neutron physics calculations. The input data consist of the reaction rates based on measured activities, an initial estimate of the neutron flux spectrum, neutron activation cross sections and their associated uncertainties (covariances), and relevant correction factors. The output consists of the adjusted neutron flux spectrum and associated covariance matrix, which is useful for neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations.

  6. Court rules against failed viatical firm in investor suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A Federal appeals court has revived a claim against Dignity Partners Inc., a viatical business, and offshoot of a financial-services firm. Dignity Partners operated by buying the life insurance policies of terminally ill people. The company was charged with making false and misleading statements in its prospectus for an initial public stock offering. Five months later, the company announced that it would not accept new customers with AIDS, a group which represented 95 percent of its accounts at that time. The company had information from researchers and clinicians that the introduction of protease inhibitors would greatly increase life expectancy for its customers and would reduce company profits. This information was not generally available to potential investors. The suit against the company alleges violations of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Exchange Act of 1934, both which govern stock trading.

  7. STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  8. STS-93 Mission Specialist Cady Coleman suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) dons her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Coleman, and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  9. STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Commander Eileen M. Collins tries on her helmet with her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  10. STS-93 Mission Specialist Hawley suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, during final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) waves after donning his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  11. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the third time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby pulls on his glove, part of his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  12. STS-92 Pilot Pam Melroy suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-92 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy smiles during suit check before heading out to the Astrovan for the ride to Launch Pad 39A. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  13. The Characterization of Biosignatures in Caves Using an Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, Kyle; Chanover, Nancy J.; Getty, Stephanie; Voelz, David G.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; McMillan, Nancy; Xiao, Xifeng; Boston, Penelope J.; Li, Xiang; McAdam, Amy; Glenar, David A.; Chavez, Arriana

    2017-12-01

    The search for life and habitable environments on other Solar System bodies is a major motivator for planetary exploration. Due to the difficulty and significance of detecting extant or extinct extraterrestrial life in situ, several independent measurements from multiple instrument techniques will bolster the community's confidence in making any such claim. We demonstrate the detection of subsurface biosignatures using a suite of instrument techniques including IR reflectance spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We focus our measurements on subterranean calcium carbonate field samples, whose biosignatures are analogous to those that might be expected on some high-interest astrobiology targets. In this work, we discuss the feasibility and advantages of using each of the aforementioned instrument techniques for the in situ search for biosignatures and present results on the autonomous characterization of biosignatures using multivariate statistical analysis techniques.

  14. Comparing apples and oranges: the Community Intercomparison Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutgens, Nick; Stier, Philip; Kershaw, Philip; Pascoe, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Visual representation and comparison of geoscientific datasets presents a huge challenge due to the large variety of file formats and spatio-temporal sampling of data (be they observations or simulations). The Community Intercomparison Suite attempts to greatly simplify these tasks for users by offering an intelligent but simple command line tool for visualisation and colocation of diverse datasets. In addition, CIS can subset and aggregate large datasets into smaller more manageable datasets. Our philosophy is to remove as much as possible the need for specialist knowledge by the user of the structure of a dataset. The colocation of observations with model data is as simple as: "cis col ::" which will resample the simulation data to the spatio-temporal sampling of the observations, contingent on a few user-defined options that specify a resampling kernel. As an example, we apply CIS to a case study of biomass burning aerosol from the Congo. Remote sensing observations, in-situe observations and model data are shown in various plots, with the purpose of either comparing different datasets or integrating them into a single comprehensive picture. CIS can deal with both gridded and ungridded datasets of 2, 3 or 4 spatio-temporal dimensions. It can handle different spatial coordinates (e.g. longitude or distance, altitude or pressure level). CIS supports both HDF, netCDF and ASCII file formats. The suite is written in Python with entirely publicly available open source dependencies. Plug-ins allow a high degree of user-moddability. A web-based developer hub includes a manual and simple examples. CIS is developed as open source code by a specialist IT company under supervision of scientists from the University of Oxford and the Centre of Environmental Data Archival as part of investment in the JASMIN superdatacluster facility.

  15. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  16. Space Suit Simulator (S3) for Partial Gravity EVA Experimentation and Training, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressurized space suits impose high joint torques on the wearer, reducing mobility for upper and lower body motions. Using actual space suits in training or...

  17. Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot of the Gemini 8 space flight, sits in the Launch Complex 16 trailer during suiting up operations for the Gemini 8 mission. Suit technician Jim Garrepy assists.

  18. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  19. Development of Whole Slide Imaging on Smartphones and Evaluation With ThinPrep Cytology Test Samples: Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuoxin; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yu-Biao; Zheng, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Background The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. Objective The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version. It should also provide insights into future high-resolution real-time feedback medical imaging apps on Android and invoke the awareness of smartphone manufacturers for collaboration. The second aim of this study was to further verify the clinical value of sWSI with cytology samples. This type is different from the frozen section samples in that they require finer detail on the cellular level. Methods During sWSI development on Android, it was discovered that many models do not support uncompressed camera pixel data with sufficient resolution and full field of view. The proportion of models supporting the optimal format was estimated in a test on 200 mainstream Android models. Other factors, including slower processing speed and camera preview freezing, also led to inferior performance of sWSI on Android compared with the iOS version. The processing speed was mostly determined by the central processing unit frequency in theory, and the relationship was investigated in the 200-model simulation experiment with physical devices. The camera preview freezing was caused by the lag between triggering photo capture and resuming preview. In the clinical evaluation, 100 ThinPrep cytology test samples covering 6 diseases were scanned with sWSI and compared against the ground truth of optical microscopy. Results Among the tested Android models, only 3.0% (6/200) provided an optimal data format, meeting all criteria of quality and

  20. Development of Whole Slide Imaging on Smartphones and Evaluation With ThinPrep Cytology Test Samples: Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ning; Peng, Xing-Chun; Ma, Shuoxin; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yu-Biao; Zheng, Jun; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2018-04-04

    The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version. It should also provide insights into future high-resolution real-time feedback medical imaging apps on Android and invoke the awareness of smartphone manufacturers for collaboration. The second aim of this study was to further verify the clinical value of sWSI with cytology samples. This type is different from the frozen section samples in that they require finer detail on the cellular level. During sWSI development on Android, it was discovered that many models do not support uncompressed camera pixel data with sufficient resolution and full field of view. The proportion of models supporting the optimal format was estimated in a test on 200 mainstream Android models. Other factors, including slower processing speed and camera preview freezing, also led to inferior performance of sWSI on Android compared with the iOS version. The processing speed was mostly determined by the central processing unit frequency in theory, and the relationship was investigated in the 200-model simulation experiment with physical devices. The camera preview freezing was caused by the lag between triggering photo capture and resuming preview. In the clinical evaluation, 100 ThinPrep cytology test samples covering 6 diseases were scanned with sWSI and compared against the ground truth of optical microscopy. Among the tested Android models, only 3.0% (6/200) provided an optimal data format, meeting all criteria of quality and efficiency. The image-processing speed

  1. The Danish STR sequence database: duplicate typing of 363 Danes with the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussing, C; Bytyci, R; Huber, C; Morling, N; Børsting, C

    2018-05-24

    Some STR loci have internal sequence variations, which are not revealed by the standard STR typing methods used in forensic genetics (PCR and fragment length analysis by capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Typing of STRs with next-generation sequencing (NGS) uncovers the sequence variation in the repeat region and in the flanking regions. In this study, 363 Danish individuals were typed for 56 STRs (26 autosomal STRs, 24 Y-STRs, and 6 X-STRs) using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit to establish a Danish STR sequence database. Increased allelic diversity was observed in 34 STRs by the PCR-NGS assay. The largest increases were found in DYS389II and D12S391, where the numbers of sequenced alleles were around four times larger than the numbers of alleles determined by repeat length alone. Thirteen SNPs and one InDel were identified in the flanking regions of 12 STRs. Furthermore, 36 single positions and five longer stretches in the STR flanking regions were found to have dubious genotyping quality. The combined match probability of the 26 autosomal STRs was 10,000 times larger using the PCR-NGS assay than by using PCR-CE. The typical paternity indices for trios and duos were 500 and 100 times larger, respectively, than those obtained with PCR-CE. The assay also amplified 94 SNPs selected for human identification. Eleven of these loci were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the Danish population, most likely because the minimum threshold for allele calling (30 reads) in the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software was too low and frequent allele dropouts were not detected.

