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Sample records for preoptic area paraventricular

  1. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    area within the lateral hypothalamic region that consistently innervated magnocellular perikarya of the PVN. Finally, all areas of the lateral hypothalamic region contributed substantially to fibres terminating in the perinuclear shell of the PVN. These results demonstrate that anatomically distinct...

  2. Synaptic contact between median preoptic neurons and subfornical organ neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO. In contrast, after injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, in the POMe, abundant labeled axon varicosities were observed in the SFO. Using electron microscopy, synapses were identified between retrogradely labeled dendrites and cell bodies, and anterogradely labeled axon terminals, indicating that POMe neurons innervate SFO neurons projecting to the PVN. The possibility that POMe neurons play multiple roles in the neuronal circuit responsible for vasopressin release and/or cardiovascular regulation is also discussed.

  3. Preoptic hypnogenic area and reticular activating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, F

    1973-06-01

    The stimulation, in the encéphale isolé cat, of the basal preoptic hypnogenic area be brief electrical pulses evokes bilaterally an extracellular positive (P) field potential of 20 to 60 msec duration in the brain stem and thalamic activating ascending reticular system. The properties of this P wave have led to consider it as the extracellular and abbreviated counterpart of an hyperpolarizing postsynaptic inhibitory process which, by the functional depression it exerts on the arousal system, would be instrumental in the induction and maintenance of synchronized sleep. The positive field potential response of the reticular system shows the same recruiting build-up and amplitude modulation, and the same sensibility to amphetamine and to barbiturates, as the cortical potential of diffuse distribution which is evoked simultaneously. It is strychnine--and picrotoxin--resistant. Preoptic stimulation exerts, within a 100 msec interval, a strong suppressive effect on the excitatory response evoked in the n. centromedian by a mesencephalic reticular testing shock. On the other hand, the application of the latter as a conditioning stimulus results in a marked increase of the amplitude of the P wave response of the CM to a testing preoptic shock. A negative feedback interpretation of this interaction is suggested. No clear evidence of a tonic functioning of the preoptic hypnogenic structure could be found in experiments involving the production of small bilateral lesions in the basal preoptic area in the encéphale isolé cat. Reasons limiting the interpretation of this negative result are given. The functional significance, on the basis of experimental data, of the diffuse cortical synchronization produced by the low frequency stimulation of the basal preoptic area and of other hypnogenic structures is discussed.

  4. Topological and histological description of preoptic area and hypothalamus in cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón,Laura; Martha J Obando; Tovar,Mario O.; Pandolfi, Matías; Hurtado,Hernan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topological and histological descriptions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi were performed. Standard histological paraffin sections were used and stained with Nissl technique, and plastic sections for high-resolution optic microscopy (HROM). The preoptic area showed some differences related to the location of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM) and the size of the neurons in this region, as they were the biggest in all the preoptic...

  5. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

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    Ulrich eHerget

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression level are subject to environment-induced plasticity.Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proenkephalin a/b, neurotensin, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin. Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish.

  6. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

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    Wong, C J

    2000-01-01

    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  7. Development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and the influence of estrogen-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry Ann; Cui, Li; Greenfield, Lazar John; Paule, Merle Gale

    2013-10-15

    One of the well-defined sexually dimorphic structures in the brain is the sexually dimorphic nucleus, a cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The rodent sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area can be delineated histologically using conventional Nissl staining or immunohistochemically using calbindin D28K immunoreactivity. There is increasing use of the bindin D28K-delineated neural cluster to define the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rodents. Several mechanisms are proposed to underlie the processes that contribute to the sexual dimorphism (size difference) of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Recent evidence indicates that stem cell activity, including proliferation and migration presumably from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche, may play a critical role in the postnatal development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and its distinguishing sexually dimorphic feature: a signifi-cantly larger volume in males. Sex hormones and estrogen-like compounds can affect the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Despite considerable research, it remains un-clear whether estrogen-like compounds and/or sex hormones increase size of the sexually dimor-phic nucleus of the preoptic area via an increase in stem cell activity originating from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche.

