WorldWideScience

Sample records for preoutbreak mumps antibody

  1. Are there altered antibody responses to measles, mumps, or rubella viruses in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Coon, Hilary H; Kirkman, Nikki J; Sweeten, Thayne L; Miller, Judith N; Lainhart, Janet E; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    The role that virus infections play in autism is not known. Others have reported that antibodies against measles virus are higher in the sera/plasma of children with autism versus controls. The authors investigated antibody titers to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and diphtheria toxoid in children with autism, both classic onset (33) and regressive onset (26) forms, controls (25, healthy age- and gender-matched) and individuals with Tourette's syndrome (24) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. No significant differences in antibody titers to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and diphtheria toxoid were found among the four groups. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the four groups for total immunoglobulin (Ig)G or IgM. Interestingly, the authors did find a significant number (15/59) of autism subjects (classic and regressive onset combined) who had a very low or no antibody titer against rubella virus, compared to a combine control/Tourette's group (2/49).

  2. STUDY ON SEROPREVALENCE OF MUMPS - SPECIFIC IgG ANTIBODIES IN A HEALTHY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Karcheva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumps is a vaccine preventable viral infection. Its typical clinical manifestations are characterized by pain and swelling of the salivary glands, fever, and fatigue. Often other organs are affected - testes in males after puberty (orchitis, ovaries in women (ooforitis, pancreas (pancreatitis, central nervous system (meningities. The use of specific immune prophylaxis led to a significant success in the fight against mumps, but there are still unresolved issues related to the immunological and epidemiological effectiveness of the vaccines. The disease continues to interest researchers today. The main issues being tackled are related to the conduct of virological, clinical and sero-epidemiological studies in different countries. Objectives of the study is to determine the frequency distribution of mumps-specific IgG antibodies in healthy populations in the region of Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: a cross-sectional sero - epidemiological representative population - based survey in the area was made. Enzyme immunoassay method was used for an indirect proof of mumps - specific IgG serum antibodies. 410 people were examined at an average age of 25 (1 to 84. Of these, 250 (61 % were women and 160 (39 % - men. Results: Of all test results, the negative were 72 (19 %, the borderline were 12 (3 %, the positive were 182 (44 %, and highly positive were 144 (35 %. The vaccination status showed that 242 (69 % of all surveyed were immunized with a vaccine against mumps. According to the immunization schedule in Bulgaria, 132 (33 % people were immunized with monovaccine during the years - 1 intake, 80 (20 % with trivaccine - 1 intake, and 64 (16 % - 2 doses. Conclusion: We believe that despite the specific immunprophylaxis carried out against mumps decades on end, the necessary level of protection leading to its elimination has not yet been reached.

  3. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on detection of measles, mumps, and rubella virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Norman A; Huddleston, Jeanne M; Jacobson, Robert M; Wollan, Peter C; Poland, Gregory A

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on mumps, measles, and rubella virus serum antibody levels with whole-virus immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunoassays. Fresh serum samples from nine healthy adult volunteers were divided into six sets of five aliquots each. Samples were taken through a total of 10 freeze-thaw cycles and stored at 4 degrees C until assayed. Each assay measurement was done in replicates of five, and the mean value was reported. After completing 10 freeze-thaw cycles, we found no clinically or statistically significant effect on measured antibody levels and found no discernible detrimental effect on the ability to measure these antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassays.

  4. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  5. Measles, mumps, and rubella antibody status and response to immunization in children after therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Selin; Yalcin, S Songul; Cetin, Mualla; Yetgin, Sevgi; Gumruk, Fatma; Tuncer, Murat; Yurdakok, Kadriye; Gurgey, Aytemiz

    2010-08-01

    Seventy-seven patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were in complete remission and whose therapies had been stopped for at least 6 months before enrollment in this study were retrospectively analyzed regarding their antibody status for measles, mumps, and rubella, with the aim to demonstrate the seropositivity rate after treatment in the authors' group. Each patient's serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to determine the antibody titers before and after immunization. Measles serology was available in 77 children; 45 (58%) were seronegative. Initial ages of measle-seronegative patients were statistically lower than those of seropositive cases (median 3.29 versus 4.91 years, respectively). Mumps serology was available in 76 children; 36 (47%) were seronegative. Mumps-seropositive cases tended to have more frequent previous history of infection than seronegative cases (55.0% versus 28.6%, respectively, P = .05). Rubella serology was available in 76 children, and 20 (26.3%) were seronegative. It was determined that initial ages of rubella-seronegative patients were statistically lower than those of seropositive cases (median 3.03 versus 4.32 years, respectively). The authors concluded based on the results of their study that at a median of 3.31 years after completion of chemotherapy for ALL, the majority of cases had antibody levels lower than protective values for measles (58.4%); however, these values were 47.3% for mumps and 26.3% for rubella. Seroconversion rates after measles (55%) and mumps vaccination (57.1%) were still low. However, in the available cases, relatively adequate response to rubella vaccination (92.3%) was observed.

  6. Enzyme immunoassay of mumps virus in cell culture with peroxidase-labelled virus specific monoclonal antibodies and its application for determination of antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, F.H. van; Kraaijeveld, C.A.; Baller, J.; Harmsen, T.; Oosterlaken, T.A.M.; Snippe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Mumps neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAs) were purified and labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used to detect virus-infected Vero cells, which were seeded as monolayers in wells of 96-well plates. This direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in cell culture proved to be a sensitive method for

  7. Enzyme immunoassay of mumps virus in cell culture with peroxidase-labelled virus specific monoclonal antibodies and its application for determination of antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, F.H. van; Kraaijeveld, C.A.; Baller, J.; Harmsen, T.; Oosterlaken, T.A.M.; Snippe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Mumps neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAs) were purified and labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used to detect virus-infected Vero cells, which were seeded as monolayers in wells of 96-well plates. This direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in cell culture proved to be a sensitive method for det

  8. Seroprevalence of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Antibodies in College Students in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi J; Kothari, Sweta T; Chaudhari, Amol B; Gunale, Bhagwat K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Deshmukh, Ranjana A; Chowdhary, Abhay S

    2016-04-01

    Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) are vaccine preventable viral infections, which cause significant mortality and morbidity globally. Increased incidence rates of these infectious diseases are observed in young adults. Information on seroprevalence data on MMR in India is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against MMR among young adults. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 192 healthy college students from Maharshi Dayanand College, Mumbai. The project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Haffkine Institute. Between December 2012 and September 2013, blood samples were collected from individuals of age 18-23 years after obtaining written informed consent from them. The quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in serum specimens against MMR was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Data on history of vaccination were also collected from participants. Among 192 healthy college students (age 18-23 years), MMR seroprevalence was 91%, 97%, and 88%, respectively. The overall seropositivity of MMR was 79%. The highest level of seronegativity was seen with regards to rubella-specific antibodies in 12% of cases. About 96% of the participants did not know about their vaccination history while none of the participants knew about their history of MMR infections. Despite unknown vaccination status, a majority of college students in our study were found seropositive for all three infections, which indicate natural boosting. However, the proportion of seronegativity for measles and rubella was relatively higher. Especially since the study population belonged to reproductive age group, there is a concern of congenital rubella syndrome in the offspring. Although a larger multicentric study is required to confirm the findings, the results indicate that a dose of measles-rubella (MR) vaccine should be offered to these college students.

  9. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  10. Seroprevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, varicella-zoster, and B. Pertussis in young adults of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escalada, Alba; García-García, Laura; Viguera-Ester, Pablo; Marín-García, Patricia; García, Jesus; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases of certain immunopreventable diseases in our country. A high proportion of these have been recorded among the young adult population. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against immunopreventable diseases with the greatest health impacts on the young adult population (19-39 y of age) in Madrid. We collected a total of 1,153 serum samples from healthy volunteers undergoing routine medical visits and used ELISA to determine the presence of IgG antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella zoster, as well as Bordetella pertussis. The Pearson's χ(2) test was used to compare prevalences, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for variables with more than 2 categories. Statistical significance was achieved with p values of<0.05. The global prevalence of antibodies was 92.1% for measles, 94.4% for rubella, 88.3% for mumps, 92.8% for varicella zoster, and 70.2% for B. pertussis. No statistically significant differences were found between genders. The prevalence of antibodies against measles was more than 95% in the group of individuals born after 1986, and the percentage of individuals susceptible to rubella was less than 5% in women born after 1986. In spite of adequate vaccination coverage, in our region, a population of young adults exists who have not achieved the objectives of the WHO for the elimination of measles and congenital rubella syndrome.

  11. Mumps: a resurgent disease with protean manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya N

    2008-10-20

    Mumps has re-emerged as an infection in the developed world. Its epidemiology has changed, with the majority of cases now primarily affecting adolescents and adults. While mumps is easily suspected if parotitis is present, parotitis is absent in 10%-30% of symptomatic cases. Mumps is a systemic infection with a variety of extra-parotid complications. In Australia, mumps diagnosis is confirmed by antibody testing and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques. Suitable specimens for testing are serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is generally supportive, although intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may have a future role in mumps management. Interferon alpha-2b treatment may be considered specifically for mumps epididymo-orchitis. Mumps vaccine is included in the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. In Australia, this vaccine is routinely administered at the ages of 1 and 4 years. Serious reactions to the mumps components of the MMR vaccine are rare.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella in the childhood population in Singapore, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; Lai, F Y; Tey, S H; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2013-08-01

    We undertook a national paediatric seroprevalence survey of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in Singapore to assess the impact of the national childhood immunization programme against these three diseases after introduction of the trivalent MMR vaccine in 1990. The survey involved 1200 residual sera of Singapore residents aged 1-17 years collected from two hospitals between 2008 and 2010. The overall prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella was 83∙1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80∙9-85∙1], 71.8% (95% CI 69∙1-74∙2) and 88∙5% (95% CI 86∙6-90∙2), respectively. For all three diseases, the lowest prevalence was in children aged 1 year (47∙8-62∙3%). The seroprevalence of the vaccinated children declined over time. The national MMR immunization programme is effective in raising the herd immunity of the childhood population, although certain age groups are more susceptible to infection, in particular, those who are not eligible for vaccination at age <15 months.

  13. Considerable decrease of antibody titers against measles, mumps, and rubella in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yucong; Xu, Xijin; Dai, Yifeng; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-12-15

    Data on vaccination effects in children chronically exposed to heavy metals are extremely scarce. This study aims to investigate the immune responsiveness to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in children from an e-waste recycling area. 378 healthy children from Guiyu (exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group) were surveyed. Blood lead (Pb) levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Titers of antibodies against MMR were quantified by ELISA. Blood Pb levels of children from the exposed group were significantly higher than those from the reference group (5.61μg/dL vs. 3.57μg/dL, pe-waste recycling area should be modified.

  14. Comparison of automated chemiluminescence immunoassays with capture enzyme immunoassays for the detection of measles and mumps IgM antibodies in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Becky; Patel, Mauli; Hurday, Samantha; Copping, Ruth; Webster, Daniel; Irish, Dianne; Haque, Tanzina

    2014-02-01

    Outbreaks of measles and mumps occur regularly in the UK. Rapid diagnosis of acute infection is important for both infection control and epidemiological purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of an automated platform (DiaSorin Liaison(®), Saluggia, Italy) with a manual capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Microimmune, Hounslow, UK) for the detection of measles and mumps IgM antibodies in serum from symptomatic individuals. Ninety sera tested previously for measles (n=50) and mumps (n=40) IgM using the manual EIA were tested retrospectively using the DiaSorin Liaison(®) and the results compared. Sensitivity, specificity, inter-assay variability and intra-assay variability of the Liaison(®) assays were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the Liaison(®) assay for measles IgM were 92% and 100% respectively, with inter-assay variation of 14.1% and intra-assay variation of 12.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the mumps IgM Liaison(®) assay were 88% and 95% respectively, with an inter-assay and intra-assay variation of 13.9% and 5.3% respectively. Both the measles and mumps IgM Liaison(®) assays gave fewer equivocal results than the EIA. Neither Liaison(®) IgM assay showed any cross-reactivity with sera positive against other viruses, however the measles IgM EIA cross-reacted with parvovirus IgM. The automated Liaison(®) assays are more specific, cheaper and less labour-intensive compared to the manual EIA. The Liaison(®) assays benefit from reduced number of equivocal results compared to the EIA for both measles and mumps IgM. This allows clinical decisions to be made accurately and in a timely manner.

  15. SENSORY HEARING LOSS IN CHILDREN WITH MUMPS WITH MUMPS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorbaksh MD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Mumps infection is endemic in Iran and mumps parotiditis is a common disease in Iranian children. There has been a dramatic decrease in the worldwide incidence of mumps since the introduction and use in 1968 of the very effective and inexpensive mumps vaccine.In Iran probably due to a higher percentage of unvaccinated young persons Material& Methods:This descriptive case-series study was conducted in 94children, aged less than 14 years,  hospitalized between 1999 and 2001, in the pediatric ward of the Hazrat Rasool Hospital in Tehran. All patients with documented mumps infection (specific mumps-IgM antibody were evaluated twice for audiometeric function on the basis of diagnostic parameters for sensory neural hearing loss; the first evaluation was done on admission and the second three weeks later. 54 patients (age range 1-14y, mean age 4.83±3.93, male: female ratio30:24 were studied in two years.Results:The highest incidence of mumps was seen in winter (37% and spring (28% and the lowest in summer (13%. Specific IgM antibody for mumps virus was detected in 74 children. Comprehensive audiologic evaluation was done in 54 patients at admission and again 3 weeks later. SNHL was detected in 7.2% of patients; the 4.4% incidence of SNHL in this study was higher than in other studies in developed countries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs.Conclusion:Implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs in young Iranians could dramatically reduce the burden and costs imposed by the infection and its sequelae.Keywords: Mumps infection ;SNLH(sensorineural hearing loss;Mumps vaccination

  16. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendation: MMR About Mumps Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Mumps for Adults What is Mumps? Mumps ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Mumps can be prevented with a safe ...

  17. Two-year antibody persistence in children vaccinated at 12-15 months with a measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccine without human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrea A; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Diaz-Perez, Clemente; Mufson, Maurice A; Harrison, Christopher J; Leonardi, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry D; Peltier, Christopher; Grogg, Stanley; Carbayo, Antonio; Shapiro, Steven; Povey, Michael; Baccarini, Carmen; Innis, Bruce L; Henry, Ouzama

    2017-07-03

    One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for 2 y post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded during the entire follow-up. The according-to-protocol (ATP) persistence cohort included 752 children (M-M-R II = 186, MMR-RIT = 566), who received primary vaccination at a mean age of 12.3 ( ± 0.67) months. 104 children were revaccinated with MMR-containing vaccines; therefore, serology results for timepoints after revaccination were excluded from the analysis. Seropositivity for measles (Year 1≥ 98.3%; Year 2≥ 99.4%) and rubella (Year 1≥ 98.9%; Year 2 = 100%) remained as high at Year 2 as at Day 42. Similarly, seropositivity for mumps determined by ELISA (Year 1≥ 90.1%; Year 2≥ 94.1%) and PRN assays (Year 1≥ 87.5%; Year 2≥ 91.7%) persisted. Thirty-three SAEs were recorded in 23 children; 2 SAEs (inguinal adenitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) and one SAE (febrile convulsion) were considered as potentially related to MMR-RIT and M-M-R II, respectively. This study showed that antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella persisted for up to 2 y post-vaccination with either MMR vaccine in children aged 12-15 months, and that both vaccines were well-tolerated during the follow-up period.

  18. Prevalence of anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG antibodies in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain) in 2013: susceptibility to measles increased from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P; de Ory, F; Campins, M; Álvarez, E; Payà, T; Guisasola, E; Compte, C; Vellbé, K; Sánchez, C; Lozano, M J; Aran, I; Bonmatí, A; Carreras, R; Jané, M; Cabero, L

    2015-06-01

    Non-immune neonates and non-immune pregnant women are at risk of developing rubella, measles and mumps infections, including congenital rubella syndrome. We describe the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain). Anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps serum IgG titres were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in 353 cord blood samples from neonates of a representative sample of pregnant women obtained in 2013. The prevalence of protective antibody titres in neonates was 96 % for rubella IgG (≥8 IU/ml), 90 % for measles IgG (>300 IU/ml) and 84 % for mumps IgG (>460 EU/ml). Slightly lower prevalences of protective IgG titres, as estimated from the cord blood titres, were found in pregnant women: 95 % for rubella IgG, 89 % for measles IgG and 81 % for mumps IgG. The anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG titres and the prevalences of protective IgG titres against measles and mumps increased significantly (p rubella IgG titres increased by 3 % (OR = 1.80, p < 0.05) and the MMR vaccination coverage (during childhood) in pregnant women increased by 54 % (OR = 2.09, p < 0.001) from 2003 to 2013. We recommend to develop an MMR prevention programme in women of childbearing age based on mass MMR vaccination or MMR screening and vaccination of susceptible women to increase immunity levels against MMR.

  19. Anticorpos para os vírus da rubéola, do sarampo e da caxumba em crianças de São Paulo, Brasil Rubella, measles and mumps serum antibodies in children of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Piza de Souza Carvalho

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram dosados anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação para o vírus da rubéola, do sarampo e da caxumba, em amostras de soro de 166 crianças de elevado nível sócio-econômico, com idade de 6 a 12 anos, que freqüentavam, em 1969, uma escola primária na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A per-centagem de soros positivos foi de 49,3% para a rubéola, 88,2% para o sarampo e 79,4% para a caxumba. Através de interrogatório junto aos pais, observou-se significativa correspondência entre antecedentes clínicos positivos para sarampo e caxumba e presença de anticorpos circulantes (95,3% e 91,7%, respectivamente. Houve grande discordância quando os antecedentes clínicos ou vacinais para sarampo e caxumba eram negativos: 51,8% e 61,4% destas crianças possuíam anticorpos circulantes. Quanto à rubéola, não foi possível fazer-se tal correlação, pois a maioria das mães não sabia dar informações sobre esta doença, no passado.One hundred and sixty high socio-economic level, 6-12 year old children, attending a primary school, were tested in 1969 for rubella, measles and mumps HI antibodies. A 49.3% positivity for rubella antibodies, 88.2% for measles and 79.4% for mumps were found. A good correlation was observed between a positive history of clinical disease in the past and detectable serum antibodies for measles and mumps (95.3% and 91.7%, respectively. Quite on the contrary was observed when the history of measles and mumps disease or immunization in the past were negative, as 51.8% and 61.4% of these children, respectively, presented antibodies. As regards rubella, no correlation was obtained as the great majority of the parents was unable to give information on this disease in the past.

  20. Complications of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Complications of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  1. Transmission of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  2. Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Each Vaccine: MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP): Learn about measles, how ... Disease Control and Prevention AAP Urges Parents to Vaccinate Children to Protect Against Measles (1/23/15) American ...

  3. SENSORY HEARING LOSS IN CHILDREN WITH MUMPS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorbaksh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Mumps infection is endemic in Iran and mumps parotiditis is acommon disease in Iranian children. There has been a dramaticdecrease in the worldwide incidence of mumps since the introductionand use in 1968 of the very effective and inexpensive mumps vaccine.In Iran probably due to a higher percentage of unvaccinated youngpersons <15yr, the incidence rate of mumps infection and its sequelaare higher in comparison to corresponding data from developedcountries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs. The aim ofthe study was to investigate the effects of the mumps virus on cochlearfunction and to determine the frequency of related Sensory NeuralHearing Loss (SNHL in children.Material& Methods:This descriptive case-series study was conducted in 94children, agedless than 14 years, hospitalized between 1999 and 2001, in thepediatric ward of the Hazrat Rasool Hospital in Tehran. All patientswith documented mumps infection (specific mumps-IgM antibodywere evaluated twice for audiometeric function on the basis ofdiagnostic parameters for sensory neural hearing loss; the first evaluationwas done on admission and the second three weeks later. 54 patients(age range 1-14y, mean age 4.83±3.93, male: female ratio30:24were studied in two years.Results:The highest incidence of mumps was seen in winter (37% and spring(28% and the lowest in summer (13%. Specific IgM antibody formumps virus was detected in 74 children. Comprehensive audiologicevaluation was done in 54 patients at admission and again 3 weekslater. SNHL was detected in 7.2% of patients; the 4.4% incidence ofSNHL in this study was higher than in other studies in developedcountries prior to comprehensive vaccination programs.Conclusion:Implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs in youngIranians could dramatically reduce the burden and costs imposed bythe infection and its sequelae.Keywords: Mumps infection ;SNLH(sensorineural hearing loss;Mumpsvaccination

  4. Low vaccine efficacy of mumps component among MMR vaccine recipients in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of MMR vaccine was believed to have resulted in a decline in the incidence of measles, mumps and rubella infections. However, recent reports suggest the re-emergence of mumps infection worldwide in the vaccinated populations. It was proposed that the reason for this re-emergence was poor efficacy of MMR vaccine. The present study was aimed to investigate mumps infection in MMR vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations in Chennai, India. Blood samples were collected from acute mumps cases (n=74, 42<12 yr age, 54% males and investigated for IgM antibody against mumps, IgG antibody against measles, mumps and rubella viruses by ELISA. Sixty seven (91% patients had received MMR vaccine. All the 67 vaccinated cases were positive for parotitis, and mumps IgM. However, only 10 (15% were positive for IgG. All samples (100% were positive for rubella and measles IgG. These findings showed the occurrence of mumps infection among MMR vaccinated individuals in Chennai, India. The MMR vaccine failed to generate anti-mumps IgG. The reason may be low vaccine efficacy of the mumps component of the MMR vaccine used.

  5. 新兵流行性腮腺炎病毒抗体水平回顾性调查%A retrospective seroepidemiology study of the level of mumps virus antibody in recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞苏蒙; 叶晓波; 邢云卿; 高彦军; 冯莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of mumps virus (MuV) antibody, in recruits. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure MuV antibody (IgG) in serum samples from 364 new recruits randomly selected from 2001-2008. Results Of 364 serum samples, 249 were positive for MuV antibody at a rate of 68.41%. Each year, positivity for the antibody ranged from 53.33 % to 80. 44 %. Positivity for the antibody was higher in recruits from Heilongjiang (95.65%), Tianjin (86. 96%), Guangdong (86.96%), and Yunnan (86.36%) and lower in those from Inner Mongolia (34. 78%), Sichuan (39. 13%), and Shanxi (47.83%).There no was significant correlation between positivity for the antibody and recruits' former occupation. Conclusion New recruits tested positive for the MuV antibody at a relatively low rate and regional differences were evident, suggesting that mumps vaccination should be given to new recruits upon their entry into the service.%目的 了解入伍新兵人群腮腺炎病毒(MuV)抗体阳性分布情况.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)方法,对随机抽取的2001~2008年364份入伍新兵血清样品进行MuV IgG抗体检测分析.结果 364份血清样品中,MuV抗体阳性249份,阳性率68.41%,各年度抗体阳性率为53.33%~80.44%;新兵MuV抗体阳性地区以黑龙江省(95.65%)、天津市(86.96%)、广东省(86.96%)和云南省(86.36%)较高,内蒙古自治区(34.78%)、四川省(39.13%)和山西省(47.83%)较低;新兵入伍前工作与否抗体阳性率差异无统计学意义.结论 入伍新兵MuV抗体阳性率较低,并呈地区性差异,建议在入伍检疫期间对新兵进行免疫接种.

  6. Anti-mumps virus activity by extracts of Mimosa pudica, a unique Indian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayan, Jeevan; Selvaraj, Balaji; Warrier, Aparna; Shanmugam, Sambantham; Mathayan, Manikannan; Menon, Thangam

    2013-09-01

    Mumps is an acute and self-limiting disease characterized by parotitis, however in some cases it leads to aseptic meningitis, deafness, encephalitis and orchitis, which is a serious health concern. MMR vaccination was successful in eradicating the disease however, recent reports question the efficacy of MMR vaccine and countless outbreaks are observed in vaccinated populations throughout the world. Lack of specific treatment methods for mumps infection and inefficiency of MMR vaccine in vaccinated populations accentuates the need for the development of novel drugs to control mumps virus mediated serious infections. It was with this backdrop of information that the anti-mumps virus activity of Mimosa pudica was evaluated. Suspected mumps cases were collected to isolate a standard mumps virus by systematic laboratory testing which included IgM antibody assays, virus isolation, RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. The virus was quantified by TCID50 assay and anti-mumps virus property was evaluated by CPE reduction assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was measured by MTT assay and phytochemical analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The RT-PCR and phylogenetic tree analysis of the SH gene sequence of the clinical isolate showed it to be mumps virus genotype C. 150 μg/ml concentration of M. pudica completely inhibited mumps virus and the drug was found to be non-toxic up to 2 mg/ml. M. pudica was thus found to be a potent inhibitor of MuV.

  7. Mumps, measles and rubella vaccination in children with PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska-G Omba, Barbara; Matkowska-Kocjan, Agnieszka; Mi Kiewicz, Katarzyna; Szyma Ska-Toczek, Zofia; Wójcik, Marta; Bany, Dorota; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-11-21

    There is no published data regarding immunologic response to vaccinations in children with PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis). The aim of this study was to evaluate mumps, measles and rubella immunity in children with PFAPA. 31 children with PFAPA syndrome and 22 healthy children (control group - CG) were recruited to the study. All children were previously vaccinated with one dose of MMR vaccine according to the Polish obligatory vaccination schedule. The patients from both groups were evaluated for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella IgG antibodies concentrations (ELISA tests; the reference values for protective antibody levels were 150IU/L, 16RU/L and 11IU/ml respectively). The percentage of patients with protective antibodies levels was as follows: measles - 93.55% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.77); mumps - 74.19% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.02); rubella - 80.65% of PFAPA and 90.9% of CG patients (p=0.30). Children with PFAPA syndrome present a good response to the measles and rubella component of the MMR vaccine, however immunity against mumps after one dose of MMR may not be sufficient. Further investigation concerning immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases and the safety of vaccinations in children with periodic fever syndromes is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  10. VACCINATION OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGY DISEASES AGAINST MEASLES AND MUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and seven children (45 girls and 62 boys in the age of 20 months — 14 years old (mean 9,62±0,37 suffered from acute lymphoblast leukosis and solid tumors in history have been examined in the clinic of Research Institute of children infections of FMBA. The vaccination history was studied in all children and the titers of specific antibodies to measles and mumps viruses as well as immune status were determined. 83,8% and 85,4% of studied children had no protection against measles and mumps respectively or had low titers of antibodies. Immunological examination of these children conducted within 4 months after finishing of therapy revealed absence of immunodeficiency. It gave opportunities to vaccinate or revaccinate these children against mentioned infections. Fifty three children were immunized against measles and 47 — against mumps. Application of live vaccines was safe because majority of vaccinated against measles (81,1% and mumps (82,9% children had mild vaccination process. It was established that to increase immunological efficacy of vaccination using of polyoxidony during 5 days before vaccination and 5 days after vaccination is reasonable.

  11. Analysis of serum th1/th2 cytokine levels in patients with acute mumps infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-g (IFN-g, interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases, 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67 were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-g, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis.

  12. Mumps encephalitis with akinesia and mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichi; Goji, Aya; Shono, Miki; Matsuura, Sato; Inoue, Miki; Toda, Eiko; Miyazaki, Tatsushi; Kawahito, Masami; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Measles-rubella-mumps vaccination is routine in many countries, but the mumps vaccine remains voluntary and is not covered by insurance in Japan. A 5-year-old Japanese boy who had not received the mumps vaccine was affected by mumps parotitis. Several days later, he presented with various neurological abnormalities, including akinesia, mutism, dysphagia, and uncontrolled respiratory disorder. Mumps encephalitis was diagnosed. Despite steroid pulse and immunoglobulin treatment, the disease progressed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed necrotic changes in bilateral basal ganglia, midbrain, and hypothalamus. At 1 year follow up, he was bedridden and required enteral feeding through a gastric fistula and tracheostomy. Mumps vaccination should be made routine as soon as possible in Japan, because mumps encephalitis carries the risk of severe sequelae. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Seroprevalence of mumps in The Netherlands: dynamics over a decade with high vaccination coverage and recent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Smits

    Full Text Available Here we present mumps virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in the Netherlands in 2006/2007 (n = 7900. Results were compared with a similar study (1995/1996 and discussed in the light of recent outbreaks. Mumps antibodies were tested using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Overall seroprevalence was 90.9% with higher levels in the naturally infected cohorts compared with vaccinated cohorts. Mumps virus vaccinations at 14 months and 9 years resulted in an increased seroprevalence and antibody concentration. The second vaccination seemed to be important in acquiring stable mumps antibody levels in the long term. In conclusion, the Dutch population is well protected against mumps virus infection. However, we identified specific age- and population groups at increased risk of mumps infection. Indeed, in 2007/2008 an outbreak has occurred in the low vaccination coverage groups emphasizing the predictive value of serosurveillance studies.

  14. Case of mumps orchitis after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takayoshi; Mochida, Junichi; Takada, Shogo; Hori, Yutaro; Yamaguchi, Kenya; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-04-01

    We present a case of mumps orchitis after vaccination. A 35-year-old man visited the emergency unit of our hospital for fever and right testicular pain on 7 January 2012. Two weeks before the visit, he underwent vaccination for mumps. After 7 days of hospitalization, the patient recovered from fever and testicular pain. Scrotal magnetic resonance imaging suggested right orchitis, and an increased level of serum mumps immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G indicated an initial infection of mumps virus. The peak value of immunoglobulin G showed 106 enzyme immunoassay unit 5 weeks after vaccination, which was 10-fold higher than the ordinary rise of a vaccinated individual. This fact leads to two possibilities. One is this happened as an adverse event of vaccination, and the other is that he actually had a wild-type infection at the same time as vaccination. There are some reports regarding adverse events of mumps vaccine; however, they might include wild-type infection.

  15. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac, was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study, even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus.

  16. [Multifocal epileptic crises following mumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Boulloche, J

    1988-04-01

    A 15 years-old girl with no previous history of epilepsy or neurological disease presented three types of epileptic symptoms the same day: 1) clusters of rhythmic myoclonus of the left hemiface; 2) episodes of painful paresthesias of the left arm followed by secondary generalised seizures; 3) episodes of elementary visual hallucinations of the right hemifield. She had several seizures each hour and some were recorded. There were no EEG abnormalities during the facial myoclonus but rapid rhythms were seen during the sensory and visual partial seizures on the right parietal and left occipital lobes. There was no fever and no drowsiness. The CSF tap showed pleocytosis. Serological studies indicated recent mumps. The drugs were initially inefficient. The seizures disappeared after a month. The drugs were stopped after three months and the seizures had not relapsed after a one year's follow-up. Though there were no other sign of encephalitis, we believe that episode of multifocal seizures was due to mumps encephalitis.

  17. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  20. Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever could be an indication of inflamed tonsils (tonsillitis) or a blocked salivary gland. Other viruses can ... and symptoms? Are there other possible causes? What treatment approach do you recommend? How soon should symptoms ...

  1. Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the brain. It can also lead to hearing loss and meningitis (infection of membranes that cover the ... ice or heat packs on swollen cheeks.Take acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol) for pain or ibuprofen (brand ...

  2. Mumps and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunizations Mumps and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: Select one PDF [ ... sick but will not have swollen glands. Is it serious? In most children, mumps is pretty mild. ...

  3. Incidence of mumps and immunity to measles, mumps and rubella among US military recruits, 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Angelia A; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Zhong; Nevin, Remington L

    2008-01-24

    Recent mumps outbreaks have evoked concerns of decreasing mumps immunity among adolescents and adults, including US military recruits subject to differing mumps immunization policies. To compare mumps incidence and to assess initial measles, mumps and rubella seropositivity, we conducted a cohort study among recruits from 2000 to 2004. Mumps incidence in the targeted MMR and universal MMR cohorts was 4.1 and 3.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, giving an incidence rate ratio of 1.16 (P=0.67). Measles, mumps, and rubella seropositivity was 84.6%, 89.5%, and 93.2%, respectively. Among recruits with measles and rubella immunity, 92.8% were mumps immune. These findings support the policy of targeting MMR immunization based upon measles and rubella serology alone.

  4. Mumps: Not an Innocent Bystander in Solid Organ Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Baas; K.A.M.I. van Donselaar; S. Florquin; R.S. van Binnendijk; I.J.M. ten Berge; F.J. Bemelman

    2009-01-01

    Recently two major outbreaks of mumps have occurred: in the UK more than 56,000 cases were notified between 2004 and 2005, and in the United States, 6,584 cases were reported in 2006. Most patients were young healthy adults, in whom mumps normally has a benign course. Little is known about mumps in

  5. The immunizing effect and reactogenicity of two live attenuated mumps virus vaccines in Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, B; Heller, L; Böttiger, M

    1983-10-01

    An evaluation of the seroconversion and booster effects after vaccination with two different mumps vaccines, the Urabe Am 9 strain and the Jeryl Lynn strain, was carried out in schoolchildren. Four hundred and fifty-four schoolchildren aged 11 to 12 years with no previous history of mumps or mumps vaccination were enrolled for the study. The antibody responses were measured by serum neutralization (SN) and haemolysis-in-gel (HIG) tests. Of the 454 subjects, 130 were found to be initially seronegative. Two lots of different strengths of each vaccine were used to evaluate the relationships. The Urabe Am 9 vaccine lots had infectivity titres of 100 000 and 19 000 TCID50 per dose and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine titres of 59 000 and 28 000 TCID50 per dose. Only slight differences in seroconversion rates were seen between the lots. The overall seroconversion rate, measured by SN, was 94% for the Urabe Am 9 vaccine and 91% for the Jeryl Lynn vaccine, whereas the geometric mean titre for virus-neutralizing antibody in seroconverting children was 7.4 with the Urabe Am 9 vaccine and 10.7 with the Jeryl Lynn vaccine. In children who were seropositive prior to vaccination, a marked rise in antibody titre was found 8 weeks after vaccine injection indicating a booster effect. The miscellaneous post-vaccination side-effects were mild and inconsequential.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel formalin-inactivated and alum-adjuvanted candidate subunit vaccine for mumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ma, Shaohui; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Longding; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Li; Shi, Changjun; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Qihan

    2008-08-05

    While an attenuated vaccine against mumps has played a role in controlling the epidemic of this disease worldwide, some problems with efficacy and safety of the vaccine are still present. In the work described here, a novel mumps vaccine with good immunity and safety was developed by selecting an antigen component of the mumps virus. The results suggest that this purified antigen vaccine is immunogenic in animals and is capable of inducing a specific neutralizing antibody response against viral HN, but not against other viral proteins. The clinical and pathological observations after challenge of vaccinated rhesus monkeys indicated further that the immune response induced by this vaccine provided complete protection from wild-type virus infection. Furthermore, the immunological analysis and clinical observation of experimental monkeys that were immunized with the vaccine, followed by infection with wild-type virus, suggest that no abnormal changes in expression of inflammatory cytokines and no clinical allergic reaction were found at 1 month after challenge.

  7. The increasing incidence of mumps orchitis: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Niall F; McGuire, Barry B; Mahon, Jackie A; Smyth, Anna E; O'Malley, Kiaran J; Fitzpatrick, John M

    2010-04-01

    There has been a recent increase in mumps orchitis among pubertal and postpubertal males. These outbreaks can be attributed to a reduction in the uptake of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine during the early to mid-1990 s in children who have now matured. The mumps virus is commonly associated with extra-salivary complications. Unvaccinated postpubertal males diagnosed with mumps virus frequently develop complications such as mumps orchitis. Therefore, it is important that urologists are familiar with the diagnosis, treatment and complications of this condition. Here we review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, treatment options and complications of mumps orchitis, as a complication of mumps virus, with particular emphasis on testicular atrophy, subfertility and infertility.

  8. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

    2011-08-26

    A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR.

  9. A Mumps Outbreak in Vojvodina, Serbia, in 2012 Underlines the Need for Additional Vaccination Opportunities for Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Nedeljković

    Full Text Available In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%. Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54% were 20-29 years old, followed by the 15-19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%. Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%. Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%, including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7% were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4% with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories.

  10. Brainstem Encephalitis and ADEM Following Mumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of brainstem encephalitis (BSE with fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis developed 1 week after bilateral parotitis and mumps in a 4 year-old female child and were followed by symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM within 20 days of recovery from BSE.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Mumps to Rabies, animal - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  12. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  13. Mumps Epidemiology and Mumps Virus Genotypes Circulating in Mainland China during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Aili; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Ying; Deng, Xiuying; Sun, Zhaodan; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Naiying; Xu, Songtao; Fang, Xueqiang; Gao, Hui; Si, Yuan; Lei, Yake; Zheng, Huanying; He, Jilan; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    With the implementation of mumps virus (MuV) vaccination in the expanded program on immunization (EPI) in mainland China since 2008, the incidence of mumps has decreased, and the natural epidemic pattern of mumps has slightly changed during 2013–2015. The two epidemic peaks (April-July and November-December) became less obvious than those observed from 2004 to 2012. Children and adolescents younger than 15, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old age group, remain the target group and should be the focus of high-quality immunization activities in mainland China. However, it was also found that the incidence and reported cases of mumps decreased in each age group during 2013–2015, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old and ten-to-fourteen-year-old age groups. The proportion of mumps cases among adults in some provinces also increased. Unlike the changes in the epidemiological characteristics of mumps affected by vaccination, the data of MuV virology surveillance indicated that most of the MuV transmission chains have not yet been effectively interrupted, and MuV remains a natural epidemic pattern in mainland China. In the MuV virology surveillance, 194 MuV strains during 2013–2015 were isolated from 10 of 31 provinces in mainland China. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene, both genotype F (99.0%) and G (1.0%) were identified, and genotype F was still the predominant genotype continuously circulating in mainland China. Representative genotype F and G strains isolated in China from 1995 to 2012 were selected for further analysis. The results indicated that there were multiple transmission chains within genotype F, with no obvious geographical or time differences. The high genetic diversity of genotype F strains could be a result of the continuous transmission and evolution of the MuV in mainland China. Genotype G was also detected in four provinces in mainland China. Because of the limited epidemiological data, it was

  14. Mumps Epidemiology and Mumps Virus Genotypes Circulating in Mainland China during 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Aili; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Ying; Deng, Xiuying; Sun, Zhaodan; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Naiying; Xu, Songtao; Fang, Xueqiang; Gao, Hui; Si, Yuan; Lei, Yake; Zheng, Huanying; He, Jilan; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    With the implementation of mumps virus (MuV) vaccination in the expanded program on immunization (EPI) in mainland China since 2008, the incidence of mumps has decreased, and the natural epidemic pattern of mumps has slightly changed during 2013-2015. The two epidemic peaks (April-July and November-December) became less obvious than those observed from 2004 to 2012. Children and adolescents younger than 15, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old age group, remain the target group and should be the focus of high-quality immunization activities in mainland China. However, it was also found that the incidence and reported cases of mumps decreased in each age group during 2013-2015, particularly in the five-to-nine-year-old and ten-to-fourteen-year-old age groups. The proportion of mumps cases among adults in some provinces also increased. Unlike the changes in the epidemiological characteristics of mumps affected by vaccination, the data of MuV virology surveillance indicated that most of the MuV transmission chains have not yet been effectively interrupted, and MuV remains a natural epidemic pattern in mainland China. In the MuV virology surveillance, 194 MuV strains during 2013-2015 were isolated from 10 of 31 provinces in mainland China. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene, both genotype F (99.0%) and G (1.0%) were identified, and genotype F was still the predominant genotype continuously circulating in mainland China. Representative genotype F and G strains isolated in China from 1995 to 2012 were selected for further analysis. The results indicated that there were multiple transmission chains within genotype F, with no obvious geographical or time differences. The high genetic diversity of genotype F strains could be a result of the continuous transmission and evolution of the MuV in mainland China. Genotype G was also detected in four provinces in mainland China. Because of the limited epidemiological data, it was uncertain

  15. MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubell and Varicella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... Measles, Mumps, Rubella & Varicella Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (chickenpox) can be serious diseases: Measles Causes rash, ...

  16. Evaluation of live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine effectiveness in mumps outbreaks: a matched case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Chuan-xi; NIE Jun; LIANG Jian-hua; WANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Mumps virus infection is a potentially serious viral infection of childhood and early adulthood. In China, live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine has been licensed for pediatric use since 1990. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine against clinical mumps in outbreaks.Methods Cases were selected from mumps outbreaks in schools in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2005. Each case was matched by gender, age and classroom. Vaccination information was obtained from Children's EPI Administrative Computerized System. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated for 1 or 2 doses of S79 vaccine with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results One hundred and ninety-four cases and 194 controls were enrolled into the study. VE of the S79 mumps vaccine for 1 dose versus 0 confer protection 80.4% (95% CI, 60.0%-90.4%) and Ves against mumps in outbreaks for 1 dose of mumps vaccine are similar among those children aged 4-9 years and aged over 10 years old.Conclusion The live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine can be effective in preventing clinical mumps outbreaks.