  2. Development of an online men’s suits customizing system using heuristic procedure for wheelchair users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Minseok; Yang, Chuneun; You, Heecheon; Park, Kwangae; Lee, W.

    2016-01-01

    An online suit-customizing system for the special accessibility needs of wheelchair users should be developed because the demand for business suits by wheelchair users involved in economic activities has increased. This study
    develops a user interface an online customizing system for men's suits

  3. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  4. Cervical histology after routine ThinPrep or SurePath liquid-based cytology and computer-assisted reading in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Rask, Johanne; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers, technological phases were identified by slide preparation, reading technique, and triage of borderline cytology. Trends in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were an indicator of the technology's relative sensitivity, and trends in false-positive tests......BACKGROUND: We compared the sensitivity and specificity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) and computer-assisted reading for SurePath/FocalPoint and ThinPrep with those of manually read conventional cytology in routine cervical screening in four Danish laboratories. METHODS: Using data from five...

  5. Using Piezoelectric Ceramics for Dust Mitigation of Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Heather K.

    2004-01-01

    The particles that make up moon dust and Mars soil can be hazardous to an astronaut s health if not handled properly. In the near future, while exploring outer space, astronauts plan to wander the surfaces of unknown planets. During these explorations, dust and soil will cling to their space suits and become imbedded in the fabric. The astronauts will track moon dust and mars soil back into their living quarters. This not only will create a mess with millions of tiny air-born particles floating around, but will also be dangerous in the case that the fine particles are breathed in and become trapped in an astronaut s lungs. research center are investigating ways to remove these particles from space suits. This problem is very difficult due to the nature of the particles: They are extremely small and have jagged edges which can easily latch onto the fibers of the fabric. For the past summer, I have been involved in researching the potential problems, investigating ways to remove the particles, and conducting experiments to validate the techniques. The current technique under investigation uses piezoelectric ceramics imbedded in the fabric that vibrate and shake the particles free. The particles will be left on the planet s surface or collected a vacuum to be disposed of later. The ceramics vibrate when connected to an AC voltage supply and create a small scale motion similar to what people use at the beach to shake sand off of a beach towel. Because the particles are so small, similar to volcanic ash, caution must be taken to make sure that this technique does not further inbed them in the fabric and make removal more difficult. Only a very precise range of frequency and voltage will produce a suitable vibration. My summer project involved many experiments to determine the correct range. Analysis involved hands on experience with oscilloscopes, amplifiers, piezoelectrics, a high speed camera, microscopes and computers. perfect this technology. Someday, vibration to

  6. Could FDA approval of pre-exposure prophylaxis make a difference? A qualitative study of PrEP acceptability and FDA perceptions among men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    The FDA has approved tenofovir-emtricitabine for use as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, but it is unknown how approval may affect PrEP acceptability among US men who have sex with men. We conducted 8 focus groups among 38 Rhode Island MSM, including 3 groups among 16 male sex workers and 5 groups among 22 men in the general MSM community. Participants reported wide-ranging beliefs regarding consequences and meanings of FDA approval. Some participants would not use PrEP without approval, while o...

  7. Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

  8. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  10. STS-95 Mission Specialist Duque suits up during TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency, suits up in the Operations and Checkout Building prior to his trip to Launch Pad 39-B. Duque and the rest of the STS-95 crew are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated main engine cutoff. The other crew members are Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai (M.D., Ph.D.), representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Following the TCDT, the crew will be returning to Houston for final flight preparations.

  11. SECIMTools: a suite of metabolomics data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Alexander S; Ibarra, Miguel; Moskalenko, Oleksandr; Fear, Justin M; Gerken, Joseph; Mi, Xinlei; Ashrafi, Ali; Morse, Alison M; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2018-04-20

    Metabolomics has the promise to transform the area of personalized medicine with the rapid development of high throughput technology for untargeted analysis of metabolites. Open access, easy to use, analytic tools that are broadly accessible to the biological community need to be developed. While technology used in metabolomics varies, most metabolomics studies have a set of features identified. Galaxy is an open access platform that enables scientists at all levels to interact with big data. Galaxy promotes reproducibility by saving histories and enabling the sharing workflows among scientists. SECIMTools (SouthEast Center for Integrated Metabolomics) is a set of Python applications that are available both as standalone tools and wrapped for use in Galaxy. The suite includes a comprehensive set of quality control metrics (retention time window evaluation and various peak evaluation tools), visualization techniques (hierarchical cluster heatmap, principal component analysis, modular modularity clustering), basic statistical analysis methods (partial least squares - discriminant analysis, analysis of variance, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test), advanced classification methods (random forest, support vector machines), and advanced variable selection tools (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator LASSO and Elastic Net). SECIMTools leverages the Galaxy platform and enables integrated workflows for metabolomics data analysis made from building blocks designed for easy use and interpretability. Standard data formats and a set of utilities allow arbitrary linkages between tools to encourage novel workflow designs. The Galaxy framework enables future data integration for metabolomics studies with other omics data.

  12. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suits Up for NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suiting up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  13. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suiting Up For NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suiting up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  14. Astronaut Anna Fisher Suited Up For NBS Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher suited up for training on a mockup of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  15. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  16. eXtended CASA Line Analysis Software Suite (XCLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T.; Endres, C.; Schilke, P.

    2017-02-01

    The eXtended CASA Line Analysis Software Suite (XCLASS) is a toolbox for the Common Astronomy Software Applications package (CASA) containing new functions for modeling interferometric and single dish data. Among the tools is the myXCLASS program which calculates synthetic spectra by solving the radiative transfer equation for an isothermal object in one dimension, whereas the finite source size and dust attenuation are considered as well. Molecular data required by the myXCLASS program are taken from an embedded SQLite3 database containing entries from the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy (CDMS) and JPL using the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC) portal. Additionally, the toolbox provides an interface for the model optimizer package Modeling and Analysis Generic Interface for eXternal numerical codes (MAGIX), which helps to find the best description of observational data using myXCLASS (or another external model program), that is, finding the parameter set that most closely reproduces the data. http://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/projects/schilke/myXCLASSInterface A copy of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A7

  17. California court says disability benefits do not preclude suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A California appeals court reversed a lower court decision barring a worker from pursuing an HIV discrimination claim against his employer. [Name removed] claims that [name removed] violated California's Fair Employment and Housing Act when it rescinded accommodations that the bank had made earlier for HIV-related medical needs. The accommodations included a compressed work week and one day of telecommuting per week, which [name removed] performed well enough to earn a promotion. With a change in management, the accommodations were canceled, ostensibly to control costs. The lower court ruled that [name removed] was barred from suing his former employer because of statements on his disability insurance application. However, the appeals court ruled that [name removed]'s statements on the form were honest and did not preclude him from future litigation. Myron Quon, an attorney with Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund in Los Angeles, noted that [name removed]'s deft handling of the questions was vital to the success of the suit. [Name removed] had made comments and notations on the form, rather than just checking the appropriate yes or no boxes, and noted that he could return to work with a reasonable accommodation. Others applying for disability are cautioned to do the same to preserve their legal rights.