  8. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  9. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  10. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

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    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that

  11. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  12. Antisense mRNA for NPY-Y1 receptor in the medial preoptic area increases prolactin secretion

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    N.A. Silveira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors within the medial preoptic area in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin release. Four bilateral microinjections of sense (control or antisense 18-base oligonucleotides of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA (250 ng corresponding to the NH2-terminus of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor were performed at 12-h intervals for two days into the medial preoptic area of ovariectomized Wistar rats (N = 16, weighing 180 to 200 g, treated with estrogen (50 µg and progesterone (25 mg two days before the experiments between 8.00 and 10:00 a.m. Blockade of Y1 receptor synthesis in the medial preoptic area by the antisense mRNA did not change plasma luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone but did increase prolactin from 19.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml in the sense group to 52.9 ± 9.6 ng/ml in the antisense group. The plasma hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and the values are reported as mean ± SEM. These data suggest that endogenous neuropeptide Y in the medial preoptic area has an inhibitory action on prolactin secretion through Y1 receptors.

  13. Early histone modifications in the ventromedial hypothalamus and preoptic area following oestradiol administration.

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    Gagnidze, K; Weil, Z M; Faustino, L C; Schaafsma, S M; Pfaff, D W

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the primary female sex behaviour, lordosis, in laboratory animals depends on oestrogen-induced expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) within a defined cell group in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The minimal latency from oestradiol administration to lordosis is 18 h. During that time, ligand-bound oestrogen receptors (ER), members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, recruit transcriptional coregulators, which induce covalent modifications of histone proteins, thus leading to transcriptional activation or repression of target genes. The present study aimed to investigate the early molecular epigenetic events underlying oestrogen-regulated transcriptional activation of the Pgr gene in the VMH of female mice. Oestradiol (E₂) administration induced rapid and transient global histone modifications in the VMH of ovariectomised female mice. Histone H3 N-terminus phosphorylation (H3S10phK14Ac), acetylation (H3Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3) exhibited distinct temporal patterns facilitative to the induction of transcription. A transcriptional repressive (H3K9me3) modification showed a different temporal pattern. Collectively, this should create a permissive environment for the transcriptional activity necessary for lordosis, within 3-6 h after E₂ treatment. In the VMH, changes in the H3Ac and H3K4me3 levels of histone H3 were also detected at the promoter region of the Pgr gene within the same time window, although they were delayed in the preoptic area. Moreover, examination of histone modifications associated with the promoter of another ER-target gene, oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), revealed gene- and brain-region specific effects of E₂ treatment. In the VMH of female mice, E₂ treatment resulted in the recruitment of ERα to the oestrogen-response-elements-containing putative enhancer site of Pgr gene, approximately 200 kb upstream of the transcription start site, although it failed to increase ER

  14. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

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    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  15. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  16. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  17. Neonatal handling reduces the number of cells in the medial preoptic area of female rats.

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    Camozzato, Tatiane S C; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha, Camila B; Miguel, Sandro P R; Bonzanini, Laisa; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Fernandes, Marilda C; Lucion, Aldo B

    2009-01-09

    Early-life events may induce alterations in neuronal function in adulthood. A crucial aspect in studying long-lasting effects induced by environmental interventions imposed to the animal several weeks before is finding a stable change that could be causally related to the phenotype observed in adulthood. In order to explain an adult trait, it seems necessary to look back to early life and establish a temporal line between events. The neonatal handling procedure is an experimental tool to analyze the long-lasting impact of early-life events. Aside from the neuroendocrine response to stress, neonatal handling also alters the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. Reductions in ovulation and surge of the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the proestrous day were shown in female rats. Considering the importance of the medial preoptic area (MPA) for the control of ovulation, the present study aimed to verify the effects of neonatal handling on the numerical density and cell size in the MPA in 11-day-old and 90-day-old female rats. Cellular proliferation was also assessed using BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in 11-day-old pups. Results showed that neonatal handling induces a stable reduction in the number of cells and in the size of the cell soma, which were lower in handled females than in nonhandled ones at both ages. Cellular proliferation in the MPA was also reduced 24 h after the last manipulation. The repeated mother-infant disruption imposed by the handling procedure "lesioned" the MPA. The dysfunction in the ovulation mechanisms induced by the handling procedure could be related to that neuronal loss. The study also illustrates the impact of an environmental intervention on the development of the brain.