  17. Migration of legacy mumps applications to relational database servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, K C

    2001-07-01

    An extended implementation of the Mumps language is described that facilitates vendor neutral migration of legacy Mumps applications to SQL-based relational database servers. Implemented as a compiler, this system translates Mumps programs to operating system independent, standard C code for subsequent compilation to fully stand-alone, binary executables. Added built-in functions and support modules extend the native hierarchical Mumps database with access to industry standard, networked, relational database management servers (RDBMS) thus freeing Mumps applications from dependence upon vendor specific, proprietary, unstandardized database models. Unlike Mumps systems that have added captive, proprietary RDMBS access, the programs generated by this development environment can be used with any RDBMS system that supports common network access protocols. Additional features include a built-in web server interface and the ability to interoperate directly with programs and functions written in other languages.

  18. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Kahlfuss; Robert Rainer Flieger; Annette Mankertz; Kadir Yilmaz; Torsten Kai Roepke

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensi...

  19. Recombinant mumps virus as a cancer therapeutic agent

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Mumps virus belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae and has the potential to be an oncolytic agent. Mumps virus Urabe strain had been tested in the clinical setting as a treatment for human cancer four decades ago in Japan. These clinical studies demonstrated that mumps virus could be a promising cancer therapeutic agent that showed significant antitumor activity against various types of cancers. Since oncolytic virotherapy was not in the limelight until the beginning of the 21st century, th...

  20. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Robert Rainer; Mankertz, Annette; Yilmaz, Kadir; Roepke, Torsten Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  1. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  2. Recombinant mumps virus as a cancer therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Russell, Stephen J; Federspiel, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Mumps virus belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae and has the potential to be an oncolytic agent. Mumps virus Urabe strain had been tested in the clinical setting as a treatment for human cancer four decades ago in Japan. These clinical studies demonstrated that mumps virus could be a promising cancer therapeutic agent that showed significant antitumor activity against various types of cancers. Since oncolytic virotherapy was not in the limelight until the beginning of the 21(st) century, the interest to pursue mumps virus for cancer treatment slowly faded away. Recent success stories of oncolytic clinical trials prompted us to resurrect the mumps virus and to explore its potential for cancer treatment. We have obtained the Urabe strain of mumps virus from Osaka University, Japan, which was used in the earlier human clinical trials. In this report we describe the development of a reverse genetics system from a major isolate of this Urabe strain mumps virus stock, and the construction and characterization of several recombinant mumps viruses with additional transgenes. We present initial data demonstrating these recombinant mumps viruses have oncolytic activity against tumor cell lines in vitro and some efficacy in preliminary pilot animal tumor models.

  3. Immune response to the mumps component of the MMR vaccine in the routine of immunisation services in the Brazilian National Immunisation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Matos dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR immunogenicity in 150 children vaccinated in the routine of three health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009, without other vaccines administered during the period from 30 days before to 30 days after vaccination. A previous study conducted in Brazil in 2007, in 1,769 children ranging from 12-15 months of age vaccinated against yellow fever and MMR simultaneously or at intervals of 30 days or more between doses, had shown low seroconversion for mumps regardless of the interval between administration of the two vaccines. The current study showed 89.5% (95% confidence interval: 83.3; 94.0 seroconversion rate for mumps. All children seroconverted for measles and rubella. After revaccination, high antibody titres and seroconversion rates were achieved against mumps. The results of this study and others suggest that two MMR doses confer optimal immunoresponses for all three antigens and the possible need for additional doses should be studied taking into account not only serological, but also epidemiological data, as there is no serological correlate of protection for mumps.

  4. Evaluation of different continuous cell lines in the isolation of mumps virus by the shell vial method from clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J; Ballesteros, F; Mari, M; Munar, M

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To compare prospectively the efficacy of the Vero, LLC-MK2, MDCK, Hep-2, and MRC-5 cell lines in the isolation of the mumps virus from clinical samples by means of the shell vial method. Methods—During an epidemic outbreak of parotiditis 48 clinical samples (saliva swabs and CSF) were studied. Two vials of the Vero, LLC-MK2, MDCK, MRC-5, and Hep-2 cell lines were inoculated with 0.2 ml of the samples by the shell vial assay. The vials were incubated at 36°C for two and five days. The vials were then fixed with acetone at -20°C for 10 minutes and stained by a monoclonal antibody against mumps virus by means of an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results—The mumps virus was isolated from 36 samples. The Vero and LLC-MK2 cell lines showed a 100% isolation capacity, MDCK showed 77.7%, MRC-5 showed 44.4%, and Hep-2 showed 22.2%. The Vero and LLC-MK2 lines were significantly different to the other cell lines (p 5 infectious foci) were 94.4% for Vero, 97.2% for LLC-MK2, 5.5% for MDCK, 5.5% for Hep-2, and 0% for MRC-5. Conclusions—The Vero and LLC-MK2 cell lines are equally efficient at two and five days incubation for the isolation of the mumps virus from clinical samples, and the use of the shell vial method considerably shortens the time of aetiological diagnosis with higher specificity. Key Words: mumps virus • Vero cell line • LLC-MK2 cell line • MDCK cell line • Hep-2 cell line • MRC-5 cell line • isolation • shell vial PMID:11729211

  5. Immunocompetent, Immunized Male With Mumps, Complicated by Orchitis and Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, Allison; Grubish, Lindsay; Young, Scott; Franklin, Jillian

    2015-10-01

    Mumps is a rare pathology often not encountered in the emergency department setting. It is an especially unusual finding in a fully immunized individual. We present a case of a 26-year-old Army active duty male who was evaluated in the emergency department for mumps over the course of two visits. The military population is presumed fully immunized and immunocompetent, travels widely and often lives in close quarters. This case highlights the importance for providers to consider such a disease that carries a risk of significant morbidity, and rarely, mortality. A literature review was performed evaluating mumps in the vaccinated population.

  6. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.

  7. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... Why get vaccinated? Measles, mumps, and rubella are serious ... common, especially among children. Measles Measles virus causes ...

  8. Mumps vaccine effectiveness in primary schools and households, the Netherlands, 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, B.E.; Lier, A. van; Kassteele, J. van de; Fanoy, E.B.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulshof, F.; Blauwhof, A.; Schipper, M.; Binnendijk, R. van; Boot, H.J.; Melker, H.E. de; Hahne, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) during a large genotype D mumps outbreak, we conducted a cross-sectional study in eight primary schools and associated households in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the occurrence of mumps. Multivariate analyses wer

  9. Application of Oral Fluid Assays in Support of Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. C. Maple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of specific viral antibody or nucleic acid produced by infection or immunization, using oral fluid samples, offers increased potential for wider population uptake compared to blood sampling. This methodology is well established for the control of HIV and measles infections, but can also be applied to the control of other vaccine preventable infections, and this review describes the application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella national immunization programs. In England and Wales individuals with suspected mumps or rubella, based on clinical presentation, can have an oral fluid swab sample taken for case confirmation. Universal varicella immunization of children has led to a drastic reduction of chickenpox in those countries where it is used; however, in England and Wales such a policy has not been instigated. Consequently, in England and Wales most children have had chickenpox by age 10 years; however, small, but significant, numbers of adults remain susceptible. Targeted varicella zoster virus (VZV immunization of susceptible adolescents offers the potential to reduce the pool of susceptible adults and oral fluid determination of VZV immunity in adolescents is a potential means of identifying susceptible individuals in need of VZV vaccination. The main application of oral fluid testing is in those circumstances where blood sampling is deemed not necessary, or is undesirable, and when the documented sensitivity and specificity of the oral fluid assay methodology to be used is considered sufficient for the purpose intended.

  10. Self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in health care personnel in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hirose, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Health care personnel are required to be immune against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in order to determine the immune status of health care personnel. A self-reported questionnaire of history of previous disease and vaccination against these diseases was administered to a total of 910 health care personnel in Shimane university hospital in Japan, whose results were compared with serological evidences. There were numerous subjects who did not remember a history of disease (greater than 33% each) and of vaccination (greater than 58% each). Self-reported history of disease and vaccination had high positive predictive value against either disease for testing positive for antiviral antibodies. However, a considerable number of false-negative subjects could be found; 88.9% of subjects for measles, 89.3% for mumps, 62.2% for rubella and 96.3% for varicella in the population who had neither a self-reported history of disease nor a vaccination against each disease. In addition, regardless of the disease in question, a negative predictive value in self-reported history of disease and vaccination was remarkably low. These results suggest that self-reported history of disease and vaccination was not predictive to determine the accurate immune status of health care personnel against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. A seroprevalence survey, followed by an adequate immunization program for susceptible subjects, is crucial to prevent and control infection in hospital settings.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Mumps Meningoencephalitis with Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions without Preceding Acute Parotitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of mumps meningoencephalitis with bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding acute parotitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  13. Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S

    2016-06-08

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden.

  14. Nonspecific native elution of proteins and mumps virus in immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Sviben, Dora; Forčić, Dubravko; Halassy, Beata

    2016-05-20

    Immunoaffinity chromatography, based on the antigen-antibody recognition, enables specific purification of any antigen (protein, virus) by its antibody. The problem with immunoaffinity chromatography is the harsh elution conditions required for disrupting strong antigen-antibody interactions, such as low pH buffers, which are often deleterious for the immobilized protein and the protein to be isolated since they can also disrupt the intramolecular forces. Therefore, immunoaffinity chromatography can only be partially used for protein and virus purification. Here we report on a nonspecific elution in immunoaffinity chromatography using native conditions by elution with amino acid solution at physiological pH for which we suppose possible competing mechanism of action. Elution potential of various amino acid solutions was tested using immunoaffinity columns specific for ovalbumin and mumps virus, and protein G affinity column. Results have shown that the most successful elution solutions were those containing imidazole and arginine of high molarity. Imidazole represents aromatic residues readily found at the antigen-antibody interaction surface and arginine is most frequently found on protein surface in general. Therefore, results on their eluting power in immunoaffinity chromatography, which increases with increasing molarity, are in line with the competing mechanism of action. Virus immunoaffinity chromatography resulted in removal on nonviable virus particles, which is important for research and biotechnology purposes. In addition, amino acids are proven stabilizers for proteins and viruses making approach presented in this work a very convenient purification method.

  15. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mumps Orchitis and Epididymo-Orchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihn, Yeon Kwon; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To determine ultrasonographic findings of mumps epididymo-orchitis to differentiate from other causes of epididymo-orchitis. We retrospectively analyzed the sonographic findings of 11 cases of mumps epididymo-orchitis in 10 patients. US findings were analyzed in terms of echogenicity, size, hydrocele, and calcification. The age of patients ranged from 12 to 27 years (average 16.6 years). A total of 11 lesions were involved testis : 2 lesions were located in left, 7 lesions in right, and bilaterally inone patient. Sonographic findings consisted of diffusely enlarged homogenous hypoechoic in 6 cases, diffusely enlarged in homogenous hypoechoic in 3 cases, and diffusely enlarged isoechoic testis in 2 cases. A total of 7 cases were involved epididymis : 5 cases were located in the head, and 2 in the tail. The sonographic finding of epididymitis was enlarged epididymis with heterogeneous hypoechoic pattern. The hydroceles were also seen in 5 cases. It is difficult to differentiate mumps epidydimo-orchitis from other infectiou sepididymo-orchitis only on the basis of ultrasonographic findings, but the clinical history of mumps can be helpful in diagnosis of this disease

  16. Rescue of mumps virus from cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D K; Sidhu, M S; Johnson, J E; Udem, S A

    2000-05-01

    A complete DNA copy of the genome of a Jeryl Lynn strain of mumps virus (15,384 nucleotides) was assembled from cDNA fragments such that an exact antigenome RNA could be generated following transcription by T7 RNA polymerase and cleavage by hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. The plasmid containing the genome sequence, together with support plasmids which express mumps virus NP, P, and L proteins under control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter, were transfected into A549 cells previously infected with recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-T7) that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Rescue of infectious virus from the genome cDNA was demonstrated by amplification of mumps virus from transfected-cell cultures and by subsequent consensus sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products generated from infected-cell RNA to verify the presence of specific nucleotide tags introduced into the genome cDNA clone. The only coding change (position 8502, A to G) in the cDNA clone relative to the consensus sequence of the Jeryl Lynn plaque isolate from which it was derived, resulting in a lysine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid 22 of the L protein, did not prevent rescue of mumps virus, even though an amino acid alignment for the L proteins of paramyxoviruses indicates that lysine is highly conserved at that position. This system may provide the basis of a safe and effective virus vector for the in vivo expression of immunologically and biologically active proteins, peptides, and RNAs.

  17. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Akkermans, R.P.; Swaan, C.M.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubel

  18. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Akkermans, R.P.; Swaan, C.M.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubel

  19. Nested PCR for rapid detection of mumps virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, G P; Rodriguez, C; Cisterna, D; Freire, M C; Cello, J

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT-n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR product was detected in each of the CSF samples from patients with proven non-mumps virus-related meningitis or encephalitis. Mumps virus RNA was detected in all 18 CSF samples confirmed by culture to be infected with mumps virus. Positive PCR results were obtained for the CSF of 26 of 28 patients that were positive for signs of mumps virus infection (i.e., cultivable virus from urine or oropharyngeal samples or positivity for anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M) but without cultivable virus in their CSF. Overall, mumps virus RNA was detected in CSF of 96% of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) disease and confirmed mumps virus infection, while mumps virus was isolated in CSF of only 39% of the patients. Furthermore, in a retrospective study, we were able to detect mumps virus RNA in 25 of 55 (46%) CSF samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS disease and negative laboratory evidence of viral infection including mumps virus infection. The 25 patients represent 12% of the 236 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS infections and whose CSF was examined at our laboratory for a 2-year period. The findings confirm the importance of mumps virus as a causative agent of CNS infections in countries with low vaccine coverage rates. In summary, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the mumps virus RT-n-PCR for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS disease and suggests that this assay may soon become the "gold standard" test

  20. Guillain-Barré syndrome and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia associated with mumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawazaki, A; Nakamura, N; Jyokaji, H; Minami, S; Nakamura, S; Matsuda, T

    1996-12-01

    A 35-year-old man with Guillain-Barré syndrome and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia associated with serologically-confirmed mumps is presented. A polyneuropathy developed 18 days after the onset of mumps, that improved with plasmapheresis. A decreased platelet count was observed 25 days after the onset of mumps attributed to platelet agglutination in blood anticoagulated with EDTA, and the agglutination was prevented by other anticoagulants. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with mumps is rare and EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia following mumps has never been documented. This represents the first report of Guillain-Barré syndrome and EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia following mumps. Furthermore, our findings suggest activation of the humoral immune response as a potential pathogenesis.

  1. Introducing combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in Chandigarh, India: issues and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Madhu; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    Cyclical outbreaks of mumps have been noticed across Chandigarh city during winter months. Chandigarh does not provide measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in the State immunization schedule. Epidemiological shift in age at diagnosis of mumps was noticed with higher incidence in older children and adults. Increased occurrence of complications can be predicted with this age shift. Silent burden of rubella with serious outcomes in newborns further strengthen the case for MMR vaccine inclusion in routine immunization program of Chandigarh.

  2. Mumps vaccine associated orchitis: Evidence supporting a potential immune-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Wadsley, Jane; Jenner, Bernard; Buttery, Jim P

    2010-03-19

    We report 3 cases of orchitis following vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine, two with an onset within 3 days following vaccination. Orchitis is a common complication of mumps infection, particularly in post-pubertal males, and is also recognized as a very rare complication of mumps vaccination. These cases, discussed together with a comprehensive review of the existing literature regarding post-vaccine orchitis, highlight uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis of post-vaccine orchitis.

  3. Purification of mumps virus particles of high viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huosheng; Ngo, Laurie; Petrovskaya, Svetlana; Gao, Yamei; Laassri, Majid; Rubin, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Mumps is a highly infectious viral disease of humans with a wide array of clinical manifestations ranging from painful swelling of the salivary glands to meningitis and encephalitis. Despite the clinical importance of mumps virus, most of what is known of its biological properties comes from studies using supernatants from virus infected cell cultures, which contain substantial levels of host cell derived debris and biologically active substances such as cytokines, transcription factors and secreted virus proteins. These contaminants complicate interpretation of studies of virus replication, virus-host interactions and in vivo virulence. Here we describe a protocol for concentration of the virus from cell culture supernatants followed by gradient purification, resulting in attainment of high titer live virus of high purity.

  4. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  5. Difficulties in eliminating measles and controlling rubella and mumps: a cross-sectional study of a first measles and rubella vaccination and a second measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage of the measles-rubella (MR or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18-24 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5-9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9 patients were aged 20-29 years while 33.33% (3/9 were infants aged 8-12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122 patients with mumps were children aged 5-9 years, and 50.54% (94/186 rubella cases were aged 15-39 years. CONCLUSIONS: A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18-24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly

  6. Epidemiology of mumps in Tongchuan city, Shaanxi province%陕西省铜川市流行性腮腺炎流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新利; 白芳玲; 李跟平; 李悦玲; 王云婕

    2012-01-01

    specimens were collected from healthy people. The antibody positive rate was 74. 78% and the geometric mean concentration(GMC) was 830.51 U/ml. The mumps virus antibody positive rate and GMC increased with age. The antibody positive rate was highest in children aged 7-10 years( 100% )and the GMC was highest in children aged 5-6 years( 1923. 14 U/ml). Both the antibody positive rate and GMC decreased slightly with age, but still remained at high level. The antibody positive rate and GMC were lowest in children aged < 1 years(2. 38% and 10. 12 U/ml). The differences on the antibody positive rate and GMC in different age groups had statistic significance. Thirty five saliva specimens were collected and 3 strains of mumps virus were isolated, which belonged to genotype F. Conclusion Mumps incidence remained at high level in Tongchuan in recent years. The major pathogen was mumps virus genotype F. The prevention and control of mumps should be strengthened in the key population of children aged < 7 years, especially in the young children aged 1-3 years.

  7. Mumps Virus: Modification of the Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Frontline Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common. Mumps begins with a prodrome of low-grade fever, myalgias and malaise/anorexia, followed by development of nonsuppurative parotitis, which is the pathognomonic finding associated with acute mumps infection. Orchitis and meningitis are the two most common serious complications, with hearing loss and infertility occurring rarely. Providers should consider mumps in patients with exposure to a known case or international travel to endemic regions who present with consistent signs and symptoms. If mumps is suspected, healthcare providers must immediately implement standard and droplet precautions and notify the local health department and hospital infection control personnel.

  8. A comparison of LISP and MUMPS as implementation languages for knowledge-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A C

    1984-10-01

    Major components of knowledge-based systems are summarized, along with the programming language features generally useful in their implementation. LISP and MUMPS are briefly described and compared as vehicles for building knowledge-based systems. The paper concludes with suggestions for extensions to MUMPS that might increase its usefulness in artificial intelligence applications without affecting the essential nature of the language.

  9. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

  10. Antibody persistence in young adults 1 year after MMR immunization by aerosol or by subcutaneous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ortega, José Luis; Bennett, John V; Castañeda, D; Martinez, D; de Castro, J Fernandez

    2010-10-18

    Information on antibody persistence after aerosol revaccination with MMR components is limited. Thus, antibody titers were determined in 283 adult participants in a MMR vaccine trial 12 months after revaccination. One group had received aerosolized Triviraten vaccine while two other groups received either injected Triviraten or MMR II vaccine. Both MMR vaccines contained the same rubella strain, but different measles and mumps strains. Seropositivity to measles persisted in 98% of aerosolized vaccine recipients, 92% of injected Triviraten, and 95% of injected MMR II. All participants in the three groups retained seropositivity to rubella, while less than 50% remained seropositive to mumps. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequency of lymphocytic meningitis associated with mumps before and after a mass campaign for mumps vaccination in children from Salvador, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Carvalho Cristiana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of lymphocytic meningitis(LM concomitant with mumps, before and after the mumps mass immunization campaign in 1997. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF information was collected from the chart of all patients aged from 2 to 59 months, whose CSF exam was performed at the CSF Lab/FJS, between 1989 and 2001. LM was defined as pleocytosis composed by lymphomononuclear cells and negative exams for bacterial or mycologic infection. RESULTS: Of 1,519 patients, 894(58.9% had normal exams. LM was present in 301(19.8% patients, out of which 22(7.3% had concomitant mumps. The frequency of LM ranged from 15.8% in 1989 to 19.7% in 2001 and of LM with concomitant Mumps ranged from 10.5% in 1989 to 4.7% in 1995, when the last cases were registered. CONCLUSION: It is probable that the mumps vaccine campaign has influenced the absence of LM with concomitant Mumps, from 1996 to 2001.

  12. Substrate specificity of the neuraminidase of different mumps virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamm, H; Pollex, G

    1984-11-01

    The hydrolysis of neuraminlactose, fetuin, ovomucoid, kappa-caseinglycopeptide and mucine from the bovine submaxillary gland with the neuraminidase (NA) of mumps virus strains Jeryl Lynn, Enders and Berlin 9/76 was investigated to determine the pH-dependence of the reaction with the different substrates. The corresponding curves showed splitting into several peaks with reaction maxima ranging from pH 4.7 to pH 6.7. This occurred probably due to the heterogeneity of the virus samples. The NA of each virus strain had the best reaction affinity to neuraminlactose followed by decreasing affinities to ovomucoid, fetuin and kappa-caseinglycopeptide. The mucine from bovine submaxillary gland was not digested at all. The highest hydrolysis of each substrate was found with the Jeryl Lynn strain, which also possessed the lowest substrate specificity. It was followed by that of strain Enders and finally by isolate Berlin 9/76 which, in turn, had the highest substrate specificity. The lower substrate specificity of mumps virus NA seemed to correlate with a lower degree of its cytopathogenicity for hamster ependyma cells.

  13. Nested PCR for Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Gustavo Palacios; Rodriguez, Claudia; Cisterna, Daniel; Freire, María Cecilia; Cello, Jerónimo

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT–n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR pro...

  14. FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... in the FDA’s laboratories in Silver Spring, MD. Whooping Cough: Background and Key Findings The FDA is studying ...

  15. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATEMENT MMRV Vaccine What You Need to Know (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Many Vaccine Information Statements ... and V aricella (chickenpox) can be serious diseases: Measles • Causes rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, fever. • ...

  16. The potential dysfunction of otolith organs in patients after mumps infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu-juan; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yong-Zhen; Tian, Liang; Han, Zhao; Wang, Jing; Chi, Fang-lu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mumps and the extent of hearing impairment and otolith organ damage. Methods A total of 27 patients with unilateral hearing impairment following mumps were enrolled. The degrees of hearing loss and otolith organ damage were confirmed by audiometric and vestibular evoked myogenic potential [VEMP] tests. All the results were compared and analyzed using Stata 13.0 software for Windows. Results The VEMP thresholds of the affected ears were signifi...

  17. Mumps Seroprevalence in not Vaccinated Children Aged Between 0-59 Months in Adana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgun Yaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims to find out the mumps seroprevalence in 0-59 month old children who were not vaccinated for mumps in the duty area of Dogankent Health Center where people of low socio-economic level lives. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was made on 331 children aged between 0-59 months who were not vaccinated with rubella vaccine. RESULTS: Mumps seropositivity was found as 35.3%. Mumps seropositivity was significantly high in 24-35 month old boys, and fathers who haven’t incame/occupation (p0.05. CONCLUSION: In the present study, mumps seropositivity is low in children aged 0- 59 months. In order to eradicate mumps, it is necessary that use of MMR vaccine should be expanded nationwide rapidly by the Ministry of Health; the regulation should be revised to include the children born before 2005. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 29-36

  18. Persistence of antibodies in 4-8 year old Austrian children after vaccination with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and MMR vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Fischmeister, Gustav; Grac, Ana; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Mohsenzadeh-Rabbani, Afsaneh; Moritz, Katharina; Fenninger, Beate; Jarisch, Reinhart; Jasinska, Joanna; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2011-07-18

    To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.

  19. [Effects of the MMR vaccination on the epidemiology of mumps in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J; Takla, A

    2013-09-01

    Mumps is an acute viral infectious disease characterized by fever and swelling and tenderness of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid gland. Since 1976, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) has recommended a mumps vaccination as part of the routine immunization schedule in former West Germany. In East Germany, the vaccination was only introduced in 1991 after reunification. In the preceding decades, no comprehensive surveillance system existed in Germany. However, for East Germany and the successional federal states of former East Germany, data on mumps incidence are available from different Eastern surveillance systems for the time period 1968-2012. According to these data, the incidence of mumps has dropped from > 200 cases/100,000 annually in the pre-vaccine era to currently epidemiology and the increase of outbreaks among adolescents and young adults, the implementation of a nationwide mandatory notification was initiated and came into effect in March 2013. Mandatory notification enables the early detection of outbreaks and obtainment of comprehensive data for evaluation of the immunization program in place. Regarding the long-term prevention of mumps in Germany, it is hoped that--as part of the measles and rubella elimination effort--coverage rates for the second MMR dose among children will increase nationwide above 95% and existing vaccination gaps among adults will be closed.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis from Mumps Re-infection in Adulthood. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Taii

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis is a complication of mumps which mainly affects children who then usually acquire permanent immunity. We present the case of a woman with acute pancreatitis caused by mumps re-infection in adulthood. Case report A 34-year-old woman developed mild acute pancreatitis caused by re-infection with mumps, as confirmed serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays mumps -specific IgM and IgG. Acute pancreatitis was indicated by the elevation of amylase and other pancreatic enzymes such as lipase and elastase-1 as well as by swelling of the pancreatic head visualized by abdominal computed tomography. The abdominal symptoms were resolved soon after the administration of a pancreatic enzyme inhibitor. As the swelling of the right and left parotids decreased, serum amylase levels also gradually normalized. Conclusion We believe that this is the first reported case of acute pancreatitis caused by mumps re-infection in an adult. Such reinfection should be considered a possible though rare

  1. Meningitis caused by mumps virus in children admitted to Gorgan’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meningitis caused by mumps virus in children admitted to Gorgan’s

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mumps virus is one of the first knowncausative agents of meningitis in children. On-time diagnosis is the firststep in treating meningitis. We aimed to evaluate Mumps virus meningitisin children in Gorgan, IranMaterial and Methods: CSF and blood samples were taken fromchildren with meningitis, Jun 2008 till Sep 2010. For 40 samples withnegative bacterial culture, Extraction of viral RNA was carried out andReal-time PCR was performed for detection of Mumps virus.Demographic, clinical, biochemical and cytological data were collected.We run SPSS version 18 to analyze the data, using Chi Square (p<0.05Results: three (7.5 % samples have Mumps virus, two boys and one girl.All three positive cases have 0.5-1 degrees Celsius fever and vomiting butno bulging fontanel. They have not Kernig, Rodor, Brudzinski’s sign,hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis and rash. ESR ishigher than normal in all positive cases and CRP is positive in two cases.Protein of CSF in one case is higher than normal range.Conclusion: meningitis is an emergency condition; therefore, moleculardiagnostic techniques are recommended for early diagnosis andintervention.Key words: meningitis, mumps virus, cerebrospinal fluid, Real-TimePCR

  2. 一所山区学校流行性腮腺炎暴发调查和应急接种效果评价%Investigation on a Mumps Outbreak and Evaluation on Emergent Vaccination Effect at a School of a Mountain Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐福根; 童卫星; 闻洪根; 陈月光; 陈康凯; 李安乐; 许向军

    2001-01-01

    [目的]调查疫情,控制暴发,评价应急接种效果.[方法]开展暴发调查,核实诊断;对全校无流行性腮腺炎(流腮)病史的学生应急接种流腮疫苗,并测定抗体效价.[结果]疫情持续约4个月,罹患率全校学生为27.47%,寄宿生高于走读生(P<0.01);检测病人23例,抗体滴度≥1:64的占65.22%;应急接种后,接种者的抗体阳转率和GMRT分别为48.57%(17/35)和2.8,抗体滴度≥1:64者占11.76%;应急接种后17d暴发终止.[结论]这是一起由于传染源输入、延误防制措施、居住拥挤和密切接触引起的山区学校流腮暴发,应急接种流腮疫苗有较好的效果.%[Objective]To survey epidemic situation,control outbreak and evaluate emergent vaccination effect. [Methods]Outbreak survey and verified diagnosis were carried out. All students without mumps history were emergently inoculated with mumps vaccine. Mumps antibody was measured by haemagglutination inhibition test. [Results]Epidemic situation lasted about four months. The attack rate of mumps in all students was 27.47%. The rate in the resident students was significantly higher than that in the non-resident students(P<0.01). Sera from 23 patients were detected. The percentage of HI antibody titers≥1:64 was 65.22%. HI antibody positive seroconversion rate and GMRT of the vaccinees after emergent vaccination were 48.57% (17/35) and 2.8 respectively. Proportion of HI antibody titer ≥1:64 accounted for 11.76%. The outbreak was stopped within 17 days after emergent immunization. [Conclusions]This mumps outbreak at a school of a mountain village is due to import of infection source,delay of control measure, crowded living condition and close contact. The emergent vaccination with mumps vaccine is efficient.

  3. Modulation of apoptosis by V protein mumps virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Camacho Irma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Urabe AM9 vaccine strain of mumps virus contains two variants of V protein: VWT (of HN-A1081 viral population and VGly (of HN-G1081. The V protein is a promoting factor of viral replication by blocking the IFN antiviral pathway. Findings We studied the relationship between V protein variants and IFN-α2b-induced apoptosis. V proteins decrease activation of the extrinsic IFN-α2b-induced apoptotic pathway monitored by the caspase 8 activity, being the effect greater with the VWT protein. Both V proteins decrease the activity of caspase 9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a system without IFN, the VWT and VGly proteins expression promotes activation of caspases 3 and 7. However, when the cellular system was stimulated with IFN-α, this activity decreased partially. TUNEL assay shows that for treatment with IFN-α and ibuprofen of cervical adenocarcinoma cells there is nuclear DNA fragmentation but the V protein expression reduces this process. Conclusions The reduction in the levels of caspases and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that V protein, particularly VWT protein of Urabe AM9 vaccine strain, modulates apoptosis. In addition, the VWT protein shows a protective role for cell proliferation in the presence of antiproliferative signals.

  4. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases In Pediatric Patients: A Review Of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, And Varicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.

  5. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  6. Detection of mumps virus genotype H in two previously vaccinated patients from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Alberto; García, Alí A; Barrón, Blanca L

    2016-06-01

    Infections caused by mumps virus (MuV) have been successfully prevented through vaccination; however, in recent years, an increasing number of mumps outbreaks have been reported within vaccinated populations. In this study, MuV was genotyped for the first time in Mexico. Saliva samples were obtained from two previously vaccinated patients in Mexico City who had developed parotitis. Viral isolation was carried out in Vero cells, and the SH and HN genes were amplified by RT-PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and compared to a set of reference sequences to identify the MuV genotype.

  7. Achieving nanoscale horizontal separations in the standard 2 μm PolyMUMPS process

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2013-01-25

    This paper shares with the research community how to achieve, effectively and easily, lateral submicron separations in the standard 2 lm PolyMUMPS process without any fabrication intervention or post-processing, based on the oxide sidewall spacer technique. Thousands of nanoseparations were created and successfully tested by visual inspection and by a simple capacitance measurement. The lateral separations attained were less than 440 nm and reached as low as 280 nm. To corroborate the findings, measurements were performed on different capacitors fabricated in different fabrication runs with consistent results. This is the first time that submicron lateral distances are reported in PolyMUMPS using the oxide spacer technique.

  8. MEMS reagent and sample handling procedure: Feasibility of viral antibody detection by passive immune agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G. D.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop a test requiring no preadsorption steps for the assessment of antibodies to rubella and mumps viruses using the passive immune agglutination (PIA) method. Both rubella and mumps antigens and antibodies were prepared. Direct PIA tests, using rubella antigen-coated beads, and indirect PIA tests, using rubella antibody-coated beads, were investigated. Attempts, using either method, were unsuccessful. Serum interference along with nonspecific agglutination of beads by the rubella antigen resulted in no specific response under the test conditions investigated. A new, highly sensitive approach, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test system, is recommended to overcome the nonspecificity. This system is a logical outgrowth of some of the solid phase work done on MEMS and represents the next generation tests system that can be directly applied to early disease detection and monitoring.

  9. Antibody persistence in children aged 6-7years one year following booster immunization with two MMR vaccines applied by aerosol or by injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Ortega, José Luis; Castaneda, Deyanira; Arellano Quintanilla, Doris Ma; Martínez, David; Trumbo, Silas P; Fernández de Castro, Jorge

    2017-05-25

    In a previous study on booster vaccination, we reported that two aerosolized MMR vaccines were as safe and immunogenic as injectable vaccines containing the same antigens. We now present results of antibody persistence one year after immunization. To assess the antibody persistence for measles, mumps, and rubella one year following booster immunization. We performed clinical and serological follow-up of participants in a previous study of Mexican children aged 6-7years, in which participants were randomized to four groups receiving, by aerosolized or by injection, the MMR SII vaccine (Serum Institute of India), or the MMR II (Merck Sharp & Dhome). We evaluated the antibody persistence by PRN test for measles and by ELISA for rubella and mumps. The occurrence of clinical events was evaluated via periodic visits of a nurse team to children's schools and homes. Of the 260 initial participants, 241 completed one-year follow-up. There were only statistically significant differences in baseline seropositivity for mumps. One year after immunization, seropositivity in all groups was 100% for measles and rubella. The seropositivity rank for mumps was from 90.3% for the injected vaccine MMR II to 96.6% for vaccine MMR SII applied by aerosol; these differences were not statistically significant. With exception of the aerosolized vaccine MMR SII for the geometric mean titer (GMT) for measles, all study groups presented declination of GMT for the three viruses. The difference between the aerosolized vaccines MMR SII and MMR RII was statistically significant for mumps antibodies. Only mild clinical events were identified. Under conditions of no endemic transmission for measles and rubella, and of low circulation of mumps virus, school-aged children remained seropositive to the three viruses one year following booster immunization. The study was registered under CMN 2010-005 number at COFEPRIS (National Regulatory Authority). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine...

  11. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T

  12. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...

  13. Mumps Parotitis and Ovarian Cancer: Modern Significance of an Historic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    parotitis and subsequent development of ovarian cancer. On June of 2009, we searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and EMBASE using the...association between history of mumps parotitis and subsequent development of ovarian cancer. On June of 2009, we searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science and

  14. The effects of pegylated interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Goutam

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of pegylated Interferon--alpha2B on mumps orchitis, 80 patients suffering from mumps orchitis, were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 40 patients each. In the first group patients received pegylated interferon--alpha2B and the other group did not, acting as controls. All were confirmed by mumps IgM (ELISA) and evaluated by testis size, semen analysis and hormone level. In the first group, the symptoms resolved within average 2.2 days and testicular size returned to normal within average 5.3 days but in 2nd group, those returned to normal within average 5.7 days and 10.2 days respectively. In the 1st group, oligospermia was detected in 11 patients and subsequently returned to normal in all patients and there was no testicular atrophy. In the 2nd group oligospermia was detected in 13 patients and were persistently low in 3 patients and testicular atrophy detected in 2 patients. The results indicated the beneficial role of pegylated interferon--alpha2B in preventing infertility from mumps orchitis.

  15. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  16. Anesthesia mumps resulting in temporary facial nerve paralysis after the auditory brainstem implantation in a 3-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdek, Ali; Bayır, Ömer; Işık, Murat Eray; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Saylam, Güleser; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    An acute transient sialadenitis of the major salivary glands in the early postoperative period is called 'anesthesia mumps'. It has been reported in different surgical procedures especially in neurosurgical procedures. Anesthesia mumps develops very fast after the extubation period but it usually regresses with no sequelae within a few hours. However, sometimes serious complication can occur such as respiratory distress. In this report, we present a 3-year-old girl with an anesthesia mumps and facial palsy occurring after successful auditory brainstem implantation and we discuss the cause and the management of this rare complication in this report.

  17. Investigation of a mumps outbreak in Mongolia, January to April 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Luo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Gurvantes district in Omnogovi Province reported a suspected mumps outbreak to the Mongolia Ministry of Health in March 2011. An outbreak investigation team was established to verify the diagnosis and to determine the magnitude of the outbreak.Methods: The descriptive study comprised retrospective investigation of local hospital medical records and surveillance data, and interviews with school teachers, doctors, probable cases and their close contacts. The World Health Organization standard case definition was used to define mumps cases. Clinical specimens were collected for laboratory confirmation.Results: There were 153 cases, none under two years of age, with the five- to 14-years-old age group having the highest rates. There was no difference by sex (P = 0.12. A single index case appeared to be the source of the outbreak, and there were four outbreak waves. Of the 129 cases with information on epidemiological links, 94 (72.3% were linked to other cases at a kindergarten or school, 17 (13% were from secondary spread of family members, two (1.5% were from secondary spread of other relatives, and 16 had no established links. Eight cases (5.2% were confirmed through laboratory investigation.Conclusion: This was the first high-magnitude mumps outbreak since the introduction of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in Mongolia in September 2009. There were no cases among vaccinated children; cases were seen among older children and adults not eligible for the vaccine. This suggests that immunity to mumps is still low in Mongolia. Future outbreaks may occur among this unvaccinated population.

  18. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  19. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

    2010-02-10

    Children aged 11 to vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).

  20. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  1. Mumps in a district primary school at the locality of Santa Fe, Bogota (Colombia 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oneida Castañeda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidemic parotitis (“mumps” is a human viral infection which affects mainly the salivary glands; its peak incidence afflicts children 5 to 9-year. At epidemiologic week (EW 40/2010, the Centro Oriente II Level Hospital received a community report about a mumps outbreak in a District Primary School (DPS, eastwards of the locality of Santa Fe (Bogotá. The hospital’s epidemiology office sent a response team to investigate the situation and to guide prevention & control actions. Methods. The team made an outbreak descriptive study; field investigation included description time-place-person; case-definition as patient with active clinical condition of parotitis; Active Institutional Search (AIS and house visitations; study variables matched those of the official individual notification report. Data were registered and analyzed using Epi -Info 3.5.1® with frequency, central trend and association measurements. Results. 14 mumps cases were identified: 1 adult and 13(93% children; 5(35,7% were girls; median age was 11,9 year (range 7-40. Four cases (28,6% were confirmed by clinical signs, 10(71,4% by epidemiologic link; no one was hospitalized. 12 patients (86% had unknown vaccination status; 11 cases (78% produced neither the vaccination card nor any additional information. Index case occurred at EW30/2010 and the epidemic peak occurred at EW34/2010; attack rate was 8.1%. Conclusions. Epidemiology office confirmed mumps outbreak, delayed notification and impossibility to verify vaccination records. The response team recommended the DPS to strengthen biosafety measures; and advised local health institution to increase epidemiologic surveillance & control activities, adherence to national mumps protocol, school vaccination and to promote information, communication, education strategies on importance of vaccination and cards right use.

  2. [An outbreak of mumps in a high school: Estimation of vaccine effectiveness. Zaragoza 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés-Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao-Bescós, Joaquín; Gaspar-Escayola, José Ignacio; Lázaro-Belanche, María Ángeles; Aznar-Brieba, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks continue to occur, even after the consolidation of vaccination programs. An outbreak of mumps occurred in a high school in Zaragoza during December 2011. To describe the outbreak and estimate vaccine effectiveness. unilateral or bilateral swelling of the parotid or other salivary glands for three or more days without any other apparent cause. People attending the 'Parque Goya' High School or with transmission chain origin in the High School. From two days before the onset of symptoms of the first case to five days after the last case. Samples were collected for virus confirmation (IgM, urine culture and oropharyngeal exudate), and isolates were processed for genotyping. A retrospective cohort study was performed in two high school classrooms to estimate vaccine efficacy. Public health authorities conducted active surveillance, isolation of cases, and vaccination of susceptible contacts. There were 27 cases. Twenty-one (77.8%) were vaccinated with two doses of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine. Twelve (44%) were confirmed microbiologically. G1 genotype was determined in six cases. According to the cohort study, vaccine efficacy for one dose was 34% (95%CI: -44 to 70), and was 67% (95%CI: 28 to 83) for two doses. Vaccine effectiveness was lower than expected. Early detection and isolation of cases have been instrumental in preventing new cases in schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and characterization of a fully differential MEMS accelerometer fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Peng; Qu, Hongwei

    2013-05-02

    This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and -5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A -0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

  4. Design and Characterization of a Fully Differential MEMS Accelerometer Fabricated Using MetalMUMPs Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and −5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A −0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology.