  18. A wearable exoskeleton suit for motion assistance to paralysed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Zhong, Chun-Hao; Zhao, Xuan; Ma, Hao; Guan, Xiao; Li, Xi; Liang, Feng-Yan; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu; Qin, Ling; Law, Sheung-Wai; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-10-01

    The number of patients paralysed due to stroke, spinal cord injury, or other related diseases is increasing. In order to improve the physical and mental health of these patients, robotic devices that can help them to regain the mobility to stand and walk are highly desirable. The aim of this study is to develop a wearable exoskeleton suit to help paralysed patients regain the ability to stand up/sit down (STS) and walk. A lower extremity exoskeleton named CUHK-EXO was developed with considerations of ergonomics, user-friendly interface, safety, and comfort. The mechanical structure, human-machine interface, reference trajectories of the exoskeleton hip and knee joints, and control architecture of CUHK-EXO were designed. Clinical trials with a paralysed patient were performed to validate the effectiveness of the whole system design. With the assistance provided by CUHK-EXO, the paralysed patient was able to STS and walk. As designed, the actual joint angles of the exoskeleton well followed the designed reference trajectories, and assistive torques generated from the exoskeleton actuators were able to support the patient's STS and walking motions. The whole system design of CUHK-EXO is effective and can be optimised for clinical application. The exoskeleton can provide proper assistance in enabling paralysed patients to STS and walk.

  19. Freud: a software suite for high-throughput simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Eric; Spellings, Matthew; Anderson, Joshua; Glotzer, Sharon

    Computer simulation is an indispensable tool for the study of a wide variety of systems. As simulations scale to fill petascale and exascale supercomputing clusters, so too does the size of the data produced, as well as the difficulty in analyzing these data. We present Freud, an analysis software suite for efficient analysis of simulation data. Freud makes no assumptions about the system being analyzed, allowing for general analysis methods to be applied to nearly any type of simulation. Freud includes standard analysis methods such as the radial distribution function, as well as new methods including the potential of mean force and torque and local crystal environment analysis. Freud combines a Python interface with fast, parallel C + + analysis routines to run efficiently on laptops, workstations, and supercomputing clusters. Data analysis on clusters reduces data transfer requirements, a prohibitive cost for petascale computing. Used in conjunction with simulation software, Freud allows for smart simulations that adapt to the current state of the system, enabling the study of phenomena such as nucleation and growth, intelligent investigation of phases and phase transitions, and determination of effective pair potentials.

  20. A Coupled Calculation Suite for Atucha II Operational Transients Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzantini, O.; Schivo, M.; Cesare, J.D.; Garbero, R.; Rivero, M.; Theler, G.

    2011-01-01

    While more than a decade ago reactor and thermal hydraulic calculations were tedious and often needed a lot of approximations and simplifications that forced the designers to take a very conservative approach, computational resources available nowadays allow engineers to cope with increasingly complex problems in a reasonable time. The use of best-estimate calculations provides tools to justify convenient engineering margins, reduces costs, and maximises economic benefits. In this direction, a suite of coupled best-estimate specific calculation codes was developed to analyse the behaviour of the Atucha II nuclear power plant in Argentina. The developed tool includes three-dimensional spatial neutron kinetics, a channel-level model of the core thermal hydraulics with subcooled boiling correlations, a one-dimensional model of the primary and secondary circuits including pumps, steam generators, heat exchangers, and the turbine with all their associated control loops, and a complete simulation of the reactor control, limitation, and protection system working in closed-loop conditions as a faithful representation of the real power plant. In the present paper, a description of the coupling scheme between the codes involved is given, and some examples of their application to Atucha II are shown

  1. STS-93 Commander Collins suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins gets help donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  2. STS-93 Commander Collins waves after suiting up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During final launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves after donning her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 launch attempt was scrubbed at the T-7 second mark in the countdown, the launch was rescheduled for Thursday, July 22, at 12:28 a.m. EDT. The target landing date is July 26, 1999, at 11:24 p.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  3. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  4. The JPEG XT suite of standards: status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Thomas; Bruylants, Tim; Schelkens, Peter; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-09-01

    The JPEG standard has known an enormous market adoption. Daily, billions of pictures are created, stored and exchanged in this format. The JPEG committee acknowledges this success and spends continued efforts in maintaining and expanding the standard specifications. JPEG XT is a standardization effort targeting the extension of the JPEG features by enabling support for high dynamic range imaging, lossless and near-lossless coding, and alpha channel coding, while also guaranteeing backward and forward compatibility with the JPEG legacy format. This paper gives an overview of the current status of the JPEG XT standards suite. It discusses the JPEG legacy specification, and details how higher dynamic range support is facilitated both for integer and floating-point color representations. The paper shows how JPEG XT's support for lossless and near-lossless coding of low and high dynamic range images is achieved in combination with backward compatibility to JPEG legacy. In addition, the extensible boxed-based JPEG XT file format on which all following and future extensions of JPEG will be based is introduced. This paper also details how the lossy and lossless representations of alpha channels are supported to allow coding transparency information and arbitrarily shaped images. Finally, we conclude by giving prospects on upcoming JPEG standardization initiative JPEG Privacy & Security, and a number of other possible extensions in JPEG XT.

  5. Improvements to the APBS biomolecular solvation software suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurrus, Elizabeth; Engel, Dave; Star, Keith; Monson, Kyle; Brandi, Juan; Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Wilson, Leighton; Chen, Jiahui; Liles, Karina; Chun, Minju; Li, Peter; Gohara, David W; Dolinsky, Todd; Konecny, Robert; Koes, David R; Nielsen, Jens Erik; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Geng, Weihua; Krasny, Robert; Wei, Guo-Wei; Holst, Michael J; McCammon, J Andrew; Baker, Nathan A

    2018-01-01

    The Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver (APBS) software was developed to solve the equations of continuum electrostatics for large biomolecular assemblages that have provided impact in the study of a broad range of chemical, biological, and biomedical applications. APBS addresses the three key technology challenges for understanding solvation and electrostatics in biomedical applications: accurate and efficient models for biomolecular solvation and electrostatics, robust and scalable software for applying those theories to biomolecular systems, and mechanisms for sharing and analyzing biomolecular electrostatics data in the scientific community. To address new research applications and advancing computational capabilities, we have continually updated APBS and its suite of accompanying software since its release in 2001. In this article, we discuss the models and capabilities that have recently been implemented within the APBS software package including a Poisson-Boltzmann analytical and a semi-analytical solver, an optimized boundary element solver, a geometry-based geometric flow solvation model, a graph theory-based algorithm for determining pK a values, and an improved web-based visualization tool for viewing electrostatics. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  6. A suite of benchmark and challenge problems for enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark; Fu, Pengcheng; McClure, Mark; Danko, George; Elsworth, Derek; Sonnenthal, Eric; Kelkar, Sharad; Podgorney, Robert

    2017-11-06

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems involved two phases of research, stimulation, development, and circulation in two separate reservoirs. The challenge problems had specific questions to be answered via numerical simulation in three topical areas: 1) reservoir creation/stimulation, 2) reactive and passive transport, and 3) thermal recovery. Whereas the benchmark class of problems were designed to test capabilities for modeling coupled processes under strictly specified conditions, the stated objective for the challenge class of problems was to demonstrate what new understanding of the Fenton Hill experiments could be realized via the application of

  7. A cost and time analysis of laryngology procedures in the endoscopy suite versus the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillel, Alexander T; Ochsner, Matthew C; Johns, Michael M; Klein, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    To assess the costs, charges, reimbursement, and efficiency of performing awake laryngology procedures in an endoscopy suite (ES) compared with like procedures performed in the operating room (OR). Retrospective review of billing records. Cost, charges, and reimbursements for the hospital, surgeon, and anesthesiologist were compared between ES injection laryngoplasty and laser excision procedures and matched case controls in the OR. Time spent in 1) the preoperative unit, 2) the operating or endoscopy suite, and 3) recovery unit were compared between OR and ES procedures. Hospital expenses were significantly less for ES procedures when compared to OR procedures. Reimbursement was similar for ES and OR injection laryngoplasty, though greater for OR laser excisions. Net balance (reimbursement-expenses) was greater for ES procedures. A predictive model of payer costs over a 3-year period showed similar costs for ES and OR laser procedures and reduced costs for ES compared to OR injection laryngoplasty. Times spent preoperatively and the procedure were significantly less for ES procedures. For individual laryngology procedures, the ES reduces time and costs compared to the OR, increasing otolaryngologist and hospital efficiency. This reveals cost and time savings of ES injection laryngoplasty, which occurs at a similar frequency as OR injection laryngoplasty. Given the increased frequency for ES laser procedures, total costs are similar for ES and OR laser excision of papilloma, which usually require repeated procedures. When regulated office space is unavailable, endoscopy rooms represent an alternative setting for unsedated laryngology procedures. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1385-1389, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Establishing diagnostic cut-off criteria for the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test through validation against the Amplicor DNA test v1.5 for infant diagnosis using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jean; Preiser, Wolfgang; van Zyl, Gert U