  18. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

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    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  19. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area.

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    Gavrilov, Yury V; Ellison, Brian A; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Reddy, Hasini; Haybaeck, Johannes; Mignot, Emmanuel; Baumann, Christian R; Scammell, Thomas E; Valko, Philipp O

    2016-05-01

    To examine the integrity of sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in postmortem brains of narcolepsy type 1 patients. Postmortem examination of five narcolepsy and eight control brains. VLPO galanin neuron count did not differ between narcolepsy patients (11,151 ± 3,656) and controls (13,526 ± 9,544). A normal number of galanin-immunoreactive VLPO neurons in narcolepsy type 1 brains at autopsy suggests that VLPO cell loss is an unlikely explanation for the sleep fragmentation that often accompanies the disease. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

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    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  1. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

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    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  2. GFAP expression in astrocytes of suprachiasmatic nucleus and medial preoptic area are differentially affected by malnutrition during rat brain development.

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    Mendonça, João Esmeraldo Frota; Vilela, Maria Cristina Ramos; Bittencourt, Heitor; Lapa, Raíssa Maria; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Alessio, Maria Luíza Martins; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; De Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Da Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate, in young rats, the effects of malnutrition on astrocyte distribution of two hypothalamic regions, the circadian pacemaker suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the medial preoptic area (MPA). Control rats were born from mothers fed on commercial diet since gestation and malnourished rats from mothers fed on multideficient diet, from the beginning of gestation (GLA group) or from the onset of lactation (LA group). After weaning, pups received ad libitum the same diet as their mothers, and were maintained under a 12/12 h light/dark cycle. The animals were analyzed either at 30-33, or 60-63 days of life. Brain coronal sections (50 microm) were processed to visualize glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Compared to control rats, both malnourished groups of 30 and 60 days exhibited a reduced number of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the SCN. The total GFAP-immunoreactive area in the SCN of the GLA group differed from the control group at both age ranges analyzed. The GFAP expression as measured by the relative optical density (ROD) exhibited a 50-60% reduction in the MPA in both malnourished groups, compared to controls. The results suggest that malnutrition early in life leads to alterations in gliogenesis or glial cell proliferation in both nuclei, being these alterations greater in the MPA. Compensatory plasticity mechanisms in the GFAP-expression seem to be developed in the astrocyte differentiation process in the SCN, especially when the malnutrition is installed from the lactation.

  3. Serotonin promotes feminization of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, but not the calbindin cell group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Amanda M K; Paul, Alexandria T; Pritchard, Rory A; Michel, Rebecca; Zup, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone and its metabolites masculinize the brain during a critical perinatal window, including the relative volume of sexually dimorphic brain areas such as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN), which is larger in males than females. Serotonin (5HT) may mediate this hormone action, since 5HT given during the second week of life decreases (i.e., feminizes) SDN volume in males and testosterone-treated females. Although previous work indicates that the 5HT2A/2C receptor is sufficient to induce feminization, it is unclear whether other serotonin receptors are required and which subpopulation(s) of SDN cells are specifically organized by 5HT. Therefore, we injected male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups with saline, a nonselective 5HTR agonist, a 5HT2A/2C agonist, or a 5HT2A/2C antagonist over several timecourses in early life, and measured the Nissl-SDN as well as a calbindin+ subdivision of the SDN, the CALB-SDN. When examined on postnatal day 18 or early adulthood, the size of the Nissl-SDN was feminized in males treated with any of the serotonergic drugs, eliminating the typical sex difference. In contrast, the sex difference in CALB-SDN size was maintained regardless of serotoninergic drug treatment. This pattern suggests that although gonadal hormones shape the whole SDN, individual cellular phenotypes respond to different intermediary signals to become sexually dimorphic. Specifically, 5HT mediates sexual differentiation of non-calbindin population(s) within the SDN. The results also caution against using measurement of the CALB-SDN in isolation, as the absence of an effect on the CALB-SDN does not preclude an effect on the overall nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1241-1253, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Release of norepinephrine in the preoptic area activates anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons and stimulates the surge of luteinizing hormone.

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    Szawka, Raphael E; Poletini, Maristela O; Leite, Cristiane M; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B D; Carolino, Ruither O G; Helena, Cleyde V V; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids.