  5. The potential dysfunction of otolith organs in patients after mumps infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Juan; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yong-Zhen; Tian, Liang; Han, Zhao; Wang, Jing; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between mumps and the extent of hearing impairment and otolith organ damage. A total of 27 patients with unilateral hearing impairment following mumps were enrolled. The degrees of hearing loss and otolith organ damage were confirmed by audiometric and vestibular evoked myogenic potential [VEMP] tests. All the results were compared and analyzed using Stata 13.0 software for Windows. The VEMP thresholds of the affected ears were significantly higher than those of the unaffected ears in both tests (cervical VEMP [cVEMP] test and ocular VEMP [oVEMP] test; p = 0.000 and 0.001, respectively). The mean cVEMP and oVEMP threshold values of the affected ears with hearing impairment for ≤10 years were significantly lower than those of affected ears with hearing impairment for >10 years [p = 0.009 and 0.004, respectively]. Deafness resulting from mumps is usually profound and permanent, which indicates severe damage to the cochlea due to the disease. The functions of otolith organs in the vestibular system are also impaired. Over time, the function of the otolith organs or their neural pathway may suffer secondary damage.

  6. STATE OF MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS IN THE SARATOV REGION IN 2001—2013 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Buchkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of state reports «On the sanitary-epidemiological situation in Saratov region» for 2001—2013 years. In 2003 noted the maximum increase in the incidence of measles to 2.16 per 100 thousand population. Since 2007 by 2011 in the region of measles cases registered. However in 2012 in the Saratov region recorded four cases of measles adults (index — 0.15 per 100 thousand population and in 2013 — 52 cases of measles (index — 2.07 per 100 thousand population, of these, 17 cases-importations. In 2010 pronounced decrease was registered rubella (in 6389 times compared to 2001. In 2011 incidence of rubella is not registered. Incidence rates in 2012 and 2013 were, respectively, 0.2 and 0.04 per 100.000 populations. Since 2002, the incidence of mumps decreased 83-fold (from 6.65 in 2002 to 0,08 in 2012. In 2013 mumps incidence in the region is not registered. Analysis of the state vaccinated against measles, rubella and mumps shows that the region as a whole maintained a consistently high (not less than 95.0% immunization coverage of children and adults from 18 to 35 years.

  7. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, varicella–zoster and hepatitis A–C in Emirati medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheek-Hussein Mohamud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable infections in Emirati medical students, and to provide scientific evidence for implementation of a cost-effective immunization guideline and policy for medical school admission. Methods This prospective cohort study involved 261 (61% female Emirati medical students (preclinical and clinical attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences at UAE University. Data on vaccination and history of infectious diseases were collected from participants. Blood samples were collected between July 1, 2011 and May 30, 2012 for serological testing and QuantiFERON®-TB assay. Results All students tested negative for infection with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The prevalence of seropositivity to rubella virus was 97%, varicella–zoster virus 88%, mumps virus 84%, measles virus 54%, hepatitis B virus (HBV 48%, and hepatitis A virus 21%. The QuantiFERON®-TB test was positive in 8% and indeterminate in 2%. Forty percent of students received HBV vaccine at birth; their HBV titers (mean ± SD were 17.2 ± 62.9 mIU/mL (median = 1.64. The remaining 60% received it at school and their titers were 293.4 ± 371.0 mIU/mL (median = 107.7, p = 0.000. Conclusion About 50% of students were susceptible to HBV and measles virus; therefore, pre-matriculation screening for antibodies against these viruses is highly recommended. Moreover, tuberculosis screening is necessary because of the high influx of expatriates from endemic areas. Students with inadequate protection should be reimmunized prior to contact with patients.

  8. Detection of measles, mumps and rubella viruses by immuno-colorimetric assay and its application in focus reduction neutralization tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S; Bhide, Vandana S

    2014-12-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine-preventable diseases; however limited epidemiological data are available from low-income or developing countries. Thus, it is important to investigate the transmission of these viruses in different geographical regions. In this context, a cell culture-based rapid and reliable immuno-colorimetric assay (ICA) was established and its utility studied. Twenty-three measles, six mumps and six rubella virus isolates and three vaccine strains were studied. Detection by ICA was compared with plaque and RT-PCR assays. In addition, ICA was used to detect viruses in throat swabs (n = 24) collected from patients with suspected measles or mumps. Similarly, ICA was used in a focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) and the results compared with those obtained by a commercial IgG enzyme immuno assay. Measles and mumps virus were detected 2 days post-infection in Vero or Vero-human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule cells, whereas rubella virus was detected 3 days post-infection in Vero cells. The blue stained viral foci were visible by the naked eye or through a magnifying glass. In conclusion, ICA was successfully used on 35 virus isolates, three vaccine strains and clinical specimens collected from suspected cases of measles and mumps. Furthermore, an application of ICA in a neutralization test (i.e., FRNT) was documented; this may be useful for sero-epidemiological, cross-neutralization and pre/post-vaccine studies. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  10. Increased levels of cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of children with aseptic meningitis caused by mumps virus and echovirus 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, A; Kroten, A; Wojtkowska, M; Oldak, E

    2014-01-01

    We measured levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mumps meningitis, enteroviral echovirus 30 meningitis and children without central nervous system infection to investigate whether these molecules were involved in the pathogenesis of viral meningitis. The CSF was obtained from 62 children suspected with meningitis. These patients were classified to the mumps meningitis (n = 19), echovirus 30 meningitis (n = 22) and non-meningitis (n = 21) groups. The concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-1 soluble receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined by immunoassay. A significant increase was noted in the levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1R2 in the CSF of both meningitis groups as compared to controls. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-1 differed significantly only between the mumps group and control. The levels of IL-1, IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly higher in mumps meningitis when compared to the echovirus 30 group. Of all cytokines examined, only IFN-γ correlated with pleocytosis (r = 0.58) in the mumps meningitis group. The increased CSF cytokine levels are markers of meningeal inflammation, and each virus may cause a specific profile of the cytokine pattern.

  11. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  12. Search for the lepton-flavor violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; Mc Skelly, B.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M.J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G.N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D.A.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Van Dijk, M.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Webber, A.D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$, TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of $B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be $BR(B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp} 107$ TeV/c$^2$ and $M_{\\rm LQ} (B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}) > 126$ TeV/c$^2$ at 95% C.L., and are a factor of two higher than the previous bounds.

  13. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Giacinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS.

  14. Healthcare workers and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) status: how worried should we be about further outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Giri, P; Adisesh, A; McNAUGHT, R

    2014-08-01

    Recently, a number of outbreaks of measles and mumps have occurred within the UK and Europe. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of contracting and transmitting disease to patients and staff. To examine this risk at the point of entry to healthcare, we assessed the serological results of new HCWs presenting for pre-placement clearance without evidence of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunity between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2012. Overall rates of serological positivity to MMR across all age groups were 88·2%, 68·8% and 93·9%, respectively. With regard to measles and mumps, there were statistically significant decreases in the percentage of HCWs born after 1980 that had positive serology (P outbreak within this cohort of HCWs appears low.

  15. Measles, mumps, rubella, and human parvovirus B19 infections and neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, James F

    2014-01-01

    While the systemic disorders associated with measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and human parvovirus B19 tend to be mild, each virus can produce potentially life-threatening neurologic disease in human hosts, especially when these viruses infect young children. Two of the viruses, rubella and parvovirus B19, can be vertically transmitted to fetuses during maternal infection and cause congenital infection. Neurologic complications are common after intrauterine infection with the rubella virus, a condition known as the congenital rubella syndrome. Two, measles and rubella viruses, can induce "slow viral" infections, serious, disorders that can occur several years after the initial exposure to the virus and typically have fatal outcomes.

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  17. Mumps epidemiology in the mid-west of Ireland 2004-2008: increasing disease burden in the university/college setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whyte, D

    2009-01-01

    Mumps is a contagious vaccine-preventable viral disease that is experiencing a revival in students attending second and third level colleges. Large mumps outbreaks have been reported in several countries despite the presence of childhood immunisation programmes over many years, including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. In 2008, 1,377 cases of mumps were notified in Ireland and 1,734 in the first three months of 2009 (provisional data). This paper reviews the recent epidemiology of mumps in the Mid-West region of Ireland and highlights preventive measures. A substantial proportion of cases were not laboratory-confirmed and it is important that doctors continue to notify suspected cases. In the Irish Mid-West, data from enhanced surveillance shows a high proportion of mumps in the age group 15-24 years. Complications were uncommon and rarely severe. Where data were available, over half of the cases did not recall having received two doses of MMR, but most recalled one dose. Parents should continue to ensure children receive both MMR vaccinations so that uptake is optimal for protection. Steps were taken to increase awareness of the disease in the school, college and university settings. Preventive measures implemented to limit mumps transmission in the school\\/college setting over recent years included vaccination of close contacts, isolation for five days and hand hygiene.

  18. Mumps epidemiology in the mid-west of Ireland 2004-2008: increasing disease burden in the university/college setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, D; O'Dea, F; McDonnell, C; O'Connell, N H; Callinan, S; Brosnan, E; Powell, J; Monahan, R; FitzGerald, R; Mannix, M; Greally, T; Dee, A; O'Sullivan, P

    2009-04-23

    Mumps is a contagious vaccine-preventable viral disease that is experiencing a revival in students attending second and third level colleges. Large mumps outbreaks have been reported in several countries despite the presence of childhood immunisation programmes over many years, including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. In 2008, 1,377 cases of mumps were notified in Ireland and 1,734 in the first three months of 2009 (provisional data). This paper reviews the recent epidemiology of mumps in the Mid-West region of Ireland and highlights preventive measures. A substantial proportion of cases were not laboratory-confirmed and it is important that doctors continue to notify suspected cases. In the Irish Mid-West, data from enhanced surveillance shows a high proportion of mumps in the age group 15-24 years. Complications were uncommon and rarely severe. Where data were available, over half of the cases did not recall having received two doses of MMR, but most recalled one dose. Parents should continue to ensure children receive both MMR vaccinations so that uptake is optimal for protection. Steps were taken to increase awareness of the disease in the school, college and university settings. Preventive measures implemented to limit mumps transmission in the school/college setting over recent years included vaccination of close contacts, isolation for five days and hand hygiene.

  19. Longitudinal analysis of antibody response to immunization in paediatric survivors after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Hartford, Christine M.; Pei, Deqing; Posner, Meredith J.; Yang, Jie; Hayden, Randall T.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Triplett, Brandon M.; McCulllers, Jon A.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2011-01-01

    Summary The long-term antibody responses to re-immunization in recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been well studied. We prospectively and longitudinally evaluated the antibody responses to 8 vaccine antigens (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, and poliovirus) and assessed the factors associated with negative titres in 210 allo-HSCT recipients at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Antibody responses lasting for more than 5 years after immunization were observed in most patients for tetanus (95.7%), rubella (92.3%), poliovirus (97.9%), and, in diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) recipients, diphtheria (100%). However, responses to pertussis (25.0%), measles (66.7%), mumps (61.5%), hepatitis B (72.9%), and diphtheria in tetanus-diphtheria (Td) recipients (48.6%) were less favourable, with either only transient antibody responses or persistently negative titres. Factors associated with vaccine failure were older age at immunization; lower CD3, CD4 or CD19 counts; higher IgM concentrations; positive recipient cytomegalovirus serology; negative titres before immunization; acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease; and radiation during preconditioning. These response patterns and clinical factors can be used to formulate re-immunization and monitoring strategies. Patients at risk for vaccine failure should have long-term follow-up; those with loss of antibody response or no seroconversion should receive booster immunizations. PMID:22017512

  20. Effectiveness of Early Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination Among 6-14-Month-Old Infants During an Epidemic in the Netherlands: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Tom; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester; van Binnendijk, Rob S; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-04-15

    Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with measles, their infant's saliva was tested for measles-specific antibodies. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed and self-reported measles was estimated using Cox regression, with VE calculated as 1 minus the hazard ratio. Three vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated laboratory-confirmed cases occurred over observation times of 106631 and 23769 days, respectively. The unadjusted VE against laboratory-confirmed measles was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-98%). After adjustment for religion and sibling's vaccination status, the VE decreased to 71% (-72%-95%). For self-reported measles, the unadjusted and adjusted VE was 67% (40%-82%) and 43% (-12%-71%), respectively. Infants vaccinated between 6 and 14 months of age had a lower risk of measles than unvaccinated infants. However, part of the effect was caused by herd immunity, since vaccinated infants were more likely to be surrounded by other vaccinated individuals.

  1. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  2. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  3. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  4. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  5. Design of PolyMUMPS device for diabetes screening via acetone vapor detection in exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabih, Almur A. S.; Dennis, J. O.; Khir, M. H. Md; Ahmed, Mawahib Gafare; Mian, Muhammad Umer

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs due to deficiency or improper use of insulin by body tissues. It is currently diagnosed invasively by measuring blood glucose. This paper reports modelling and simulation of a PolyMUMPS device proposed for a non-invasive screening of diabetes. The device is electromagnetically driven at its resonance frequency using Lorenz force, while the output is detected by capacitive means. The resonance frequency of the first mode was obtained by CoventorWare software and it was found to be 18.552 kHz compared to its modelled value of 17.211 kHz, within an error of 7.2 %. Maximum displacement of 8.35 µm and capacitance of 29.57 fF were obtained when the device was driven by applying 15 mA current and 50 mT magnetic field.

  6. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines.

  7. Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella seroprevalence in refugees in Germany in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Happle, Christine; Grote, Ulrike; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin Thomas; Hampel, Annika; Dopfer, Christian; Hansen, Gesine; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Behrens, Georg M N

    2016-12-01

    The current extent of migration poses emerging socio-economic and humanitarian challenges. Little is known on vaccination rates in migrants entering Europe, and the implementation of guidelines for serological testing and vaccination of refugees are pending. We conducted seroprevalence analyses for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) in 678 refugees coming to Germany during the current crisis. The mean age of refugees was 28.8±11.4 years, and 76.1 % of subjects were male. Overall, IgG seronegativity was 7.4 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.6) for measles, 10.2 % (95 % CI 8.0-12.5) for mumps, 2.2 % (95 % CI 1.2-3.4) for rubella, and 3.3 % (95 % CI 1.9-4.9) for varicella. Seropositivity rates were age-dependent with considerably low values in children. For example, overall MMR immunity was 90.9 % (95 % CI 88.8-93.1), but only 73.1 % of minor aged refugees displayed complete seroprevalence against all three diseases, and only 68.9 % of children and adolescents were completely MMRV immune. Our initial data set suggests overall satisfactory MMRV immunity in adult migrants coming to Europe, but the observed low MMRV seroprevalences in refugee children support thorough and prompt vaccination of young migrants entering Europe. Taken together, our data set underlines the urgent need to implement and validate vaccination guidelines for refugee care in the current crisis.

  8. Mumps Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubercles. Additional Images and Regulations American Academy of Pediatrics Immunization Action Coalition Public Health Image Library (PHIL) Top of Page Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  9. Search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_{(s)} \\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Beranek, Sarah; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Berninghoff, Daniel; Bertholet, Emilie; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørn, Mikkel; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brundu, Davide; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Byczynski, Wiktor; Cadeddu, Sandro; Cai, Hao; Calabrese, Roberto; Calladine, Ryan; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Chapman, Matthew George; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu Faye; Chitic, Stefan-Gabriel; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Chubykin, Alexsei; Ciambrone, Paolo; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Colombo, Tommaso; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Del Buono, Luigi; Dembinski, Hans Peter; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Douglas, Lauren; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziewiecki, Michal; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fazzini, Davide; Federici, Luca; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez, Gerard; Fernandez Declara, Placido; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gabriel, Emmy; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabowski, Jascha Peter; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greim, Roman; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruber, Lukas; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hancock, Thomas Henry; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Hasse, Christoph; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Hecker, Malte; Heinicke, Kevin; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Li, Zhuoming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pisani, Flavio; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Toriello, Francis; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$ is performed based on a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 $\\mbox{fb}^{-1}$, collected with the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8 ~ \\text {TeV}$. The observed yields are consistent with the background-only hypothesis. Upper limits on the branching fractions are determined to be ${\\mathcal {B} (B^0_s \\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^ \\mp) < 5.4 ~(6.3) \\times 10^{-9}}$ and $\\mathcal {B} (B^0 \\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^ \\mp) < 1.0 ~(1.3) \\times 10^{-9}$ at $90\\%~ (95\\%)$ confidence level, which are the strongest limits on these decays to date.

  10. IMMUNOLOGIC EFFECTS OF COMBINED IMMUNISING OF MUMPS AND HAPATITIS A、 DT、RUBELLA VACCINES RESPECTIVELY%腮腺炎疫苗分别与甲肝、白破、风疹疫苗联合免疫的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐福根; 陈康凯; 黄诚孝; 许二萍; 黄利明; 祝水芬; 杨洛贤; 姚怀芳; 孟冬梅; 闻洪根

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察腮腺炎疫苗分别与甲肝、白破、风疹疫苗同时接种的临床反应和免疫效果。方法:设两种疫苗同时接种组和单苗接种组,比较其副反应和血清抗体水平。结果:各接种组临床反应都轻微,两苗同时接种组与相应的单苗接种组免前免后同种抗体阳性率或保护率和GMT,以及免后抗体阳转率,其差异均无显著意义(均P>0.05)。结论:腮腺炎疫苗与甲肝、白破、风疹减毒活疫苗之一同时接种未发现加重反应和相互干扰免疫应答,可以同时接种。%Objective: To observe clinical reactions and immune responses of combined vaccinations of mumps and hepatitis A, rubella vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids respectively. Methods: In every observation, children were simultaneously or respectively inoculated with 2 kinds of vaccines, adverse reaction events and antibody levels of them were compared. Rusults: The adverse reactions caused by concurrent or separate immunization were mild. Comparison of prevaccination antibody positive or protective rates and GMTs and post vaccination antibody positive conversion rates and GMTs in the simultaneous and respective inoculation groups showed no statistical differences (All P>0. 05). Conclusions: Concurrent vaccination of mumps and one of hepatitis A, DT and rubella vaccines did not interfere with antibody response and aggravate adverse reactions, they can be administered at the same time.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  12. Mumps orchitis in the post-vaccine era (1967-2009): a single-center series of 67 patients and review of clinical outcome and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Boronat, Mauro; Ojeda, Antonio; García-Delgado, Yaiza; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Bellini, Raquel; Francès, Adela; Nóvoa, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2010-03-01

    Since the introduction of the mumps vaccine, the age of appearance of mumps infection has shifted from children to adolescents and young adults, groups with a higher incidence of disease complications and sequelae. During the years 2000-2001, the Gran Canaria Island was part of an epidemic of mumps. In that period, our institution attended 67 cases of serologically confirmed acute mumps orchitis, the most serious complication of mumps infection in young postpubertal males. We conducted a descriptive and prospective study of this cohort and extensively reviewed the literature from 1967 (the year the first mumps vaccine was introduced) to 2009. Fifty-six patients were admitted because of general impairment and were treated with alpha-interferon. Sixty-six patients presented parotitis previous to orchitis (interval from parotitis to orchitis, 4.9 d). Orchitis was unilateral in 89.5% and bilateral in 10.4% of cases. More than 98% of patients had orchitis-associated fever. Nine patients had clinical and biochemical data showing acute mumps meningitis, and 11 had subclinical pancreatitis. The mean duration of symptoms was 4.6 days (range, 1-9). During the acute phase, more than 41% of the evaluated testes had a volume >25 mL. Acute hormonal disturbances were highly prevalent. These included decreased levels of testosterone and inhibin B with low or normal levels of gonadotropins in 35% of subjects, and, to our knowledge not previously reported, an atypical hormonal pattern consisting of low levels of free testosterone and inhibin B, along with increased measures of luteinizing hormone but low or normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels (11% of cases). During the follow-up period (mean, 331 d) a high incidence of sperm disturbance was found.

  13. Holistic Nursing Intervention for Mumps%流行性腮腺炎整体护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冬云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of mumps in children and explore the corresponding nursing intervention. Methods 50 children with mumps admitted in our hospital from June 2011 to October 2014 were divided into the experimental group and the control group with 25 children in each in accordance with the sealed envelope method, treated by the holistic nurs-ing and conventional nursing, respectively. And the nursing efficacy was compared between the two groups. Results Patients with silent infection of mumps and early mumps patients are all the sources of infection of mumps. Mumps frequently occurs in children of school age. Most of the children have no precursory symptoms. The complications include meningitis, orchitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis. The incidence of complications was 4.0%in the experimental group, and 16.0% in the control group, the level of sat-isfaction of the children's families was 96.0% in the experimental group, and 80.0% in the control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Mumps seriously affects the healthy growth of children. Early find-ing, early treatment, early nursing, active prevention and treatment of the complications can promote the recovery and improve the prognosis. Holistic nursing has higher clinical application effect, so it is worthy of promotion.%目的:总结流行性腮腺炎患儿的临床特点,探讨护理措施。方法随机选取2011年6月—2014年10月该院流行性腮腺炎患儿50例,按信封法将其分成实验组25例,对照组25例,分别给予常规护理、整体护理,对比护理效果。结果隐性感染者和早期病人均为腮腺炎传染源,好发于学龄儿童,多数患儿无前驱症状,并发症包括脑膜炎、睾丸炎、卵巢炎以及胰腺炎。实验组并发症发生率为4.0%,患儿家属满意度为96.0%,与对照组的16.0%、80.0%比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论流行

  14. Measles and mumps among service members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System, January 2007-December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Denise O; Clark, Leslie L; Hunt, Devin J; O'Donnell, Francis L

    2015-02-01

    Measles and mumps are highly communicable infectious diseases whose causative viruses are spread through airborne droplets and infected surfaces. Individuals at highest risk are infants and unvaccinated individuals. Despite effective vaccines, there have been recent increases in incidence in the U.S. of both infections. During the surveillance period, there were 14 confirmed measles cases and 99 confirmed mumps cases among U.S. military members and other beneficiaries of the U.S. Military Health System. Only one of the confirmed cases of measles was in a service member. Children aged 5 years and younger accounted for the greatest proportion of confirmed measles cases (50.0%); the greatest proportions of confirmed mumps cases were for children aged 1-5 years and adults aged 26-30 years (22.2% and 17.2%, respectively). California had more cases of both measles and mumps than any other state. Recent trends in measles and mumps in civilian populations in the U.S. highlight the importance of primary and booster vaccinations.

  15. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  16. Evaluation of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination Among Newly Arrived Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Weinberg, Michelle; Benoit, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    To assess US availability and use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination documentation for refugees vaccinated overseas. We selected 1500 refugee records from 14 states from March 2013 through July 2015 to determine whether overseas vaccination records were available at the US postarrival health assessment and integrated into the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. We assessed number of doses, dosing interval, and contraindications. Twelve of 14 (85.7%) states provided data on 1118 (74.5%) refugees. Overseas records for 972 (86.9%) refugees were available, most from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Electronic Disease Notification system (66.9%). Most refugees (829; 85.3%) were assessed appropriately for MMR vaccination; 37 (3.8%) should have received MMR vaccine but did not; 106 (10.9%) did not need the MMR vaccine but were vaccinated. Overseas documentation was available at most clinics, and MMR vaccinations typically were given when needed. Further collaboration between refugee health clinics and state immunization information systems would improve accessibility of vaccination documentation.

  17. PolyMUMPs MEMS device to measure mechanical stiffness of single cells in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Forbrigger, C.; Hubbard, T.

    2015-02-01

    A method of experimentally determining the mechanical stiffness of single cells by using differential displacement measurements in a two stage spring system is presented. The spring system consists of a known MEMS reference spring and an unknown cellular stiffness: the ratio of displacements is related to the ratio of stiffness. A polyMUMPs implementation for aqueous media is presented and displacement measurements made from optical microphotographs using a FFT based displacement method with a repeatability of ~20 nm. The approach was first validated on a MEMS two stage spring system of known stiffness. The measured stiffness ratios of control structures (i) MEMS spring systems and (ii) polystyrene microspheres were found to agree with theoretical values. Mechanical tests were then performed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) in aqueous media. Cells were placed (using a micropipette) inside MEMS measuring structures and compressed between two jaws using an electrostatic actuator and displacements measured. Tested cells showed stiffness values between 5.4 and 8.4 N m-1 with an uncertainty of 11%. In addition, non-viable cells were tested by exposing viable cells to methanol. The resultant mean cell stiffness dropped by factor of 3 × and an explicit discrimination between viable and non-viable cells based on mechanical stiffness was seen.

  18. Structure-function analysis of two variants of mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Santos-López

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A point mutation from guanine (G to adenine (A at nucleotide position 1081 in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene has been associated with neurovirulence of Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine. This mutation corresponds to a glutamic acid (E to lysine (K change at position 335 in the HN glycoprotein. We have experimentally demonstrated that two variants of Urabe AM9 strain (HN-A1081 and HN-G1081 differ in neurotropism, sialic acidbinding affinity and neuraminidase activity. In the present study, we performed a structure-function analysis of that amino acid substitution; the structures of HN protein of both Urabe AM9 strain variants were predicted. Based on our analysis, the E/K mutation changes the protein surface properties and to a lesser extent their conformations, which in turn reflects in activity changes. Our modeling results suggest that this E/K interchange does not affect the structure of the sialic acid binding motif; however, the electrostatic surface differs drastically due to an exposed short alpha helix. Consequently, this mutation may affect the accessibility of HN to substrates and membrane receptors of the host cells. Our findings appear to explain the observed differences in neurotropism of these vaccine strains.

  19. [Clinical Review of Hypospermatogenesis in Patients with a Previous Episode of Mumps Orchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Akira; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2015-06-01

    This study included 10 patients who had developed mumps orchitis previously and had visited our hospital from January 1997 to November 2007. The present illness, testicular volume and semen analysis of 7 of these patients were retrospectively investigated. Semen analyses and pregnancy statuses were followed up over time. The mean age of the 7 patients was 33 years (range, 21-43 years). Four patients had unilateral (right side) orchitis, and three had bilateral orchitis. In the unilateral orchitis group, 1 patient had an atrophic testis. Findings of semen analysis were severe oligozoospermia in three and mild oligozoospermia in one. None of the patients in the bilateral orchitis group, had atrophic testes. Findings of semen analysis were azoospermia in one and severe oligozoospermia in two patients. Findings of semen analysis in most patients improved gradually, and wives of 2 patients eventually achieved pregnancy. Dysfunction of seminiferous tubules in the diseased testis is thought to be reversible when treated adequately in the initial phase. In the patients not conceiving successfully, testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and assisted reproductive technique (ART) are thought to be effective ways to achieve pregnancy.

  20. Mouse Testicular Cell Type-Specific Antiviral Response against Mumps Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Qian; Shi, Lili; Gong, Maolei; Liu, Weihua; Gao, Bo; Song, Chengyi; Li, Qihan; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2017-01-01

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection has high tropism to the testis and usually leads to orchitis, an etiological factor in male infertility. However, MuV replication in testicular cells and the cellular antiviral responses against MuV are not fully understood. The present study showed that MuV infected the majority of testicular cells, including Leydig cells (LC), testicular macrophages, Sertoli cells (SC), and male germ cells (GC). MuV was replicated at relatively high efficiencies in SC compared with LC and testicular macrophages. In contrast, MuV did not replicate in male GC. Notably, testicular cells exhibited different innate antiviral responses against MuV replication. We showed that interferon β (IFN-β) inhibited MuV replication in LC, macrophages, and SC, which were associated with the upregulation of major antiviral proteins. We provided primary evidence that autophagy plays a role in blocking MuV replication in male GC. Autophagy was also involved in limiting MuV replication in testicular macrophages but not in Leydig and SC. These findings indicate the involvement of the innate defense against MuV replication in testicular cells. PMID:28239382

  1. New preventive strategy to eliminate measles, mumps and rubella from Europe based on the serological assessment of herd immunity levels in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P

    2013-07-01

    Herd immunity blocks the transmission of measles, mumps and rubella in a population group when the prevalence of positive serologic results (p) is higher than a critical value (p c), known as the herd immunity threshold. A new preventive strategy should be developed in order to achieve the elimination of measles, rubella and mumps in Europe based on the serological assessment of herd immunity levels in different population groups. This strategy could detect population groups without herd immunity (p herd immunity and prevent outbreaks. The serological assessment of herd immunity levels in Catalonia, Spain, showed that herd immunity had not been established for measles and mumps in schoolchildren (5-9 years of age) and youths/younger adults (15-29 years of age), and that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity in these groups was 1-7%. The new preventive strategy should be used to detect priority population groups for preventive and surveillance activities in European countries.

  2. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine (ProQuad): a guide to its use in children in the E.U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-04-01

    In the EU, the live attenuated, tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine ProQuad is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in individuals from 12 months of age using a two-dose schedule and may be used in infants from 9 months of age to conform with a national vaccination schedule, outbreak situations or travel to a region with a high prevalence of measles. Clinical data in young children indicates that vaccination with ProQuad is as immunogenic as the component vaccines, provides long-term protection against these potentially serious childhood infections and has an acceptable safety profile. Combining the viral strains of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine M-M-RVAXPRO and the varicella vaccine Varivax in ProQuad reduces the complexity of vaccination schedules, thereby potentially improving vaccination coverage and the timeliness of vaccination.

  3. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  4. Interaction of mumps virus V protein variants with STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer: experimental and theoretical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Leyva Julio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mumps virus V protein has the ability to inhibit the interferon-mediated antiviral response by inducing degradation of STAT proteins. Two virus variants purified from Urabe AM9 mumps virus vaccine differ in their replication and transcription efficiency in cells primed with interferon. Virus susceptibility to IFN was associated with insertion of a non-coded glycine at position 156 in the V protein (VGly of one virus variant, whereas resistance to IFN was associated with preservation of wild-type phenotype in the V protein (VWT of the other variant. Results VWT and VGly variants of mumps virus were cloned and sequenced from Urabe AM9 vaccine strain. VGly differs from VWT protein because it possesses an amino acid change Gln103Pro (Pro103 and the Gly156 insertion. The effect of V protein variants on components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3, STAT1 and STAT2 proteins were experimentally tested in cervical carcinoma cell lines. Expression of VWT protein decreased STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas VGly had no inhibitory effect on either STAT1 or STAT2 phosphorylation. For theoretical analysis of the interaction between V proteins and STAT proteins, 3D structural models of VWT and VGly were predicted by comparing with simian virus 5 (SV5 V protein structure in complex with STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer. In silico analysis showed that VWT-STAT1-STAT2 complex occurs through the V protein Trp-motif (W174, W178, W189 and Glu95 residue close to the Arg409 and Lys415 of the nuclear localization signal (NLS of STAT2, leaving exposed STAT1 Lys residues (K85, K87, K296, K413, K525, K679, K685, which are susceptible to proteasome degradation. In contrast, the interaction between VGly and STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer occurs in a region far from the NLS of STAT2 without blocking of Lys residues in both STAT1 and STAT2. Conclusions Our results suggest that VWT protein of Urabe AM9 strain of mumps virus may be more efficient than VGly to

  5. The Measels-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination from a health political and economical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habl, Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measels, Mumps and Rubella (MMR are highly contagious infectious diseases which may lead to severe complications. These diseases are vaccine-preventable. The present Health Technology Assessment report (report on technological consequences, HTA report was commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI and addresses various aspects of the MMR vaccination, the key question being how the MMR immunisation coverage rate can be increased in Germany. Objectives: The objectives of this report were to describe the benefits of the MMR vaccination for Germany and to analyse how the desired MMR immunisation coverage of >95% can be achieved. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 29 literature data bases. Particularly for epidemiological data and information on vaccination programs, this systematic search was supplemented by an extensive hand search, written and oral enquiries, as well as interviews with experts. A total of 200 texts were used to prepare this report. Results: At 92.5% (as of 2004 based on the whole of Germany, the current immunisation coverage for measles in children is above the weighted EC-15-average of 90.67%. Statements can only be made regarding the probability of illness for measles, as no data is available for mumps and rubella. With 2.8 infections (per 100,000 residents in 2006, Germany has not achieved the WHO target. Of cases submitted to the laboratory, only 32% were validated by diagnostic laboratory findings and 45% confirmed clinical-epidemiologically. There are only few economic analyses of vaccination programs in Germany. In international publications, mainly measels are validated economically. An analysis of the cost of measles for Germany shows potential cost savings. Unfortunately, no complete economic evaluation (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, or cost-utility analyses for MMR vaccination has been performed for Germany. Analyses conducted in the US

  6. Mumps virus Enders strain is sensitive to interferon (IFN) despite encoding a functional IFN antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D F; Galiano, M C; Lemon, K; Chen, Y-H; Andrejeva, J; Duprex, W P; Rima, B K; Randall, R E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Enders strain of mumps virus (MuV) encodes a functional V protein that acts as an interferon (IFN) antagonist, in multi-cycle growth assays MuV Enders grew poorly in naïve ('IFN-competent' Hep2) cells but grew to high titres in 'IFN-compromised' Hep2 cells. Even so, the growth rate of MuV Enders was significantly slower in 'IFN-compromised' Hep2 cells when compared with its replication rate in Vero cells and with the replication rate of parainfluenza virus type 5 (a closely related paramyxovirus) in both naïve and 'IFN-compromised' Hep2 cells. This suggests that a consequence of slower growth is that the IFN system of naïve Hep2 cells can respond quickly enough to control the growth of MuV Enders. This is supported by the finding that rapidly growing variants of MuV Enders that were selected on 'IFN-compromised' Hep2 cells (i.e. in the absence of any selection pressure exerted by the IFN response) also grew to high titres on naïve Hep2 cells. Sequencing of the complete genome of one of these variants identified a single point mutation that resulted in a substitution of a conserved asparagine by histidine at position 498 of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, although this mutation was not present in all rapidly growing variants. These results support the concept that there is a race between the ability of a cell to detect and respond to virus infection and the ability of a virus to block the IFN response. Importantly, this emphasizes that factors other than viral IFN antagonists influence the sensitivity of viruses to IFN.

  7. Treatment of recalcitrant warts with intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a promising approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, Ahmad; Nofal, Eman; Yosef, Ayman; Nofal, Hager

    2015-06-01

    Recalcitrant warts represent a frustrating challenge for both patients and physicians. Although many destructive and immunotherapeutic modalities are available for the treatment of warts, an ideal, universally effective approach has not been explored to date. Recently, intralesional antigen immunotherapy has shown promising efficacy in the treatment of warts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the treatment of recalcitrant warts. The study included 70 adult patients with multiple recalcitrant extragenital warts of different sizes and durations, with or without distant warts. They were directly injected, without a pre-sensitization skin test, with 0.3 intralesional MMR vaccine into the largest wart at 2-week intervals until complete clearance or for a maximum of five treatments. Follow-up was made every month for six months to detect any recurrence. Sixty-five patients, 35 men and 30 women, completed the study, and five patients discontinued for various reasons. Complete clearance of the lesions was observed in 41 patients (63%), partial response in 15 patients (23%), and no response in nine patients (14%). Complete response was demonstrated in 74.5% of those presenting with distant warts. Side effects were mild and insignificant in the form of pain during injection, itching, erythema, and edema at the site of injection and flu-like symptoms. Recurrence was detected in two patients only. Intralesional immunotherapy by MMR vaccine is a promising, effective, and safe treatment modality for recalcitrant warts. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. No evidence of an increase of bacterial and viral infections following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Taylor, Brent; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-25

    The suggestion that multi-antigen vaccines might overload the immune system has led to calls for single antigen vaccines. In 2003 we showed that rather than an increase there appeared to be a reduced risk of severe bacterial infection in the three months following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR). The present analysis of illnesses in a general population is based on an additional 10 years of data for bacterial infections and also includes admissions with viral infections. Analyses were carried out using the self-controlled case-series method and separately for bacterial and viral infection cases, using risk periods of 0-30 days, 31-60 days and 61-90 days post MMR vaccine. An analysis was also carried out for those cases which were given MMR and Meningococcal serogroup C (MCC) vaccines concomitantly. A reduced risk was seen in the 0-30-day period for both bacterial infection (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86) and viral infections (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.93). There was no increased risk in any period when looking at combined viral or bacterial infections or for individual infections with the single exception of an increased risk in the 31-60 days post vaccination period for herpes infections (relative incidence=1.69, 95% CI 1.06-2.70). For the children given Meningococcal group C vaccines concomitantly no significantly increased risk was seen in either the bacterial (relative incidence=0.54, 95% CI 0.26-1.13) or viral cases (relative incidence=0.46, 95% CI 0.11-1.93). Our study confirms that the MMR vaccine does not increase the risk of invasive bacterial or viral infection in the 90 days after the vaccination and does not support the hypothesis that there is an induced immune deficiency due to overload from multi-antigen vaccines.

  9. Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Armbrust, Wineke; Swart, Joost; Gorter, Simone; de Vries, Lara D; Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Berbers, Guy A M; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether M

  10. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early admi

  11. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  12. Clinical analysis of mumps orchitis%流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红迅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎的临床特征,为临床治疗流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎提供参考。方法:选取我院2012年2月—2014年8月收治的流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎48例,对患者流行病学特征、临床特点、治疗及转归进行回顾性分析。结果:腮腺炎合并睾丸炎患者发病主要集中于13~35岁,以15~25岁青少年为主,患者多表现发热、腮腺肿大、睾丸肿大及压痛等症状。经临床对症治疗、支持治疗及综合护理,病人平均治疗为8d,患者痊愈。结论:流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎是流行性腮腺炎的常见的并发症,多见于青少年患者,采用中西医结合能有效治疗流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎。%Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics of mumps orchitis, provides the reference for the clinical treatment of mumps orchitis. Methods: 48 cases of mumps orchitis selects my courtyard 2012 February 2014 year August were of patients, epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The incidence of patients with mumps orchitis mainly concentrated in 13~35 years old, with 15~25 years old teenagers, patients with multiple manifestations of fever, swollen glands, testicular swelling and tenderness and other symptoms. Treatment and comprehensive nursing by clinical symptomatic treatment, support, the average patient treatment for 8D, the patients were cured. Conclusion:Mumps orchitis is a common complication of mumps, more common in adolescent patients, using traditional Chinese and Western medicine can be effective in the treatment of mumps orchitis.

  13. Concomitant administration of hepatitis A vaccine with measles/mumps/rubella/varicella and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy 12- to 23-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, Robert J; Shepard, Julie S; Duke, Anton; Stek, Jon E; Petrecz, Maria; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian P; Lee, Andrew W

    2013-08-01

    This open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study evaluated immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of concomitant (Group 1; n=330) vs. non-concomitant (Group 2; n=323) VAQTA™ (25U/0.5 mL) (hepatitis A vaccine; HAV) with ProQuad™ (measles/mumps/rubella/varicella; MMRV) and Prevnar™ (7-valent pneumococcal; PCV-7) in healthy, 12-23 mo old children. Group 1 received HAV/MMRV/PCV-7 concomitantly on Day 1 and second doses of HAV/MMRV at Week 24. Group 2 received MMRV/PCV-7 on Day 1, HAV at Weeks 6 and 30 and MMRV at Week 34. Hepatitis A seropositivity rate (SPR: ≥10 mIU/mL; 4 weeks postdose 2), varicella zoster-virus (VZV) SPR (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) to S. pneumoniae were examined. Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) and daily temperatures were collected. Hepatitis A SPR were 100% for Group 1 and 99.4% for Group 2 after two HAV doses; risk difference=0.7 (95%CI: -1.4,3.8, non-inferior) regardless of initial serostatus. VZV SPR was 93.3% for Group 1 and 98.3% for Group 2; risk difference=-5.1 (95%CI: -9.3, -1.4; non-inferior). S. pneumoniae GMT fold-difference (7 serotypes) ranged from 0.9 to 1.1; non-inferior. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of individual AEs were seen when HAV was administered concomitantly vs. non-concomitantly. Three (all Group 2 post-administration of MMRV/PCV-7) of 11 serious AEs were considered possibly vaccine-related: dehydration and gastroenteritis (same subject) on Day 52; febrile seizure on Day 9. No deaths were reported. Antibody responses to each vaccine given concomitantly were non-inferior to HAV given non-concomitantly with MMRV and PCV-7. Administration of HAV with PCV-7 and MMRV had an acceptable safety profile in 12- to 23-mo-old children.