    2012-02-01

    As antibody testing cannot confirm HIV-1 infection in children less than 18 months of age, diagnosis in these children depends on nucleic acid testing. The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) (CAP/CTM, Roche(®) Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, NJ) HIV-1 Qualitative test is a total nucleic acid real-time PCR assay utilising whole EDTA blood or dried blood spots (DBS), which recently replaced the Roche(®) AMPLICOR(®) DNA test v1.5 (Amplicor) as the diagnostic HIV PCR assay in many South African laboratories. For the Amplicor assay, stringent diagnostic criteria were previously formulated for the local population, and a comparison reported the CAP/CTM's sensitivity at 99.7% and specificity at 100% for both sample types compared to these Amplicor criteria. To validate the assay prior to introduction in our laboratory and to define stringent diagnostic cut-off criteria. Whole EDTA blood samples from patients younger than 18 months sent for routine HIV-1 diagnosis were tested by Amplicor, and positive results were confirmed from DBS. CAP/CTM assays were subsequently performed from DBS. The CAP/CTM had a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 97.1%, but a positive predictive value (PPV) of only 78.7% compared to the Amplicor assay. Samples positive by CAP/CTM but negative by Amplicor displayed poor amplification curves compared to concordant positive samples. Upon re-testing those with sufficient material available by CAP/CTM, all showed negative results. The decreased PPV may either be due to false positive CAP/CTM results, or increased sensitivity compared to the Amplicor assay. Criteria were formulated for defining presumed false-positive results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. VOLCWORKS: A suite for optimization of hazards mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Granados, H.; Ramírez Guzmán, R.; Villareal Benítez, J. L.; García Sánchez, T.

    2012-04-01

    Making hazards maps is a process linking basic science, applied science and engineering for the benefit of the society. The methodologies for hazards maps' construction have evolved enormously together with the tools that allow the forecasting of the behavior of the materials produced by different eruptive processes. However, in spite of the development of tools and evolution of methodologies, the utility of hazards maps has not changed: prevention and mitigation of volcanic disasters. Integration of different tools for simulation of different processes for a single volcano is a challenge to be solved using software tools including processing, simulation and visualization techniques, and data structures in order to build up a suit that helps in the construction process starting from the integration of the geological data, simulations and simplification of the output to design a hazards/scenario map. Scientific visualization is a powerful tool to explore and gain insight into complex data from instruments and simulations. The workflow from data collection, quality control and preparation for simulations, to achieve visual and appropriate presentation is a process that is usually disconnected, using in most of the cases different applications for each of the needed processes, because it requires many tools that are not built for the solution of a specific problem, or were developed by research groups to solve particular tasks, but disconnected. In volcanology, due to its complexity, groups typically examine only one aspect of the phenomenon: ash dispersal, laharic flows, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and ballistic projectile ejection, among others. However, when studying the hazards associated to the activity of a volcano, it is important to analyze all the processes comprehensively, especially for communication of results to the end users: decision makers and planners. In order to solve this problem and connect different parts of a workflow we are developing the

  10. Developing defensive aids suite technology on a virtual battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; DeMontigny-Leboeuf, Annie; Palmarini, Marc; Cantin, Andre

    2002-07-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment are limiting the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. The integration of various technologies into a Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) can be designed and analyzed by combining field trials and laboratory data with modeling and simulation. MATLAB is used as a quick prototyping tool to model DAS systems and facilitate transfer to other researchers. The DAS model can be transferred from MATLAB or programmed directly in ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces), which is used to construct the virtual battlefield. Through scripted input files, a fixed battle approach ensures implementation and analysis meeting the requirements of three different interests. These three communities include the scientists and engineers, military and operations research. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. A system can be modelled phenomenologically until more information is available. Further processing of the simulation can be used to optimize the vehicle for a specific mission. ModSAF will be used to analyze and plan trials and develop DAS technology for future vehicles. Survivability of a DAS-equipped vehicle can be assessed relative to a basic vehicle without a DAS. In later stages, more complete DAS systems will be analyzed to determine the optimum configuration of the DAS components and the effectiveness of a DAS-equipped vehicle for specific missions. These concepts and approach will be discussed in the paper.

  11. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  12. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms. PMID:22676326

  13. Response Surface Modeling Tool Suite, Version 1.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-05

    The Response Surface Modeling (RSM) Tool Suite is a collection of three codes used to generate an empirical interpolation function for a collection of drag coefficient calculations computed with Test Particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) simulations. The first code, "Automated RSM", automates the generation of a drag coefficient RSM for a particular object to a single command. "Automated RSM" first creates a Latin Hypercube Sample (LHS) of 1,000 ensemble members to explore the global parameter space. For each ensemble member, a TPMC simulation is performed and the object drag coefficient is computed. In the next step of the "Automated RSM" code, a Gaussian process is used to fit the TPMC simulations. In the final step, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to evaluate the non-analytic probability distribution function from the Gaussian process. The second code, "RSM Area", creates a look-up table for the projected area of the object based on input limits on the minimum and maximum allowed pitch and yaw angles and pitch and yaw angle intervals. The projected area from the look-up table is used to compute the ballistic coefficient of the object based on its pitch and yaw angle. An accurate ballistic coefficient is crucial in accurately computing the drag on an object. The third code, "RSM Cd", uses the RSM generated by the "Automated RSM" code and the projected area look-up table generated by the "RSM Area" code to accurately compute the drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient of the object. The user can modify the object velocity, object surface temperature, the translational temperature of the gas, the species concentrations of the gas, and the pitch and yaw angles of the object. Together, these codes allow for the accurate derivation of an object's drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient under any conditions with only knowledge of the object's geometry and mass.

  14. LANDFIRE Remap: A New National Baseline Product Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockter, D.; Peterson, B.; Picotte, J. J.; Long, J.; Tolk, B.; Callahan, K.; Davidson, A.; Earnhardt, T.

    2017-12-01

    LANDFIRE, also known as the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Program, is a vegetation, fire, and fuel characteristic data creation program managed by both the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the U.S. Department of the Interior with involvement from The Nature Conservancy. LANDFIRE represents the first and only complete, nationally consistent collection of over 20 geo-spatial layers (e.g., vegetation type and structure, fuels, fire regimes), databases, and ecological models that can be used across multiple disciplines to support cross-boundary planning, management, and operations across all lands of the United States and insular areas. Since 2004, LANDFIRE has produced comprehensive, consistent, and scientifically based suites of mapped products and associated databases for the United States and affiliated territories. These products depict the nation's major ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Over a decade has passed since the development of the first LANDFIRE base map, and an overhaul of the data products, i.e., a "Remap", is needed to maintain their functionality and relevance. To prepare for Remap production LANDFIRE has invested in a prototyping phase that focused on exploring various input data sources and new modeling and mapping techniques. While still grounded in a solid base consisting of Landsat imagery and high-quality field observations, the prototyping efforts explored different image compositing techniques, the integration of lidar data, modeling approaches as well as other factors that will inform Remap production. Several of these various research efforts are highlighted here and are currently being integrated into an end-to-end data processing flow that will drive the Remap production. The current Remap prototype effort has focused on several study areas throughout CONUS, with additional studies anticipated for Alaska, Hawaii and the territories. The LANDFIRE Remap effort is expected to take three to four years

  15. BioWord: a sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldi, Laura J; Muñoz-Fernández, Daniel; Erill, Ivan

    2012-06-07

    The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  16. Interaction of Space Suits with Windblown Soil: Preliminary Mars Wind Tunnel Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Bratton, C.; Kosmo, J.; Trevino, R.