  5. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in rat medial preoptic area neurones during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy.

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    Herbison, A E; Augood, S J; McGowan, E M

    1992-08-01

    Evidence suggests that medial preoptic area (MPOA) neurones containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are modulated directly by oestrogen. We have used an alkaline phosphatase-labelled antisense oligonucleotide probe to examine glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD) mRNA expression within individual cells of the MPOA, diagonal band of Broca (DBB) and parietal cortex in rats killed at noon on each day of the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy (n = 4-5). As a fall in extracellular GABA concentrations occurs in the MPOA on the afternoon of proestrus, the GAD67 mRNA content of cells was also examined in proestrous rats at 15:00h immediately prior to the preovulatory luteinising hormone (LH) surge. The MPOA was found to have an intermediate number of GAD67 mRNA-containing cells compared with the DBB and cortex (P less than 0.01) but expressed the lowest mean hybridisation signal (P less than 0.01). The parietal cortex had significantly fewer (P less than 0.01) GAD mRNA-containing cells than either the MPOA or DBB but these contained higher mean density of signal (P less than 0.01). The hybridisation signal for GAD mRNA was abolished by either ribonuclease pre-treatment or the use of excess non-labelled probe. No significant (P greater than 0.05) differences in GAD67 mRNA were detected in animals killed at noon throughout the oestrous cycle or after ovariectomy. On the afternoon of proestrus (15:00h) there was a significant 40% reduction in mean GAD67 mRNA content within cells of only the MPOA compared with noon (P less than 0.05). The numbers of cells in the MPOA expressing GAD67 mRNA were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does.

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    Meza, Enrique; Aguirre, Juan; Waliszewski, Stefan; Caba, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Previously, we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of Period1 (PER1) protein, the product of the clock gene Per1, in oxytocinergic and dopaminergic populations in the hypothalamus of lactating rabbit does. This is significant for the periodic production and ejection of milk, but the activation of other areas of the brain has not been explored. Here, we hypothesised that daily suckling would induce a rhythm in the preoptic area, lateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are important areas for the expression of maternal behavior in mammals, including the rabbit. To this end, we analysed PER1 expression in those areas through a complete 24-h cycle at lactation day 7. Does were scheduled to nurse during either the day at 10:00 h [zeitgeber time (ZT)03] or the night at 02:00 h (ZT19). Non-pregnant, non-lactating females were used as controls. In contrast to control females, lactating does showed a clear, significant rhythm of PER1 that shifted in parallel with the timing of nursing in the preoptic area and lateral septum. We determined that the maximal expression of PER1 at 8 h after scheduled nursing decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after the absence of suckling. This effect was more pronounced in the lateral septum than in the preoptic area. We conclude that daily suckling is a powerful stimulus inducing rhythmic activity in brain structures in the rabbit that appear to form part of a maternal entrainable circuit. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

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    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  8. Interaction between paraventricular nucleus and septal area in the control of physiological responses induced by angiotensin II

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    Camargo L.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effects of losartan (40 nmol and PD 123319 (40 nmol (both non-peptides and selective antagonists of the AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors, respectively, and [Sar¹, Ala8] angiotensin II (ANG II (40 nmol (a non-selective peptide antagonist of angiotensin receptors injected into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN on the water and salt appetite, diuresis and natriuresis and mean arterial pressure (MAP induced by administration of 10 nmol of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA of male Holtzman rats weighing 250-300 g. The volume of drug solution injected was 0.5 µl over a period of 10-15 s. The responses were measured over a period of 120 min. ANG II alone injected into the MSA induced an increase in all the above parameters (8.1 ± 1.2, 1.8 ± 0.3, and 17.1 ± 1.0 ml, 217 ± 25 µEq/120 min, and 24 ± 4 mmHg, respectively, N = 10-12 compared with vehicle-treated rats (1.4 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 9.3 ± 0.5 ml, 47 ± 5 µEq/120 min, and 4.1 ± 0.8 mmHg, respectively, N = 10-14. Pretreatment with losartan and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II completely abolished the water and sodium intake, and the pressor increase (0.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2, 0.5 ± 0.2, and 0.8 ± 0.2 ml, and 1.2 ± 3.9, 31 ± 4.6 mmHg, respectively, N = 9-12, whereas losartan blunted the urinary and sodium excretion induced by ANG II (13.9 ± 1.0 ml and 187 ± 10 µEq/120 min, respectively, N = 9. Pretreatment with PD 123319 and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II blocked the urinary and sodium excretion (10.7 ± 0.8, 9.8 ± 0.7 ml, and 67 ± 13 and 57 ± 17 µEq/120 min, respectively, N = 9, whereas pretreatment with PD 123319 partially blocked the water and sodium intake, and the MAP induced by ANG II administration (2.3 ± 0.3, 1.1 ± 0.1 ml, and 12 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, N = 9-10. These results suggest the angiotensinergic effect of the MSA on the AT1 and AT2 receptors of the PVN in terms of water and sodium homeostasis and MAP modulation.