  14. Thermal Actuation Based 3-DoF Non-Resonant Microgyroscope Using MetalMUMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Rana Iqtidar; Bazaz, Shafaat Ahmed; Kraft, Michael; Lai, Yongjun; Masood Ul Hassan, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large displacements at a low operating voltage in comparison with traditional electrostatic actuators. A Nickel based 3-DoF micromachined gyroscope comprising 2-DoF drive mode and 1-DoF sense mode oscillator utilizing the chevron-shaped thermal actuators is presented here. Analytical derivations and finite element simulations are carried out to predict the performance of the proposed device using the thermo-physical properties of electroplated nickel. The device sensitivity is improved by utilizing the dynamical amplification of the oscillation in 2-DoF drive mode using an active-passive mass configuration. A comprehensive theoretical description, dynamics and mechanical design considerations of the proposed gyroscopes model are discussed in detail. Parametric optimization of gyroscope, its prototype modeling and fabrication using MetalMUMPs has also been investigated. Dynamic transient simulation results predicted that the sense mass of the proposed device achieved a drive displacement of 4.1μm when a sinusoidal voltage of 0.5V is applied at 1.77 kHz exhibiting a mechanical sensitivity of 1.7μm /°/s in vacuum. The wide bandwidth frequency response of the 2-DoF drive mode oscillator consists of two resonant peaks and a flat region of 2.11 kHz between the peaks defining the operational frequency region. The sense mode resonant frequency can lie anywhere within this region and therefore the amplitude of the response is insensitive to structural parameter variations, enhancing device robustness against such variations. The proposed device has a size of 2.2 × 2.6 mm(2), almost one third in comparison with existing M-DoF vibratory gyroscope with an estimated power consumption of 0.26 Watts. These predicted results illustrate that the chevron-shaped thermal actuator

  15. Thermal Actuation Based 3-DoF Non-Resonant Microgyroscope Using MetalMUMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masood ul Hassan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large displacements at a low operating voltage in comparison with traditional electrostatic actuators. A Nickel based 3-DoF micromachined gyroscope comprising 2-DoF drive mode and 1-DoF sense mode oscillator utilizing the chevron-shaped thermal actuators is presented here. Analytical derivations and finite element simulations are carried out to predict the performance of the proposed device using the thermo-physical properties of electroplated nickel. The device sensitivity is improved by utilizing the dynamical amplification of the oscillation in 2-DoF drive mode using an active-passive mass configuration. A comprehensive theoretical description, dynamics and mechanical design considerations of the proposed gyroscopes model are discussed in detail. Parametric optimization of gyroscope, its prototype modeling and fabrication using MetalMUMPs has also been investigated. Dynamic transient simulation results predicted that the sense mass of the proposed device achieved a drive displacement of 4.1µm when a sinusoidal voltage of 0.5V is applied at 1.77 kHz exhibiting a mechanical sensitivity of 1.7μm /o/s in vacuum. The wide bandwidth frequency response of the 2-DoF drive mode oscillator consists of two resonant peaks and a flat region of 2.11 kHz between the peaks defining the operational frequency region. The sense mode resonant frequency can lie anywhere within this region and therefore the amplitude of the response is insensitive to structural parameter variations, enhancing device robustness against such variations. The proposed device has a size of 2.2 x 2.6 mm2, almost one third in comparison with existing M-DoF vibratory gyroscope with an estimated power consumption of 0.26 Watts. These predicted results illustrate that the chevron

  16. A case study of a graphical misrepresentation: drawing the wrong conclusions about the measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony R; Kirkham, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Graphs have been used in attempts to show a relationship between the measles, mumps and rubella virus (MMR) vaccine and autism. We examine the topic of graphical representation of data in general, and one of these graphs in particular: the one that appeared in a 1999 letter to The Lancet. That graph combined data from England and from California, USA. The author alleged that this graph illustrated a rise in autism rates linked to the use of the MMR vaccine. By examining the presentation closely, we are able to show how this graph misrepresented the data used. We give advice for both authors and publishers in the use of such graphical treatments of data.

  17. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single-layer MEMS fractal capacitors. Explicitly, a capacitor with a woven structure and another with an interleaved configuration were fabricated in the standard PolyMUMPS surface micromachining process and tested at S-band frequencies. The self-resonant frequencies of the fabricated capacitors were close to 10GHz, which is better than that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which measured only 5.5GHz. Further, the presented capacitors provided a higher capacitance when compared with the state-of-the-art-reported MEMS fractal capacitors created using a single layer at the expense of a lower quality factor. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  18. Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Luyster, Rhiannon; Risi, Susan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan L; McMahon, William M; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Goldberg, Wendy A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R; Lord, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children's early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a 'regressive phenotype' of ASD are discussed.

  19. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  20. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  1. Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Chen, Qing

    2015-07-17

    Considering the febrile seizure rate, there is no longer a clear preference for use of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine over separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (V) vaccine. This work was undertaken to assess the risk of febrile seizure after MMRV vaccine in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and other databases through 12 December 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted using R version 3.1.2 and Stata version 12.0. A total of thirty-nine studies were included. Thirty-one published or unpublished clinical trials involving about 40,000 subjects did not show significant differences in incidence of febrile seizure or vaccine related febrile seizure between MMRV and MMR with or without varicella vaccine after any doses, in the risk windows of 0-28, 0-42 or 0-56 days and 7-10 days. In addition, these studies showed that the receipt of concomitant use of MMRV and other pediatric vaccines was not a significant predictor of febrile seizure. Eight post-marketing observations involving more than 3,200,000 subjects were included. No evidence suggested elevated risk of febrile seizure associated with MMRV vaccine among children aged 4-6 years old during 7-10 days or 0-42 days after vaccination. However, an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of seizure or febrile seizure during 7-10 days or 5-12 days after MMRV vaccination was found among children aged 10-24 months, although the highest incidence of seizure was still lower than 2.95‰. First MMRV vaccine dose in children aged 10-24 months was associated with an elevated risk of seizure or febrile seizure. Further post-marketing restudies based on more rigorous study design are needed to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  3. Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Li, Xing; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Yao, A-Ling; Chen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is expected to facilitate universal immunization against these 4 diseases. This study was undertaken to synthesize current research findings of the immunogenicity and safety of MMRV in healthy children.We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other databases through September 9, 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and collected independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3.Twenty-four RCTs were included in qualitative synthesis. Nineteen RCTs compared single MMRV dose with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with or without varicella vaccine (MMR + V/MMR). Similar seroconversion rates of these 4 viruses were found between comparison groups. There were comparable geometric mean titers (GMTs) against mumps and varicella viruses between MMRV group and MMR + V/MMR group. MMRV group achieved enhanced immune response to measles component, with GMT ratio of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48, 1.86; P measles/rubella-like rash (relative risks 1.44-1.45) in MMRV groups.MMRV had comparable immunogenicity and overall safety profiles to MMR + V/MMR in healthy children based on current evidence.

  4. When, and how, should we introduce a combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood expanded immunization programme in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Neil A

    2012-09-07

    This article briefly reviews the history and epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella disease and the case for introducing combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood immunization schedule in South Africa. Despite adopting the World Health Organization's Measles Elimination strategy in 1996 and achieving a significant decrease the incidence of measles, added effort is needed in South and southern Africa to reach the goal to eliminate endogenous spread measles. Mumps is still common disease of childhood and while there are few sequelae, even the rare complications are important in large populations. Congenital rubella syndrome is seldom reported, but it is estimated that of the million or so children born every year in South Africa over 600 infants are affected to some degree by rubella infection. The naturally acquired immunity to rubella in women of childbearing age in South Africa has been estimated at over 90%, so that introducing a rubella containing vaccine in childhood may paradoxically increase the proportion of girls reaching puberty still susceptible to rubella. The elimination of endogenous measles and rubella is being achieved in many countries in South America, and despite the recent measles epidemic, must still be seriously considered for South and southern Africa. Current constraints and potential steps needed to reach the goal in South Africa are discussed.

  5. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    This report presents new recommendations adopted in June 2009 by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.). MMRV vaccine was licensed in the United States in September 2005 and may be used instead of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR, M-M-RII, Merck & Co., Inc.) and varicella vaccine (VARIVAX, Merck & Co., Inc.) to implement the recommended 2-dose vaccine schedule for prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella among children aged 12 months-12 years. At the time of its licensure, use of MMRV vaccine was preferred for both the first and second doses over separate injections of equivalent component vaccines (MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine), which was consistent with ACIP's 2006 general recommendations on use of combination vaccines (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55;[No. RR-15]). Since July 2007, supplies of MMRV vaccine have been temporarily unavailable as a result of manufacturing constraints unrelated to efficacy or safety. MMRV vaccine is expected to be available again in the United States in May 2010. In February 2008, on the basis of preliminary data from two studies conducted postlicensure that suggested an increased risk for febrile seizures 5-12 days after vaccination among children aged 12-23 months who had received the first dose of MMRV vaccine compared with children the same age who had received the first dose of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit, ACIP issued updated recommendations regarding MMRV vaccine use (CDC. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR 2008;57:258-60). These updated recommendations expressed no preference for use of MMRV vaccine over

  6. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science.

  7. 67例成人流行性腮腺炎的临床分析%Clinical analysis of 67 patients with adult mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀亮; 江启贵; 樊庆东; 朱艳

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析成人流行性腮腺炎患者的流行病学及临床特征.方法:回顾性分析池州市人民医院2006年1月至2011年9月收治的67例成人流行性腮腺炎住院患者的临床资料.结果:67例患者中,男性44例(65.67%).68.66%的患者年龄在18~30岁之间.全年均可发病,发病时间主要集中在2月和5月.31例(46.27%)有流行性腮腺炎接触史.50例(74.63%)患者无腮腺炎疫苗接种史.36例(53.73%)患者出现1种或多种并发症,主要并发症是睾丸炎、卵巢炎和胰腺炎.结论:成人流行性腮腺炎以男性多见,多无疫苗接种史,多有明确的接触史,全年均可发病;成人患者病情重,并发症多.应加强针对成年人的疫苗接种.%Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of patients infected with mumps in Chizhou. Methods: The clinical data records of 67 patients infected with mumps who were hospitalized in People’s Hospital of Chizhou from January 2006 to September 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 67 patients, 44 (65.67%) patients are male. There were 46 cases (68.66%) whose onset age ranged from 18 to 30 years old. The time of onset was mainly concentrated in May and July. Thirty one cases (46.27%) had a mumps contact history, 50 cases (74.63%) had no history of mumps vaccination and 36 cases (53.73%) had one or more complications. The main complications are orchitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis. Conclusion: Adult mumps are more common in males. Most of the patients had a clear history of exposure but no history of vaccination. It can occur in all year around. The adult patients had more severe illness and more complications. Thus, vaccination for adults should be strengthened.

  8. Long-term efficacy and safety of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapanoglu, Turgut; Kocaturk, Huseyin; Aksoy, Yilmaz; Alper, Fatih; Ozbey, Isa

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine long-term efficacy and safety subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B in patients with mumps orchitis in terms of testicular volume and other testicular functions. Mumps orchitis was evaluated in 37 patients. Patients were hospitalized and administered 1 × 3,000,000 IU subcutaneous injection of interferon-alpha-2B daily for 7 days. The testicular volumes of all the patients were measured by ultrasonography in the 18th month following treatment termination. The testes volumes were evaluated by descriptive statistics as percentages. Patients were divided into three groups according to testes volumes and differences between the involved and non-involved testicles. Group I included patients with normal testes volume (> 12 ml) and a difference between testes of less than 2 ml or 20%; Group II (atrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of less than 12 ml; and Group III (hypotrophic groups) included patients with testes volume of greater than 12 ml and a difference between testes of more than 2 ml or 20%. Groups were compared in terms of results of semen analysis and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Patients' ages ranged between 17 and 41 years (mean: 28.3 years). A total of nine atrophy cases were identified. Sixteen patients were determined to have hypotrophic testes with a difference of 2-10 ml or 20% between the involved and non-involved testicles, despite the absence of testicular atrophy. A comparison of groups revealed that sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and motility percentage were significantly higher in Group I than in the other groups, while serum FSH and LH levels were lower in Group I than in the other groups. Although the use of interferon-alpha-2B appears to prevent testicular atrophy and protect testicular function, it leads to a considerable difference in the volume between testicles and a significant loss of testicular

  9. Two-year experience of using the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as intralesional immunotherapy for warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, C H; Choi, H; Song, S H; Kim, M S; Shin, B S

    2014-07-01

    The currently available treatments for warts, including cryosurgery, laser surgery, electrosurgery, and topical keratolytic applications, are often very painful and can induce disfiguring scars. Recently, intralesional immunotherapy with skin test antigens and vaccines has been shown to be effective in the management of warts. To evaluate the efficacy of a new intralesional immunotherapy for warts, using the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. A retrospective study was performed, and we enrolled 136 patients with various types of warts into the study, which was for a duration of 2 years. Patients were treated for a total of six times at 2-week intervals. The treatment response was classified as one of three levels, based on reduction in the size and number of warts, and patients with complete response (CR) were checked for recurrence. Clinical evaluations were carried out using photographs and medical records. Over half (51.5%) of patients experienced > 50% reduction in the size and number of warts, and 46.7% who had distant warts (in different locations) showed good response. Common warts showed significantly higher treatment response than other types of warts (P warts after 6 months. We suggest that intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine is a tolerable and effective method for patients who are sensitive to pain, concerned about side effects, or have common warts. Treatment response is improved by increasing the number of injections. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 温州市2006-2009年流行性腮腺炎流行特征分析%Characteristic analysis of mumps in Wenzhou city in 2006-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖木; 马洪波; 蔡圆圆; 魏晶娇; 陈晟

    2010-01-01

    目的 掌握温州市流行性腮腺炎的流行病学特点及流行趋势,为采取防治措施提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,通过国家疾病监测信息报告管理系统和突发公共卫生事件报告管理信息系统对流行性腮腺炎疫情资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2006-2009年共报告流行性腮腺炎病例18 355例,年均发病率为60.32/10万.发病有明显季节性,在春末夏初和冬季出现2个发病高峰.在人口密度高的地区,流行性腮腺炎发病率也较高,最高的为168.33/10万.2~9岁年龄组人群发病率最高,占总病例数的85.79%.流行性腮腺炎以学生与学龄前儿童为主,分别占48.19%和44.09%.结论 目前温州市流行性腮腺炎疫情形势仍较严峻,应采取措施落实流行性腮腺炎疫苗接种策略,提高疫苗接种覆盖率,从而减少发病数,降低发病率.此外,在分析流行因素时应考虑到人口密度对流行特征的影响.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and trend of mumps in Wenzhou, and to provide a scientific basis for taking appropriate intervening measures of mumps. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data on mumps in Wenzhou from National Disease Reporting System and Emergency Public Reporting System from 2006 to 2009. Results Tbere were 18 355 mumps cases reported between 2006 and 2009, and the average annual incidence rate was 60.32 per 100 000. Mumps had obvious seasonality and reached the peaks in early summer and winter. Incidence was high in areas of high population density, the incidence in the highest population density area was 168.33 per 100 000. The highest mumps incidence occured in the children aged 2-9, accounted for 85.79%. Mumps outbreaks occurred frequently in the population of students and the pre- school children, there were incidences of 48.19% and 44.09% respectively in students and pre-school children. Conclusions The current mumps epidemic in

  12. 儿童接种麻腮风联合减毒活疫苗的安全性及免疫学效果观察%Safety and Immunological Effects of Measles-mumps-rubella Attenuated Live Vaccine in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴媛; 黎丽

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the safety and immunological effects of Measles-mumps-rubella(MMR)attenuated live at-tenuated vaccine in children. METHODS:300 children aged 8-12 months receiving inoculation were selected from Changsha Hospi-tal for Maternal and Child Health Care during Jan. 2015-Apr. 2016 to observe safety and immunological effects. Those children were divided into MMR group,measles vaccine group,mumps vaccine group and rubella vaccine group according to vaccine type, with 75 cases in each group. The occurrence of ADR in 72 h were compared among 4 groups after inoculation;venous blood of chil-dren was collected before vaccination and 5 months after vaccination,and the antibody positive test was carried out by micro coagu-lation inhibition (HI) test;HI antibody titer was recorded after immunization,and positive rate and genometric meantiter(GMT) were calculated. RESULTS:The incidence of ADR in 4 groups were 9.33%,8.00%,8.00% and 10.67%,respectively. No local ADR was found in 4 groups;among systemic ADR,the incidence of fever was higher than that of other clinical manifestations,be-ing 4.00%,4.00%,4.00% and 5.33%;there was no statistical significance in the incidence of ADR among 4 groups(P>0.05). Measles,mumps and rubella antibody positive rates of MMR group were 100%,92.00% and 100%,respectively;antibody posi-tive rates of measles vaccine group,mumps vaccine group and rubella vaccine group were 100%,85.33% and 100%,respective-ly;there was no statistical significance in same antibody positive rate among 4 groups(P>0.05). GMT of measles in MMR group and measles vaccine group were 1∶41 and 1∶27,that of mumps in MMR group and mumps vaccine group were 1∶6.3 and 1∶6.2, there was no statistical significance (P>0.05);GMT of rubella in MMR group and rubella vaccine group were 1∶320 and 1∶849, with statistical significance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to traditional single vaccine,MMR dose not increase the inci-dence of ADR and not influence positive rate

  13. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  14. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  15. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  16. The antibody mining toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput ...

  17. 180例儿童流行性腮腺炎并发症分析%Analysis of 180 Cases of Children's Mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高荣; 张金颖; 祖丽皮亚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of children mumps, epidemiological characteristics and its prevention and control. Methods between January 2011 and December 2011 admit ed 180 cases of patients of mumps cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results the whole group onset in the majority with 5 ~ 10 patients, accounted for 76%; The winter is given priority to with late winter spring; Have 32 cases of concurrent meningitis infection, fol owed by pancreatitis,11 cases and orchitis in 14 cases. The comprehensive treatment for al patients were discharged the patient recovered gradual y to the cure ratewas100% bet er. Conclusion Children against mumps complications of large, early examination, early detection and rational treatment of good prognosis.%目的:探讨儿童流行性腮腺炎的临床特点、流行病学特征及其防治。方法对2011年1月~2012年12月收治180例流行性腮腺炎患儿病例的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果全组发病以5~10岁患者居多,占76%;发病季节以晚冬早春为主;其中并发脑膜脑炎32例,其次为胰腺炎11例和睾丸炎14例。经积极对症治疗,均治愈出院,痊愈好转率100%。结论儿童流行性腮腺炎及其并发症危害大,早诊治,合理治疗预后好。

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in healthy Brazilian infants: a randomized non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Curran, Birute; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Ribeiro, Maria das Graças Tavares; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Lemos, Maria Cristina F; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos Reis; Homma, Akira; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Royals, Michael; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if immunogenicity to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered to infants via a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that administered by needle and syringe (NS). Vaccination safety was evaluated, as were the use, performance, and acceptability of each delivery method. The DSJI was the PharmaJet 2009 generation-1 device (G1) and the vaccine was measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from Bio-Manguinhos. Five hundred eighty-two healthy Brazilian infants were randomized to receive vaccine via G1 or NS. Seroconversion rates against measles and mumps viruses in the G1 treatment group did not meet non-inferiority criteria when compared with the NS group; however, responses in the G1 group to rubella virus were non-inferior to those of NS vaccinees. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Crying after injection was more frequent in the NS group, and local skin reactions were more common in the G1 group. Five serious adverse events were judged causally unrelated to treatment and all resolved. Parents/guardians expressed a strong preference for G1 over NS for their children. Vaccinators found the G1 easy to use but noted incomplete vaccine delivery in some cases. Although the G1 has been superseded by an updated device, our results are important for the continued improvement and evaluation of DSJIs, which have the potential to overcome many of the challenges and risks associated with needle-based injections worldwide. Recommendations for future DSJI clinical studies include rigorous training of vaccinators, quantitative measurement of wetness on the skin following injection, and regular monitoring of device and vaccinator performance.

  19. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer....

  20. 腮腺炎性睾丸炎患者的激素改变%Hormonal changes in patients with mumps orchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzvet.,P; Tzvet,DV

    1999-01-01

    目的:检测不同年龄感染腮腺炎性睾丸炎患者的激素水平改变.方法: 应用放射免疫法测定3组患者的FSH、LH、催乳素、雌二醇和睾酮水平.结果: 3组患者均存在不同程度的激素紊乱,尤其以青春期发生感染的组Ⅱ有显著激素水平改变.与对照组比较,组Ⅱ的FSH、L H、催乳素和雌二醇分别升高2.87、1.97、1.81和1.98倍,睾酮减少6.41倍.结论: 感染腮腺炎性睾丸炎患者的生殖激素有明显改变,且与感染时患者的年龄有关.%AIM:To investigate changes in levels of the m ajor hormones regulating the process of reproduction in patients with mumps orch itis. METHODS: Twenty-two patients were divided into three groups according to the age when the patients were infected with mumps orchitis as a co mplication of parotitis epidemica infection. Plasma LH, FSH, prolactin, estradio l and testosterone were examined by using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: There were marked changes in synthesis and secretion of studied hormones in these three groups, especially in patients who were infecte d during puberty (group Ⅱ). Comparing with the control group, plasma LH, FSH, p ro lactin and estradiol level in group Ⅱ were significantly increased with 1.97, 2 .87, 1.81 and 1.98 fold, respectively. Testosterone was significantly decreased with 6.41 fold. CONCLUSION: There were disturbances of reproduct ive endocrine control in patients with mumps orchitis. Hormonal changes in the pati ents related to the age at which patients were infected.MeSH Hormones; Plasma; Orchitis; Mumps

  1. 病毒性腮腺炎与睾丸损伤的关系%Relationship between Viral Mumps and Testicular Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘大海; 鲍阿珉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To deep research on testicular tissue injury caused by mumps complicated with testitis from the point of view of histology and pathology.Methods: From the infertility patients who seeking treatment in recent years,screened 30 azoospermia and oligozoospermia patients aged between 25~35 years old,and can be sure they had mumps and accompanied by orchitis symptoms between 5~10 years old,the 30 patients underwent testis puncture biopsy.Other 30 non-mumps patients were selected as the control study group.Results: Most of the 30 patients who suffered from viral parotitis in childhood,presented as seminiferous tube degeneration,immature testis,mixed lesions and small testicular volume.Conclusion: mumps complicated with orchitis can cause organic lesions of testicular tissues,and it also is one of the causes of adult male infertility.%目的:从组织、病理学角度深入研究腮腺炎合并睾丸炎并睾丸组织损伤.方法:从近几年求治的不育症患者中筛选出能够肯定在5~10岁间曾患过腮腺炎并伴有睾丸炎症状,年龄在25~35岁之间的无精症和少精症患者30例进行了睾丸穿刺活检,同时筛选另外30例非腮腺炎患者作为对照研究组.结果:幼儿时期曾患病毒性腮腺炎的30例患者中绝大部分表现为曲细精管变性、未成熟睾丸、混合性病变和睾丸体积偏小.结论:腮腺炎合并睾丸炎可造成睾丸组织的器质性病变,也是导致成年后男性不育的原因之一.

  2. Missed Opportunities for Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination Among Departing U.S. Adult Travelers Receiving Pretravel Health Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle, Emily P; Rao, Sowmya R; Jentes, Emily S; Parker Fiebelkorn, Amy; Hagmann, Stefan H F; Taylor Walker, Allison; Walensky, Rochelle P; Ryan, Edward T; LaRocque, Regina C

    2017-07-18

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers. To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. adult travelers seeking pretravel consultation and to assess reasons given for nonvaccination among those considered eligible to receive the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Observational study in U.S. pretravel clinics. 24 sites associated with Global TravEpiNet (GTEN), a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded consortium. Adults (born in or after 1957) attending pretravel consultations at GTEN sites (2009 to 2014). Structured questionnaire completed by traveler and provider during pretravel consultation. 40 810 adult travelers were included; providers considered 6612 (16%) to be eligible for MMR vaccine at the time of pretravel consultation. Of the MMR-eligible, 3477 (53%) were not vaccinated at the visit; of these, 1689 (48%) were not vaccinated because of traveler refusal, 966 (28%) because of provider decision, and 822 (24%) because of health systems barriers. Most MMR-eligible travelers who were not vaccinated were evaluated in the South (2262 travelers [65%]) or at nonacademic centers (1777 travelers [51%]). Nonvaccination due to traveler refusal was most frequent in the South (1432 travelers [63%]) and in nonacademic centers (1178 travelers [66%]). These estimates could underrepresent the opportunities for MMR vaccination because providers accepted verbal histories of disease and vaccination as evidence of immunity. Of U.S. adult travelers who presented for pretravel consultation at GTEN sites, 16% met criteria for MMR vaccination according to the provider's assessment, but fewer than half of these travelers were vaccinated. An increase in MMR vaccination of eligible U.S. adult travelers could reduce the likelihood of importation and transmission of measles virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and the

  3. Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Ryan Kent; Thompson, Jerome W

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on disease severity, the type of adjunctive treatment administered to each patient, the frequency of debridements, the length of observation, and remission rates. Of the 15 patients, 5 had been treated with cidofovirafter debridement (cidofovir-only group), 6 were treated with MMR vaccine after debridement (MMR-only group), 3 were treated with one and later switched to the other based on parental preference, and 1 received neither treatment, only debridement. The initial mean Derkay disease severity scores were 12.6 for the cidofovir-only group and 11.0 for the MMR-only group (p = 0.61). The cidofovir-only patients underwent an average of 11.8 adjunctive treatments and the MMR-only patients an average of 17.7 (p = 0.33). The average duration of observation was 44.0 months in the cidofovir-only group and 64.7 months in the MMR-only group (p = 0.29). Remission rates were 20% in the cidofovir-only group and 50% in the MMR-only group (p = 0.54). Our study found insufficient evidence of any significant differences between cidofovir and the MMR vaccinein terms of the number and frequency of adjunctive treatments and the rates of remission.

  4. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  5. Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine (M-M-R™II): a review of 32 years of clinical and postmarketing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievano, Fabio; Galea, Susan A; Thornton, Michele; Wiedmann, Richard T; Manoff, Susan B; Tran, Trung N; Amin, Manisha A; Seminack, Margaret M; Vagie, Kristen A; Dana, Adrian; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2012-11-06

    M-M-R™II (measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live; Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corp.) is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals ≥ 12 months of age. Before the vaccine era, these viruses infected most exposed individuals, with subsequent morbidity and mortality. One of the greatest achievements of public health has been to eliminate these 3 diseases in large geographic areas. The safety profile of M-M-R™II is described using data from routine global postmarketing surveillance. Postmarketing surveillance has limitations (including incomplete reporting of case data), but allows collection of real-world information on large numbers of individuals, who may have concurrent medical problems excluding them from clinical trials. It can also identify rare adverse experiences (AEs). Over its 32-year history, ≈ 575 million doses of M-M-R™II have been distributed worldwide, with 17,536 AEs voluntarily reported for an overall rate of 30.5 AEs/1,000,000 doses distributed. This review provides evidence that the vaccine is safe and well-tolerated.

  6. 流行性腮腺炎198例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 198 cases with mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁德和; 刘贞君

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of mumps.Methods The epidemiological characteristics,clinical manifestations and treatment of 198 cases with mumps were retrospectively analyzed.Results The onset age of mumps was less than 15 years old,men more than women,the crowd distribution was mainly the students,especially in winter,spring and summer.The clinical characteristics were as following:corresponding parotid gland enlargement occurred at the onset of mumps,some of the patients may be accompany by fever,nausea,vomiting,chest tightness,palpitation,or had the performance of the headache,dizziness,muscle weakness,sleepiness and nervous system complications.The results of laboratory tests showed that white blood cell(WBC) of most patients was in the normal range; blood,urine amylase obviously increased; a few cases with abnormal myocardial enzyme spectrum and liver function.Chest X-ray and electrocardiogram(ECG) were normal.4 cases had EEG abnormality.All cases received ribavirin antiviral treatment,and were given corresponding symptomatic treatment to the complications,all patients recovered.Conclusion Epidemiological characteristics were local epidemic,obvious seasonal difference,the student was the main body.Common complications were encephalitis,gland inflammation,myocarditis,hepatitis,etc.,mumps vaccine should be advocated in the students.%目的 探讨流行性腮腺炎的流行特征与临床特点.方法 回顾性分析198例流行性腮腺炎的流行特征、临床表现及治疗情况.结果 发病年龄以15岁以下为主,男多于女,人群分布以学生为主体,冬、春、夏季明显.临床特点,初期多有相应的腮腺肿大,部分病例可伴有发热、恶心、呕吐、胸闷、心悸,或表现为头痛、头晕、肌无力、嗜睡等神经系统并发症表现.实验室检查,白细胞(WBC)大多正常范围;血、尿淀粉酶多明显增高;少数病例心肌酶谱、肝功能出现异

  7. The Epidemic Characteristics of Mumps and Relations with Meteorological Factors in Yinchuan%银川市腮腺炎流行特征及其与气象因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智; 雷静; 蒋少萍

    2015-01-01

    利用2005~2011年银川市逐日腮腺炎病例资料、气象资料,采用气候倾向率、趋势系数、相关分析方法分析腮腺炎流行特征及其与气象因素的关系。结果表明:银川市腮腺炎病例数呈波动增多趋势,各月呈“2峰2谷”型规律变化;冬春之交(2~5月)、秋冬之交(9~12月)呈逐渐增多的趋势,夏季(6~8月)、冬季(12月至次年2月)呈逐渐减少趋势;银川市兴庆区平均病例数最多,占总病例数的44.4%,灵武市平均病例数最少,只占总病例数的5.0%;1~18岁年龄段腮腺炎病例数占总病例数的92.7%,是主要易感人群,而6~7岁是防控的重点人群;腮腺炎疾病分别与前1~前4周平均最低气压、最大变压、最大变温、平均相对湿度、平均最小相对湿度、平均日照时数等气象因素有极显著的相关关系,可以利用前期气象资料预测腮腺炎病例数,为腮腺炎疾病的防控提供参考。%Based on the daily mumps cases,meteorological data from 2005 to 2011 in Yinchuan,the epidemic characteristics of the mumps cases and relations with the meteorological factors were analyzed by using the methods of climatic inclination rate and the corre-lation analysis. The results show that the number of mumps cases presented increasing trend,the crowd from the age of 1 to 20 with mumps cases accounted for 93. 7% of the total mumps cases in Yinchuan,and they were the main easy infected crowd,while the crowd from the age of 6 to 7 was the key crowd of prevention and control. The monthly variation of mumps cases presented increase trend from February to May and September to December,while decline trend in summer and winter. The number of mumps cases accounted for 44. 4% and 5. 0% of the total number in Xingqing and Lingwu,respectively. The correlations were significant between the number of mumps cases and the weekly mean pressure,weekly mean temperature

  8. The Treatment Study of Adult Mumps Orchitis:A Report of 27 Cases%成人腮腺炎性睾丸炎27例治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董希智; 王松; 孟青; 牛健; 王善刚; 房刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effective method and intervention measures for the treatment of adult mumps orchitis. Methods Twenty-seven hospitalized cases of mumps orchitis patients's treatments were ana-lyzed retrospectively. Results This group of cases obtained good curative effect. Time of the Temperature fell to normal:4 ± 1days,The treatment time:6 ± 1days,no scrotal ulceration and abscess formation cases. Conclu-sions Adult mumps and orchitis is easy concurrent,The mature testis is easy attacked by mumps virus of the sec-ond time into the blood,and disease developed rapidly,and it's symptoms more serious than the mumps,early intervention is an effective means to reduce or alleviate the symptoms of orchitis.%目的:探讨成人流行性腮腺炎并发睾丸炎的有效治疗方法及干预措施。方法对住院治疗的27例腮腺炎并发睾丸炎患者所采取的治疗措施进行了回顾性总结。结果该组病例均获得较好疗效,体温降至正常时间(4±1)天,治疗时限(6±1)天,无阴囊破溃及脓肿形成病例。结论成人腮腺炎易并发睾丸炎,成熟的睾丸易于被二次入血的腮腺病毒攻击,且病情发展迅猛,其症状重于腮腺炎,提前干预是减少或减轻睾丸炎症状的有效手段。

  9. Missed Opportunities for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR Immunization in Mesoamerica: Potential Impact on Coverage and Days at Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Mokdad

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of measles in the Americas have received news and popular attention, noting the importance of vaccination to population health. To estimate the potential increase in immunization coverage and reduction in days at risk if every opportunity to vaccinate a child was used, we analyzed vaccination histories of children 11-59 months of age from large household surveys in Mesoamerica.Our study included 22,234 children aged less than 59 months in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Child vaccination cards were used to calculate coverage of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR and to compute the number of days lived at risk. A child had a missed opportunity for vaccination if their card indicated a visit for vaccinations at which the child was not caught up to schedule for MMR. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute the hazard ratio associated with the reduction in days at risk, accounting for missed opportunities.El Salvador had the highest proportion of children with a vaccine card (91.2% while Nicaragua had the lowest (76.5%. Card MMR coverage ranged from 44.6% in Mexico to 79.6% in Honduras while potential coverage accounting for missed opportunities ranged from 70.8% in Nicaragua to 96.4% in El Salvador. Younger children were less likely to have a missed opportunity. In Panama, children from households with higher expenditure were more likely to have a missed opportunity for MMR vaccination compared to the poorest (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.06-2.47. In Nicaragua, compared to children of mothers with no education, children of mothers with primary education and secondary education were less likely to have a missed opportunity (OR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.096-0.65, respectively. Mean days at risk for MMR ranged from 158 in Panama to 483 in Mexico while potential days at risk ranged from 92 in Panama to 239 in El Salvador.Our study found high levels of missed opportunities for

  10. Missed Opportunities for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Immunization in Mesoamerica: Potential Impact on Coverage and Days at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokdad, Ali H; Gagnier, Marielle C; Colson, K Ellicott; Dansereau, Emily; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey K; Palmisano, Erin B; Hernandez, Bernardo; Iriarte, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of measles in the Americas have received news and popular attention, noting the importance of vaccination to population health. To estimate the potential increase in immunization coverage and reduction in days at risk if every opportunity to vaccinate a child was used, we analyzed vaccination histories of children 11-59 months of age from large household surveys in Mesoamerica. Our study included 22,234 children aged less than 59 months in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Child vaccination cards were used to calculate coverage of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and to compute the number of days lived at risk. A child had a missed opportunity for vaccination if their card indicated a visit for vaccinations at which the child was not caught up to schedule for MMR. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute the hazard ratio associated with the reduction in days at risk, accounting for missed opportunities. El Salvador had the highest proportion of children with a vaccine card (91.2%) while Nicaragua had the lowest (76.5%). Card MMR coverage ranged from 44.6% in Mexico to 79.6% in Honduras while potential coverage accounting for missed opportunities ranged from 70.8% in Nicaragua to 96.4% in El Salvador. Younger children were less likely to have a missed opportunity. In Panama, children from households with higher expenditure were more likely to have a missed opportunity for MMR vaccination compared to the poorest (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.06-2.47). In Nicaragua, compared to children of mothers with no education, children of mothers with primary education and secondary education were less likely to have a missed opportunity (OR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.096-0.65, respectively). Mean days at risk for MMR ranged from 158 in Panama to 483 in Mexico while potential days at risk ranged from 92 in Panama to 239 in El Salvador. Our study found high levels of missed opportunities for immunizing

  11. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  12. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  13. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  14. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  15. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult mumps patients%成人流行性腮腺炎流行病学及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 吴兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析沈阳地区97例住院成人流行性腮腺炎患者的流行病学及临床特征,以利于更好地防治成人流行性腮腺炎. 方法 回顾性分析沈阳市第六人民医院2009年1-6月收治的97例住院患者的临床资料. 结果 成人流行性腮腺炎患者以男性为主,占全部病例的77.32%;发病年龄主要为18~30岁,占全部病例的78.35%;沈阳周边地区及外来流动人口(主要为农村到城市务工者)发病率高,占全部病例的71.13%.所有病例均出现腮腺肿大,但程度相对较轻,并发症多见. 结论 加强流动人口的管理,对成人采取以疫苗接种为主的综合措施有利于控制流行性腮腺炎的流行.%Objective To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 97 adult mumps inpatients in Shenyang and to search Methods of the disease prevention and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 97 adult mumps inpatients from January 2009 to June 2009 in the Sixth People' s Hospital of Shenyang were analyzed retrospectively.Results Most cases occurred on males, accounted for 77.32%. The major cases were at the age from 18 to 30,accounted for 78.35%. Patients from the countryside of Shenyang and floating population accounted for 71.13 %. All patients presented parotid swelling, but the symptoms were not severe. The complications were common. Conclusions It is favorable to control the mumps epidemic through strengthening the management of floating population and take the proper vaccination for adults.

  16. Enhancing global vaccine pharmacovigilance: Proof-of-concept study on aseptic meningitis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura following measles-mumps containing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vilar, Silvia; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Black, Steven; Maure, Christine; Castro, Jose Luis; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Dodd, Caitlin N; Romio, Silvana A; de Ridder, Maria; Nakato, Swabra; Molina-León, Helvert Felipe; Elango, Varalakshmi; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2017-05-27

    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are now being introduced without prior record of utilization in countries with robust pharmacovigilance systems. To address this deficit, our objective was to demonstrate feasibility of an international hospital-based network for the assessment of potential epidemiological associations between serious and rare adverse events and vaccines in any setting. This was done through a proof-of-concept evaluation of the risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and aseptic meningitis (AM) following administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-containing vaccines using the self-controlled risk interval method in the primary analysis. The World Health Organization (WHO) selected 26 sentinel sites (49 hospitals) distributed in 16 countries of the six WHO regions. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 5.0 (95% CI: 2.5-9.7) for ITP following first dose of measles-containing vaccinations, and of 10.9 (95% CI: 4.2-27.8) for AM following mumps-containing vaccinations were found. The strain-specific analyses showed significantly elevated ITP risk for measles vaccines containing Schwarz (IRR: 20.7; 95% CI: 2.7-157.6), Edmonston-Zagreb (IRR: 11.1; 95% CI: 1.4-90.3), and Enders'Edmonston (IRR: 8.5; 95% CI: 1.9-38.1) strains. A significantly elevated AM risk for vaccines containing the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps strain (IRR: 10.8; 95% CI: 1.3-87.4) was also found. This proof-of-concept study has shown, for the first time, that an international hospital-based network for the investigation of rare vaccine adverse events, using common standardized procedures and with high participation of LMICs, is feasible, can produce reliable results, and has the potential to characterize differences in risk between vaccine strains. The completion of this network by adding large reference hospitals, particularly from tropical countries, and the systematic WHO-led implementation of this approach, should permit the

  17. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  18. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described.

  19. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  20. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy.

  1. Persistence of measles antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR-vaccine in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Frade, João; Nunes, Carla; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José

    2015-09-22

    In populations vaccinated with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), the serum levels of antibodies against measles depend on the vaccination schedule, time elapsed from the last dose and the area-specific epidemiological situation. Variables measuring "schedule" are age at first and second doses of MMR and intervals derived from that. Changes in vaccination schedules have been made in Portugal. The specific objectives of this study were to measure the association between those potential determinants and the concentration of measles-specific IgG antibodies, after the second dose of MMR. Convenience samples of three Portuguese birth cohorts were selected for this study (41, 66 and 60 born, respectively, in 2001-2003, 1990-1993 and 1994-1995). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for measles IgG were, respectively, 934, 251 and 144mIU/ml; pmeasles-IgG serum concentration decreased with time since last vaccination (waning immunity) and was not influenced by any other component of vaccination schedule, namely age at vaccination with the second dose of MMR. Waning levels of measles antibodies have been observed elsewhere but not as fast as it was observed in Portuguese birth cohorts in this study. Changes in the vaccination schedules might have to be considered in the future.

  2. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  3. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to confirm the cause of thyroid problems, including Hashimoto thyroiditis . The test is also used to find ... positive test may be due to: Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also ...

  4. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test ... whether a person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  5. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Faldu, Dinesh; Chumsae, Chris; Sun, Joanne

    2008-07-01

    Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is common due to the various modifications introduced over the lifespan of the molecules from the point of synthesis to the point of complete clearance from the subjects. The vast number of modifications presents great challenge to the thorough characterization of the molecules. This article reviews the current knowledge of enzymatic and nonenzymatic modifications of monoclonal antibodies including the common ones such as incomplete disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, N-terminal pyroglutamine cyclization, C-terminal lysine processing, deamidation, isomerization, and oxidation, and less common ones such as modification of the N-terminal amino acids by maleuric acid and amidation of the C-terminal amino acid. In addition, noncovalent associations with other molecules, conformational diversity and aggregation of monoclonal antibodies are also discussed. Through a complete understanding of the heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies, strategies can be employed to better identify the potential modifications and thoroughly characterize the molecules.

  6. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in an Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Resources Resources for ... CE Courses and Training Presentations for Health Professionals Yellow Fever Vaccine Course About the Yellow Fever Vaccine Course ...

  7. Mumps resurgence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St-Martin, Gry; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Engsig, Frederik Neess

    2014-01-01

    times during the past 10 years from an incidence children to young adults, and most cases are unvaccinated (54%) or vaccinated once (41%). The increase is due mainly to the existence of cohorts with low MMR...