    1999-09-01

    Experiments in the Mars Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center show that under Mars conditions, spacesuit materials are highly susceptible to dust contamination when exposed to windblown soil. This effect was suspected from knowledge of the interaction of electrostatically adhesive dust with solid surfaces in general. However, it is important to evaluate the respective roles of materials, meteorological and radiation effects, and the character of the soil. The tunnel permits evaluation of dust contamination and sand abrasion of space suits by simulating both pressure and wind conditions on Mars. The long-term function of space suits on Mars will be primarily threatened by dust contamination. Lunar EVA activities caused heavy contamination of space suits, but the problem was never seriously manifest because of the brief utilization of the suits, and the suits were never reused. Electrostatically adhering dust grains have various detrimental effects: (1) penetration and subsequent wear of suit fabrics, (2) viewing obscuration through visors and scratching/pitting of visor surfaces, (3) penetration, wear, and subsequent seizing-up of mechanical suit joints, (4) changes in albedo and therefore of radiation properties of external heat-exchanger systems, (5) changes in electrical conductivity of suit surfaces which may affect tribocharging of suits and create spurious discharge effects detrimental to suit electronics/radio systems. Additional information is contained in the original.

  17. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Claire E; Vaughan, Nicholas P

    2015-10-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects' hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  18. Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.

  19. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay for Specimens Yielding “Target Not Detected” Results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test▿

    OpenAIRE

    Babady, N. Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2009-01-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding “target not detected” results by CTM.

  20. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for specimens yielding "target not detected" results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, N Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D C

    2010-03-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding "target not detected" results by CTM.

  1. Perspectives on HIV Pre- and Post-Exposure Prophylaxes (PrEP and PEP) Among Female and Male Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: Implications for Integrating Biomedical Prevention into Sexual Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restar, Arjee J; Tocco, Jack Ume; Mantell, Joanne E; Lafort, Yves; Gichangi, Peter; Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Chabeda, Sophie Vusha; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2017-04-01

    Pre- and post-exposure prophylaxes (PrEP and PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition, yet often are inaccessible to and underutilized by most-vulnerable populations, including sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with 21 female and 23 male HIV-negative sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, we found that awareness and knowledge of PrEP and PEP were low, although willingness to use both was high. Participants felt PrEP would be empowering and give added protection against infection, although some expressed concerns about side effects. Despite PEP's availability, few knew about it and even fewer had used it, but most who had would use it again. Sex workers valued confidentiality, privacy, trustworthiness, and convenient location in health services and wanted thorough HIV/STI assessments. These findings suggest the importance of situating PrEP and PEP within sex worker-friendly health services and conducting outreach to promote these biomedical prevention methods for Kenyan sex workers.

  2. High acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis but challenges in adherence and use: qualitative insights from a phase I trial of intermittent and daily PrEP in at-risk populations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Elisabeth Maria; Mbogua, Judie; Operario, Don; Mutua, Gaudensia; Kuo, Caroline; Mugo, Peter; Kanungi, Jennifer; Singh, Sagri; Haberer, Jessica; Priddy, Frances; Sanders, Eduard Joachim

    2013-07-01

    This paper used qualitative methods to explore experiences of men who have sex with men and female sex workers in Nairobi and Mtwapa, Kenya, who used oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention as part of a four-month trial of safety, acceptability and adherence. Fifty-one of 72 volunteers who took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial that compared daily and intermittent dosage of PrEP underwent qualitative assessments after completing the trial. Analyses identified three themes: (i) acceptability of PrEP was high, i.e. side effects were experienced early in the study but diminished over time, however characteristics of pills could improve comfort and use; (ii) social impacts such as stigma, rumors, and relationship difficulties due to being perceived as HIV positive were prevalent; (iii) adherence was challenged by complexities of daily life, in particular post-coital dosing adherence suffered from alcohol use around time of sex, mobile populations, and transactional sex work. These themes resonated across dosing regimens and gender, and while most participants favored the intermittent dosing schedule, those in the intermittent group noted particular challenges in adhering to the post-coital dose. Culturally appropriate and consistent counseling addressing these issues may be critical for PrEP effectiveness.

  3. Oracle E-Business Suite Financials R12 A Functionality Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    This is a step-by-step functional guide to get you started easily with Oracle EBS Financials. If you are an Oracle E-Business Suite Financial consultant or an administrator looking to get a quick review on the capabilities of Oracle E-Business Suite and improve the use of the systems functionality, then this is the best guide for you. This book assumes that you have a fundamental knowledge of EBS Suite.

  4. A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Jennifer E.; Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    In the design of a new space suit it is necessary to have requirements that define what mobility space suit joints should be capable of achieving in both a system and at the component level. NASA elected to divide mobility into its constituent parts-range of motion (ROM) and torque- in an effort to develop clean design requirements that limit subject performance bias and are easily verified. Unfortunately, the measurement of mobility can be difficult to obtain. Current technologies, such as the Vicon motion capture system, allow for the relatively easy benchmarking of range of motion (ROM) for a wide array of space suit systems. The ROM evaluations require subjects in the suit to accurately evaluate the ranges humans can achieve in the suit. However, when it comes to torque, there are significant challenges for both benchmarking current performance and writing requirements for future suits. This is reflected in the fact that torque definitions have been applied to very few types of space suits and with limited success in defining all the joints accurately. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages to historical joint torque evaluation methods, describes more recent efforts directed at benchmarking joint torques of prototype space suits, and provides an outline for how NASA intends to address joint torque in design requirements for the Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS).

  5. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US and Russian EVA Suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27 percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the bare phantom head

  6. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lackemeyer, Matthew G

    2016-10-03

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure ("space") suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

  7. The Role of KREEP in the Production of Mg-Suite Magmas and Its Influence on the Extent of Mg-Suite Magmatism in the Lunar Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, S. M.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The lunar magnesian-suite, or Mg-suite, is a series of ancient plutonic rocks from the lunar crust. They have received a considerable amount of attention from lunar scientists since their discovery for three primary reasons: 1) their ages and geochemistry indicate they represent pristine magmatic samples that crystallized very soon after the formation of the Moon; 2) their ages often overlap with ages of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) crust; and 3) planetary-scale processes are needed in formation models to account for their unique geochemical features. Taken as a whole, the Mg-suite samples, as magmatic cumulate rocks, approximate a fractional crystallization sequence in the low-pressure forsterite-anorthite-silica system, and thus these samples are generally thought to be derived from layered mafic intrusions which crystallized very slowly from magmas that intruded the anorthositic crust. However, no direct linkages have been established between different Mg-suite samples based either on field relationships or geochemistry.The model for the origin of the Mg-suite, which best fits the limited available data, is one where Mg-suite magmas form from melting of a hybrid cumulate package consisting of deep mantle dunite, crustal anorthosite, and KREEP (potassium-rare earth elements-phosphorus) at the base of the crust under the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). In this model, these three LMO (Lunar Magma Ocean) cumulate components are brought into close proximity by the cumulate overturn process. Deep mantle dunitic cumulates with an Mg number of approximately 90 rise to the base of the anorthositic crust due to their buoyancy relative to colder, more dense Fe- and Ti-rich cumulates. This hybridized source rock melts to form Mg-suite magmas, saturated in Mg-rich olivine and anorthitic plagioclase, that have a substantial KREEP component.