  9. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

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    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  10. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

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    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  11. Seasonal changes of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors and aromatase expression in the medial preoptic area of the wild male ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt

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    F. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder. In this study, using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the mRNA and protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom in the medial preoptic area (MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrel during the breeding season (April, the non-breeding season (June and pre-hibernation (September. AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom protein/mRNA were present in the MPOA of all seasons detected. The immunostaining of AR and ERα showed no significant changes in different periods, whereas ERβ and P450arom had higher immunoreactivities during the breeding season and pre-hibernation when compared to those of the non-breeding season. Consistently, both the protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERβ were higher in the MPOA of pre-hibernation and the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, whereas no significant difference amongst the three periods was observed for AR and ERα levels. These findings suggested that the MPOA of hypothalamus may be a direct target of androgen and estrogen. Androgen may play important regulatory roles through its receptor and/or the aromatized estrogen in the MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrels.

  12. The effects of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway stimulation on dopamine in the medial preoptic area and copulation in DHT-treated castrated male rats.

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    Sato, Satoru M; Wersinger, Scott R; Hull, Elaine M

    2007-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) provides important facilitative influence on male rat copulation. We have shown that the nitric oxide-cGMP (NO-cGMP) pathway modulates MPOA DA levels and copulation. We have also shown that systemic estradiol (E(2)) maintains neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the MPOA of castrates, as well as relatively normal DA levels. This effect of E(2) on nNOS probably accounts for at least some of the previously demonstrated behavioral facilitation by intra-MPOA E(2) administration in castrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPOA NO-cGMP pathway in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates should restore DA levels and copulatory behaviors. Reverse-dialysis of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased extracellular DA in the MPOA of DHT-treated castrates and restored the ability to copulate to ejaculation in half of the animals. A cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased extracellular DA, though not as robustly, but did not restore copulatory ability. The effectiveness of the NO donor in restoring copulation and MPOA DA levels is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the lack of behavioral effects of 8-Br-cGMP, despite its increase in MPOA DA, suggests that NO may have additional mediators in the MPOA in the regulation of copulation. Furthermore, the suboptimal copulation seen in the NO donor-treated animals suggests the importance of extra-MPOA systems in the regulation of copulation.

  13. Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors in the medial preoptic area on body temperature in awake rats.

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    Sengupta, Trina; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA). A precalibrated thermocouple wire implanted near the hypothalamus was used to assess Tbr. Specific agonist for each ionotropic glutamate receptor was microinjected into the mPOA and its effects on temperature and LMA were measured in the rats. The rats were also microinjected with the respective ionotropic receptor antagonists, 15min prior to the microinjection of each agonist. Amongst amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid, AMPA increased Tb and LMA when injected at the mPOA. Specific antagonists for AMPA receptors was able to attenuate this increase (ptemperature.