  8. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Travelers' Health Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... FAQ Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites ...

  9. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  10. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia PF4 Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Heparin-PF4 Antibody; HIT Antibody; HIT PF4 Antibody; Heparin Induced Antibody; ...

  11. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  12. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  13. Serum cytokine levels of patients with mumps orchitis%流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎的血清细胞因子水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 张志丽; 许维国; 张玉林; 梁连春; 吴昊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum cytokine levels of patients with acute mumps orchitis. Methods Thirty patients with acute mumps orchitis (mumps orchitis group) and 30 patients with mumps only without any major complications (mumps group), who were treated in infectious diseases department of our hospital from Jan. 2012 to May 2013, were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon γand tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of the two groups were tested. Results The levels of IL-6 and TNF-αof mumps orchitis group (6.7±3.5 pg/ml, 43.1±28.2 ng/ml) were higher than those of mumps group (3.2±1.5 pg/ml, 32.5±21.1 ng/ml), and the differences were significant between the two groups. Conclusion High serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-αmay be the trigger factors of orchitis in patients with mumps.%目的:观察流行性腮腺炎合并急性睾丸炎患者的血清细胞因子水平变化。方法入选2012年1月-2013年5月在我院感染科住院治疗的流行性腮腺炎合并急性睾丸炎患者30例(合并睾丸炎组),同时选择无主要并发症的单纯性流行性腮腺炎30例(单纯腮腺炎组)。检测2组患者血清白细胞介素(interleukin, IL)-2、IL-4、IL-6、IL-8、IL-10、干扰素γ和肿瘤坏死因子(tumor necrosis factor, TNF)-α的水平。结果合并睾丸炎组患者血清IL-6和TNF-α水平[(6.7±3.5)pg/ml、(43.1±28.2) ng/ml]高于单纯腮腺炎组[(3.2±1.5) pg/ml、(32.5±21.1) ng/ml],2组比较差异有统计学意义。结论腮腺炎病毒感染后血清IL-6和TNF-α高水平可能是参与诱发睾丸炎的始动因素。

  14. Natural and Man-made Antibody Repertories for Antibody Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C eAlmagro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of human, mice and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process.

  15. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide...... linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  16. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...... surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide...... linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate...

  17. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity...... to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  18. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  19. Epidemiological Characteristics Analysis and the Effect of Vaccine Evaluation in Mumps%流行性腮腺炎流行病学特征分析和疫苗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐珊

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨流行性腮腺炎的流行病学特征和疫苗的临床效果。方法从2014年1月~2015年1月广州市海珠区内5所幼儿园共1238例无腮腺炎免疫史,但属于腮腺炎活跃地区的幼儿作为研究对象。根据幼儿家长的意愿将其分为两个小组,其中842例幼儿接受急诊疫苗接种,作为研究组;另外396例幼儿则不愿意接受疫苗接种,作为对比组。在接种两个月后观察两组幼儿的发病率。结果研究组幼儿接种两月后发病率为1.43%(12/842)低于对比组28.54%(113/396),两组治疗效果数据差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论幼儿是腮腺炎的高发年龄,应用腮腺炎疫苗急诊接种能够有效降低幼儿的发病率。%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and clinical vaccine efficacy in mumps. MethodsWithin five kindergartens from January 2014 to January 2015 guangzhou haizhu no history of mumps immunization total 1238 cases,but were active in the region mumps children as research subjects. According to the wishes of the parents of young children wil be divided into two groups,of which 842 cases of children receiving emergency vaccination,as the study group,another 396 cases children were reluctant to accept vaccination as a comparison group. Two months after vaccination was observed incidence of two young children.ResultsChildren study group two months after the onset of vaccination was 1.43%(12/842),significantly lower than the control group 28.54%(113/396),there was a big difference between the two groups effect data,with a statisticaly significant(P< 0.05).Conclusion Mumps is a high age children,the application of emergency vaccination mumps vaccine can effectively reduce the incidence of children.

  20. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  1. Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jordan R; Briney, Bryan S; DeLuca, Samuel L; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Structural flexibility in germline gene-encoded antibodies allows promiscuous binding to diverse antigens. The binding affinity and specificity for a particular epitope typically increase as antibody genes acquire somatic mutations in antigen-stimulated B cells. In this work, we investigated whether germline gene-encoded antibodies are optimal for polyspecificity by determining the basis for recognition of diverse antigens by antibodies encoded by three VH gene segments. Panels of somatically mutated antibodies encoded by a common VH gene, but each binding to a different antigen, were computationally redesigned to predict antibodies that could engage multiple antigens at once. The Rosetta multi-state design process predicted antibody sequences for the entire heavy chain variable region, including framework, CDR1, and CDR2 mutations. The predicted sequences matched the germline gene sequences to a remarkable degree, revealing by computational design the residues that are predicted to enable polyspecificity, i.e., binding of many unrelated antigens with a common sequence. The process thereby reverses antibody maturation in silico. In contrast, when designing antibodies to bind a single antigen, a sequence similar to that of the mature antibody sequence was returned, mimicking natural antibody maturation in silico. We demonstrated that the Rosetta computational design algorithm captures important aspects of antibody/antigen recognition. While the hypervariable region CDR3 often mediates much of the specificity of mature antibodies, we identified key positions in the VH gene encoding CDR1, CDR2, and the immunoglobulin framework that are critical contributors for polyspecificity in germline antibodies. Computational design of antibodies capable of binding multiple antigens may allow the rational design of antibodies that retain polyspecificity for diverse epitope binding.

  2. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup;

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  3. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  5. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia in conjunction with a DAT. This condition may be caused when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This can happen with some autoimmune disorders , such as lupus , with diseases such as ...

  6. 北京市丰台区2005~2010年流行性腮腺炎流行病学分析%Epidemiological Analysis of Mumps cases in Fengtai from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 黄胜天; 张东彦; 王中战

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市丰台流行性腮腺炎的流行特征,为有效控制该病提供科学依据.方法 采用描述性流行病学分析方法对2005~2010年丰台区流行性腮腺炎发病情况进行分析.结果 2005~2010年共发生流行性腮腺炎病例3 093例,年均发病率35.71/10万.患者男女比例为1.75:1.城市农村地区发病明显高于城镇地区;全年均有发病,季节高峰主要位于7月;人群发病主要集中在4~7岁,年龄别发病率峰值明显下降;病例主要分布在学生、托幼儿童和散居儿童3个人群中,占83.35%.共发生暴发疫情3起,均发生于学校.结论 丰台区流行性腮腺炎的发病特征近年来变化不大,流行性腮腺炎疫苗的成功率和免疫持久性都不高,可能是疫情高发的主要原因,做好常规疫苗的接种工作和学校的疫情防控工作是控制流行性腮腺炎发病的关键.%OBJECTIVE To understand the character and regulation of mumps cases in Fengtai Distract in Beijing, and provide evidence for its prevention and control. METHODS The data of mumps cases in Fengtai District during 2005-2010 was accepted and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 3 093 mumps cases occurred, and the average incidence was 35.71/100 000. Male to female ratio was 1.75 : 1. The incidence in village was obviously higher than that in city. There were mumps cases all the year and the peak was in July. People aged 4—7 years old had the peak incidence, and the highest peak of incidence reduced. The professional distribution mainly concentrates on kids, cared-children and pupil, and accounted for 83.35%. There were 3 epidemic events, and all occurred in primary schools. CONCLUSION The character and regulation of mumps cases in Fengtai Distract didn't change a lot. The reason for mumps high incidence maybe related to the low vaccine success rate and immune permanence. The key factor of mumps prevention and control should be the excellent work of vaccination and prevention in

  7. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  8. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the ...

  9. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome? Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody ... weeks or months. This condition is called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). People who have APS also are at ...

  10. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  11. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery...

  12. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Adams, Gregory P.; Weiner, Louis M.; Scott, Jamie K.; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Bi...

  13. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the uni

  14. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  15. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin.

  16. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic......More and more antibody therapeutics are being approved every year, mainly due to their high efficacy and antigen selectivity. However, it is still difficult to identify the antigen, and thereby the function, of an antibody if no other information is available. There are obstacles inherent...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  18. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  19. Concurrent influenza vaccination reduces anti-FVIII antibody responses in murine hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jesse D; Moorehead, Paul C; Sponagle, Kate; Steinitz, Katharina N; Reipert, Birgit M; Hough, Christine; Lillicrap, David

    2016-06-30

    Inflammatory signals such as pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns have been hypothesized as risk factors for the initiation of the anti-factor VIII (FVIII) immune response seen in 25% to 30% of patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). In these young patients, vaccines may be coincidentally administered in close proximity with initial exposure to FVIII, thereby providing a source of such stimuli. Here, we investigated the effects of 3 vaccines commonly used in pediatric patients on FVIII immunogenicity in a humanized HA murine model with variable tolerance to recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII). Mice vaccinated intramuscularly against the influenza vaccine prior to multiple infusions of rhFVIII exhibited a decreased incidence of rhFVIII-specific neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. Similar findings were observed with the addition of an adjuvant. Upon exposure to media from influenza- or FVIII-stimulated lymph node or splenic lymphocytes, naïve CD4(+) lymphocytes preferentially migrated toward media from influenza-stimulated cells, indicating that antigen competition, by means of lymphocyte recruitment to the immunization site, is a potential mechanism for the observed decrease in FVIII immunogenicity. We also observed no differences in incidence or titer of rhFVIII-specific antibodies and inhibitors in mice exposed to the live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine regardless of route of administration. Together, our results suggest that concomitant FVIII exposure and vaccination against influenza does not increase the risk of inhibitor formation and may in fact decrease anti-FVIII immune responses. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Epidemiology of mumps in Changping district in Beijing,2007-2010%2007-2010年北京市昌平区流行性腮腺炎流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 苑新海; 王海红

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市昌平区流行性腮腺炎(流腮)流行病学特征.方法 利用描述性研究方法,对中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统中报告的流腮病例进行分析.结果 2007 -2010年北京市昌平区共发生流腮病例1196例,年平均发病率为40.59/10万.发病主要集中在2~8岁,占全部病例的67.14%,5岁组发病率最高;发病有明显地区聚集性,回龙观镇、东小口镇和北七家镇等流动人口聚集的城乡结合部发病较高;以学生和托幼儿童发病为主,占全部病例的73.41%;病例发病集中在5-8月;有免疫史发病占66.05%;针对是否发生发热、腮腺疼痛、头痛、双侧腮腺肿大、并发症以及发热和病程持续时间,不同免疫史病例间差异有统计学意义.结论 应加强监测,提高实验室检测能力.腮腺炎疫苗即使不能阻止发病但对减轻流腮临床症状可能有一定作用,同时应对腮腺炎疫苗效力进行深入研究.%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Changping in Beijing and provide scientific evidence for the control and prevention of mumps. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of mumps in Changping collected from national disease reporting information system from 2007 to 2010.. Results A total of 1196 mumps cases occurred in Changping from 2007 to 2010 with the average annual incidence of 40. 59/lakh. Most cases were in age group of 2 - 8 years, accounting for 67. 14% of the total. The incidence in age group of 5 years was highest; The area clustering of the disease was obvious, the incidences were high in townships of Huilongguan, Dongxiaokou and Beiqijia located in zone joining town and country where large number of floating population lived.. Students and children in child care settings were affected mostly, the cases among them accounted for 73.41%. The disease mainly occurred during May-August in a year. The cases in

  1. Analysis on epidemic situation of mumps in Pinggu district of Beijing in 2011%2011年北京市平谷区流行性腮腺炎疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常秀兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市平谷区流行性腮腺炎(以下简称流腮)疫情流行病学特征,为制定或调整预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 应用描述流行病学方法,分析2011年平谷区流腮发病情况.结果 2011年全区共报告流腮病例98例,平均罹患率为25.16/10万.全年均有发病,5和6月发病较多,占全年病例总数的34.69%;男性报告发病数高于女性(1.51∶1);以1~15岁儿童发病为主,托幼机构儿童发病率最高,为411.8/10万;城区发病高于农村,占全部病例的46.94%.结论 该区2011年流腮发病较2010年有所上升,应加强流腮疫情监测,建立综合免疫策略,严格落实各项预防控制措施,是控制流腮流行的关键.%[ Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Pinggu District of Beijing, provide the scientific basis for development and adjustment of prevention and control measures. [Methods]The epidemic data of mumps in Pinggu district in 2011 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. [Results]A total of 98 mumps cases were reported in Pinggu district in 2011, and the average attack rate was 25.16/lakh. The cases were reported in the whole year, and 34.69% occurred in May and June, which was the peak season. The number of male cases was more than that of female cases (1.51' 1). Most of patients were children aged 1 -15 years old. The incidence rate of nursing children was the highest (411.8/lakh}. The number of cases in urban area was more than that in rural area, which accounted for 46.94% of total cases. [ Conclusion]The incidence rate of mumps in Pinggu district in 2011 has increased as compared to 2010. It is essential to strengthen the epidemic surveillance of mumps, establish the compositive immunization strategy, and implement the prevention and control measures, to control the mumps.

  2. How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed.

  3. Antibody response in Heterodontus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, G W; Erickson, B W; Lederman, L; Mäkelä, O

    1982-05-28

    Appropriately selected phylogenetic models are capable of providing insight into genetic mechanisms which may have become obscured during the passage of evolutionary time. In higher vertebrates a complex multigenic family encodes immunoglobulin-variable regions. The mechanisms involved in the expansion of the gene family and the stable maintenance of large numbers of individual genes presently are not understood. By defining the nature of antibody diversity in lower vertebrate species, it may be possible to approach such issues at a more fundamental level. Analyses of the immunoglobulins in Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a representative phylogenetically primitive elasmobranch, indicate that this species may represent a useful developmental model.

  4. The antibody Hijikata Tatsumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éden Peretta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considered one of the most influential modern dance representatives in Japan, Tatsumi Hijikata’s work was a milestone in the Japanese post-war experimental artistic scene. Heretic son of his time, he staged a fertile mix of artistic and cultural influences, overlapping subversive elements of European arts and philosophy with radical references from pre-modern Japanese culture. In this way he built the foundations of its unstable antibody, its political-artistic project of dissolution of a organism, both physical and social.

  5. 230例儿童流行性腮腺炎临床分析%Clinical analysis of 230 cases of children mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭熙英; 努尔古丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the mumps cases in patients and discuss the method of prevention and cure,provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods Description epidemiology was used to analyzed the epidemiological characteristics,clinical characteristics.The treatment outcome were analyzed in 230 mumps cases from April 2009 to March 2009.Result 230 patients had fever and with bilateral or unilateral parotid gland enlargement.56 cases had headache (24.3%),nausea,vomiting.10 cases (4.3%) had abdominal pain (4.3%).Testicular swelling in 2 cases (0.9%).18 patients complicated with central nervous system infection (7.8%).2 cases (0.9%) had orchitis,10 cases had acute pancreatitis (4.3%).Conclusions 5-10 years children are high risk population.Patients complicated with central nervous system infection,orchitis and pancreatitis.Timely and effective vaccination are the basic measures to prevent the disease.%目的 分析流行性腮腺炎患者的临床表现和流行病学特征,并探讨其防治方法,为防治该病提供依据.方法 利用描述流行病学的方法对2009年3月-2012年4月收治的230例流行性腮腺炎患者的流行病学特征、临床特点及治疗转归进行分析.结果 230例患者均有发热且伴双侧或单侧腮腺肿大.56例出现头痛(占24.3%),恶心、呕吐10例(占4.3%),腹痛10例(占4.3%),睾丸肿胀2例(占0.9%).18例并发中枢神经系统感染(占7.8%),睾丸炎2例(占0.9%),胰腺炎10例(占4.3%).结论患者以5-10岁居多(占72%);发病季节以冬春季3-5月为主;230例中有并发症32例,并发症多为中枢神经系统感染(7.8%,18/230),其次为睾丸炎和胰腺炎.经积极抗病毒和对症治疗后,所有病例均治愈.结论 流行性腮腺炎患者以5-10岁发病为主,患者易并发中枢神经系统感染、睾丸炎和胰腺炎,及时有效的接种疫苗是预防该病的根本措施.

  6. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  7. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, D.M. (Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Newark, NJ (US))

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas.

  8. Addressing issues of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination decision-making: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Depping, Miriam K; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-09-02

    Whether or not to vaccinate one's child is one of the first health-related decisions parents have to make after their child's birth. For the past 20 years, the share of parents choosing not to immunize their children has increased in many countries, for various reasons. Among these, rumors affirming that vaccinations contain dangerous chemicals or might trigger severe chronic diseases have negatively affected parental attitudes towards pediatric immunizations, particularly the vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), raising a number of public health concerns. The primary aim of this qualitative study is to understand what drives parents' decision, giving special attention to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in such a context. Twenty individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Canton of Ticino (Switzerland) between January and June 2014. Participants were either mothers or fathers of children less than 1 year old living in Switzerland. An inductive thematic analysis was performed to identify the main themes with regard to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision-making. Parents' reports yielded four main themes: (a) the paradox of the free choice, referring to the misinterpretation of current vaccination policies; (b) giving up the power, pointing at the outcomes of a low perceived competence; (c) a far-reaching decision, reflecting the importance attributed to the MMR choice and the different levels of impact the decision can have; (d) the demand for shared-decision making, referring to the parental needs in relation to the child's healthcare provider. Understanding what drives parents' management of their children's immunization schedule in terms of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment can help health professionals to communicate more effectively with parents in order to facilitate an informed decision, and stakeholders to design tailored health education

  9. Human anti-mouse antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, G G

    2000-06-01

    Human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) are human immunoglobulins with specificity for mouse immunoglobulins. This topic currently is of interest because of the increased use of monoclonal mouse antibodies as diagnostic reagents both for in vitro laboratory measurements and for in vivo imaging studies. Monoclonal mouse antibodies also are being used therapeutically. This short article reviews the production of HAMA in patients receiving monoclonal antibodies and illustrates the potential ways that HAMA can interfere with immunoassay measurements. Methods for measuring and neutralizing HAMA also are discussed.

  10. Antibodies against antibodies: immunogenicity of adalimumab as a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schouwenburg, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Upon repeated adalimumab exposure part of the patients start to produce ADA. The antibody response is polyclonal and consists mainly of antibodies of IgG1 and IgG4 isotype. In the majority of ADA positive patients ADA are already produced within the first 28 weeks of treatment and in part of the pat

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses.

  12. 流行性腮腺炎合并脑膜炎和睾丸炎9例的护理%9 cases of mumps with meningitis and orchitis nursing experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车辉

    2012-01-01

      Objective To summary the nursing methods of mumps with meningitis and orchitis,in order to improve the quality of care,reduce patients' complications,and recover as soon as possible. Methods 9 cases of mumps with meningitis and orchitis were selected and retrospectively analyzed. Results This study had no nursing complication,the recovery percentage was 100%. Conclusion For nurses,early isolate the patients,early plan care programs,and early find if the patients have complications,careful symptomatic treatment,will be helpful for patients’rehabilitation.%  目的总结9例流行性腮腺炎合并脑膜炎和睾丸炎的护理方法,以提高护理质量,减少护理并发症,尽早治愈出院。方法对9例流行性腮腺炎合并脑膜炎和睾丸炎患者的护理进行回顾性分析。结果所有病例均未发生并发症,100%治愈出院。结论本病应尽早隔离、尽早制定护理方案,尽早发现患者有无并发症发生,精心护理,对症处理。

  13. New engineered antibodies against prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrlj, Nives; Dolinar, Marko

    2014-01-01

    A number of recently developed and approved therapeutic agents based on highly specific and potent antibodies have shown the potential of antibody therapy. As the next step, antibody-based therapeutics will be bioengineered in a way that they not only bind pathogenic targets but also address other issues, including drug targeting and delivery. For antibodies that are expected to act within brain tissue, like those that are directed against the pathogenic prion protein isoform, one of the major obstacles is the blood-brain barrier which prevents efficient transfer of the antibody, even of the engineered single-chain variants. We recently demonstrated that a specific prion-specific antibody construct which was injected into the murine tail vein can be efficiently transported into brain tissue. The novelty of the work was in that the cell penetrating peptide was used as a linker connecting both specificity-determining domains of the antibody peptide, thus eliminating the need for the standard flexible linker, composed of an arrangement of three consecutive (Gly4Ser) repeats. This paves the road toward improved bioengineered antibody variants that target brain antigens. PMID:23941991

  14. Pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J. E.; de Groot, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy in association with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The pathogenic mechanisms in APS that lead to in vivo injury are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests that AP

  15. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  16. Antibodies and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, R; Ramasamy, M; Yasawardena, S

    There is considerable interest in using merozoite proteins in a vaccine against falciparum malaria. Observations that antibodies to merozoite surface proteins block invasion are a basis for optimism. This article draws attention to important and varied aspects of how antibodies to Plasmodium

  17. Educational paper: Primary antibody deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.A. Driessen (Gertjan); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrimary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most common primary immunodeficiencies and are characterized by a defect in the production of normal amounts of antigen-specific antibodies. PADs represent a heterogeneous spectrum of conditions, ranging from often asymptomatic selective IgA a

  18. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  19. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive...... and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...

  20. Analysis of epidemic characteristics of mumps in Ankang city during 2005-2013%安康市2005-2013年流行性腮腺炎疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华英

    2014-01-01

    objective to understand the epidemic characteristics of Ankang city and the incidence trend of mumps in recent 10 years, and provide basis for the prevention and control of epidemic parotitis. Methods: al the data were processed by EXCEL software, to describe the incidence and distribution of three mumps. Results 9674 cases were reported in Ankang during 2005-2013 epidemic parotitis, died in 2 cases, including 816 cases of 0-4 years old the incidence of 1048 cases, 5-9 4224 cases, 10-14 years of age at onset of disease in 3051 cases, 15-19 535 cases, patients aged above 20 years old the incidence. Is the report public health emergencies caused by mumps outbreak in 16, al of which occurred in school 10, primary school, middle school 6. Serious impact on children's physical and mental health, disturbed the normal teaching order of the school.Conclusion the age group of 5-14 years old is the peak incidence of mumps, early prevention and control mumps epidemic prevention work of the school is the outbreak of communicable diseases.%目的:了解安康市近10年来流行性腮腺炎的流行特征和发病趋势,为本市防控流行性腮腺炎提供依据。方法所有数据用EXCEL软件进行处理分析,描述腮腺炎发病情况和三间分布。结果安康市2005-2013年报告流行性腮腺炎9674例,死亡2例,其中0-4岁发病1048例、5-9岁发病4224例、10-14岁发病3051例、15-19岁发病535例、20岁以上发病816例。共报告因流行性腮腺炎疫情引起的突发公共卫生事件16起,全部发生在学校,其中小学10起、中学6起,严重影响了少年儿童的身心健康,干扰了学校的正常教学秩序。结论5-14岁年龄组是流行性腮腺炎发病的最高峰,早期预防和控制流行性腮腺炎疫情是防止学校传染病暴发流行的重点工作。

  1. Analysis of epidemic characteristics of mumps in Ankang city during 2005-2013%安康市2005-2013年流行性腮腺炎疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华英

    2014-01-01

    to understand the epidemic characteristics of Ankang city and the incidence trend of mumps in recent 10 years, and provide basis for the prevention and control of epidemic parotitis. Methods: al the data were processed by EXCEL software, to describe the incidence and distribution of three mumps. Results 9674 cases were reported in Ankang during 2005-2013 epidemic parotitis, died in 2 cases, including 816 cases of 0-4 years old the incidence of 1048 cases, 5-9 4224 cases, 10-14 years of age at onset of disease in 3051 cases, 15-19 535 cases, patients aged above 20 years old the incidence. Is the report public health emergencies caused by mumps outbreak in 16, al of which occurred in school 10, primary school, middle school 6. Serious impact on children's physical and mental health, disturbed the normal teaching order of the school.Conclusion the age group of 5-14 years old is the peak incidence of mumps, early prevention and control mumps epidemic prevention work of the school is the outbreak of communicable diseases.%了解安康市近10年来流行性腮腺炎的流行特征和发病趋势,为本市防控流行性腮腺炎提供依据。方法所有数据用EXCEL软件进行处理分析,描述腮腺炎发病情况和三间分布。结果安康市2005-2013年报告流行性腮腺炎9674例,死亡2例,其中0-4岁发病1048例、5-9岁发病4224例、10-14岁发病3051例、15-19岁发病535例、20岁以上发病816例。共报告因流行性腮腺炎疫情引起的突发公共卫生事件16起,全部发生在学校,其中小学10起、中学6起,严重影响了少年儿童的身心健康,干扰了学校的正常教学秩序。结论5-14岁年龄组是流行性腮腺炎发病的最高峰,早期预防和控制流行性腮腺炎疫情是防止学校传染病暴发流行的重点工作。

  2. 2009~2013年重庆市巫山县流行性腮腺炎流行特征分析%Analysis of Epidemic Characteristics of Mumps in Wushan County during 2009~2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 李承炎

    2015-01-01

    目的通过了解2009~2013年巫山县流行性腮腺炎流行特征,为提出下一步防控措施提出依据。方法选取《中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统》2009~2013年网络直报流行性腮腺炎数据库资料,用描述流行病学分析方法分析巫山县流腮的流行病学特征。结果2009~2013年全县共报告流腮1536例,无死亡病例,年平均发病率62.86/10万,累积报告病例数<占法定传染病总数的13.26%,占丙类传染病总数的28.43%,居丙类传染病第2位。全年每月均有发病,主要集中在3~7月。男女发病率性别比为1.4:1。发病以学生为主,占73.24%,其次为幼托儿童和散居儿童,分别为19.21%和3.39%。结论我县流腮疫情季节性明显,发病高峰呈春、冬季双峰,发病年龄主要集中于10岁以下儿童,职业主要为学生和幼托儿童。%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wushan county during 2009~2013, and to provide evidence for put ing forward further prevention and control measures. Methods Select"China information system for disease surveil ance and 2009~ 2013 network for mumps database data, with the description epidemiology analysis methods to analyze home epidemiological characteristics of epidemic parotitis mumps.Results 2009~2013 County 1536 mumps cases were reported, no deaths, the average annual incidence rate of 62.86/10 mil ion, the cumulative number of reported cases of legal infectious diseases accounted for about 13.26%, accounting for 28.43 of the total number of class C infectious diseases, in class C infectious diseases, second. The annual monthly incidence, mainly concentrated in the 3~7 month. The incidence of male and female sex ratio for 1.4:1. The incidence of student-centered, accounting for 73.24%, fol owed by preschool children and scat ered children, respectively 19.21% and 3.39%. Conclusion Our county mumps epidemic significant seasonal incidence peak in

  3. Survey and analysis of 197 cases of mumps in a primary school in Xi’ an%西安市某小学197例流行性腮腺炎疫情调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路军梅; 庄稼; 高路; 于学文; 王春莉; 孙朝阳

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析流行性腮腺炎的流行病学分布,探讨流行性腮腺炎的各项防控措施,对防控效果进行初步评价,为下一步的防控工作提供科学依据。方法收集2011年10月至12月西安市某小学流行性腮腺炎病例资料,进行流行病学调查,制定控制措施。结果全校2450例学生中197例发病,发病率为8.05%。发病率从高至低依次为三年级14.94%、二年级10.38%、一年级7.88%、五年级6.56%、六年级5.45%、四年级3.65%。2007例接种了腮腺炎疫苗的66例学生本次发病,占发病人数的33.5%,发病率为3.28%;443例未接种腮腺炎疫苗的131例学生本次发病,占发病人数的66.5%,发病率为29.8%,发病率显著高于已接种疫苗的学生(χ2=339.00,P<0.05)。在采取了消毒、隔离、接种疫苗等措施后再无新增病例,197例患者痊愈,疫情得到有效控制。结论制定合理及时有效的防控措施非常重要。%Objective To analyze the epidemiology of mumps, explore the measures and assess the results of control and prevention, so as to provide scientific evidence for further work.Methods The cases of mumps were collected in a primary school from October to December in 2011, and their epidemiologic features were studied to make measures for control and prevention.Results Among 2 450 students, 197 pupils were found with mumps, and the incidence was 8.05%.The incidence was 14.94%, 10.38%, 7.88%, 6.56%, 5.45% and 3.65%, respectively in grade 3, 2, 1, 5, 6, 4.There were 66 ( 33.5%) infected pupils in 2 007 ones who had inoculated mumps vaccine, and the incidence was 3.28%.Among the students not receiving mumps vaccine, 131 ( 66.5%) were infected, and the incidence was 29.8%, which was significantly higher than that in vaccinated students (χ2 =339.00, P<0.05).No new patient was found after taking measures of disinfection, isolation and vaccination.All of 197

  4. Antibodies to Phospholipids and Liposomes: Binding of Antibodies to Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    LIPOSOMES: BINDING OF ANTIBODIES TO CELLS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W.E. FOGLER , G. M. SWARTZ, AND C.R. ALVING 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...Elsevier BBA 73693 Antibodies to phospholipids and liposomes: binding of antibodies to cells William E. Fogler *, Glenn M. Swartz, Jr. and Carl R. Alving...Immunol. 21. Research Associateship from the U.S. National 12863-86812Hall. T. and Esser, K. (1984) 3. Immunol. 132. 2059-2063 Research Council. 13 Fogler

  5. Simultaneous expression of displayed and secreted antibodies for antibody screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanping Zhou

    Full Text Available The display of full-length antibody on the cell surface was achieved by fusing a transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR to the C-terminus of the heavy chain constant region. We also incorporated a furin cleavage site between the constant region and PDGFR transmembrane domain to obtain secreted antibodies. As a result, antibodies can be expressed simultaneously on the cell surface in a membrane-anchored version for screening and selecting through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis, as well as in conditioned medium in a secreted version for function analysis.

  6. Attitudinal and Demographic Predictors of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Uptake during the UK Catch-Up Campaign 2008–09: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Fraser, Graham; Ramsay, Mary; Shanley, Ruth; Cowley, Noel; van Wijgerden, Johan; Toff, Penelope; Falconer, Michelle; Hudson, Michael; Green, John; Kroll, J. Simon; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008–09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. Design Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. Setting and Participants 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5–18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008–09 UK catch-up started. Main Outcome Measures Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s), and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up). Results Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09–2.87) and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68–0.89) were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18–10.05), whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57–35.97). Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. Conclusions Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised), whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised). Older children may be

  7. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  8. 流行性腮腺炎合并睾丸炎患者血睾酮水平的变化%Blood testosterone levels of patients with mumps orchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华; 管珊; 刘晶晶; 李庆彦; 崔霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of the mumps virus on testicular function and evaluate the value of blood testosterone in acute orchitis condition and prognosis by observing the testosterone levels of peripheral blood in the mumps orchitis patients.Methods Thirty patients with acute mumps orchitis (mumps orchitis group)and 28 patients with mumps only without any major complications (mumps group)were enrolled in the study.At the same time,we selected 20 healthy males in our hospital as healthy controls.All cases were treated by ribavirin (10mg/kg). The testosterone was tested by chemiluminescence method,in 0,7,14 days respectively.The variance analysis and LSD -t test were used to compare differences of blood testosterone in each group,and Pearson method was used to analyze the correlation of blood testosterone and testicular swelling day times,blood amylase,level of neutrophils,IL -6 and CRP.Results The testosterone of acute orchitis [(1.51 ±0.26)ng/mL]was lower than mumps group and healthy controls.The difference was significant(F =99.36,P <0.01).The level of blood testosterone was significantly increased in the treatment for 14 days (t =13.03,P <0.01),and there was no significant difference compared with healthy controls (t =1.23,P =1.23).Pearson correlation analysis found that blood testosterone levels were negatively correlated with the days of testicular swelling,the levels of IL -6 and CRP(r =0.678,P <0.01 and r =0.528,P =0.000;r =0.442,P =0.000).Conclusion This study showed that MuV infection inhibited testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells.In other words,the level of blood testosterone is related to the severity of the orchitis,which can be widely used in clinical.%目的:观察流行性腮腺炎(简称腮腺炎)并发急性睾丸炎患者外周血睾酮水平,探讨腮腺炎病毒对睾丸功能影响,评价血睾酮在急性睾丸炎病情及预后中的价值。方法选择58例腮腺炎病例,其中合并睾丸炎30

  9. US findings in uncomplicated and complicated postpubertal mumps; L'ecografia nella diagnosi della parotite epidermica post-puberale e delle sue complicanze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarantino, L.; Giorgio, A.; De Stefano, G.; Farella, N. [Azienda Ospedaliera D. Cotugno, Naples (Italy). Servizio di Ecografia ed Ecointerventistica

    2000-06-01

    The main purpose of this work is to to assess the yield of US in the study of salivary glands and other organs involved in post-pubertal mumps. 68 patients with serologically prove post-pubertal mums (age range 14-34 years) were examined. All patients were symptomatic, with fever and salivary gland swelling in 25 cases, marked hyperamylasemia in 32, epigastric pain in 9, unilateral scrotal swelling and/or pain in 19 cases and acute bronchitis in 1 case. All patients underwent US of salivary glands, neck lymph nodes, abdomen and scrotum with 48 hours of admission. Salivary glands: Parotid and submandibular glands showed normal echotexture in all patients. The parotid glands also showed multiple hypoechoic intraparenchymal lymph nodes which were, ovoid or rounded, with smooth margins and a central hyper echoic area, with diameter ranging 3-14 mm (mean 5,4). No intraparenchymal lymph nodes were observed in submandibular glands were observed in submandibular glands. Neck: All patients had enlarged submandibular lymph nodes (maximum diameter ranging 5-22 mm; mean 11 mm); swelling was always bilateral and it was symmetric in 19/68 patients (30%) versus asymmetric because of prevailing right side involvement (more numerous and bigger nodes) in the other 47/68 cases (70%). All lymph nodes showed a benign pattern, with an ovoid or elongated shape, homogeneous hypoechoic echotexture and a hyper echoic hilum. Abdomen: The pancreas shoed normal volume and normal parenchymal echotexture in all patients. Liver and spleen were always normal. Testes: US showed mild unilateral hydrocele in 10 cases, hydrocele and unilateral swelling of epidymis in 5 cases, hydrocele and swelling of epidymis in 5 cases, hydrocele and swelling of both epidymis and didymis with inhomogeneous echotexture because of intraparenchymal hypoechoic areas in 2 cases. There were no US changes in 2 cases. US of the salivary glands shows a specific pattern in post-pubertal mumps which has never been reported for

  10. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  11. Antibodies to watch in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, ar...

  12. Evolution of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviskar, Rutuja R; Amonkar, Gayathri P; Chaudhary, Vinod A; Balasubramanian, Meenakshi; Mohite, Shailesh C; Puranik, Gururaj V

    2012-12-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a very important cause of cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, and repeated pregnancy losses in women. We present an extremely rare case of a 44-year-old man with antiphospholipid syndrome who collapsed and died suddenly. At autopsy, he was found to have both cerebral and myocardial infarction. In all young patients with cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, recurrent miscarriages, and unexplained low platelet count, one must consider the strong possibility of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  13. 226例流行性腮腺炎流行病学与临床特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiology and Clinical Features of 226 Cases of Mumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文莉; 刘华平; 姚红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨流行性腮腺炎患者的流行特点及临床特征. 方法 在荆州市中心医院2010年10月1日-2011年9月30日门诊或住院部就诊的226例流行性腮腺炎患者为研究对象,回顾性分析其流行病学和临床特征. 结果 226例患者中年龄集中在6~14岁(83.19%),以小学高年级学生居多;自从疫情出现后每月都有散发,但以1月的冬季、5月和6月份的春末夏初居多;男性患者多于女性患者,男女比例为1.43∶1;城镇发病率占87.17%高于农村12.83%;临床上以腮腺肿痛、发热、头痛、食欲不佳、乏力等为主要症状,并发症发生率为12.39%.病程9~14 d. 结论 加强腮腺炎的监测和传染源管理有利于疫情的及时控制.%Objective To explore the epidemic and clinical characteristics of mumps. Methods Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of 226 mumps cases, including outpatients or inpatients in Jingzhou Central Hospital from October 1, 2010 to September 30, 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 226 cases, 83.19% were senior primary students aged between 6 and 14 years. The sporadic cases distributed every month since the outbreak appeared, but most of the cases mainly developed during winter (in January) or spring and early summer (from May to June). Male cases outweighed female cases, and the male - female ratio was 1.43: 1. The incidence rate of cases in urban areas (87.17 %) was higher than that in rural areas (12.83%). The main clinical symptoms included parotid gland swelling, fever, headache, poor appetite and fatigue. The incidence rate of complications was 12.39% . The course of disease lasted from 9 to 14 days. Conclusions Strengthening mumps surveillance and source of infection has positive effects on controlling epidemics spreading at the early stage.

  14. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  15. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo

    2014-10-09

    SUMMARY: Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http://www.biocomputing.it/tabhu CONTACT: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it, pierpaolo.olimpieri@uniroma1.it SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. [HLA genetic markers and auto-antibody profile in a Mapuche family with a case affected of type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Sylvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Pérez, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is caused by an autoimmune process that destroys beta cells of pancreas. Not all carriers of susceptible HLA genes and positive for autoantibodies develop the disease. Environmental factors play a role in triggering the autoimmune process. To analyze an exceptional case of DM1 in a Mapuche family in the context of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. A study of a family with an affected female child was carried out in a Mapuche community in Southern Chile (VIII region). This is an unique and sporadic DM1 case with Mapuche heritage. Nutritional and viral infections data were collected by interview and clinical records. A genetic analysis by PCR was done to detect class I and II HLA genes by reverse dot blot. The proband, her mother and sister had positive islet cell antibodies (ICA). Her father and brother were negative. All thefamily was positive for anti glutamic decarboxylase antibodies (GAD65). All subjects had HLA-DRB1 0407/0407 and HLA-DQB1 0302/0302 alleles. The index case and her father were homozygotes for the HLA-A1:A*68012/A*68012 allele. Mean breastfeeding lapse was 18 months in all children. No evidences for viral infections such as rubella, mumps or measles were found in this family. There was an altered profile of autoantibodies in the family of the index case. All genotypes were comparable with the European population where the diabetogenic combination DR4/DQB1*0302 is the most prevalent. No environmental factors could be incriminated as triggers of the disease.

  17. 广州市荔湾区2009-2013年流行性腮腺炎流行病学特征分析%Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of mumps from 2009 to 2013 in Liwan District,Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾祥越; 何国宽; 梁志钦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of mumps from 2009 to 2013 in Liwan District and provide scientific basis to make out prevention and control measures for the disease.Methods Descriptive epidemiology method was used to analysis the date for epidemiological mumps collected from this area from 2009 to 2013.Results A to-tal of 1 332 mumps cases were reported from 2009 to 2013 in Liwan District,with an average annual incidence of 29.93 /105 .Outbreaks occurred at 22 streets all the year round and even more frequently in summer.Among these cases,most were children and teenagers age 0-14 years,students and pupils occupied 38.06%,the ratio between male and female was 1.89 ∶1.The non-vaccinated with mumps contained vaccines without immune history and uncertain cases accounted for 72.75% in all reported cases,but the vaccinated with mumps contained vaccines for 27.25%,the cases were vaccinated two doses mumps contained vaccines accounted for 2.75%.Conclusion The incidence of mumps had decreased in 2013 in Liwan District.Students and young children were major infected targets.Mumps vaccine should be put into the entry im-munization work in begining of initial going to school or kindergarten.All the children should be inoculated the second dose of mumps contained vaccines in 4 years age,in order to build an effective immune barrier.%目的:为了解荔湾区2009—2013年流行性腮腺炎的流行病学特征及规律,以便更好制定流行性腮腺炎防制措施提供科学依据。方法对2009—2013年荔湾区报告的流行性腮腺炎发病情况进行描述流行病学分析。结果2009—2013年荔湾区共报告流行性腮腺炎1332例,年平均发病率为29.93/10万;全区22个街道都有病例发生;全年12个月均有病例发生,呈夏季高发态势;发病主要集中在0~14岁儿童和青少年,学生占38.06%;男女比例为1.89∶1;无流行性腮腺炎疫苗免疫史

  18. Validating Antibodies to the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor: Antibody Sensitivity Is Not Evidence of Antibody Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalant, Yannick; Brownjohn, Philip W; Bonnet, Amandine; Kleffmann, Torsten; Ashton, John C

    2014-06-01

    Antibody-based methods for the detection and quantification of membrane integral proteins, in particular, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have been plagued with issues of primary antibody specificity. In this report, we investigate one of the most commonly utilized commercial antibodies for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor, a GPCR, using immunoblotting in combination with mass spectrometry. In this way, we were able to develop powerful negative and novel positive controls. By doing this, we are able to demonstrate that it is possible for an antibody to be sensitive for a protein of interest-in this case CB2-but still cross-react with other proteins and therefore lack specificity. Specifically, we were able to use western blotting combined with mass spectrometry to unequivocally identify CB2 protein in over-expressing cell lines. This shows that a common practice of validating antibodies with positive controls only is insufficient to ensure antibody reliability. In addition, our work is the first to develop a label-free method of protein detection using mass spectrometry that, with further refinement, could provide unequivocal identification of CB2 receptor protein in native tissues.