  8. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  9. PREP-CHEM-SRC – 1.0: a preprocessor of trace gas and aerosol emission fields for regional and global atmospheric chemistry models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The preprocessor PREP-CHEM-SRC presented in the paper is a comprehensive tool aiming at preparing emission fields of trace gases and aerosols for use in atmospheric-chemistry transport models. The considered emissions are from the most recent databases of urban/industrial, biogenic, biomass burning, volcanic, biofuel use and burning from agricultural waste sources. For biomass burning, emissions can be also estimated directly from satellite fire detections using a fire emission model included in the tool. The preprocessor provides emission fields interpolated onto the transport model grid. Several map projections can be chosen. The inclusion of these emissions in transport models is also presented. The preprocessor is coded using Fortran90 and C and is driven by a namelist allowing the user to choose the type of emissions and the databases.

  10. The exploitation of "Exploitation" in the tenofovir prep trial in Cameroon: Lessons learned from media coverage of an HIV prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Natasha; Robinson, Elizabeth T; MacQueen, Kathleen M; Moffett, Jill; Johnson, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    media coverage influences how clinical trials are perceived internationally and in communities where trials occur, affecting recruitment, retention, and political support for research. We conducted a discourse analysis of news coverage from 2004-2005 of a trial in Cameroon on oral PrEP for HIV prevention, to identify messages, communication techniques, and sources of messages that were amplified via media. We identified two parallel discourses: one on ethical concerns about the Cameroon trial, and a second, more general "science exploitation" discourse concerned with the potential for trials with vulnerable participant populations to be conducted unethically, benefiting only wealthy populations. Researchers should overtly address exploitation as an integral, ongoing component of research, particularly where historical or cultural conditions set the stage for controversy to emerge.

  11. High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation Verification Test Suite - Tier I; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHELLS, REGINA L.; BOGDAN, CAROLYN W.; WIX, STEVEN D.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation (HPEMS) Global Verification Test Suite (VERTS). The VERTS is a regression test suite used for verification of the electrical circuit simulation codes currently being developed by the HPEMS code development team. This document contains descriptions of the Tier I test cases

  12. Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER PANAMA CITY DIVISION PANAMA CITY, FL 32407-7001 TECHNICAL REPORT NSWC PCD TR-2017-004 MODULAR ...31-01-2017 Technical Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite (MATS): A Software Framework for Automatic Target Recognition DR...flexible platform to facilitate the development and testing of ATR algorithms. To that end, NSWC PCD has created the Modular Algorithm Testbed Suite

  13. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual reality simulation training in a high-fidelity procedure suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lönn, Lars; Edmond, John J; Marco, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite.......To assess the face and content validity of a novel, full physics, full procedural, virtual reality simulation housed in a hybrid procedure suite....

  15. A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinet, C.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Werf, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three

  16. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  17. Fluid replacement advice during work in fully encapsulated impermeable chemical protective suits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubenstein, C.D.; Hartog, E.A. den; Deaton, A.S.; Bogerd, C.P.; Kant, S. de

    2017-01-01

    A major concern for responders to hazardous materials (HazMat) incidents is the heat strain that is caused by fully encapsulated impermeable chemical protective suits. In a research project, funded by the US Department of Defense, the thermal strain experienced when wearing these suits was studied.

  18. DEMON/ANGEL - A SUITE OF PROGRAMS TO CARRY OUT DENSITY MODIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELLIEUX, FMDAP; HUNT, JF; ROY, S; READ, RJ

    1995-01-01

    The DEMON/ANGEL suite of computer programs has been developed to carry out density modification by non-crystallographic symmetry-averaging, solvent-flattening and histogram-mapping techniques. This suite consists of programs that allow molecular envelopes to be defined and modified,

  19. Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataru, Suzuki

    Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation

  20. The antigravity suit in neurosurgery. Cardiovascular responses in seated neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, P M; Ingram, G S

    1988-09-01

    The haemodynamic responses associated with inflation of the antigravity suit (G suit, aviation type) to 8.0 kPa were studied in a series of 40 patients who underwent neurosurgical operations in the sitting position. The study showed statistically significant increases in systolic arterial pressure (p less than 0.005) and mean central venous pressure (p less than 0.001) with inflation of the suit. The systolic arterial and mean central venous pressures remained significantly elevated immediately before deflation of the suit at the end of the operation (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005 respectively). The addition of 0.8-1.0 kPa positive end expiratory pressure during suit inflation was also investigated. A further increase in central venous pressure occurred but this did not achieve statistical significance.

  1. A transitional alkalic dolerite dike suite of Mesozoic age in Southeastern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, O. Don; Rao, J. M.; Dickenson, M. P.; Pierce, T. A.

    1984-12-01

    Dike rocks from the New England platform of Rhode Island and adjacent Massachusetts consist of premetamorphic and post-metamorphic suites. The older group includes metamorphosed dolerite, minette, and schistose dioritic rocks. Post-metamorphic dikes consist of dolerite and sparse monchiquite. The post-metamorphic dolerites are of comparable age to the Eastern North American dolerite suite associated with the Mesozoic basins along the eastern seaboard of North America. However, the southeastern New England dolerites exhibit mineralogy and chemistry more typical of a transitional alkalic suite compared to the more subalkalic tholeiitic dolerites of the Eastern North American suite. Both suites are compatible with a rift tectonic setting, but the more alkalic dolerites may represent a deeper source of small volume melts compared to the Eastern North American dolerites. These more alkaline melts may have concentrated at local centers, or they may be typical of flank dolerites as opposed to the less alkalic varieties that occur within the central axial rift.

  2. Space Suit Performance: Methods for Changing the Quality of Quantitative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suits will enable astronauts to perform to their maximum capacity, prototype suits must be built and tested with human subjects. However, engineers and flight surgeons often have difficulty understanding and applying traditional representations of human data without training. To overcome these challenges, NASA is developing modern simulation and analysis techniques that focus on 3D visualization. Early understanding of actual performance early on in the design cycle is extremely advantageous to increase performance capabilities, reduce the risk of injury, and reduce costs. The primary objective of this project was to test modern simulation and analysis techniques for evaluating the performance of a human operating in extra-vehicular space suits.

  3. Integrated Suit Test 1 - A Study to Evaluate Effects of Suit Weight, Pressure, and Kinematics on Human Performance during Lunar Ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Norcross, Jason; Vos, Jessica R.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to design the next generation Lunar suit, NASA has initiated a series of tests aimed at understanding the human physiological and biomechanical affects of space suits under a variety of conditions. The first of these tests was the EVA Walkback Test (ICES 2007-01-3133). NASA-JSC assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct the second test of the series, titled Integrated Suit Test 1 (IST-1), from March 6 through July 24, 2007. Similar to the Walkback Test, this study was performed with the Mark III (MKIII) EVA Technology Demonstrator suit, a treadmill, and the Partial Gravity Simulator in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. The data collected for IST-1 included metabolic rates, ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and subjective workload and controllability feedback on both suited and unsuited (shirt-sleeve) astronaut subjects. For IST-1 the center of gravity was controlled to a nearly perfect position while the weight, pressure and biomechanics (waist locked vs. unlocked) were varied individually to evaluate the effects of each on the ability to perform level (0 degree incline) ambulation in simulated Lunar gravity. The detailed test methodology and preliminary key findings of IST-1 are summarized in this report.

  4. Results on three predictions for July 2012 federal elections in Mexico based on past regularities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hernández-Saldaña

    Full Text Available The Presidential Election in Mexico of July 2012 has been the third time that PREP, Previous Electoral Results Program works. PREP gives voting outcomes based in electoral certificates of each polling station that arrive to capture centers. In previous ones, some statistical regularities had been observed, three of them were selected to make predictions and were published in arXiv:1207.0078 [physics.soc-ph]. Using the database made public in July 2012, two of the predictions were completely fulfilled, while, the third one was measured and confirmed using the database obtained upon request to the electoral authorities. The first two predictions confirmed by actual measures are: (ii The Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI, is a sprinter and has a better performance in polling stations arriving late to capture centers during the process. (iii Distribution of vote of this party is well described by a smooth function named a Daisy model. A Gamma distribution, but compatible with a Daisy model, fits the distribution as well. The third prediction confirms that errare humanum est, since the error distributions of all the self-consistency variables appeared as a central power law with lateral lobes as in 2000 and 2006 electoral processes. The three measured regularities appeared no matter the political environment.