  14. 腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响%Effects of Microinjection of Histamine in Ventrolateral Preoptic Area on Rat Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle

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    刘宇炜; 若剑; 陈晓青; 易卉玲; 黄丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of histamine in rat ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakeful⁃ness cycle. Methods Histamine was microinjected into ventrolateral preoptic area through stereotaxic technique,sleeping and waking time phases were recorded and analyzed by electroencephalograph. Results Microinjection of 50 μmol/L histamine had no significant effect ,but 100 μmol/L histamine de⁃creased sleeping time and increased waking time significantly. Conclusion Histamine is involved in reg⁃ulation of sleep-waking cycle and promotes wakefulness significantly in the ventrolateral preoptic area.%目的:研究组胺作用于腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响。方法通过脑立体定位、腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺,脑电图仪记录及分析睡眠、觉醒时相。结果微量注射50μmol/L组胺无明显影响,而100μmol/L组胺显著减少大鼠睡眠,增加觉醒。结论组胺在腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期发挥重要的调节作用,具有明显的促觉醒作用。

  15. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

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    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  16. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

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    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  17. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

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    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  18. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

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    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  19. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

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    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  20. Influence of angiotensin II receptor subtypes of the paraventricular nucleus on the physiological responses induced by angiotensin II injection into the medial septal area

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    Saad Wilson Abrão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We determined the effects of losartan and PD 123319 (antagonists of the AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors, respectively, and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II (a relatively peptide antagonist of angiotensin receptors injected into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN on water and 3% NaCl intake, and the diuretic, natriuretic, and pressor effects induced by administration of angiotensin II (ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA of conscious rats. METHODS: Holtzman rats were used . Animals were anesthetized with tribromoethanol (20 mg per 100 grams of body weight, ip. A stainless steel guide cannula was implanted into the MSA and PVN. All drugs were injected in 0.5-mul volumes for 10-15 seconds. Seven days after brain surgery, water and 3% NaCl intake, urine and sodium excretion, and arterial blood pressure were measured. RESULTS: Losartan (40 nmol and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II (40 nmol completely eliminated whereas PD 123319 (40 nmol partially blocked the increase in water and sodium intake and the increase in arterial blood pressure induced by ANG II (10 nmol injected into the MSA. The PVN administration of PD 123319 and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II blocked whereas losartan attenuated the diuresis and natriuresis induced by MSA administration of ANG II. CONCLUSION: MSA involvement with PVN on water and sodium homeostasis and arterial pressure modulation utilizing ANGII receptors is suggested.

  1. Evidence that gonadal steroids modulate nitric oxide efflux in the medial preoptic area: effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and correlation with luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, S; Xu, B; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1996-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. This study was undertaken to determine 1) NO activity in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) where LHRH- and NO synthase-containing neurons are coextensive; 2) whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, which stimulates LHRH release, augments NO activity in the MPOA; and 3) whether NO activation in the MPOA underlies the steroid dependency of NMDA-induced pituitary LH release. As extracellular levels of cGMP in discrete brain sites are a reliable index of basal and stimulated activity of NO, extracellular cGMP levels in the MPOA of freely moving, awake rats were measured by microdialysis in the current study. In the first experiment, the MPOA of intact and castrated male rats were microdialyzed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 5 microliters/min. The basal level of cGMP efflux was determined from the initial seven samples collected at 20-min intervals. The NO response to a single i.v. injection of NMDA (10 mg/kg) or saline was assessed in the next five samples. In the second experiment, the basal and NMDA-evoked NO effluxes in the MPOA of ovariectomized (ovx) and estrogen-treated ovx rats were examined. Results showed that in both sexes, the absence of gonadal steroids resulted in significantly lower basal cGMP levels. Additionally, the cGMP response to NMDA was steroid dependent. Whereas in castrated rats it failed to affect cGMP efflux, NMDA in intact male rats promptly raised cGMP levels at 20 min, and these elevated levels were maintained through the duration of the experiment. This NMDA-induced cGMP response, observed selectively in intact rats, was also associated with stimulation of plasma LH levels. In female rats, NMDA similarly enhanced MPOA cGMP efflux and pituitary LH secretion in estradiol benzoate-treated, but not in oil-treated, ovx rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-amino-5-phosphoropentanoic acid

  2. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shinjae; Weber, Franz; Zhong, Peng; Tan, Chan Lek; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Beier, Kevin T; Hörmann, Nikolai; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Zhe; Do, Johnny Phong; Yao, Shenqin; Krashes, Michael J; Tasic, Bosiljka; Cetin, Ali; Zeng, Hongkui; Knight, Zachary A; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2017-05-25