  19. Production and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Mukumoto, Mari; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies consist of a mixture of antibodies produced by multiple B-cell clones that have differentiated into antibody-producing plasma cells in response to an immunogen. Polyclonal antibodies raised against an antigen recognize multiple epitopes on a target molecule, which results in a signal amplification in indirect immunoassays including immune-electron microscopy. In this chapter, we present a basic procedure to generate polyclonal antibodies in rabbits.

  20. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015.

  1. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  2. Antibodies to watch in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The transitions of antibody therapeutics to late-stage clinical development, regulatory review and the market are proceeding at a rapid pace in 2013. Since late 2012, two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics (itolizumab, trastuzumab emtansine) received their first approvals, first marketing applications for three mAbs (vedolizumab, ramucirumab, obinutuzumab) were submitted to regulatory agencies, and five mAbs (brodalumab, MABp1, moxetumomab pasudotox, tildrakizumab, rilotumumab) entered their first Phase 3 studies. The current total of commercially-sponsored antibody therapeutics undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies is 30. Recently announced study results for farletuzumab, naptumomab estafenatox, and tabalumab indicate that clinical endpoints were not met in some Phase 3 studies of these product candidates. PMID:23727858

  3. Autologous antibodies that bind neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Sholler, Giselle S; Shukla, Girja S; Pero, Stephanie C; Carman, Chelsea L; Zhao, Ping; Krag, David N

    2015-11-01

    Antibody therapy of neuroblastoma is promising and our goal is to derive antibodies from patients with neuroblastoma for developing new therapeutic antibodies. The feasibility of using residual bone marrow obtained for clinical indications as a source of tumor cells and a source of antibodies was assessed. From marrow samples, neuroblastoma cells were recovered, grown in cell culture and also implanted into mice to create xenografts. Mononuclear cells from the marrow were used as a source to generate phage display antibody libraries and also hybridomas. Growth of neuroblastoma patient cells was possible both in vitro and as xenografts. Antibodies from the phage libraries and from the monoclonal hybridomas bound autologous neuroblastoma cells with some selectivity. It appears feasible to recover neuroblastoma cells from residual marrow specimens and to generate human antibodies that bind autologous neuroblastoma cells. Expansion of this approach is underway to collect more specimens, optimize methods to generate antibodies, and to evaluate the bioactivity of neuroblastoma-binding antibodies.

  4. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  5. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  6. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  7. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  8. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2017-03-28

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  9. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rochella A; Robinson, John A

    2008-02-01

    The arbitrary division between antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome has not proven useful. Antiphospholipid antibodies in the absence of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome often occur as epiphenomena in many autoimmune diseases. They are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a significant comorbidity in lupus but is uncommon in Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and systemic vasculitis. Evidence is growing that antiphospholipid antibodies may have a pathogenic role in pulmonary hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis of autoimmune diseases.

  10. Mathematical and experimental analyses of antibody transport in hollow-fiber-based specific antibody filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Mariah S; Federspiel, William J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing hollow fiber-based specific antibody filters (SAFs) that selectively remove antibodies of a given specificity directly from whole blood, without separation of the plasma and cellular blood components and with minimal removal of plasma proteins other than the targeted pathogenic antibodies. A principal goal of our research is to identify the primary mechanisms that control antibody transport within the SAF and to use this information to guide the choice of design and operational parameters that maximize the SAF-based antibody removal rate. In this study, we formulated a simple mathematical model of SAF-based antibody removal and performed in vitro antibody removal experiments to test key predictions of the model. Our model revealed three antibody transport regimes, defined by the magnitude of the Damköhler number Da (characteristic antibody-binding rate/characteristic antibody diffusion rate): reaction-limited (Da /= 10). For a given SAF geometry, blood flow rate, and antibody diffusivity, the highest antibody removal rate was predicted for diffusion-limited antibody transport. Additionally, for diffusion-limited antibody transport the predicted antibody removal rate was independent of the antibody-binding rate and hence was the same for any antibody-antigen system and for any patient within one antibody-antigen system. Using SAF prototypes containing immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), we measured anti-BSA removal rates consistent with transport in the intermediate regime (Da approximately 3). We concluded that initial SAF development work should focus on achieving diffusion-limited antibody transport by maximizing the SAF antibody-binding capacity (hence maximizing the characteristic antibody-binding rate). If diffusion-limited antibody transport is achieved, the antibody removal rate may be raised further by increasing the number and length of the SAF fibers and by increasing the blood flow rate through the SAF.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to Treponema Pallidum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. van de Donk; J.D.A. van Embden; M.F. van Olderen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThree successive fusions of mouse myeloma cells and spleen lymphocytes of a mouse immunized with Treponema Pallidum resulted in one hybridoma producing anti T. pallidum antibodies for each fusion. The mice were immunized with live pallidum cells respectively 1, 3 and 5 months before fusi

  12. Antibody Isotype Switching in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Kate; Hackney, Jason; Payandeh, Jian; Zarrin, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    The humoral or antibody-mediated immune response in vertebrates has evolved to respond to diverse antigenic challenges in various anatomical locations. Diversification of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region via isotype switching allows for remarkable plasticity in the immune response, including versatile tissue distribution, Fc receptor binding, and complement fixation. This enables antibody molecules to exert various biological functions while maintaining antigen-binding specificity. Different immunoglobulin (Ig) classes include IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA, which exist as surface-bound and secreted forms. High-affinity autoantibodies are associated with various autoimmune diseases such as lupus and arthritis, while defects in components of isotype switching are associated with infections. A major route of infection used by a large number of pathogens is invasion of mucosal surfaces within the respiratory, digestive, or urinary tract. Most infections of this nature are initially limited by effector mechanisms such as secretory IgA antibodies. Mucosal surfaces have been proposed as a major site for the genesis of adaptive immune responses, not just in fighting infections but also in tolerating commensals and constant dietary antigens. We will discuss the evolution of isotype switching in various species and provide an overview of the function of various isotypes with a focus on IgA, which is universally important in gut homeostasis as well as pathogen clearance. Finally, we will discuss the utility of antibodies as therapeutic modalities.

  13. Pharmacokinetics interactions of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Bellosta, Stefano; Baldessin, Ludovico; Boccia, Donatella; Racagni, Giorgi; Corsini, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The clearance of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) typically does not involve cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated metabolism or interaction with cell membrane transporters, therefore the pharmacokinetics interactions of mAbs and small molecule drugs are limited. However, a drug may affect the clearance of mAbs through the modulation of immune response (e.g., methotrexate reduces the clearance of infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab, possibly due to methotrexate's inhibitory effect on the formation of antibodies against the mAbs). In addition, mAbs that are cytokine modulators may modify the metabolism of drugs through their effects on P450 enzymes expression. For example, cytokine modulators such as tocilizumab (anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) may reverse the "inhibitory" effect of IL-6 on CYP substrates, resulting in a "normalization" of CYP activities. Finally, a drug may alter the clearance of mAbs by either increasing or reducing the levels of expression of targets of mAbs on the cell surface. For instance, statins and fibrates induce PCSK9 expression and therefore increase cellular uptake and clearance of alirocumab and evolocumab, anti-PCSK9 antibodies. In the present review, we will provide an overview on the pharmacokinetics properties of mAbs as related to the most relevant examples of mAbs-small molecule drug interaction.

  14. Development of Antibody Against Sulfamethazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZi-ying; XUWen-ge; LIUYi-bing; ZHANGLi-ling; GUOWei-zheng; HANShi-quan

    2003-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies(PcAbs) against sulfamethazine(SMT) are obtained by immunizing rabbits with SMT-conjugated bovine serum albumin(BSA). The affinity constants (Ka) of the PcAbs are higher than 1×108 and the cross-reactivities with sulfadiazine(SD), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) are lower than 0.05% (R/A).

  15. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 Human IgG Antibody Produced by AnaptysBio, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ECBC-TR-1339 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR ANTIBODY...CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF AN MS2 HUMAN IGG ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY ANAPTYSBIO, INC. DARPA ATP Standardized Test Bed for Antibody...Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 human IgG antibody produced by AnaptysBio DARPA ATP Standardized Test Bed for Antibody

  16. Antibody Engineering for Pursuing a Healthier Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Abdullah F. U. H.; Wang, Rongzhi; Ling, Sumei; Wang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. However, there is limited knowledge regarding dynamic antibody development approaches. Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans.

  17. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  18. 神经内分泌-免疫调节网络参与腮腺炎病毒性脑炎合并胰腺炎分析%Analysis on neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network involved in mumps, viral encephalitis combined with pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦越; 张舒岩; 杨立彬; 张现娥

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and significance of neuroendocrine -immunoregulatory network in children with mumps,viral encephalitis combined with pancreatitis. Methods:The clinical data of 23 children with mumps, viral encephalitis combined with pancreatitis were analyzed, the levels of IL - 1 and TNF - α in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were detected. Results: The levels of IL - 1 and TNF - α in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of children with mumps, viral encephalitis combined with pancreatitis were significantly higher than those in control group. Conclusion: Nerval - immune - endocrine system participates in the pathological process of mumps, viral encephalitis combined with pancreatitis in children, which provides a strong evidence for large - dosage hormonal therapy during the early clinical stage.%目的:探讨神经内分泌一免疫调节网络在儿童腮腺炎病毒性脑炎合并胰腺炎中的作用及意义.方法:对23例腮腺炎病毒性脑炎合并胰腺炎患儿临床病例分析并进行血清及脑脊液中IL-1、TNF-a的水平检测.结果:患儿血清及脑脊液中IL-1、TNF-a的水平明显高于对照组.结论:神经-免疫-内分泌系统参与儿童腮腺炎病毒性脑炎合并胰腺炎的病理过程,为临床上早期给予大剂量激素治疗提供了有力证据.

  19. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  20. Platelet antigens and antibodies. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet antigens structure, role of platelet antibodies in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions, characteristic of modern antibodies detection methods are presented in this article.

  1. [Neuroimmunological diseases associated with VGKC complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels(VGKC) were first identified by radioimmunoassay of radioisotope labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were found only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in Morvan's syndrome and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins(for example LGI-1, Caspr-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. Caspr-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.

  2. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  3. Chemical engineering of cell penetrating antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Lou, D; Burkett, J; Kohler, H

    2001-08-01

    Antibodies, being exquisitely specific tools in biology, are routinely used to detect and identify intra-cellular structures. However, current intra-cellular application of antibodies requires that the membrane be rendered leaky, resulting in the death of cells. Here, we present a novel method to allow antibodies to penetrate the cellular membrane of living cells without affecting cell viability. A peptide (MTS, membrane transport sequence) that facilitates transport across membranes has been site-specifically attached to antibodies. MTS-antibodies enter the living cells in culture and can be detected by immunofluorescence and ELISA after extraction. Cellular structures are visualized in living cells using a specific MTS-antibody. Antibodies with membrane penetrating properties can become an important tool for the study of intra-cellular processes in living cells. Furthermore, such membrane penetrating antibodies can be used to selectively stimulate or suppress functions of the cellular machinery.

  4. The investigation of mumps incidence in children between 7~15 years old of Urumqi in 2013%2013年乌鲁木齐市7~15岁儿童流行性腮腺炎发病情况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新; 金晓菊; 辛秀梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析2013年乌鲁木齐市7~15岁儿童流行性腮腺炎流行病学特征,评价腮腺炎疫苗保护效果。方法采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取1083名7~15岁中小学生为调查对象,采用自行设计的调查问卷,其内容包括儿童基本资料、腮腺炎疫苗接种情况、腮腺炎患病情况及未接种腮腺炎疫苗的原因等。结果调查的1083名调查儿童中腮腺炎接种率为74.4%,腮腺炎患病率为8.86%,其中未接种疫苗腮腺炎患病率为9.74%,接种疫苗者腮腺炎患病率为8.56%;7岁年龄组儿童患病率最高(12.74%),其次为14岁年龄组儿童(11.59%);接种国产疫苗儿童的腮腺炎患病率为8.53%,高于接种进口疫苗儿童的腮腺炎患病率(4.76%)。未接种腮腺炎疫苗的主要原因为“不是免费疫苗,且医护人员也没建议接种”。结论流行性腮腺炎的易感人群为学龄期儿童,疫苗接种率较低,应加强对学龄期7~15岁儿童的疫情监测和预防控制工作,推广腮腺炎疫苗接种工作,防止疫情暴发。%Objective To investigate the mumps incidence in children between 7~15 years old children of Urumqi in 2013,and aims to evaluate the protection effect of mumps vaccine.Methods 1083 primary and secondary school students (7-15 years old)were selected in the survey used the stratified cluster sampling method,we investigate the basic health index,the incidence and diagnostic and vaccination of mumps by using the self-designed questionnaire.Results The coverage of mumps vaccine was 74.4% in the 1083 chil-dren,the incidence of mumps is 8.86%.The prevalence in those child who unvaccinated mumps vaccine and vaccinated mumps vaccine were 9.74% and 8.56%;The 7-years-old age group has the highest preva-lence of mumps (12.74%),followed by 14-years-old age group (11.59%);the mumps incidence of children inoculated with domestic vaccine is 8

  5. Production and Screening of Monoclonal Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Mortensen, Anne; Schiolborg, Annette; Friis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Hybridoma technology is a remarkable and indispensable tool for generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibodies not only serve as powerful research and diagnostic reagents, but have also emerged as the most rapidly expanding class of therapeutic biologicals. In this chapter, an overview of hybridoma technology and the laboratory procedures used routinely for hybridoma production and antibody screening are presented, including characterization of peptide antibodies.

  6. Recombinant bispecific antibodies for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roland E KONTERMANN

    2005-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies can serve as mediators to retarget effector mechanisms to disease-associated sites. Studies over the past two decades have revealed the potentials but also the limitations of conventional bispecific antibodies. The development of recombinant antibody formats has opened up the possibility of generating bispecific molecules with improved properties. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of recombinant bispecific antibodies and discusses further requirements for clinical development.

  7. Engineered single chain antibody fragments for radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhalov, A.; Chester, K. A. [Cancer Research UK Imaging and Targeting Group Royal Free, London (United Kingdom). Department of Oncology; University College Medical School Royal Free Campus, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    An ideal molecule to deliver radioimmunotherapy (RIT) would be target specific and have prolonged residence time at high concentrations in the tumour with rapid clearance from normal tissues. It would also be non-immunogenic. These features can be rationally introduced into recombinant antibody-based proteins using antibody engineering techniques. This reviews focuses on the use of antibody engineering in the design and development of RIT molecules which have single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments as building blocks.

  8. Anti-DNA antibodies in SLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 8 chapters. Some of the titles are: Anti-DNA Antibodies in SLE: Historical Perspective; Specificity of Anti-DNA Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Monoclonial Autoimmune Anti-DNA Antibodies; and Structure--Function Analyses of Anti-DNA Autoantibodies.

  9. Antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxin in laboratory personnel.

    OpenAIRE

    Jozefczyk, Z; Robbins, R N; Spitz, J M; Bergdoll, M S

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-five percent of laboratory personnel working with staphylococcal enterotoxin had antibodies to enterotoxin in their sera, whereas only 23% of the control group had antibodies specific for enterotoxin. Two persons who carried enterotoxin B-producing staphylococci in their noses, throats, or both, had antibodies to enterotoxin B in their sera.

  10. Nanoparticles for the delivery of therapeutic antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Flávia; Castro, Pedro; Fonte, Pedro;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the past two decades, therapeutic antibodies have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of a wide array of diseases. However, the application of antibody-based therapy implies multiple administrations and a high cost of antibody production, resulting in costly therapy...

  11. Antisperm antibodies and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H

    2010-01-01

    To present strategies in diagnosing and treating infertility related to antisperm antibodies. Antisperm antibodies (ASA) were detected on sperm using the direct immunobead (IBD) test. Treatments included intrauterine insemination (IUI) with pretreatment with chymotrypsin/galactose vs. in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Intrauterine insemination with protein digestive enzyme treatment was much more effective than IUI without enzymatic therapy. However IVF with ICSI provided three times the pregnancy rate for males with sperm coated with ASA than IUI with chymotrypsin treated sperm. It is advisable to include measurement for ASA on the initial semen analysis. However, another option is to perform it initially only with an abnormal post-coital test. The decision for IUI with chymotrypsin pretreatment of the sperm vs. IVF with ICSI may depend on insurance and financial issues.

  12. Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Human Nestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ahmadvand, Negah; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Tarahomi, Majid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2010-04-01

    We have employed a peptide-based antibody generation protocol for producing antibody against human nestin. Using a 12-mer synthetic peptide from repetitive region of human nestin protein devoid of any N- or O-glyco-sylation sequences, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody capable of recognizing human, mouse, bovine, and rat nestin. A wide variety of nestin proteins ranging from 140-250 kDa was detected by this antibody. This antibody is highly specific and functional in applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot assays.

  13. Phenotypic screening: the future of antibody discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, Andrea L; Minter, Ralph R; Rust, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Most antibody therapeutics have been isolated from high throughput target-based screening. However, as the number of validated targets diminishes and the target space becomes increasingly competitive, alternative strategies, such as phenotypic screening, are gaining momentum. Here, we review successful phenotypic screens, including those used to isolate antibodies against cancer and infectious agents. We also consider exciting advances in the expression and phenotypic screening of antibody repertoires in single cell autocrine systems. As technologies continue to develop, we believe that antibody phenotypic screening will increase further in popularity and has the potential to provide the next generation of therapeutic antibodies.

  14. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  15. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  16. 9 CFR 113.452 - Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody... REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.452 Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Antibody is a specific antibody product containing antibodies directed against one or more somatic...

  17. Advances in monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na HAN; Shuang HE; Yu-tang WANG; Li-ming YANG; Si-yu LIU; Ting ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a part of daily preparation technologies in many laboratories.Attempts have been made to apply monoclonal antibodies to open a new train of thought for clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases,inflammatory diseases,cancer,and other immune-associated diseases.This paper is a prospective review to anticipate that monoclonal antibody application in the treatment of myocarditis,an inflammatory disease of the heart,could be a novel approach in the future.In order to better understand the current state of the art in monoclonal antibody techniques and advance applications in myocarditis,we,through a significant amount of literature research both domestic and abroad,developed a systematic elaboration of monoclonal antibodies,pathogenesis of myocarditis,and application of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis.This paper presents review of the literature of some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy to demonstrate the advance of monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis and a strong anticipation that monoclonal antibody application may supply an effective therapeutic approach to relieve the severity of myocarditis in the future.Under conventional therapy,myocarditis is typically associated with congestive heart failure as a progressive outcome,indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term results.Reviewing some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis,we recently found that monoclonal antibodies with high purity and strong specificity can accurately act on target and achieve definite progress in the treatment of viral myocarditis in rat model and may meet the need above.However,several issues remain.The technology on howto make a higher homologous and weak immunogenic humanized or human source antibody and the treatment mechanism of monoclonal antibodies may provide solutions for these open issues.If we are to further stimulate

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins of human cells: unique and cross-reacting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, A M; Vogel, A M

    1982-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the intermediate filament proteins of different human cells. The reactivity of these antibodies with the different classes of intermediate filament proteins was determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cultured cells, immunologic indentification on SDS polyacrylamide gels ("wester blot" experiments), and immunoperoxidase assays on intact tissues. The following four antibodies are described: (a) an antivimentin antibody generated against human fibroblast cytoskeleton; (b), (c) two antibodies that recognize a 54-kdalton protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells; and (d) an antikeratin antibody made to stratum corneum that recognizes proteins of molecular weight 66 kdaltons and 57 kdaltons. The antivimentin antibody reacts with vimentin (58 kdaltons), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and keratins from stratum corneum, but does not recognize hepatoma intermediate filaments. In immunofluorescence assays, the antibody reacts with mesenchymal cells and cultured epithelial cells that express vimentin. This antibody decorates the media of blood vessels in tissue sections. One antihepatoma filament antibody reacts only with the 54 kdalton protein of these cells and, in immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase assays, only recognizes epithelial cells. It reacts with almost all nonsquamous epithelium. The other antihepatoma filament antibody is much less selective, reacting with vimentin, GFAP, and keratin from stratum corneum. This antibody decorates intermediate filaments of both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. The antikeratin antibody recognizes 66-kdalton and 57-kdalton proteins in extracts of stratum corneum and also identifies proteins of similar molecular weights in all cells tested. However, by immunofluorescence, this antibody decorates only the intermediate filaments of epidermoid carcinoma cells. When assayed on tissue sections, the antibody reacts with squamous epithelium and some, but not all

  19. Generation of monospecific antibodies based on affinity capture of polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Barbara; Forsström, Björn; Igel, Ulrika; Johannesson, Henrik; Stadler, Charlotte; Lundberg, Emma; Ponten, Fredrik; Sjöberg, Anna; Rockberg, Johan; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter; Johansson, Christine; Uhlén, Mathias

    2011-11-01

    A method is described to generate and validate antibodies based on mapping the linear epitopes of a polyclonal antibody followed by sequential epitope-specific capture using synthetic peptides. Polyclonal antibodies directed towards four proteins RBM3, SATB2, ANLN, and CNDP1, potentially involved in human cancers, were selected and antibodies to several non-overlapping epitopes were generated and subsequently validated by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. For all four proteins, a dramatic difference in functionality could be observed for these monospecific antibodies directed to the different epitopes. In each case, at least one antibody was obtained with full functionality across all applications, while other epitope-specific fractions showed no or little functionality. These results present a path forward to use the mapped binding sites of polyclonal antibodies to generate epitope-specific antibodies, providing an attractive approach for large-scale efforts to characterize the human proteome by antibodies.

  20. Surface activity of a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Senner, Frank; Maeder, Karsten; Mueller, Robert

    2009-12-01

    The development of high concentration antibody formulations presents a major challenge for the formulation scientist, as physical characteristics and stability behavior change compared to low concentration protein formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between surface activity and shaking stress stability of a model antibody-polysorbate 20 formulation. The surface activities of pure antibody and polysorbate 20 were compared, followed by a study on the influence of a model antibody on the apparent critical micelle concentration (CMC) of polysorbate 20 over a protein concentration range from 10 to 150 mg/mL. In a shaking stress experiment, the stability of 10, 75, and 150 mg/mL antibody formulations was investigated containing different concentrations of polysorbate 20, both below and above the CMC. The antibody increased significantly the apparent CMC of antibody-polysorbate 20 mixtures in comparison to the protein-free buffer. However, the concentration of polysorbate required for stabilization of the model antibody in a shaking stress experiment did not show dependence on the CMC. A polysorbate 20 level of 0.005% was found sufficient to stabilize both at low and high antibody concentration against antibody aggregation and precipitation.

  1. Controlled delivery of antibodies from injectable hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Nathan A; Babcock, Lyndsey R; Murray, Ellen A; Krebs, Melissa D

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are currently used for the treatment of various diseases, but large doses delivered systemically are typically required. Localized controlled delivery techniques would afford major benefits such as decreasing side effects and required doses. Injectable biopolymer systems are an attractive solution due to their minimally invasive potential for controlled release in a localized area. Here, alginate-chitosan hydrogels are demonstrated to provide controlled delivery of IgG model antibodies and also of Fab antibody fragments. Also, an alternate delivery system comprised of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with antibodies and encapsulated in alginate was shown to successfully provide another level of control over release. These biopolymer systems that offer controlled delivery for antibodies and antibody fragments will be promising for many applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  2. Antibody response to measles immunization in India*

    OpenAIRE

    Job, J. S.; John, T J; Joseph, A.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody response to measles vaccine was measured in 238 subjects aged 6-15 months. Seroconversion rates ranged from 74% at 6 months of age to 100% at 13-15 months; the differences in age-specific rates were not statistically significant. The postimmunization antibody titres increased with increasing age of the vaccinee. Seroconversion rates and antibody titres in 49 subjects with grades I and II malnutrition were not significantly different from those in the 189 normal subjects.

  3. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Systemic Scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa Oumar Touré

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLs could be associated with an increased risk of vascular pathologies in systemic scleroderma. The aim of our study was to search for APLs in patients affected by systemic scleroderma and to evaluate their involvement in the clinical manifestations of this disease. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study, from January 2009 until August 2010, with patients received at the Department of Dermatology (Dakar, Senegal. Blood samples were taken at the hematology laboratory and were analyzed for the presence of APLs. Results: Forty patients were recruited. Various types of either isolated or associated APLs were found in 23 patients, i.e. 57.5% of the study population. The most frequently encountered antibody was IgG anti-β2 GPI (37.5% of the patients, followed by anticardiolipins (17.5% and lupus anticoagulants (5%. No statistically significant association of positive antiphospholipid-related tests to any of the scleroderma complications could be demonstrated. Conclusion: A high proportion of patients showing association of systemic scleroderma and APLs suggests the presence of a morbid correlation between these 2 pathologies. It would be useful to follow a cohort of patients affected by systemic scleroderma in order to monitor vascular complications following confirmation of the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome.

  4. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  5. 6th Annual European Antibody Congress 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 6th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapinn Ltd., was held in Geneva, Switzerland, which was also the location of the 4th and 5th EAC.1,2 As was the case in 2008 and 2009, the EAC was again the largest antibody congress held in Europe, drawing nearly 250 delegates in 2010. Numerous pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies active in the field of therapeutic antibody development were represented, as were start-up and academic organizations and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The global trends in antibody research and development were discussed, including success stories of recent marketing authorizations of golimumab (Simponi®) and canakinumab (Ilaris®) by Johnson & Johnson and Novartis, respectively, updates on antibodies in late clinical development (obinutuzumab/GA101, farletuzumab/MORAb-003 and itolizumab/T1 h, by Glycart/Roche, Morphotek and Biocon, respectively) and success rates for this fast-expanding class of therapeutics (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development). Case studies covering clinical progress of girentuximab (Wilex), evaluation of panobacumab (Kenta Biotech), characterization of therapeutic antibody candidates by protein microarrays (Protagen), antibody-drug conjugates (sanofi-aventis, ImmunoGen, Seattle Genetics, Wyeth/Pfizer), radio-immunoconjugates (Bayer Schering Pharma, Université de Nantes) and new scaffolds (Ablynx, AdAlta, Domantis/GlaxoSmithKline, Fresenius, Molecular Partners, Pieris, Scil Proteins, Pfizer, University of Zurich) were presented. Major antibody structural improvements were showcased, including the latest selection engineering of the best isotypes (Abbott, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre), hinge domain (Pierre Fabre), dual antibodies (Abbott), IgG-like bispecific antibodies (Biogen Idec), antibody epitope mapping case studies (Eli Lilly), insights in FcγRII receptor (University of Cambridge), as well as novel tools for antibody fragmentation (Genovis). Improvements

  6. Isoimmunization with anti-U antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R J; Holder, W T; McCord, D L

    1984-03-01

    Isoimmunization with anti-U antibody is a rare but significant cause of hemolytic disease in black newborns. In this case report, an lgG antibody stimulated by fetomaternal transfusion produced a positive direct Coombs' test on cord blood but not neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A review of the literature suggests the pathophysiology is similar to Rh isoimmunization. The anti-U antibody may develop as a result of pregnancy or blood transfusion in the 1.2 percent of American blacks who are at risk for developing the antibody. The principles of treatment employed in Rh isoimmunization can be successfully used in isoimmunization due to anti-U.

  7. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development.

  8. Antibody engineering and therapeutics, The Annual Meeting of the Antibody Society: December 8-12, 2013, Huntington Beach, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul W H I; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates.

  9. An efficient method for isolating antibody fragments against small peptides by antibody phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    We generated monoclonal scFv (single chain variable fragment) antibodies from an antibody phage display library towards three small synthetic peptides derived from the sequence of s1-casein. Key difficulties for selection of scFv-phages against small peptides were addressed. Small peptides do....... The scFvs were sequenced and characterized, and specificity was characterized by ELISA. The methods developed in this study are universally applicable for antibody phage display to efficiently produce antibody fragments against small peptides....

  10. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Lokman, C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications

  11. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Lokman, C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications

  12. Antibodies to watch in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    Over 50 investigational monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics are currently undergoing evaluation in late-stage clinical studies, which is expected to drive a trend toward first marketing approvals of at least 6-9 mAbs per year in the near-term. In the United States (US), a total of 6 and 9 mAbs were granted first approvals during 2014 and 2015, respectively; all these products are also approved in the European Union (EU). As of December 1, 2016, 6 mAbs (atezolizumab, olaratumab, reslizumab, ixekizumab, bezlotoxumab, oblitoxaximab) had been granted first approvals during 2016 in either the EU or US. Brodalumab, was granted a first approval in Japan in July 2016. Regulatory actions on marketing applications for brodalumab in the EU and US are not expected until 2017. In 2017, first EU or US approvals may also be granted for at least nine mAbs (ocrelizumab, avelumab, Xilonix, inotuzumab ozogamicin, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, romosozumab) that are not yet approved in any country. Based on announcements of company plans for regulatory submissions and the estimated completion dates for late-stage clinical studies, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 6 antibody therapeutics (benralizumab, tildrakizumab, emicizumab, galcanezumab, ibalizumab, PRO-140) that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted during December 2016* or 2017. Other 'antibodies to watch' in 2017 include 20 mAbs are undergoing evaluation in pivotal studies that have estimated primary completion dates in late 2016 or during 2017. Of these, 5 mAbs are for cancer (durvalumab, JNJ-56022473, ublituximab, anetumab ravtansine, glembatumumab vedotin) and 15 mAbs are for non-cancer indications (caplacizumab, lanadelumab, roledumab, tralokinumab, risankizumab, SA237, emapalumab, suptavumab, erenumab, eptinezumab, fremanezumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, lampalizumab, brolucizumab). Positive results from these studies may

  13. 21 CFR 866.3290 - Gonococcal antibody test (GAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonococcal antibody test (GAT). 866.3290 Section... antibody test (GAT). (a) Identification. A gonococcal antibody test (GAT) is an in vitro device that..., indirect fluorescent antibody, or radioimmunoassay, antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in sera...

  14. Antibody Characterization Process | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the NCI's Antibody Characterization Program (ACP) is to have three monoclonal antibodies produced for each successfully expressed/purified recombinant antigen and one antibody per peptide (1 to 3 peptides per protein). To date, over 4000 clones have been screened before selecting the current 393 antibodies. They are winnowed down based on the projected end use of the antibody.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

  16. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  17. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  18. Receptor antibodies as novel therapeutics for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussar, Siegfried; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Kahn, C Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies to receptors can block or mimic hormone action. Taking advantage of receptor isoforms, co-receptors, and other receptor modulating proteins, antibodies and other designer ligands can enhance tissue specificity and provide new approaches to the therapy of diabetes and other diseases....

  19. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  20. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  1. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, A.; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J. B.; Hoiby, P E; Missier, V; Pedersen, L. H.; Hansen, Theis Peter; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Bang, Ole

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy and the use of a transversal illumination setup.

  2. Antibody-drug conjugates: Intellectual property considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates are highly complex entities that combine an antibody, a linker and a toxin. This complexity makes them demanding both technically and from a regulatory point of view, and difficult to deal with in their patent aspects. This article discusses different issues of patent protection and freedom to operate with regard to this promising new class of drugs.

  3. "Unconventional" Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Against HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are recognized to be one of the essential elements of the adaptive immune response that must be induced by an effective vaccine against HIV. However, only a limited number of antibodies have been identified to neutralize a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 and attempts to induce such antibodies by immunization were unsuccessful. The difficulties to generate such antibodies are mainly due to intrinsic properties of HIV-1 envelope spikes, such as high sequence diversity, heavy glycosylation, and inducible and transient nature of certain epitopes. In vitro neutralizing antibodies are identified using "conventional" neutralization assay which uses phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human PBMCs as target cells. Thus, in essence the assay evaluates HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Recently, several laboratories including us demonstrated that some monoclonal antibodies and HIV-1-specific polyclonal IgG purified from patient sera, although they do not have neutralizing activity when tested by the "conventional" neutralization assay, do exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity in "unconventional" ways. The neutralizing activity of these antibodies and IgG fractions is acquired through post-translational modifications, through opsonization of virus particles into macrophages and immature dendritic cells (iDCs), or through expression of antibodies on the surface of HIV-1-susceptible cells. This review will focus on recent findings of this area and point out their potential applications in the development of preventive strategies against HIV.

  4. Bioconjugation of antibodies to horseradish peroxidase (hrp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioconjugation of an antibody to an enzymatic reporter such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) affords an effective mechanism by which immunoassay detection of a target antigen can be achieved. The use of heterobifunctional cross—linkers to covalently link antibodies to HRP provides a simple and c...

  5. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy and ...

  6. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Antibod

  7. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  8. Anti-miroestrol polyclonal antibodies: a comparison of immunogen preparations used to obtain desired antibody properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Yusakul, Gorawit; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2016-04-01

    Immunogen quality is one important factor that contributes to desirable antibody characteristics. Highly specific antibodies against miroestrol can be used to develop a quality control immunoassay for Pueraria candollei products. In this study, we investigated how various immunogen preparations affect antibody properties. The results show that immunogen prepared using the Mannich reaction provides antibodies with higher specificity and sensitivity against miroestrol than immunogen prepared with the periodate reaction. The results suggest the Mannich reaction maintains the original structure of miroestrol and generates useful antibodies for developing immunoassays.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines coadministered with a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers: a pooled analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kristina; McVernon, Jodie; Marchant, Colin; Nolan, Terry; Marshall, Gary; Richmond, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline

    2012-08-01

    A pooled analysis was conducted of 1257 toddlers who received a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) or Hib conjugate vaccine (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein) coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines (NCT00134719/NCT00289783). Noninferiority of immunological responses to MMR and VAR was demonstrated between groups and incidences of MMR- and VAR-specific solicited symptoms were similar, indicating that HibMenCY-TT can be coadministered with MMR and VAR.

  10. Rapid response to a case of mumps: implications for preventing transmission at a medical research facility Respuesta rápida a un caso de paperas: implicaciones para la prevención del contagio en una instalación de investigación biomédica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prevent transmission among the staff and potentially among the non-human primate (NHP colony at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment in Peru, where an active case of mumps was discovered in a senior laboratory technician in Sep 03, 2007. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subjects at the research facility were interviewed and potentially susceptible contacts were tested for mumps IgG. RESULTS: In total, 81 out of 106 staff members (76% had close contact with the case. Only 6/81 (7% had MMR, 33 (41% reported having had mumps, and 8 of 45 (18% of the potentially susceptible individuals did not have immunity (IgG > 20.0. All the susceptible, exposed individuals received MMR vaccine. There were no secondary cases and access to the NHP colony was restricted. DISCUSSION: Immediate and thorough investigation and occupational health response were imperative in preventing secondary cases of mumps among humans and NHP.OBJETIVO: Prevenir el contagio de parotiditis al personal y potencialmente a la colonia de primates no humanos (PNH, tras detectarse un caso en el personal técnico de laboratorio en el Centro de Investigación de Enfermedades de la Marina de los EUA (NMRCD. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El personal fue entrevistado y se hizo una prueba de IgG para parotiditis a los contactos potencialmente susceptibles. RESULTADOS: En total, 81 de 106 miembros del personal tuvo contacto cercano con el caso. Sólo 6/81 (7% tenían vacuna y 33 (41% reportaron haber tenido parotiditis, y 8 de 45 (18% de los susceptibles potenciales no tenían inmunidad (IgG > 20.0. Todos los susceptibles expuestos fueron vacunados y no hubo casos secundarios. Se restringió el acceso a la colonia de PNH. CONCLUSIÓN: La investigación inmediata y la respuesta de salud ocupacional fue imperativa para prevenir casos secundarios de parotiditis en el personal y los NHP.

  11. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies...... are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors...... such as structure, accessibility and amino acid composition are crucial. Since small peptides tend not to be immunogenic, it may be necessary to conjugate them to carrier proteins in order to enhance immune presentation. Several strategies for conjugation of peptide-carriers applied for immunization exist...

  12. Antiphospholipid antibody: laboratory, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziglioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL represent a heterogeneous group of antibodies that recognize various antigenic targets including beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, prothrombin (PT, activated protein C, tissue plasminogen activator, plasmin and annexin A2. The most commonly used tests to detect aPL are: lupus anticoagulant (LAC, a functional coagulation assay, anticardiolipin antibody (aCL and anti-β2GPI antibody (anti-β2GPI, which are enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Clinically aPL are associated with thrombosis and/or with pregnancy morbidity. Apparently aPL alone are unable to induce thrombotic manifestations, but they increase the risk of vascular events that can occur in the presence of another thrombophilic condition; on the other hand obstetrical manifestations were shown to be associated not only to thrombosis but mainly to a direct antibody effect on the trophoblast.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Multiple options are now available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Over the last 10 years, monoclonal antibodies have become an integral part of the management of this disease. Alemtuzumab has received approval for use in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rituximab has been investigated extensively in chronic lymphocytic leukemia both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and other monoclonal antibodies. Epratuzumab and lumiliximab are newer monoclonal antibodies in the early phase of clinical development. This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the results obtained with monoclonal antibodies as single agents and in combination with chemotherapy, and other biological agents and newer compounds undergoing clinical trials.

  14. Antibody-based resistance to plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillberg, S; Zimmermann, S; Zhang, M Y; Fischer, R

    2001-01-01

    Plant diseases are a major threat to the world food supply, as up to 15% of production is lost to pathogens. In the past, disease control and the generation of resistant plant lines protected against viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens, was achieved using conventional breeding based on crossings, mutant screenings and backcrossing. Many approaches in this field have failed or the resistance obtained has been rapidly broken by the pathogens. Recent advances in molecular biotechnology have made it possible to obtain and to modify genes that are useful for generating disease resistant crops. Several strategies, including expression of pathogen-derived sequences or anti-pathogenic agents, have been developed to engineer improved pathogen resistance in transgenic plants. Antibody-based resistance is a novel strategy for generating transgenic plants resistant to pathogens. Decades ago it was shown that polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can neutralize viruses, bacteria and selected fungi. This approach has been improved recently by the development of recombinant antibodies (rAbs). Crop resistance can be engineered by the expression of pathogen-specific antibodies, antibody fragments or antibody fusion proteins. The advantages of this approach are that rAbs can be engineered against almost any target molecule, and it has been demonstrated that expression of functional pathogen-specific rAbs in plants confers effective pathogen protection. The efficacy of antibody-based resistance was first shown for plant viruses and its application to other plant pathogens is becoming more established. However, successful use of antibodies to generate plant pathogen resistance relies on appropriate target selection, careful antibody design, efficient antibody expression, stability and targeting to appropriate cellular compartments.

  15. Research report of investigation about a mumps outbreak in a primarv school%一起小学流行性腮腺炎爆发的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海庄; 李苑; 周小涛; 吴泰顺; 马智超

    2011-01-01

    Objective To verify the epidemic, to determine the existence of mumps outbreak in a primary school and describe the epidemic distributions of the population, time, place, and epidemic strength, to probe the risk factors. Methods Screen the case according to the case definition. Describing the distribution of time, region and population in this outbreak, combined with field work epidemiological investigaztion,then we can come to a hypothesis and test it by case-control study. Results From May 1,2009 to Jun 18,2009,33 cases that meet the case definition were found in a primary school. First case's onset day was May 21, incidence peaks were on the Jun 14 to Jun 17. Class 3 grade 2 had the highest attack rate (28%).Male attack rate was 12% ,female attack rate was 9%.The case-control study showed that the risk factor was dining in the school. Washing their hands before lunch and usually washing their hands with soap were protective factors. Conclusion The clinical displays, three distributions' characteristics demonstrated the mumps outbreak happened in a primary school. We recommended the school to reduce opportunities for students to eat in the classroom, strengthened publicity and education, and improved their senses of self-protection as well as developed good hand-washing habits.%目的 核实疫情,确定某小学流行性腮腺炎(简称流腮)暴发的存在并描述疫情三问分布特征和流行强度,探讨发病危险因素.方法 按照病例定义,开展病例搜索,描述其三间分布后,结合现场流行病学调查情况,形成假设,再采用病例对照研究方法验证假设.结果 某小学2009年5月1日至6月18日搜索到符合病例定义的病例共33例.首例病例5月21日发病,6月14-17日出现发病高峰.二(3)班罹患率最高,为28%.男生罹患率为12%,女生罹患率为9%.病例对照研究表明,在校就餐是危险因素;吃午饭前洗手、平时洗手时使用肥皂是保护因素.结论 根据病例临床表

  16. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, A.I.; Khawli, L.A.