  5. Results on three predictions for July 2012 federal elections in Mexico based on past regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H

    2013-01-01

    The Presidential Election in Mexico of July 2012 has been the third time that PREP, Previous Electoral Results Program works. PREP gives voting outcomes based in electoral certificates of each polling station that arrive to capture centers. In previous ones, some statistical regularities had been observed, three of them were selected to make predictions and were published in arXiv:1207.0078 [physics.soc-ph]. Using the database made public in July 2012, two of the predictions were completely fulfilled, while, the third one was measured and confirmed using the database obtained upon request to the electoral authorities. The first two predictions confirmed by actual measures are: (ii) The Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI, is a sprinter and has a better performance in polling stations arriving late to capture centers during the process. (iii) Distribution of vote of this party is well described by a smooth function named a Daisy model. A Gamma distribution, but compatible with a Daisy model, fits the distribution as well. The third prediction confirms that errare humanum est, since the error distributions of all the self-consistency variables appeared as a central power law with lateral lobes as in 2000 and 2006 electoral processes. The three measured regularities appeared no matter the political environment.

  6. Safety, adherence and acceptability of intermittent tenofovir/emtricitabine as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP among HIV-uninfected Ugandan volunteers living in HIV-serodiscordant relationships: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie M Kibengo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in prevention of HIV acquisition has been evaluated using a daily regimen. However, adherence to long term daily medication is rarely perfect. Intermittent regimen may be a feasible alternative. Preclinical studies have demonstrated effectiveness of intermittent PrEP in SHIV prevention among animals. However, little is known about intermittent PrEP regimens. DESIGN: Seventy two HIV-uninfected volunteers in HIV serodiscordant couple relationships in Uganda were randomly assigned to receive daily oral Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC-Truvada or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day oral TDF/FTC or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio. Volunteers and study staff were blinded to drug assignment, but not to regimen assignment. METHODS: Volunteers were followed for 4 months after randomization, with monthly clinical and laboratory safety assessments and comprehensive HIV risk reduction services. Adherence was monitored using medication event monitoring system (MEMS and self-report. Sexual activity data were collected via daily short text message (SMS and self-report. HIV-specific immune responses were assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. RESULTS: Both daily and intermittent oral TDF/FTC regimens were well tolerated. Median MEMS adherence rates were 98% (IQR: 93-100 for daily PrEP regimen, 91% (IQR: 73-97 for fixed intermittent dosing and 45% (IQR: 20-63 for post-coital dosing. SMS response rate was 74%, but increased to 80% after excluding server outages; results may have been affected by the novelty of this measure. The majority of volunteers expressed willingness with no particular preference for either regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Both daily and intermittent oral PrEP dosing regimens were safe. Adherence was high for daily and fixed intermittent dosing; post-coital dosing was associated with poor adherence. Fixed intermittent PrEP regimens may be

  7. Walking a mile in another's shoes: The impact of wearing an Age Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Gennis, Angelina; Burstein, Arielle; Godfrey, Kathryn M; Waerstad, Hilde; Puleo, Rozanne M; Lauenroth, Andreas; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2017-01-01

    The "Age Suit" described in this article was developed to enable future designers, business leaders, and engineers to experience navigating the world as many older adults must. Tools such as this Age Suit offer the opportunity to "walk a mile" in another's shoes to develop empathy that can result in better design of spaces, goods, and services to meet the needs of a rapidly growing older population. This work first examined, through a series of clinical tests, whether younger adults' physical capacities were reduced in a direction consistent with aging by wearing a suit developed by the MIT AgeLab. An experiential learning task was then completed with the suit to understand its impact on completion of an instrumental activity of daily living. Results showed that younger adults wearing the suit experienced changes in task performance consistent with expected changes associated with aging. Participants' self-reports from the experiential learning task indicated that they were able to empathize with older adults regarding some issues they face while completing a grocery shopping task. Future research with the suit should involve a wider range of individuals from the population and examine what effect participants' levels of fitness have on the experience of wearing the suit.

  8. Inherent work suit buoyancy distribution: effects on lifejacket self-righting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin J; Long, Geoffrey M; Lunt, Heather; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Accidental immersion in cold water is an occupational risk. Work suits and life jackets (LJ) should work effectively in combination to keep the airway clear of the water (freeboard) and enable self-righting. We hypothesized that inherent buoyancy, in the suit or LJ, would be beneficial for enabling freeboard, but its distribution may influence LJ self-righting. Six participants consented to complete nine immersions. Suits and LJ tested were: flotation suit (FLOAT; 85 N inherent buoyancy); oilskins 1 (OS-1) and 2 (OS-2), both with no inherent buoyancy; LJs (inherent buoyancy/buoyancy after inflation/total buoyancy), LJ-1 50/150/200 N, LJ-2 0/290/290 N, LJ-3 80/190/270 N. Once dressed, the subject entered an immersion pool where uninflated freeboard, self-righting performance, and inflated freeboard were measured. Data were compared using Friedman's test to the 0.05 alpha level. All suits and LJs enabled uninflated and inflated freeboard, but differences were seen between the suits and LJs. Self-righting was achieved on 43 of 54 occasions, irrespective of suit or LJ. On all occasions that self-righting was not achieved, this occurred in an LJ that included inherent buoyancy (11/54 occasions). Of these 11 failures, 8 occurred (73% of occasions) when the FLOAT suit was being worn. LJs that included inherent buoyancy, that are certified as effective on their own, worked less effectively from the perspective of self-righting in combination with a work suit that also included inherent buoyancy. Equipment that is approved for use in the workplace should be tested in combination to ensure adequate performance in an emergency scenario.

  9. FusionCharts Beginner's Guide The Official Guide for FusionCharts Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Nadhani, Sanket; Bhattacharya, Shamasis

    2012-01-01

    The book is written as a practical, step-by-step guide to using FusionCharts Suite. The book not only teaches you the fundamentals and implementation of FusionCharts Suite, but also makes you the data visualization guru among your friends and colleagues by teaching how to select the right chart type and usability tips. Filled with examples, code samples and practical tips in a no-nonsense way, the book is a breeze to read.This book is both for beginners and advanced web developers who need to create interactive charts for their web applications. No previous knowledge of FusionCharts Suite is a

  10. Adobe Creative Suite 6 Design and Web Premium all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer; Gerantabee, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The must-have book on the leading suite of software for graphic and web designers Fully revised and updated this hands-on resource offers a one-stop learning opportunity through eight mini-book dedicated to each product inside Adobe's Design & Web Premium Suite. The mini-books include Adobe Creative Suite Basics, InDesign, Illustrator, Photoshop, Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Flash, Fireworks. The book may contain new image enhancements to After Effects, 64-bit versions of Illustrator and Flash Professional, and a new tool, dubbed Helium, that will enable designers to create content using HTML5 and

  11. The use of antigravity suits in the treatment of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, K.; Kravik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is an uncommon disease characterized by a drop in blood pressure when going from a recumbent to a standing position. Treatment by medication generally produces poor results. Three patients at the Royal Hospital in Oslo were treated with antigravity suits and all were able to maintain adequate blood pressures in the standing position. One patient improved dramatically and was able to take short walks while wearing the suit. The two other patients, however, felt that wearing the suits eventually became uncomfortable. This treatment represents a useful treatment alternative for intractable cases.

  12. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  13. Controlatron Neutron Tube Test Suite Software Manual - Operation Manual (V2.2)

    CERN Document Server

    Noel, W P; Hertrich, R J; Martinez, M L; Wallace, D L

    2002-01-01

    The Controlatron Software Suite is a custom built application to perform automated testing of Controlatron neutron tubes. The software package was designed to allowing users to design tests and to run a series of test suites on a tube. The data is output to ASCII files of a pre-defined format for data analysis and viewing with the Controlatron Data Viewer Application. This manual discusses the operation of the Controlatron Test Suite Software and a brief discussion of state machine theory, as state machine is the functional basis of the software.