    1991-02-19

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabeled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody. No Drawings

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Parodis

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. It remains unclear whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL alter the course of LN. We thus investigated the impact of aPL on short-term and long-term renal outcomes in patients with LN. We assessed levels of aPL cross-sectionally in SLE patients diagnosed with (n = 204 or without (n = 294 LN, and prospectively in 64 patients with active biopsy-proven LN (52 proliferative, 12 membranous, before and after induction treatment (short-term outcomes. Long-term renal outcome in the prospective LN cohort was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage, after a median follow-up of 11.3 years (range: 3.3-18.8. Cross-sectional analysis revealed no association between LN and IgG/IgM anticardiolipin or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, or lupus anticoagulant. Both aPL positivity and levels were similar in patients with active LN and non-renal SLE. Following induction treatment for LN, serum IgG/IgM aPL levels decreased in responders (p<0.005 for all, but not in non-responders. Both at active LN and post-treatment, patients with IgG, but not IgM, aPL had higher creatinine levels compared with patients without IgG aPL. Neither aPL positivity nor levels were associated with changes in eGFR from either baseline or post-treatment through long-term follow-up. Moreover, aPL positivity and levels both at baseline and post-treatment were similar in patients with a CKD stage ≥3 versus 1-2 at the last follow-up. In conclusion, neither aPL positivity nor levels were found to be associated with the occurrence of LN in SLE patients. However, IgG aPL positivity in LN patients was associated with a short-term impairment of the renal function while no effect on long-term renal outcome was observed. Furthermore, IgG and IgM aPL levels decreased following induction treatment only in responders, indicating that aPL levels are

  18. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society December 7-10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Carter, Paul J; Melis, Joost P M

    2016-01-01

    The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6-10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on "Antibodies to watch" in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries.

  19. Next generation of antibody therapy for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenping Zhu; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a major class of therapeutic agents providing effective altematives to treating various human diseases. To date, 15 mAbs have been approved by regulatory agencies in the world for clinical use in oncology indications. The selectivity and specificity, the unique pharmacokinetics, and the ability to engage and activate the host immune system differentiate these biologics from traditional small molecule anticancer drugs. mAb-basod regimens have brought clinical benefits, including improvements in overall survival, to patients with a variety of cancers. Many challenges still remain, however, to fully realize the potential of these new medicines. With our further understanding of cancer biology, mechanism of antibody action, and advancement of antibody engineering technologies, many novel antibody formats or antibody-derived molecules are emerging as promising new generation therapeutics. Carefully designed and engineered, they retain the advantage of specificity and selectivity of original antibodies, but in the meantime acquire additional special features such as improved pharmacokinetics, increased selectivity, and enhanced anticancer efficacy. Promising clinical results are being generated with these newly improved antibody-based therapeutics.

  20. Glycosylation profiles of therapeutic antibody pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Christoph; Berger, Christoph N; Girard, Philippe; Meier, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant antibodies specific for human targets are often used as therapeutics and represent a major class of drug products. Their therapeutic efficacy depends on the formation of antibody complexes resulting in the elimination of a target molecule or the modulation of specific signalling pathways. The physiological effects of antibody therapeutics are known to depend on the structural characteristics of the antibody molecule, specifically on the glycosylation which is the result of posttranslational modifications. Hence, production of therapeutic antibodies with a defined and consistent glycoform profile is needed which still remains a considerable challenge to the biopharmaceutical industry. To provide an insight into the industries capability to control their manufacturing process and to provide antibodies of highest quality, we conducted a market surveillance study and compared major oligosaccharide profiles of a number of monoclonal antibody pharmaceuticals sampled on the Swiss market. Product lot-to-lot variability was found to be generally low, suggesting that a majority of manufacturers have implemented high quality standards in their production processes. However, proportions of G0, G1 and G2 core-fucosylated chains derived from different products varied considerably and showed a bias towards the immature agalactosidated G0 form. Interestingly, differences in glycosylation caused by the production cell type seem to be of less importance compared with process related parameters such as cell growth.

  1. Structure Based Antibody-Like Peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I. Greene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb and soluble receptors represent new classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of several diseases. High affinity and high specificity biologics can be utilized for variety of clinical purposes. Monoclonal antibodies have been used as diagnostic agents when coupled with radionuclide, immune modulatory agents or in the treatment of cancers. Among other limitations of using large molecules for therapy the actual cost of biologics has become an issue. There is an effort among chemists and biologists to reduce the size of biologics which includes monoclonal antibodies and receptors without a reduction of biological efficacy. Single chain antibody, camel antibodies, Fv fragments are examples of this type of deconstructive process. Small high-affinity peptides have been identified using phage screening. Our laboratory used a structure-based approach to develop small-size peptidomimetics from the three-dimensional structure of proteins with immunoglobulin folds as exemplified by CD4 and antibodies. Peptides derived either from the receptor or their cognate ligand mimics the functions of the parental macromolecule. These constrained peptides not only provide a platform for developing small molecule drugs, but also provide insight into the atomic features of protein-protein interactions. A general overview of the reduction of monoclonal antibodies to small exocyclic peptide and its prospects as a useful diagnostic and as a drug in the treatment of cancer are discussed.

  2. Antibodies as predictors of complex autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, A

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested environmental factors such as infections and xenobiotics and some dietary proteins and peptides in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Considering the fact that autoantibodies can often be detected prior to the onset of a disease, in this study an enzyme immunoassay was used for measurement of antibodies against different highly purified antigens or synthetic peptides originating not only from human tissue, but also from cross-reactive epitopes of infectious agents, dietary proteins and xenobiotics. The measurement of antibodies against a panel of antigens allows for identification of patterns or antibody signatures, rather than just one or two markers of autoimmunity, thus establishing the premise for increased sensitivity and specificity of prediction, as well as positive predictive values. This panel of different autoantibodies was applied to 420 patients with different autoimmune diseases, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, thyroiditis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity, which are presented in this article. In all cases, the levels of these antibodies were significantly elevated in patients versus controls. Antibody patterns related to neuroautoimmune disorders, cancer, and patients with somatic hypermutation will be shown in a subsequent article. We believe that this novel 96 antigen-specific autoantibody or predictive antibody screen should be studied for its incorporation into routine medical examinations. Clinicians should be aware that the detection of antibodies should not automatically mean that a patient will definitely become ill, but would rather give a percentage of risk for autoimmune disease over subsequent months or years.

  3. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  4. Combinatorial antibody libraries: new advances, new immunological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Immunochemists have become quite proficient in engineering existing antibody molecules to control their pharmacological properties. However, in terms of generating new antibodies, the combinatorial antibody library has become a central feature of modern immunochemistry. These libraries are essentially an immune system in a test tube and enable the selection of antibodies without the constraints of whole animal or cell-based systems. This Review provides an overview of how antibody libraries are constructed and discusses what can be learnt from these synthetic systems. In particular, the Review focuses on new biological insights from antibody libraries - such as the concept of 'SOS antibodies' - and the growing use of intracellular antibodies to perturb cellular functions.

  5. Distinct Therapeutic Mechanisms of Tau Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kristen E.; Mirbaha, Hilda; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M.; Diamond, Marc I.

    2015-01-01

    Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of Tau amyloids, and include Alzheimer disease and certain frontotemporal dementias. Trans-neuronal propagation of amyloid mediated by extracellular Tau may underlie disease progression. Consistent with this, active and passive vaccination studies in mouse models reduce pathology, although by unknown mechanisms. We previously reported that intracerebroventricular administration of three anti-Tau monoclonal antibodies (HJ8.5, HJ9.3, and HJ9.4) reduces pathology in a model overexpressing full-length mutant (P301S) human Tau. We now study effects of these three antibodies and a negative control antibody (HJ3.4) on Tau aggregate uptake into BV2 microglial-like cells and primary neurons. Antibody-independent Tau uptake into BV2 cells was blocked by heparin, consistent with a previously described role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Two therapeutic antibodies (HJ8.5 and HJ9.4) promoted uptake of full-length Tau fibrils into microglia via Fc receptors. Surprisingly, HJ9.3 promoted uptake of fibrils composed of the Tau repeat domain or Alzheimer disease-derived Tau aggregates, but failed to influence full-length recombinant Tau fibrils. Size fractionation of aggregates showed that antibodies preferentially promote uptake of larger oligomers (n ≥∼20-mer) versus smaller oligomers (n ∼10-mer) or monomer. No antibody inhibited uptake of full-length recombinant fibrils into primary neurons, but HJ9.3 blocked neuronal uptake of Tau repeat domain fibrils and Alzheimer disease-derived Tau. Antibodies thus have multiple potential mechanisms, including clearance via microglia and blockade of neuronal uptake. However these effects are epitope- and aggregate size-dependent. Establishing specific mechanisms of antibody activity in vitro may help in design and optimization of agents that are more effective in vivo. PMID:26126828

  6. Advances in recombinant antibody manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Renate; Reinhart, David

    2016-04-01

    Since the first use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for recombinant protein expression, production processes have steadily improved through numerous advances. In this review, we have highlighted several key milestones that have contributed to the success of CHO cells from the beginning of their use for monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression until today. The main factors influencing the yield of a production process are the time to accumulate a desired amount of biomass, the process duration, and the specific productivity. By comparing maximum cell densities and specific growth rates of various expression systems, we have emphasized the limiting parameters of different cellular systems and comprehensively described scientific approaches and techniques to improve host cell lines. Besides the quantitative evaluation of current systems, the quality-determining properties of a host cell line, namely post-translational modifications, were analyzed and compared to naturally occurring polyclonal immunoglobulin fractions from human plasma. In summary, numerous different expression systems for mAbs are available and also under scientific investigation. However, CHO cells are the most frequently investigated cell lines and remain the workhorse for mAb production until today.

  7. Studies on Purification of Methamidophos Monoclonal Antibodies and Comoarative Immunoactivity of Purified Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU-QING ZHAO; YUAN-MING SUN; CHUN-YAN ZHANG; XIAO-YU HUANG; HOU-RUI ZHANG; ZHEN-YU ZHU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To purify Methamidophos (Met) monoclonal antibodies with two methods andcompare immune activity of purified antibodies. Method Caprylic acid ammonium sulphateprecipition (CAASP) method and Sepharose protein-A (SPA) affinity chromatography method wereused to purify Met monoclonal antibodies, UV spectrum scanning was used to determine proteincontent and recovery of purified antibodies, sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the purity of purified antibodies, and enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine immune activity of purified antibodies.Results Antibody protein content and recovery rate with CAASP method were 7.62 mg/mL and8.05% respectively, antibody protein content and recovery rate with SPA method were 6.45 mg/mLand 5.52% respectively. Purity of antibodies purified by SPA method was higher than that by CAASPmethod. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of antibodies purified by SPA to Met was181.26 μg/mL, and the linear working range and the limit of quantification (LOD) were 2.43-3896.01μg/mL and 1.03 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of antibodies purified by CAASP to Met was 352.82μg/mL, and the linear working range and LOD were 10.91-11412.29 ug/mL and 3.42 μg/mL,respectively. Conclusion Antibodies purified by SPA method are better than those by CAASPmethod, and Met monoclonal antibodies purified by SPA method can be used to prepare gold-labelledtesting paper for analyzing Met residue in vegetable and drink water.

  8. HIV-1 resistance to neutralizing antibodies: Determination of antibody concentrations leading to escape mutant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Carsten; Reh, Lucia; Trkola, Alexandra

    2016-06-15

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are considered vital components of novel therapeutics and blueprints for vaccine research. Yet escape to even the most potent of these antibodies is imminent in natural infection. Measures to define antibody efficacy and prevent mutant selection are thus urgently needed. Here, we derive a mathematical framework to predict the concentration ranges for which antibody escape variants can outcompete their viral ancestors, referred to as mutant selection window (MSW). When determining the MSW, we focus on the differential efficacy of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in two canonical infection routes, free-virus infection and cell-cell transmission. The latter has proven highly effective in vitro suggesting its importance for both in vivo spread as well as for escaping targeted intervention strategies. We observed a range of MSW patterns that highlight the potential of mutants to arise in both transmission pathways and over wide concentration ranges. Most importantly, we found that only when the arising mutant has both, residual sensitivity to the neutralizing antibody and reduced infectivity compared to the parental virus, antibody dosing outside of the MSW to restrict mutant selection is possible. Emergence of mutants that provide complete escape and have no considerable fitness loss cannot be prevented by adjusting antibody doses. The latter may in part explain the ubiquitous resistance to neutralizing antibodies observed in natural infection and antibody treatment. Based on our findings, combinations of antibodies targeting different epitopes should be favored for antibody-based interventions as this may render complete resistance less likely to occur and also increase chances that multiple escapes result in severe fitness loss of the virus making longer-term antibody treatment more feasible. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunocytochemical and Immunohistochemical Staining with Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Tina; Pedersen, Klaus Boberg; Hougaard, David; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies are particularly useful for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), where antigens may denature due to fixation of tissues and cells. Peptide antibodies can be made to any defined sequence, including unknown putative proteins and posttranslationally modified sequences. Moreover, the availability of large amounts of the antigen (peptide) allows inhibition/adsorption controls, which are important in ICC/IHC, due to the many possibilities for false-positive reactions caused by immunoglobulin Fc receptors, nonspecific reactions, and cross-reactivity of primary and secondary antibodies with other antigens and endogenous immunoglobulins, respectively. Here, simple protocols for ICC and IHC are described together with recommendations for appropriate controls.

  10. Uses of monoclonial antibody 8H9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2015-06-23

    This invention provides an antibody that binds the same antigen as that of monoclonal antibody 8H9, wherein the heavy chain CDR (Complementary Determining Region)1 comprises NYDIN, heavy chain CDR2 comprises WIFPGDGSTQY, heavy chain CDR3 comprises QTTATWFAY, and the light chain CDR1 comprises RASQSISDYLH, light chain CDR2 comprises YASQSIS, and light chain CDR3 comprises QNGHSFPLT. In another embodiment, there is provided a polypeptide that binds the same antigen as that of monoclonal antibody 8H9, wherein the polypeptide comprises NYDIN, WIFPGDGSTQY, QTTATWFAY, RASQSISDYLH, YASQSIS, and QNGHSFPLT.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  16. Serum Antibodies to Glycans in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Sandro; Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Mauri, Laura; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Aureli, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    In peripheral neuropathies, such as sensorimotor neuropathies, motor neuron diseases, or the Guillain-Barré syndrome, serum antibodies recognizing saccharide units, portion of oligosaccharides, or oligosaccharide chains, have been found. These antibodies are called anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) or anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, the information on the aglycone carrying the hydrophilic oligosaccharide remains elusive. The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Application of Antiharpinxoo Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Min; LI Ming; PAN Xiao-mei; WANG Jin-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal antiharpinxoo rabbit antibody has been prepared successfully using purified harpinxoo protein as an immunogen.The ELISA titer of the antiserum against harpinxoo was about 1:2 000. Western blot analysis showed that the antiserum could bind to the expression harpinxoo protein in particular. hrf1, encoding harpinxoo, is an expression in transgenic rice,detected by antiharpinxoo rabbit antibody. The rabbit antibody against harpinxoo can be used to study further about the biological function, harpinxoo localization, and hrf1 gene expression in other plants.

  18. Synthesis of bifunctional antibodies for immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, B S; Wilson, G S

    2000-09-01

    The synthesis of bifunctional antibodies using the principle of solid-phase synthesis is described. Two Fab' fragments were chemically linked together via a bismaleimide crosslinking reagent. The F(ab')(2) fragments from intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) were prepared using an immobilized pepsin column. Goat, mouse, and human antibodies were digested completely within 4 h. The F(ab')(2) fragments thus produced did not contain any IgG impurities. Fab' fragments were produced by reducing the heavy interchain disulfide bonds using 2-mercaptoethylamine. Use of the solid-phase reactor in the preparation of the bifunctional antibodies eliminated many of the time-consuming separation steps between the fragmentation and conjugation steps. This procedure facilitates the automation of bifunctional antibody preparation and the rapid optimization of reaction conditions.

  19. Solid phase synthesis of bifunctional antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, B S; Wilson, G S

    1995-12-15

    Bifunctional antibodies were prepared using the principle of solid-phase synthesis. The two Fab' fragments were chemically linked together via a bismaleimide crosslinking reagent. The F(ab')2 fragments from intact IgG were prepared using an immobilized pepsin column. Goat, mouse and human antibodies were digested completely within 4 h. The F(ab')2 fragments thus produced did not contain any IgG impurities. The Fab' fragments were produced by reducing the inter-heavy chain disulfide bonds using 2-mercaptoethylamine. The use of the solid-phase reactor in the preparation of the bifunctional antibodies eliminated many of the time-consuming separation steps between the fragmentation and conjugation steps. This procedure facilitates the automation of the bifunctional antibody preparation and the rapid optimization of reaction conditions.

  20. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  1. Correlation between antisperm antibody and Semen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farhad Shahsavar

    2004-08-01

    Conclusion: Antisperm antibodies can disrupt normal sperm function by damaging sperm motility. Therefore, it can be suggest that patients with sperm motility than 50% should become Candidate of ASA assay.

  2. Nanobodies - the new concept in antibody engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... form the basis of a new generation of therapeutic antibodies which were named Nanobodies ..... cular characteristics and structural stabilities, but also to ... Hmila I, Ben Abdallah RBA, Saerensb D, Benlasfard Z, Conrathb K, El.

  3. evaluation of an antigen-antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Development of “combination” assays detecting in parallel, within a ... METHODS: We compared the Monolisa® HCV Antigen-Antibody Ultra (Bio-Rad Laboratories Limited, ... mediated response in these patients, a rapid viral.

  4. Sneddon's syndrotne with anticardiolipin antibodies complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systemic complications, which included stroke, habitual abortions ... nisone she suffered an acute exacerbation of her previ- .... Antiphospholipid antibodies: a brief. reVIew. Ann Neuro11989; 26: 386-389. 13. Laskin CA ... Ischemic stroke asso-.

  5. Enhanced Phagocytosis and Antibody Production by Tinospora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... antibody production through in vitro and in vivo studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of plant .... and were fed orally to each animal for 14 days. After 14 days of .... Rubiadin: A new antioxidant from Rubia cardifolia.

  6. Characterization of methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolate specific polyclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Nadia Muhammad Akram; Schulz, Alexander; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies towards small molecules, like plant specialized metabolites, are valuable tools for developing quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Glucosinolates are the specialized metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order. Here we describe the characterization of polyclonal...... rabbit antibodies raised against the 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate, glucoraphanin that is one of the major glucosinolates in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis). Analysis of the cross-reactivity of the antibodies against a number of glucosinolates demonstrated...... that it was highly selective for methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates with a methyl-sulfinyl group in the side chain. Use of crude plant extracts from Arabidopsis mutants with different glucosinolate profiles showed that the antibodies recognized aliphatic glucosinolates in a plant extract and did not cross...

  7. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eAlmeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that affects either humans or animals and occurs worldwide. This subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent, Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exhibits a considerable genetic variability, where recently, was suggesting that this taxon consists of a complex of species. Sporotrichosis is caused by traumatic inoculation of the fungus, which is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte that can be isolated from soil and plant debris. The infection is limited to the cutaneous forms but, recently, occurrences of more severe clinical forms of this mycosis were described, especially among immunocompromized individuals. The immunological mechanisms involved in prevention and control of sporotrichosis are still not very well understood. Some works suggest that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against S. schenckii. In contrast, the role of the humoral immune response in protection against this fungus have not been studied in detail. In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induce a specific humoral response in infected animals, mainly against the 70-kDa molecules, indicating a possible participation of specific antibodies to this molecule in infection control. In an other work of the our group, we produced a mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein of S. schenckii in order to better understand the effect of passive immunization of mice infected with S. schenckii. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU in organs of mice when the mAb was injected before and during S. schenckii infection. Similar results were observed when T-cell deficient mice were used. Drugs of choice in the treatment of sporothrichosis require long periods and frequently relapses are observed, mainly in immunocompromized patients. The strong protection induced by mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein makes it a strong candidate for a

  8. Mepanipyrim haptens and antibodies with nanomolar affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Turrillas, Francesc Albert; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Abad Fuentes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Mepanipyrim is an anilinopyrimidine fungicide used worldwide for crop protection. With the aim of developing useful immunoreagents for mepanipyrim immunoanalysis, two new functionalized derivatives were prepared and antibodies were generated. Affinity and specificity were assessed by direct and indirect competitive ELISA using homologous and heterologous conjugates. Although all antibodies were selective for the target analyte, the immunizing hapten structure was revealed as a determinant for...

  9. Neutralizing antibodies to Haemophilus ducreyi cytotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagergård, T; Purvén, M

    1993-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies against cytotoxin produced by Haemophilus ducreyi bacteria were studied in rabbits by an assay employing HEp-2 cells and diluted crude cytotoxin preparations from the organism. Antisera to 12 different H. ducreyi strains were prepared by immunization of rabbits with bacterial sonicates combined with Freund's adjuvant. The antibody response during infection with H. ducreyi was studied in two groups of rabbits which were infected with five live strains by either single o...

  10. Primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadeli, Deepak K; Hanjagi, Siddaraya Y

    2015-10-01

    Primary Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a rare disease associated with thromboembolic events which may affect either the arterial or the venous vasculature. It presents with an increased risk of thrombosis in pregnant woman leading to repeated fetal losses. We present here a case of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in young women who had previous event of gangrene of toes leading to their amputation and repeated fetal losses.

  11. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Herrin, Brantley R.; Alder, Matthew N; Roux, Kenneth H.; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R. A.; Boydston, Jeremy A.; Turnbough, Charles L.; Cooper, Max D.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores...

  12. Autoimmune encephalitis: Clinical diagnosis versus antibody confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Caroline Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Autoimmune encephalitis is a heterogeneous disorder which is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. The diagnosis of these disorders is based on the detection of autoantibodies and characteristic clinical profiles. Aims: We aimed to study the antibody profile in encephalitis patients with suspected autoimmune etiology presenting to a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: The subjects were selected by screening all patients with clinical profile suggesting autoimmune encephalitis admitted in the neuromedical intensive care unit (ICU of a tertiary care center in South India. Materials and Methods: Patients who fulfilled modified Zuliani et al.′s, criteria for autoimmune encephalitis were identified during the period December 2009-June 2013. Blood samples from these subjects were screened for six neuronal antibodies. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to compare the antibody positive and negative patients. Results: Out of 1,227 patients screened, 39 subjects (14 males: 25 females were identified with a mean age of 15.95 years and 19 cases were assessed in the acute and 20 in the convalescent phase of the illness. Seizure (87.8 % was the most common presenting symptom; status epilepticus occurred in 23 (60.5% patients during the course of the illness. Fourteen (35.9% patients were N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR antibody-positive and all were negative for the other antibodies tested. Conclusions: One-third of patients presenting with acute noninfective encephalitis would be positive for NMDAR antibodies with the remaining two-thirds with clinically suspected autoimmune encephalitis being antibody-negative. There are few markers in the clinical and investigative profiles to distinguish antibody-positive and -negative patients.

  13. One-step real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay for mumps virus in clinical saliva specimens%腮腺炎病毒临床口漱液样本的一步法实时荧光定量PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施海晶; 王晶晶; 陈俊英; 陈巍; 潘明; 赵钢; 孙强明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an one-step real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay for mumps virus (MuV) in clinical saliva specimens and provide a basis for clinical diagnosis,prevention and control of mumps.Methods A total of 101 clinical saliva specimens collected from suspected patients with mumps in Yunnan and Sichuan Province as well as Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,China were determined by cell culture-MuV specific nested PCR and real-time PCR with TaqMan probe respectively,based on which the sensitivities of the two methods were compared.Results Thirty-one MuV-positive specimens were found by cell culture-MuV specific nested PCR,all of which belonged to genotype F as proved by phylogenetic tree.However,41 MuV-positive specimens were found by real-time PCR with TaqMan probe,including the 31 positive specimens proved by cell culture-MuV specific nested PCR,indicating that the positive rate of Muv by real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan probe (40.59%) was higher than that by traditional cell culture-nested PCR (30.69%).Conclusion The sensitivity,specificity and simplicity of real-time PCR with TaqMan probe were higher than those of traditional cell culture-MuV specific nested PCR,which might be used for the clinical diagnosis,prevention and control of mumps.%目的 建立腮腺炎病毒(mumps virus,MuV)临床口漱液样本一步法荧光定量PCR检测方法,为腮腺炎的临床诊断及免疫防控提供依据.方法 对101份采集自中国南部3个省、自治区(云南、四川、广西)的临床疑似腮腺炎患者口漱液样本,分别采用细胞培养-MuV特异的巢式PCR法及TaqMan探针Real-time PCR法进行检测,比较两种方法检测MuV的灵敏性.结果 细胞培养-MuV特异的巢式PCR法共检出31份MuV阳性样本,系统进化分析表明,该31株MuV均属于F基因亚型;TaqMan探针Real-time PCR法共检出41份MuV阳性样本,其中包含了细胞培养-MuV特异的巢式PCR法检出的31份阳性样本,TaqMan探针Real-time RT

  14. Discovery of functional antibodies targeting ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I; Gardener, Matthew J; Williams, Wendy A

    2015-04-01

    Ion channels play critical roles in physiology and disease by modulation of cellular functions such as electrical excitability, secretion, cell migration, and gene transcription. Ion channels represent an important target class for drug discovery that has been largely addressed, to date, using small-molecule approaches. A significant opportunity exists to target these channels with antibodies and alternative formats of biologics. Antibodies display high specificity and affinity for their target antigen, and they have the potential to target ion channels very selectively. Nevertheless, isolating antibodies to this target class is challenging due to the difficulties in expression and purification of ion channels in a format suitable for antibody drug discovery in addition to the complexity of screening for function. In this article, we will review the current state of ion channel biologics discovery and the progress that has been made. We will also highlight the challenges in isolating functional antibodies to these targets and how these challenges may be addressed. Finally, we also illustrate successful approaches to isolating functional monoclonal antibodies targeting ion channels by way of a number of case studies drawn from recent publications.

  15. Standardization of anti-DNA antibody assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, David S

    2013-07-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus and represent important biomarkers for clinical and research purposes. These antibodies are part of a family of antibodies to nucleosomes and bind to conserved sites widely present on DNA. While the value of anti-DNA as a biomarker is well established, the assay for these antibodies has involved a variety of DNA sources and systems to detect DNA-anti-DNA interactions. The influence of these variations on antibody detection has complicated assay standardization. As an antigen, DNA has unique features since it is a highly charged polymer that has structural heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can affect antigenicity which can vary on the basis of DNA origin, size, conformation and mobility. In addition, as a polymer, DNA can promote patterns of antibody binding based on monogamous or bivalent interaction which require an extended polynucleotide structure. Understanding the nature of DNA as an antigen can facilitate interpretation of serological tests and underpin efforts at better standardization.

  16. Antibody-mediated resistance against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Mohammad Reza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Tabatabaie, Meisam; Twyman, Richard M; Schillberg, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Plant diseases have a significant impact on the yield and quality of crops. Many strategies have been developed to combat plant diseases, including the transfer of resistance genes to crops by conventional breeding. However, resistance genes can only be introgressed from sexually-compatible species, so breeders need alternative measures to introduce resistance traits from more distant sources. In this context, genetic engineering provides an opportunity to exploit diverse and novel forms of resistance, e.g. the use of recombinant antibodies targeting plant pathogens. Native antibodies, as a part of the vertebrate adaptive immune system, can bind to foreign antigens and eliminate them from the body. The ectopic expression of antibodies in plants can also interfere with pathogen activity to confer disease resistance. With sufficient knowledge of the pathogen life cycle, it is possible to counter any disease by designing expression constructs so that pathogen-specific antibodies accumulate at high levels in appropriate sub-cellular compartments. Although first developed to tackle plant viruses and still used predominantly for this purpose, antibodies have been targeted against a diverse range of pathogens as well as proteins involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Here we comprehensively review the development and implementation of antibody-mediated disease resistance in plants.

  17. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Construction of human antibody gene libraries and selection of antibodies by phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Kügler, Jonas; Wilke, Sonja; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy.The prerequisite for successful generation and development of human recombinant antibodies using phage display is the construction of a high-quality antibody gene library. Here, we describe the methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.The success also depends on the panning strategy for the selection of binders from these libraries. In this article, we describe a panning strategy that is high-throughput compatible and allows parallel selection in microtiter plates.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH HLA ANTIBODIES CLASS I AND II, AND MICA ANTIBODIES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HLA and MICA antibodies in patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation and their influence on the course of post-transplant period. Determination of HLA antibodies class I and II, and MICA antibodies was performed on a platform of Luminex (xMAP-tech- nology using sets LABScreen ONE LAMBDA (U.S.. A total of 156 patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Revealed the presence of HLA and MICA antibodies in the serum of 31.4% of patients. Regraf- ted patients increased the content of antibodies to the antigens of HLA system was noted in 88.2% of cases, 47% met the combination of antibodies to the I, II classes and MICA. In patients awaiting first kidney transplantation, HLA and MICA antibodies were determined in 23.7% of cases. The presence of pretransplant HLA and MICA antibodies had a significant influence on the course of post-transplant period. Patients with the presence of HLA and MICA in 50% of cases delayed graft function. Sessions of plasmapheresis can reduce the concentration of HLA and MICA antibodies on average by 61.1%. 

  20. Generation of HER2 monoclonal antibodies using epitopes of a rabbit polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Francis Jingxin; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2014-01-25

    One of the issues in using polyclonal antibodies is the limited amount of reagent available from an immunisation, leading to batch-to-batch variation and difficulties in obtaining the same antibody performance when the same antigen is re-immunised into several separate animals. This led to the development of hybridoma technology allowing, at least theoretically, for an unlimited production of a specific binder. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies are widely used in research and diagnostics and there exists a need for robust methods to convert a polyclonal antibody with good binding performance into a renewable monoclonal with identical or similar binding specificity. Here we have used precise information regarding the functional recognition sequence (epitope) of a rabbit polyclonal antibody with attractive binding characteristics as the basis for generation of a renewable mouse monoclonal antibody. First, the original protein fragment antigen was used for immunisation and generation of mouse hybridoma, without obtaining binders to the same epitope region. Instead a peptide designed using the functional epitope and structural information was synthesised and used for hybridoma production. Several of the monoclonal antibodies generated were found to have similar binding characteristics to those of the original polyclonal antibody. These monoclonal antibodies detected native HER2 on cell lines and were also able to stain HER2 in immunohistochemistry using xenografted mice, as well as human normal and cancer tissues.

  1. Surveillance and analysis on serum immune antibody levels of 8 vaccine-preventable diseases among migrant children aged 0~7 years in Yinchuan%银川市0~7岁流动儿童8种传染病血清抗体水平监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武振军; 胡皓; 李燕; 高源

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate and evaluate the vaccination status of migrant children aged 0~7 years in Yinchuan, and to provide the scientific basis for establishing effective immunization strategies. Methods Antibody lev-els of 8 vaccine-preventable diseases (HBsAg, HbsAb, poliomyelitis IgG, diphtheria IgG, pertussis IgG, tetanus IgG, ru-bella IgG and mumps IgG) of 195 migrant children aged 0~7 years in Yinchuan were detected and analyzed by stratified random sampling method. Results The positive rates of HbsAg and HbsAb were respectively 0 and 69.7%. There were the highest positive rate for polio IgG (97.4%) and the lowest positive rate for pertussis IgG (15.4%) among 8 kinds of antibody against 8 vaccine-preventable diseases. There were statistically significant differences among different regions in term of diphtheria IgG and tetanus IgG positive rate (P0.05). The differences of positive rates of measles IgG and mumps IgG among different ethnic groups were statistically significant (P0.05);不同民族间0~6岁流动儿童麻疹和腮腺炎抗体阳性率回族高于汉族,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论银川市0~7岁流动儿童免疫状况良好,但部分种类疫苗抗体水平较低,存在薄弱地区与人群,应加强重点地区、重点疫苗种类及重点年龄段儿童的预防接种技术规范化管理,并根据监测结果,必要时开展强化免疫。

  2. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  3. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Unilateral Adrenal Hemmorhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Kifayat; Butt, Ghias; Neopane, Sippy; Arshi, Shahana

    2016-06-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presents with vascular thrombosis which involve both arterial and venous systems. The clinical presentation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome includes obstetric complications leading to recurrent abortions, presence of circulating antibodies against phospholipids, and multi-organ thromboembolisms. We report a case of a patient who presented with unilateral adrenal hemorrhage and subsequently found to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and lupus nephritis.

  4. [Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Da-peng

    2012-10-01

    Small molecule antibodies are naturally existed and well functioned but not structurally related to the conventional antibodies. They are only composed of heavy protein chains or light chains, much smaller than common antibody. The first small molecule antibody, called Nanobody was engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids. Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, "immunoglobulin new antigen receptor"), from which single-domain antibodies called Vnar fragments can be obtained. In addition, free light chain (FLC) antibodies in human bodies are being developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Comparing to intact antibodies, common advantages of small molecule antibodies are with better solubility, tissue penetration, stability towards heat and enzymes, and comparatively low production costs. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanism of action of the Nanobody, IgNAR and FLC.

  5. Coming-of-Age of Antibodies in Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Arora, Sushrut; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Antibody-based therapies have garnered considerable success in recent years. This is due to the availability of strategies to successfully engineer antibodies into humanized forms, better understanding of the biological processes involved in cancer development, the availability of novel recombinant antibody formats, better antibody selection platforms, and improved antibody conjugation methodologies. Such achievements have led to an explosion in the generation of antibodies and antibody-associated constructs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. In this review, we critically assess recent trends in the development and applications of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as cancer therapeutics. We also highlight recent US FDA approvals and clinical trials of antibody-based cancer therapies.

  6. Relevance of anti-myelin antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies directed against myelin antigens have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although anti-myelin antibodies have been implicated in central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, it is unclear to what extent anti-myelin antibodies contribute to MS pathogenesis. In this dissertation, the role of antibodies in MS and in the animal model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is addressed in eight chapters: Chapter 1: A review on antibodies, complement and Fc receptors in MS ...

  7. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  8. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  9. A study on associations between antiprothrombin antibodies, antiplasminogen antibodies and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, MJA; De Groot, PG; Derksen, RHWM

    2003-01-01

    Anti-prothrombin antibodies area frequent cause of lupus anticoagulant (LAC), a thrombotic risk factor. Prothrombin shares structural homology with plasminogen, a kringle protein with an important role in fibrinolysis. Cross-reactivity between antiprothrombin antibodies and plasminogen has been desc

  10. Discovery of diverse and functional antibodies from large human repertoire antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Lauren J; Huang, Betty; Giang, Hoa; Cotter, Robyn L; Chemla-Vogel, David S; Dy, Francis V; Tam, Eric M; Zhang, Fangjiu; Toy, Pamela; Bohmann, David J; Watson, Susan R; Beaber, John W; Reddy, Nithin; Kuan, Hua-Feng; Bedinger, Daniel H; Rondon, Isaac J

    2013-05-31

    Phage display antibody libraries have a proven track record for the discovery of therapeutic human antibodies, increasing the demand for large and diverse phage antibody libraries for the discovery of new therapeutics. We have constructed naïve antibody phage display libraries in both Fab and scFv formats, with each library having more than 250 billion clones that encompass the human antibody repertoire. These libraries show high fidelity in open reading frame and expression percentages, and their V-gene family distribution, VH-CDR3 length and amino acid usage mirror the natural diversity of human antibodies. Both the Fab and scFv libraries show robust sequence diversity in target-specific binders and differential V-gene usage for each target tested, supporting the use of libraries that utilize multiple display formats and V-gene utilization to maximize antibody-binding diversity. For each of the targets, clones with picomolar affinities were identified from at least one of the libraries and for the two targets assessed for activity, functional antibodies were identified from both libraries.

  11. A recombinant, fully human monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity constructed from phage-displayed antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huls, GA; Heijnen, IAFM; Cuomo, ME; Koningsberger, JC; Boel, E; de Vries, ARV; Loyson, SAJ; Helfrich, W; Henegouwen, GPV; van Meijer, M; de Kruif, J; Logtenberg, T

    1999-01-01

    A single-chain Fv antibody fragment specific for the tumor-associated Ep-CAM molecule was isolated from a semisynthetic phage display library and converted into an intact, fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (huMab), The purified huMab had an affinity of 5 nM and effectively mediated tumor cell kil

  12. Presence of non-maternal antibodies in newborns of mothers with antibody deficiencies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hahn-Zoric; B. Carlsson; J. Bjö rkander; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); L. Mellander; L.A. Hanson

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTo explain the mechanism for induction and production of specific antibodies found in the newborn already at birth, without previous known exposure to the antigen, we chose a model that presumably excluded the possibility of specific antibodies being transferred from the mother to the fe

  13. Higher cytotoxicity of divalent antibody-toxins than monovalent antibody-toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, JaeSeon; Nam, PilWon; Lee, YongChan [College of Life Sciences and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-ga Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, MuHyeon, E-mail: choemh@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-ga Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    Recombinant antibody-toxins are constructed via the fusion of a 'carcinoma-specific' antibody fragment to a toxin. Due to the high affinity and high selectivity of the antibody fragments, antibody-toxins can bind to surface antigens on cancer cells and kill them without harming normal cells [L.H. Pai, J.K. Batra, D.J. FitzGerald, M.C. Willingham, I. Pastan, Anti-tumor activities of immunotoxins made of monoclonal antibody B3 and various forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 (1991) 3358-3362]. In this study, we constructed the antibody-toxin, Fab-SWn-PE38, with SWn (n = 3, 6, 9) sequences containing n-time repeated (G{sub 4}S) between the Fab fragment and PE38 (38 kDa truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A). The SWn sequence also harbored one cysteine residue that could form a disulfide bridge between two Fab-SWn-PE38 monomers. We assessed the cytotoxicity of the monovalent (Fab-SWn-PE38), and divalent ([Fab-SWn-PE38]{sub 2}) antibody-toxins. The cytotoxicity of the dimer against the CRL1739 cell line was approximately 18.8-fold higher than that of the monomer on the ng/ml scale, which was approximately 37.6-fold higher on the pM scale. These results strongly indicate that divalency provides higher cytotoxicity for an antibody-toxin.

  14. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity.

  15. The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries.

  16. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  17. Metabolic engineering of monoclonal antibody carbohydrates for antibody-drug conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeley, Nicole M; Toki, Brian E; Zhang, Xinqun; Jeffrey, Scott C; Burke, Patrick J; Alley, Stephen C; Senter, Peter D

    2013-10-16

    The role that carbohydrates play in antibody function and pharmacokinetics has made them important targets for modification. The terminal fucose of the N-linked glycan structure, which has been shown to be involved in modulation of antibody-directed cellular cytotoxicity, is a particularly interesting location for potential modification through incorporation of alternative sugar structures. A library of fucose analogues was evaluated for their ability to incorporate into antibody carbohydrates in place of the native fucose. A number of efficiently incorporated molecules were identified, demonstrating the ability of fucosyltransferase VIII to utilize a variety of non-natural sugars as substrates. Among these structures was a thiolated analogue, 6-thiofucose, which was incorporated into the antibody carbohydrate with good efficiency. This unnatural thio-sugar could then be used for conjugation using maleimide chemistry to produce antibody-drug conjugates with pronounced cytotoxic activities and improved homogeneity compared to drug attachment through hinge disulfides.

  18. Antibody engineering using phage display with a coiled-coil heterodimeric Fv antibody fragment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    Full Text Available A Fab-like antibody binding unit, ccFv, in which a pair of heterodimeric coiled-coil domains was fused to V(H and V(L for Fv stabilization, was constructed for an anti-VEGF antibody. The anti-VEGF ccFv showed the same binding affinity as scFv but significantly improved stability and phage display level. Furthermore, phage display libraries in the ccFv format were constructed for humanization and affinity maturation of the anti-VEGF antibody. A panel of V(H frameworks and V(H-CDR3 variants, with a significant improvement in affinity and expressibility in both E. coli and yeast systems, was isolated from the ccFv phage libraries. These results demonstrate the potential application of the ccFv antibody format in antibody engineering.

  19. Monoclonal antibody disulfide reduction during manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Katariina M.; Hong, Robert W.; Lull, Jonathon; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Tian; Pei, Rex; Le, M. Eleanor; Borisov, Oleg; Piper, Rob; Liu, Yaoqing Diana; Petty, Krista; Apostol, Izydor; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing-induced disulfide reduction has recently been reported for monoclonal human immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies, a widely used modality in the biopharmaceutical industry. This effect has been tied to components of the intracellular thioredoxin reduction system that are released upon cell breakage. Here, we describe the effect of process parameters and intrinsic molecule properties on the extent of reduction. Material taken from cell cultures at the end of production displayed large variations in the extent of antibody reduction between different products, including no reduction, when subjected to the same reduction-promoting harvest conditions. Additionally, in a reconstituted model in which process variables could be isolated from product properties, we found that antibody reduction was dependent on the cell line (clone) and cell culture process. A bench-scale model using a thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase regeneration system revealed that reduction susceptibility depended on not only antibody class but also light chain type; the model further demonstrates that the trend in reducibility was identical to DTT reduction sensitivity following the order IgG1λ > IgG1κ > IgG2λ > IgG2κ. Thus, both product attributes and process parameters contribute to the extent of antibody reduction during production. PMID:23751615

  20. Striational antibodies in a paraneoplastic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Andrew; Lennon, Vanda A; LaChance, Daniel H; Klein, Christopher J; Pittock, Sean J

    2013-04-01

    The clinical significance of striational antibodies (StrAbs) detected in the course of paraneoplastic antibody testing is unknown. We compared all 203 striational antibody (StrAb)-seropositive patients identified (2004-2005) during evaluation for paraneoplastic antibodies with age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. Thymoma and myasthenia gravis (MG) were significantly more common among cases (Pdetected after StrAb detection were adenocarcinoma in 5 patients and sarcoma in 3 patients. All patients who had a cancer identified after StrAb testing had a titer of ≥ 1:7680 or a coexisting muscle AChR-binding antibody. Autoimmune disorders more commonly observed among cases (with any StrAb value) included: hypothyroidism; rheumatoid arthritis; and pernicious anemia (all P<0.05). StrAbs may serve as a diagnostic clue for an autoimmune diagnosis. There is a low likelihood of oncological significance in patients with StrAb titers <1:7680 without coexisting paraneoplastic Abs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antibody Fragments as Probe in Biosensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Muyldermans

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s proteomic analyses are generating increasing numbers of biomarkers, making it essential to possess highly specific probes able to recognize those targets. Antibodies are considered to be the first choice as molecular recognition units due to their target specificity and affinity, which make them excellent probes in biosensor development. However several problems such as difficult directional immobilization, unstable behavior, loss of specificity and steric hindrance, may arise from using these large molecules. Luckily, protein engineering techniques offer designed antibody formats suitable for biomarker analysis. Minimization strategies of antibodies into Fab fragments, scFv or even single-domain antibody fragments like VH, VL or VHHs are reviewed. Not only the size of the probe but also other issues like choice of immobilization tag, type of solid support and probe stability are of critical importance in assay development for biosensing. In this respect, multiple approaches to specifically orient and couple antibody fragments in a generic one-step procedure directly on a biosensor substrate are discussed.

  2. Recombinant shark natural antibodies to thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Samuel F; Jensen, Ingvill; Ramsland, Paul A; Marchalonis, John J

    2005-01-01

    As cartilaginous fish are the vertebrates most distal from man to produce antibodies, fundamental information regarding conservation and variation of the antigen binding site should be gained by comparing the properties of antibodies directed against the same antigen from the two species. Since monoclonal cell lines cannot be generated using shark B cells, we isolated antigen binding recombinant single chain Fv antibodies (scFv) comprising of the complete variable regions from shark light and heavy chains. Thyroglobulin was used as the selecting antigen as both sharks and humans express natural antibodies to mammalian thyroglobulin in the absence of purposeful immunization. We report that recombinant sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) scFvs that bind bovine thyroglobulin consist of heavy chain variable regions (VH) homologous to those of the human VHIII subset and light chain variable regions (VL) homologous to those of the human Vlambda6 subgroup. The homology within the frameworks is sufficient to enable the building of three-dimensional models of the shark VH/VL structure using established human structures as templates. In natural antibodies of both species, the major variability lies in the third complementarity determining region (CDR3) of both VH and VL.

  3. Non-antibody protein-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors that depend on a physical or chemical measurement can be adversely affected by non-specific interactions. For example, a biosensor designed to measure specifically the levels of a rare analyte can give false positive results if there is even a small amount of interaction with a highly abundant but irrelevant molecule. To overcome this limitation, the biosensor community has frequently turned to antibody molecules as recognition elements because they are renowned for their exquisite specificity. Unfortunately antibodies can often fail when immobilised on inorganic surfaces, and alternative biological recognition elements are needed. This article reviews the available non-antibody-binding proteins that have been successfully used in electrical and micro-mechanical biosensor platforms. PMID:27365032

  4. Sensitive neutralization test for rubella antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Albrecht, P; Krugman, S; Ennis, F A

    1979-01-01

    A modified rubella virus plaque neutralization test for measuring rubella antibody was developed based on the potentiation of the virus-antibody complex by heterologous anti-immunoglobulin. The test is highly sensitive, yielding titers on the average 50 to 100 times higher than the haemagglutination inhibition test or the conventional plaque neutralization test. The sensitivity of this enhanced neutralization test is somewhat limited by the existence of a prozone phenomenon which precludes testing of low-titered sera below a dilution of 1:16. No prozone effect was observed with cerebrospinal fluids. The specificity of the enhanced neutralization test was determined by seroconversion of individuals receiving rubella vaccine. Although the rubella hemagglutination inhibition test remains the test of choice in routine diagnostic and surveillance work, the enhanced rubella neutralization test is particularly useful in monitoring low-level antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological disorders and in certain instances of vaccine failure. PMID:107192

  5. Antibody-based biological toxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  6. Limbic encephalitis associated with elevated antithyroid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen, Yael; Joseph, Sonia; Kneen, Rachel; Eunson, Paul; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Immune-mediated limbic encephalitis affects both adults and children. Patients typically present with seizures, memory problems, and imaging changes in the medial temporal lobes. Both paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic forms have been described in which the antibody to the voltage-gated potassium channel-complex associated protein, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1, is most commonly reported. Elevated antithyroid antibodies have also been reported in a range of neurological syndromes with encephalopathy, such as limbic encephalitis, often collectively termed Hashimoto encephalopathy, a condition whereby corticosteroids responsiveness with a complete recovery is commonly observed. Here we describe 3 children presenting with limbic encephalitis with elevated thyroid antibodies that did not respond to corticosteroids alone and required more aggressive immunotherapy, mirroring the slower treatment response that is more frequently seen in other immune-mediated forms of limbic encephalitis.

  7. Origin and pathogenesis of antiphospholipid antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Celli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are detected in the serum of patients with a variety of conditions, including autoimmune (systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious (syphilis, AIDS and lymphoproliferative disorders (paraproteinemia, myeloma, lymphocytic leukemias. Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, recurrent fetal loss and other clinical complications are currently associated with a subgroup of aPL designating the antiphospholipid syndrome. In contrast, aPL from patients with infectious disorders are not associated with any clinical manifestation. These findings led to increased interest in the origin and pathogenesis of aPL. Here we present the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome and review the origin of aPL, the characteristics of experimentally induced aPL and their historical background. Within this context, we discuss the most probable pathogenic mechanisms induced by these antibodies.

  8. Adsorption of monoclonal antibodies to glass microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehne, Matthew; Samuel, Fauna; Dong, Aichun; Wurth, Christine; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2011-01-01

    Microparticulate glass represents a potential contamination to protein formulations that may occur as a result of processing conditions or glass types. The effect of added microparticulate glass to formulations of three humanized antibodies was tested. Under the three formulation conditions tested, all three antibodies adsorbed irreversibly at near monolayer surface coverages to the glass microparticles. Analysis of the secondary structure of the adsorbed antibodies by infrared spectroscopy reveal only minor perturbations as a result of adsorption. Likewise, front-face fluorescence quenching measurements reflected minimal tertiary structural changes upon adsorption. In contrast to the minimal effects on protein structure, adsorption of protein to suspensions of glass microparticles induced significant colloidal destabilization and flocculation of the suspension.

  9. Calciphylaxis in catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Surbhi; Larson, Andrew; Datta, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis and presence of circulating autoantibodies. The presence of APS can predispose to macrovascular as well as microvascular thrombotic events. Renal involvement is a common occurrence especially in the background of systemic lupus erythematosus. Skin appears to be another frequent target organ and a significant proportion of patients may present with skin lesions at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a patient who presented with skin necrosis secondary to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome despite being on therapeutic anticoagulation and then developed dystrophic calcification secondary to her renal insufficiency. This complex skin condition eventually leads to her demise, as she was not a candidate for surgical management of these lesions. Why is this important? This case brings to our attention the need to consider calciphylaxis as a cause of ecchymotic-appearing skin lesions in dialysis patients on warfarin in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  10. Imaging spectrum of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Gon; Ki, Won Woo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is recognized as one of the most important causes of hypercoagulability. It can be clinically diagnosed if patients have experienced unexplained recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, or thrombocytopenia in the presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids, such as anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Approximately half of all patients with this syndrome do not have associated systemic disease, and their condition is described as primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). In the remainder, the syndrome is accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases, and is known as secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (1). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the systemic manifestation of PAPS, focusing on the radiological findings of CT, MR and angiography in clinically proven patients. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  12. Anti-DNA antibodies--quintessential biomarkers of SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, David S

    2016-02-01

    Antibodies that recognize and bind to DNA (anti-DNA antibodies) are serological hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and key markers for diagnosis and disease activity. In addition to common use in the clinic, anti-DNA antibody testing now also determines eligibility for clinical trials, raising important questions about the nature of the antibody-antigen interaction. At present, no 'gold standard' for serological assessment exists, and anti-DNA antibody binding can be measured with a variety of assay formats, which differ in the nature of the DNA substrates and in the conditions for binding and detection of antibodies. A mechanism called monogamous bivalency--in which high avidity results from simultaneous interaction of IgG Fab sites with a single polynucleotide chain--determines anti-DNA antibody binding; this mechanism might affect antibody detection in different assay formats. Although anti-DNA antibodies can promote pathogenesis by depositing in the kidney or driving cytokine production, they are not all alike, pathologically, and anti-DNA antibody expression does not necessarily correlate with active disease. Levels of anti-DNA antibodies in patients with SLE can vary over time, distinguishing anti-DNA antibodies from other pathogenic antinuclear antibodies. Elucidation of the binding specificities and the pathogenic roles of anti-DNA antibodies in SLE should enable improvements in the design of informative assays for both clinical and research purposes.

  13. Antibody engineering & therapeutics, the annual meeting of the antibody society December 7–10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M.; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Carter, Paul J.; Melis, Joost P.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6–10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on “Antibodies to watch” in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries. PMID:26909869

  14. Behaviour of non-donor specific antibodies during rapid re-synthesis of donor specific HLA antibodies after antibody incompatible renal transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya S Krishnan

    Full Text Available HLA directed antibodies play an important role in acute and chronic allograft rejection. During viral infection of a patient with HLA antibodies, the HLA antibody levels may rise even though there is no new immunization with antigen. However it is not known whether the converse occurs, and whether changes on non-donor specific antibodies are associated with any outcomes following HLA antibody incompatible renal transplantation.55 patients, 31 women and 24 men, who underwent HLAi renal transplant in our center from September 2005 to September 2010 were included in the studies. We analysed the data using two different approaches, based on; i DSA levels and ii rejection episode post transplant. HLA antibody levels were measured during the early post transplant period and corresponding CMV, VZV and Anti-HBs IgG antibody levels and blood group IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were quantified.Despite a significant DSA antibody rise no significant non-donor specific HLA antibody, viral or blood group antibody rise was found. In rejection episode analyses, multiple logistic regression modelling showed that change in the DSA was significantly associated with rejection (p = 0.002, even when adjusted for other antibody levels. No other antibody levels were predictive of rejection. Increase in DSA from pre treatment to a post transplant peak of 1000 was equivalent to an increased chance of rejection with an odds ratio of 1.47 (1.08, 2.00.In spite of increases or decreases in the DSA levels, there were no changes in the viral or the blood group antibodies in these patients. Thus the DSA rise is specific in contrast to the viral, blood group or third party antibodies post transplantation. Increases in the DSA post transplant in comparison to pre-treatment are strongly associated with occurrence of rejection.

  15. Investigation of Antiphosphatidyl-Serine Antibody and Antiphosphatidyl-Inositol Antibody in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL. We measured β2-GPI aCL, IgGaCL, LA, antiphosphatidyl-serine antibody (PS, and antiphosphatidyl-inositol antibody (PI in each patient at one month after the onset of stroke. In addition, carotid artery echography was performed in patients positive for PI or PS. Among the 250 patients, 13.6% (34/250 were positive for either PI or PS, and 6.8% (17/250 were positive for both. Carotid artery echography performed on these 34 patients showed that the frequencies of increased intimal-medial thickness (IMT of 1.1 mm or more, plaque, and carotid artery stenosis of 50% or more were all significantly higher in patients positive for antinuclear antibody than those negative for the antibody (P<.05. PI and PS are associated with antinuclear antibody and precipitation of atherosclerosis. Ischemic stroke patients with SLE frequently showed a variety of antiphospholipid-protein antibodies.

  16. Mouse x pig chimeric antibodies expressed in Baculovirus retain the same properties of their parent antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jar, Ana M; Osorio, Fernando A; López, Osvaldo J

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technologies has made it possible to use antibodies against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases in humans. These advances in therapy, as well as immunoprophylaxis, could also make it possible to use these technologies in agricultural species of economic importance such as pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus causing very important economic losses to the industry. Passive transfer of antibodies obtained by biotechnology could be used in the future to complement or replace vaccination against this and other pig pathogens. To this end, we constructed and studied the properties of chimeric mouse x pig anti-PRRSV antibodies. We cloned the constant regions of gamma-1 and gamma-2 heavy chains and the lambda light chain of pig antibodies in frame with the variable regions of heavy and light chains of mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1, which has neutralizing activity against PRRSV. The coding regions for chimeric IgG1 and IgG2 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Both chimeric antibodies recognized PRRSV in ELISA as well as in a Western-blot format and, more importantly, were able to neutralize PRRSV in the same fashion as the parent mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1. In addition, we show that both pig IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies could bind complement component C1q, with IgG2 being more efficient than IgG1 in binding C1q. Expressing chimeric pig antibodies with protective capabilities offers a new alternative strategy for infectious disease control in domestic pigs.

  17. Monoclonal antibody technologies and rapid detection assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel methodologies and screening strategies will be outlined on the use of hybridoma technology for the selection of antigen specific monoclonal antibodies. The development of immunoassays used for diagnostic detection of prions and bacterial toxins will be discussed and examples provided demonstr...

  18. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infection (CF + P) but in none of the CF patients with no or intermittent P. aeruginosa infection. Anti-beta-lactamase antibodies were present in serum from CF + P patients after six antipseudomonal courses (median) and correlated with infection with a beta-lactam-resistant strain...

  19. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  20. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  1. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, L; Horst, G; Limburg, P; deGraeffMeeder, ER; Kuis, W; Kallenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    Objective, To evaluate the diagnostic significance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by assessing the prevalence of ANCA in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) (n = 93) of either oligoarticular, polyarticular, or systemic onset. To investigate the prevalence of ANCA in other diseases of c

  2. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Hemichorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezenash Ayalew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old Bangladeshi lady presented to neurology with a three-month history of involuntary movements of her right arm, associated with loss of power. There was progression to the right leg, and she subsequently developed episodes of slurred speech and blurred vision. At the time of presentation, she was 12 weeks pregnant and the symptoms were reported to have started at conception. Past medical history was unremarkable apart from one first trimester miscarriage and there was no significant family history suggestive of a hereditary neurological condition. MRI of the head revealed no abnormalities but serology showed positive antinuclear antibodies (ANAs at a titre of 1/400. Further investigations revealed strongly positive anticardiolipin antibodies (>120 and positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies. The patient had a second miscarriage at 19 weeks gestation strengthening the possibility that the chorea was related to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and she was started on a reducing dose of Prednisolone 40 mg daily and aspirin 300 mg daily. Six months later, she had complete resolution of neurological symptoms. There are several reports of chorea as a feature of antiphospholipid syndrome, but no clear consensus on underlying pathophysiology.

  3. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvariño, Ricardo; Noboa, Oscar; Cervera, Ricard

    2014-11-01

    Basement membranes form an anatomic barrier that contains connective tissue. They are composed of type IV collagen, laminin and proteoglycans. Anti-basement membrane antibodies bind to the non-collagen site of the α3 chain of type IV collagen. A group of renal diseases, pulmonary diseases and perhaps others affecting different organs have long been associated with the presence of antibodies directed against glomerular basement membrane (GBM), alveolar basement membrane and tubular basement membrane. Goodpasture disease has a frequency of 0.5 to 1 case by million/year, and is responsible for up to 20% of crescentic glomerulonephritis in renal biopsy. It has been associated with genetic and immune abnormalities and there are usually environmental triggers preceding clinical onset. Renal disease can occur isolated or in association with pulmonary hemorrhage. In general, renal disease has a rapid progression that determines severe compromise, with rare spontaneous resolution. The diagnosis of Goodpasture disease requires the presence of the anti-GBM antibody, either in circulation or in renal tissue. The prognosis of non-treated patients is poor. The standard of care is plasma exchange combined with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. Anti-GBM antibody levels must be monitored frequently until their disappearance, and then every 6 months to confirm sustained remission in the absence of clinical signs of recurrence. Prognosis of the disease is strongly associated with its initial presentation. Survival rates are related to the degree of renal compromise at onset of the disease. Recurrence of the disease post-transplantation is low.

  4. IgA as therapeutic antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusen, Jeanette H W

    2015-01-01

    This review is focused on the promises of IgA as a new therapeutic antibody. For more than 30 years IgG molecules have been used in the clinic in the fields of oncology, hematology, auto immune diseases and infections. However, IgA might be a good alternative, since it recruits different effector ce

  5. Developing recombinant antibodies for biomarker detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Miller, Keith D.; Kagen, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have an essential role in biomarker validation and diagnostic assays. A barrier to pursuing these applications is the reliance on immunization and hybridomas to produce mAbs, which is time-consuming and may not yield the desired mAb. We recommend a process flow for affinity reagent production that utilizes combinatorial protein display systems (eg, yeast surface display or phage display) rather than hybridomas. These systems link a selectable phenotype-binding conferred by an antibody fragment-with a means for recovering the encoding gene. Recombinant libraries obtained from immunizations can produce high-affinity antibodies (<10 nM) more quickly than other methods. Non-immune libraries provide an alternate route when immunizations are not possible, or when suitable mAbs are not recovered from an immune library. Directed molecular evolution (DME) is an integral part of optimizing mAbs obtained from combinatorial protein display, but can also be used on hybridoma-derived mAbs. Variants can easily be obtained and screened to increase the affinity of the parent mAb (affinity maturation). We discuss examples where DME has been used to tailor affinity reagents to specific applications. Combinatorial protein display also provides an accessible method for identifying antibody pairs, which are necessary for sandwich-type diagnostic assays.

  6. Antigen/Antibody Analyses in Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    antibodies in human sera with antigens of protozoan parasites . It was found that enzyme substrate reactions had distinct advantages over typical...autoradiographic procedures. Analyses of various sera identified a number of antigens of protozoan parasites which may be useful in discriminating infections

  7. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presenting with hemichorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yezenash; Khattak, Fazlihakim

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old Bangladeshi lady presented to neurology with a three-month history of involuntary movements of her right arm, associated with loss of power. There was progression to the right leg, and she subsequently developed episodes of slurred speech and blurred vision. At the time of presentation, she was 12 weeks pregnant and the symptoms were reported to have started at conception. Past medical history was unremarkable apart from one first trimester miscarriage and there was no significant family history suggestive of a hereditary neurological condition. MRI of the head revealed no abnormalities but serology showed positive antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) at a titre of 1/400. Further investigations revealed strongly positive anticardiolipin antibodies (>120) and positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies. The patient had a second miscarriage at 19 weeks gestation strengthening the possibility that the chorea was related to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and she was started on a reducing dose of Prednisolone 40 mg daily and aspirin 300 mg daily. Six months later, she had complete resolution of neurological symptoms. There are several reports of chorea as a feature of antiphospholipid syndrome, but no clear consensus on underlying pathophysiology.

  8. Pulmonary manifestations of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H James; Roubey, Robert A S

    2010-09-01

    A broad spectrum of pulmonary disease may occur in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The most common pulmonary manifestations are pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension. In this article the authors review these manifestations, as well as less common findings including acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary capillaritis.

  9. The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luma, Henry Namme; Doualla, Marie-Solange; Temfack, Elvis; Bagnaka, Servais Albert Fiacre Eloumou; Mankaa, Emmanuella Wankie; Fofung, Dobgima

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is defined by the presence of thromboembolic complications and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of persistently increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. Its clinical presentation can be diverse and any organ can be involved, with a current impact in most surgical and medical specialties. The authors present the case of a 43-year-old man who, over a 13-year period of follow-up, presented with thrombosis of the mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and axillary and subclavian veins in a setting where diagnostic and therapeutic options are limited and costly. Through this case report, the authors aim to describe the evolution of this complex pathology, which to date has not been described in the authors' milieu - probably because of its challenging diagnosis and the limited treatment options available. The authors conclude that clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion of APS in patients who present with a thrombotic episode - clinicians should investigate for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, as early diagnosis may influence the course of the disease. Furthermore, resources for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies should be made readily available in resource-limited settings. Finally, patient education on the importance of drug compliance, periodic monitoring, and prevention of thrombosis is indispensable, especially as mortality could be associated with the effects of vascular thrombosis and/or the effects of bleeding due to anticoagulants.

  10. Pathophysiology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rohan; Pierangeli, Silvia S

    2011-11-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are associated with the recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombosis that characterizes the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Although the ontogeny of these pathogenic antibodies has not been fully elucidated, there is evidence that indicates the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. The ability of aPL to induce a procoagulant phenotype in APS patients plays a central role in the development of arterial and venous thrombotic manifestations typical of the disease. Inflammation serves as a necessary link between this procoagulant phenotype and actual thrombus development and is an important mediator of the placental injury seen in APS patients with obstetric complications. Recent evidence has indicated a role for abnormal cellular proliferation and differentiation in the pathophysiology of APS, especially in those patients with pregnancy morbidity and other more atypical manifestations that have no identifiable thrombotic cause. The interplay of genetic and environmental factors responsible for aPL development and the mechanisms by which these antibodies produce disease in APS patients is the focus of this review.

  11. Neutralizing antibodies in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirjam B Zeisel; Samira Fafi-Kremer; Isabel Fofana; Heidi Barth; Fran(c)oise Stoll-Keller; Michel Doffo(e)l; Thomas F Baumert

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatitis world-wide. The majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis which can then progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Spontaneous viral clearance occurs in about 20%-30% of acutely infected individuals and results in resolution of infection without sequaelae. Both viral and host factors appear to play an important role for resolution of acute infection. A large body of evidence suggests that a strong, multispecific and long-lasting cellular immune response appears to be important for control of viral infection in acute hepatitis C. Due too the lack of convenient neutralization assays,the impact of neutralizing responses for control of viral infection had been less defined. In recent years, the development of robust tissue culture model systems for HCV entry and infection has finally allowed study of antibody-mediated neutralization and to gain further insights into viral targets of host neutralizing responses.In addition, detailed analysis of antibody-mediated neutralization in individual patients as well as cohorts with well defined viral isolates has enabled the study of neutralizing responses in the course of HCV infection and characterization of the impact of neutralizing antibodies for control of viral infection. This review will summarize recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization and its impact for HCV pathogenesis.(C) 2007 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Aggregates in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rey, María; Lang, Dietmar A

    2011-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proved to be a highly successful class of therapeutic products. Large-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical antibodies is a complex activity that requires considerable effort in both process and analytical development. If a therapeutic protein cannot be stabilized adequately, it will lose partially or totally its therapeutic properties or even cause immunogenic reactions thus potentially further endangering the patients' health. The phenomenon of protein aggregation is a common issue that compromises the quality, safety, and efficacy of antibodies and can happen at different steps of the manufacturing process, including fermentation, purification, final formulation, and storage. Aggregate levels in drug substance and final drug product are a key factor when assessing quality attributes of the molecule, since aggregation might impact biological activity of the biopharmaceutical. In this review it is analyzed how aggregates are formed during monoclonal antibody industrial production, why they have to be removed and the manufacturing process steps that are designed to either minimize or remove aggregates in the final product. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  14. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikova, Svetlana; Mouratou, Barbara; Stetefeld, Jörg; Mehta, Perdeep K; Christen, Philipp

    2002-11-01

    Strategies for expanding the catalytic scope of antibodies include the incorporation of inorganic or organic cofactors into their binding sites. An obvious choice is pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), which is probably the most versatile organic cofactor of enzymes. Monoclonal antibodies against the hapten N(alpha)-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-lysine, a stable analog of the covalent coenzyme-substrate adducts were screened by a competition ELISA for binding of the PLP-amino acid Schiff base adduct. The Schiff base with its C4'-N alpha double bond is, in contrast to the hapten, a planar compound and is an obligatory intermediate in all PLP-dependent reactions of amino acids. This highly discriminating screening step eliminated all but 5 of 24 hapten-binding antibodies. The five remaining antibodies were tested for catalysis of the PLP-dependent alpha,beta-elimination reaction of beta-chloroalanine. Antibody 15A9 complied with this selection criterion and catalyzed in addition the cofactor-dependent transamination reaction of hydrophobic D-amino acids and oxo acids (k(cat)'=0.42 min(-1) with D-alanine at 25 degrees C). Homology modeling together with alanine scanning yielded a 3D model of Fab 15A9. The striking analogy between antibody 15A9 and PLP-dependent enzymes includes the following features: (1) The binding sites accommodate the planar coenzyme-amino acid adduct. (2) The bond at C alpha to be broken lies together with the C alpha-N bond in a plane orthogonal to the plane of coenzyme and imine bond. (3) The alpha-carboxylate group of the substrate is bound by an arginine residue. (4) The coenzyme-substrate adduct assumes a cisoid conformation. (5) PLP markedly contributes to catalytic efficiency, being a 10(4) times more efficient amino group acceptor than pyruvate. The protein moiety, however, ensures reaction as well as substrate specificity, and further accelerates the reaction (in 15A9 k(cat (Ab x PLP))'/k(cat (PLP))'=5 x 10(3)). The analogies of antibody 15A9 with

  15. Antibody-Mediated Rejection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Jorge Carlos; Giusti, Sixto; Staffeld-Coit, Catherine; Bohorquez, Humberto; Cohen, Ari J.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic antibody injury is a serious threat to allograft outcomes and is therefore the center of active research. In the continuum of allograft rejection, the development of antibodies plays a critical role. In recent years, an increased recognition of molecular and histologic changes has provided a better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), as well as potential therapeutic interventions. However, several pathways are still unknown, which accounts for the lack of efficacy of some of the currently available agents that are used to treat rejection. Methods: We review the current diagnostic criteria for AMR; AMR paradigms; and desensitization, treatment, and prevention strategies. Results: Chronic antibody-mediated endothelial injury results in transplant glomerulopathy, manifested as glomerular basement membrane duplication, double contouring, or splitting. Clinical manifestations of AMR include proteinuria and a rise in serum creatinine. Current strategies for the treatment of AMR include antibody depletion with plasmapheresis (PLEX), immunoadsorption (IA), immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and T cell– or B cell–depleting agents. Some treatment benefits have been found in using PLEX and IA, and some small nonrandomized trials have identified some benefits in using rituximab and the proteasome inhibitor-based therapy bortezomib. More recent histologic follow-ups of patients treated with bortezomib have not shown significant benefits in terms of allograft outcomes. Furthermore, no specific treatment approaches have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Other agents used for more difficult rejections include bortezomib and eculizumab (an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody). Conclusion: AMR is a fascinating field with ample opportunities for research and progress in the future. Despite the use of advanced techniques for the detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or non-HLA donor-specific antibodies

  16. The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma HN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Henry Namme Luma,1,2 Marie-Solange Doualla,1,2 Elvis Temfack,1 Servais Albert Fiacre Eloumou Bagnaka,1 Emmanuella Wankie Mankaa,3 Dobgima Fofung41Department of Internal Medicine, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Radiology, Douala General Hospital Douala, Cameroon; 4Department of Abdominal Surgery, Daniel Muna Memorial Clinic, Douala, CameroonAbstract: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is defined by the presence of thromboembolic complications and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of persistently increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. Its clinical presentation can be diverse and any organ can be involved, with a current impact in most surgical and medical specialties. The authors present the case of a 43-year-old man who, over a 13-year period of follow-up, presented with thrombosis of the mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and axillary and subclavian veins in a setting where diagnostic and therapeutic options are limited and costly. Through this case report, the authors aim to describe the evolution of this complex pathology, which to date has not been described in the authors' milieu – probably because of its challenging diagnosis and the limited treatment options available. The authors conclude that clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion of APS in patients who present with a thrombotic episode – clinicians should investigate for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, as early diagnosis may influence the course of the disease. Furthermore, resources for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies should be made readily available in resource-limited settings. Finally, patient education on the importance of drug compliance, periodic monitoring, and prevention of thrombosis is indispensable, especially as mortality could be associated with the effects of vascular thrombosis and/or the effects

  17. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M. (National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, London (UK))

    1982-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys.

  18. Development of radioactivity labelling method of new antibody by using the antibody engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Saito, Yoshiro; Hachisuka, Akiko; Tanaka, Toichi; Sawada, Junichi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Under aiming to develop a preparation method of labelling antibody with low immune abiogenesis, the titled research attempted to establish a method of preparing a fusion protein of metal chelate protein (or polypeptide) and antibody molecule in genetic engineering method to label it with a radioactive metal. In this fiscal year, on a fusion protein of scFv antibody molecule and a metal chelate peptide (histidine hexamer), scFv-His and a fusion protein of scFv antibody molecule and a metal chelate protein (metathioneine-{beta}-domain), scFv-MT{beta}, investigations on culture condition of coliform for protein expression and on refinery method of the fusion protein were conducted. In addition, combination activity of antigen of the obtained fusion protein was measured. As a result, a preparation method of the fusion protein with combination activity of antigen could be established. (G.K.)

  19. 不同滴度麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗安全性观察%SECURITY CHECK ON DIFFERENT TITERS OF MEASLES MUMPS RUBELLA COMBINED LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王标; 陶红; 叶循; 王树巧; 储艳; 荀以标

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the security of different liters of measles, mumps, rubella combined live attenuated vaccine(MMR) in Biological Products of shanghai institute. To provide the scientific basis for scientific use. [Methods] Selected three hundred children aged 8 to IS months to vaccinate high-liter of Shanghai MMR, low-tiler of Shanghai MMR. While selected one hundred and a half children aged 8 to 15 months for MMR vaccine in the Beijing Biological Institute as controls for safely observation. (Results j After 8 to IS months children were vaccinated wilh high-tiler of Shanghai MMR vaccine, low- liter of Shanghai MMR vaccine and Beijing MMR, the incidence of adverse reactions was 17.33%. 21.33% and 17.33%, respectively. And incidence of fever was 15.33%,15.67%,14.67% respectively. Among them, all reactions to Beijing MMR vaccination were mtld fever, 3 cases of strong reaction of fever with high-liter of Shanghai MMR vaccination. One case of fever strong reaction occurred after low -tiler of Shanghai MMR vaccination. The abnormal responses of high and low liters of Shanghai MMR vaccination compared with the control vaccine were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The different tilers of Shanghai MMR vaccine have the same immunization safely with vaccine currently used.%[目的]研究上海生物制品研究所的不同滴度麻疹,腮腺炎、风疹三联联合减毒活疫苗(MMR)的安全性,为疫苗的使用提供科学依据.[方法]分别选择8~15月龄儿童各300名接种高滴度沪MMR、低滴度沪MMR,同时选择8~15月龄儿童150名接种北京生物所MMR疫苗作对照,进行安全性观察.[结果]8~15儿童接种高滴度沪MMR疫苗、低滴度沪MMR疫苗、京MMR后,不良反应的发生率分别为17.33%、21.33%、17.33%.发热反应发生率分别依次为:15.33%,15.67%,14.67%.其中京MMR全部为中轻度发热反应,高滴度沪MMR接种后发生3例发热强反应,低滴度MMR接种后发生1例发热强反

  20. Antibody-controlled actuation of DNA-based molecular circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Wouter; Meijer, Lenny H. H.; Somers, Bram; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Merkx, Maarten

    2017-02-01

    DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically. Detailed characterization of the ATSE reaction allowed the establishment of a comprehensive model that describes the kinetics and thermodynamics of ATSE as a function of toehold length, antibody-epitope affinity and concentration. ATSE enables the introduction of complex signal processing in antibody-based diagnostics, as demonstrated here by constructing molecular circuits for multiplex antibody detection, integration of multiple antibody inputs using logic gates and actuation of enzymes and DNAzymes for signal amplification.

  1. Antibody Request - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  2. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to native active human glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Bennett, Eric Paul; Clausen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    using monoclonal antibodies therefore provides an excellent strategy to analyze the glycosylation process in cells. A major drawback has been difficulties in generating antibodies to glycosyltransferases and validating their specificities. Here we describe a simple strategy for generating...

  3. Biophysical characterization of antibodies with isothermal titration calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verna Frasca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies play a key role in the immune response. Since antibodies bind antigens with high specificity and tight affinity, antibodies are an important reagent in experimental biology, assay development, biomedical research and diagnostics. Monoclonal antibodies are therapeutic drugs and used for vaccine development. Antibody engineering, biophysical characterization, and structural data have provided a deeper understanding of how antibodies function, and how to make better drugs. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC is a label-free binding assay, which measures affinity, stoichiometry, and binding thermodynamics for biomolecular interactions. When thermodynamic data are used together with structural and kinetic data from other assays, a complete structure-activity-thermodynamics profile can be constructed. This review article describes ITC, and discusses several applications on how data from ITC provides insights into how antibodies function, guide antibody engineering, and aid design of new therapeutic drugs.

  4. [An overview of antibody-based cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing-fang; Shao, Rong-guang; Zhen, Yong-su

    2012-10-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for cancer therapy has achieved considerable success in recent years. Approximate 17 monoclonal antibodies have been approved as cancer therapeutics since 1997. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) are powerful new treatment options for cancer, and naked antibodies have recently achieved remarkable success. The safety and effectiveness of therapeutic mAbs in oncology vary depending on the nature of the target antigen and the mechanisms of tumor cell killing. This review provides a summary of the current state of antibody-based cancer therapy, including the mechanisms of tumor cell killing by antibodies, tumor antigens as antibody targets, clinical effectiveness of antibodies in cancer patients and nanoparticles-based ADCs.

  5. Graves' Disease Associated with Cerebrovascular Disease and Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Khochtali

    2010-01-01

    have increased risk for developing thromboembolic accidents, which are favoured by a simultaneous presence of antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome. in this paper, we describe the case of a patient with Graves' disease, who developed strokes with antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome.

  6. Clinical features and antinuclear antibodies profile among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical features and antinuclear antibodies profile among adults with ... the clinical manifestations and pattern of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Sudan. ... SLE reactive antibodies and the histological diagnosis of lupus were studied.

  7. seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus antibodies amongst blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONGST BLOOD ... Conclusion: HCV infection is not uncommon in our environment hence the need to emphasize it's routine ... HCV antibody screening was done over a four-.

  8. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... that ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG ... researches, polyclonal antibodies are routinely used as .... production and characterization of anti- human IgG monoclonal antibody ...

  9. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-11

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  10. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective. PMID:27626445

  11. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  12. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics 2016: The Antibody Society's annual meeting, December 11-15, 2016, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, James W; Alfenito, Mark R; Scott, Jamie K; Parren, Paul W H I; Burton, Dennis R; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Lemere, Cynthia A; Messer, Anne; Huston, James S; Carter, Paul J; Veldman, Trudi; Chester, Kerry A; Schuurman, Janine; Adams, Gregory P; Reichert, Janice M

    Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the largest meeting devoted to antibody science and technology and the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in San Diego, CA on December 11-15, 2016. Each of 14 sessions will include six presentations by leading industry and academic experts. In this meeting preview, the session chairs discuss the relevance of their topics to current and future antibody therapeutics development. Session topics include bispecifics and designer polyclonal antibodies; antibodies for neurodegenerative diseases; the interface between passive and active immunotherapy; antibodies for non-cancer indications; novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies; novel checkpoint modulators / immuno-oncology; engineering antibodies for T-cell therapy; novel engineering strategies to enhance antibody functions; and the biological Impact of Fc receptor engagement. The meeting will open with keynote speakers Dennis R. Burton (The Scripps Research Institute), who will review progress toward a neutralizing antibody-based HIV vaccine; Olivera J. Finn, (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine), who will discuss prophylactic cancer vaccines as a source of therapeutic antibodies; and Paul Richardson (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), who will provide a clinical update on daratumumab for multiple myeloma. In a featured presentation, a representative of the World Health Organization's INN expert group will provide a perspective on antibody naming. "Antibodies to watch in 2017" and progress on The Antibody Society's 2016 initiatives will be presented during the Society's special session. In addition, two pre-conference workshops covering ways to accelerate antibody drugs to the clinic and the applications of next-generation sequencing in antibody discovery and engineering will be held on Sunday December 11, 2016.

  13. Development of syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies to mouse monoclonal anti-asialoglycoprotein receptor antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai M

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab2 play an important role in the homeostasis of immune responses and are related to the development and the disease activity of certain autoimmune diseases. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is considered one of the target antigens in the pathogenesis of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (AIH. We previously developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 8D7 which recognizes rat and human ASGPR. In this study, to help investigate the anti-ASGPR antibody-anti-idiotype antibody network in patients with AIH, we developed a syngeneic mouse monoclonal Ab2 to the 8D7 anti-ASGPR antibody (Ab1. One clone, designated as 3C8, tested positive for specific reactivity to 8D7-Ab1 and did not bind to other irrelevant immunoglobulins. By competitive inhibition assays, the binding of 8D7-Ab1 to liver membrane extracts, i.e., the crude antigen preparation, was inhibited by 3C8-Ab2 in a dose-dependent manner, and the binding of 8D7-Ab1 to 3C8-Ab2 was inhibited by the liver membrane extracts. In the immunohistochemical analysis, 3C8-Ab2 blocked the specific staining of sinusoidal margins of rat hepatocytes by 8D7-Ab1. These results suggest that 3C8 anti-idiotype antibody recognizes the specific idiotypic determinants within the antigen-binding site of 8D7-Ab1.

  14. Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A M; Pérez, A; Hernández, A M; Macías, A; Alfonso, M; Bombino, G; Pérez, R

    1998-12-01

    An IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb), named P3, has the characteristic to react specifically with a broad battery of N-glycolyl containing-gangliosides and with antigens expressed on breast tumors. When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, this Ab2 response was increased when P3 MAb was injected coupled to a carrier protein and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments, using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8.653 as fusion partner. Five Ab2 MAbs specific to P3 MAb were selected. These IgG1 Ab2 MAbs were able to block the binding of P3 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and to a human breast carcinoma cell line. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are recognizing the same or very close sites on the Abl MAb. The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response. While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not "internal image" antibodies, but they could define "regulatory idiotopes."

  15. Detection and Measurement of Antigen-Antibody Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-09-30

    kaolin . With low titer serum, much of the antibody also is removed, so that high titer antibody is made even more necessary. The use of immunodiffusion...increase the antibody titer significantly. In addition, a series of animals has been started on injections of bovine serum albumin with Freund’s... bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been obtained. With this available, a comparison can be made with normal antibody to the same antigen. Since the

  16. Assay for the specificity of monoclonal antibodies in crossed immunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Schou, C; Koch, C

    1984-01-01

    A method is described based on crossed immunoelectrophoresis of a complex antigen mixture in agarose gel followed by incubation of the gel with the monoclonal antibody. The bound monoclonal antibody is detected by the use of a secondary enzyme-labelled antibody. Using this technique we have been...... I molecules. In other experiments using the same technique we demonstrated the reaction of a monoclonal antibody specific for chicken Ig light chains. Udgivelsesdato: 1984-Aug-3...

  17. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transpl...

  18. Relevance of anti-myelin antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breij, E.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies directed against myelin antigens have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although anti-myelin antibodies have been implicated in central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, it is unclear to what extent anti-myelin antibodies contribute to MS pathogenesis. In this dissertation,

  19. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  20. 42 CFR 493.865 - Standard; Antibody identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Antibody identification. 493.865 Section..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.865 Standard; Antibody identification. (a) Failure to attain... proficiency testing event. (e) Failure to identify the same antibody in two consecutive or two out of...