  14. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Snow Cover Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of snow cover from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  15. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  16. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  17. What was uniform about the fin-de-siècle sailor suit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Clare

    2011-01-01

    The sailor suits widely worn by children in late-nineteenth-century Britain have been interpreted at the time, and since, as expressions of an Imperial ethos. Yet, a closer examination of the ways that these garments were produced by mass manufacturers, mediated by advertisers and fashion advisors and consumed by families makes us question this characterization. Manufacturers interpreted sailor suits not as unchanging uniforms but as fashion items responding to seasonal changes. Consumers used them to assert social identities and social distinctions, selecting from the multiple variants available. Cultural commentators described sailor suits as emulating Royal practice—but also as ‘common’ and to be avoided. A close analysis of large samples of images and texts from the period 1870–1900 reveals how these different meanings overlapped, making the fin-de-siècle sailor suit a garment that undermines many of our assumptions.

  18. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  19. Corporation suit in administrative proceedings - BVerwG, NJW 1981, 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouris, W.

    1982-01-01

    The above mentioned decisions show that the repeated demand for an admission of the corporation suit has not had much impact on jurisdiction. Still the courts are examining whether the rights of corporations taking action against the executive measures are being infringed by them or not. They do not seem to be willing to admit the enforcement of members' rights or of public interests by means of a corporation suit except in those cases that are already embodied in the law. The latest statement of the administrative courts prove that the administrative procedural law (still) in force does not accept any general law on the conduct of a case on behalf of associations for the protection of their members' rights (egoistic corporation suit), nor does it acknowledge the legitimacy of corporations to see against objective illegalities in official decisions with the intention of reducing deficiencies in the execution (altruistic corporation suit). (orig.) [de

  20. Comparison of different calibration methods suited for calibration problems with many variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and compares different kinds of statistical methods proposed in the literature as suited for solving calibration problems with many variables. These are: principal component regression, partial least-squares, and ridge regression. The statistical techniques themselves do...

  1. Even at a Board Meeting, Your Immunity to Defamation Suits Is Limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Donald H.

    1986-01-01

    Common law grants immunity for defamatory statements to administrative bodies such as boards. The limitations under which board participants function in relation to immunity from defamation suits are outlined. Includes discussion of specific court cases. (MD)

  2. Tartumurdelise kirjanduse ettejõudmine ; Parandatud kirikukeele ja rahvaraamatute poole / Gustav Suits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suits, Gustav, 1883-1956

    1999-01-01

    Varem ilmunud: Suits, Gustav. Eesti kirjanduslugu I. Lund : Eesti Kirjanike Kooperatiiv, 1953. Lõunaeestikeelne "Meie Issanda Jesusse Kristusse Wastne Testament" (Riia, 1686). Eeltöödest põhjaeestikeelse piibli väljaandmiseks

  3. PROPOSED SUITE OF MODELS FOR ESTIMATING DOSE RESULTING FROM EXPOSURES BY THE DERMAL ROUTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent risk assessment guidance emphasizes consideration of mechanistic factors for influencing disposition of a toxicant. To incorporate mechanistic information into risk assessment, a suite of models is proposed for use in characterizing and quantifying dosimetry of toxic age...

  4. 75 FR 24946 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ..., South Carolina, Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Louisiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado..., Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Louisiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado, Montana, South Dakota... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-3] Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit...

  5. Higher Order Thinking in the Australian Army Suite of Logistic Officer Courses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradford, Scott R

    2006-01-01

    .... The current Suite of Logistic Officer Courses (SOLOC) has been recently criticized for failing to meet this requirement, with the general perception that there is a distinct lack of higher-order thinking competencies within this continuum...

  6. NGSUtils: a software suite for analyzing and manipulating next-generation sequencing datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, Marcus R.; Liu, Yunlong

    2013-01-01

    Summary: NGSUtils is a suite of software tools for manipulating data common to next-generation sequencing experiments, such as FASTQ, BED and BAM format files. These tools provide a stable and modular platform for data management and analysis.

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud masks from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard...

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Defensive Aid Suite Technology Using a Field Trial and Modelling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ...) community that Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) technologies can improve the protection of LAVs. A prototype DAS system was developed by DRDC Valcartier and tested in field trials held in 1995 and 1999...

  9. MULTIFUNCTIONAL, SELF-HEALING HYBRIDSIL MATERIALS FOR EVA SPACE SUIT PRESSURE GARMENT SYSTEMS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Phase II SBIR transition of NanoSonic's high flex HybridSil space suit bladder and glove materials will provide a pivotal funding bridge toward Phase III...

  10. Closed-Loop, Non-Venting Thermal Control for Mars EVA Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks new thermal control technology for EVA suits on Mars. The system must be closed-loop and non-venting, have negligible impact on the Martian environment,...

  11. Dynamic Human-Centered Suit Design: A Computational and Experimental Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Introduction: Manned space flight necessitates an ability to provide life support to crewmembers during multiple mission stages, in the form of space suits. With...

  12. Astronaut John Young during final suiting operations for Apollo 10 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A technician attaches hose from test stand to spacesuit of Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 10 command module pilot, during final suiting operations for the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. Another technician makes adjustment behind Young.

  13. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, and highly reliable. A key component is a...

  14. Multipurpose Cooling Garment for Improved Space Suit Environmental Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these...

  15. Compact, Efficient, and Reliable Ventilation Fan for EVA Suits, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced EVA suits for space exploration will need a portable life support system (PLSS) that is compact, lightweight, highly reliable, and meets stringent...

  16. Evaluation of Triathlon Suit Characteristics Relevant to Thermophysiology of an Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Watson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysiological function of clothing influences athletic wellbeing and performance, particularly in outdoor endurance activities such as triathlon. However, there is very little existing research on the performance of triathlon suits relative to thermophysiological function of the wearer. This pilot study provides a benchmark for triathlon suit performance and insights into improving the suit design and material engineering. The study assessed the thermal and breathability attributes of 6 triathlon suits and concluded that while both of the attributes were similar overall, they varied in different body zones due to different design, construction and materials. Local thermal and evaporative performance were affected by fabric construction; double fabric layering in the stomach panel; the number, size, shape and material structure of rear pockets; cycle crotch pad size, shape and thickness; and panel design. The results of this study show the importance of garment design, construction and materials for the best thermal and evaporative resistance attributes of sportswear.

  17. A Laser-Based Diagnostic Suite for Hypersonic Test Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a suite of laser-based diagnostics for the study of reactive and non-reactive hypersonic flows....

  18. Stravinsky: Symphony in E flat, Op. 1. Firebird-Suite (1919 version / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: Symphony in E flat, Op. 1. Firebird-Suite (1919 version). Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / Dalia Atlas; Symphony - comparative versions: SNO, Gibson. SRO, Järvi (2/94)(CHAN) CHAN 9236

  19. Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit,Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City

    OpenAIRE

    SS Khoramrooz; M Sarikhani; SA Khosravani; M Farhang Falah; Y Mahmoudi; A Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Prevalence of diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food has always been a problem all over the world, and every year spent on improving the disease is costly.Cream suit, Ice cream & olowye for ingredient substance and manufacture & preservation conditional have very high possibility for contamination.The aim of this study is Microbial contamination determination of Cream suit, Traditional Ice Cream and Olovia in Yasuj City Methods: This study is randomized cros...

  20. A geological investigation of the Proterozoic T'Oubep Suite, northwestern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agenbacht, A.L.D.; Schoch, A.E.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The T'Oubep Suite occurs in the central part of the Namaqua mobile belt approximately 80km southwest of Kakamas. The Suite comprises seven different rock types with compositions ranging from betabasite through granodiorite and tonalite to granite. The igneous rocks were extensively metamorphosed during the Namaqua tectogenesis. The comagmatic origin for the granitic rocks suggested by the field relations is corroborated by whole rock, trace element and REE chemistry. 5 refs., 3 figs