    In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep. However, the sleep-active neurons are spatially intermingled with wake-active neurons, making it difficult to target the sleep neurons specifically for circuit analysis. Here we identify a population of preoptic area sleep neurons on the basis of their projection target and discover their molecular markers. Using a lentivirus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 or a light-activated chloride channel for retrograde labelling, bidirectional optogenetic manipulation, and optrode recording, we show that the preoptic area GABAergic neurons projecting to the tuberomammillary nucleus are both sleep active and sleep promoting. Furthermore, translating ribosome affinity purification and single-cell RNA sequencing identify candidate markers for these neurons, and optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations demonstrate that several peptide markers (cholecystokinin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and tachykinin 1) label sleep-promoting neurons. Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit.

  3. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  4. The Increase in Signaling by Kisspeptin Neurons in the Preoptic Area and Associated Changes in Clock Gene Expression That Trigger the LH Surge in Female Rats Are Dependent on the Facilitatory Action of a Noradrenaline Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Bruna; Ribeiro, Aline B; Leite, Cristiane M; Uchôa, Ernane T; Carolino, Ruither O; Cardoso, Thais S R; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José A; Plant, Tony M; Poletini, Maristela O; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) of the preoptic area are considered to provide a major stimulatory input to the GnRH neuronal network that is responsible for triggering the preovulatory LH surge. Noradrenaline (NA) is one of the main modulators of GnRH release, and NA fibers are found in close apposition to kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V. Our objective was to interrogate the role of NA signaling in the kisspeptin control of GnRH secretion during the estradiol induced LH surge in ovariectomized rats, using prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. In control rats, the estradiol-induced LH surge at 17 hours was associated with a significant increase in GnRH and kisspeptin content in the median eminence with the increase in kisspeptin preceding that of GnRH and LH. Prazosin, administered 5 and 3 hours prior to the predicted time of the LH surge truncated the LH surge and abolished the rise in GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence. In the preoptic area, prazosin blocked the increases in Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin content in association with a disruption in the expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1. Together these findings demonstrate for the first time that NA modulates kisspeptin synthesis in the RP3V through the activation of α1-adrenergic receptors prior to the initiation of the LH surge and indicate a potential role of α1-adrenergic signaling in the circadian-controlled pathway timing of the preovulatory LH surge.

  5. Lonicera japonica-induced inhibition of interleukin-1 beta thermogenesis and E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 expression in the preoptic area of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Dong; Rongbo Tu; Rui Pan; Xinhua Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been shown that interleukin-1β(IL-I β)can induce fever by activating vascular endothelial cells and macrophages of the supraoptic crest to generate prostaglandin E2,which binds with receptors of the thermo-sensitive hypothalamic neurons.Lonicera japonica is one of the medicinal plants used widely in Asia for its antipyretic properties.However,these mechanisms have not yet been intensively studied.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the antipyretic effect and mechanisms of Lonicera japonica on IL-1 β-induced febrile New Zealand rabbits by observing expression changes of E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 (EP3)mRNA in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus(POAH). DESIGN:A randomized controlled study. SETTING:Electrophysiological Laboratory at the Department of Pathophysiology,Medical College of Jinan University; Department of Orthopaedics,First Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Jinan University. MATERIALS:The experiment was performed from April to December 2005,using a total of 32 New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes,weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.All the animal experiments were performed according to the internationally accepted ethical guidelines.Lonicera japonica injection was purchased from Huanghe pharmaceutical factory of Xi'an,China.IL-1 β was purchased from Sigma,USA.METHODS:A total of 32 rabbits were divided randomly into four groups:①Normal saline(NS)control group; ②Lonicerajaponica treatment group;③IL-1 β treatment group; and ④Lonicerajaponica plus IL-1 β treatment group.In the first 3 groups,the rabbits were given separate intravenous(I.v.)injections of 1 mL NS,1 mL l.Lonicera japonica,and 100 ng IL-1 β(dissolved in 0.9% NS without pyrogen).In the lonicera japonica plus IL-I βgroup each rabbit was given I.v.injections of l mL NS and,30 minutes later, 100 ng IL-I β. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Colonic temperature of each rabbit was measured at 0,10,20,30,40,50, 60,and 70 minutes after injection and the maximum temperature rise( △ T)and the

  6. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  7. Neuropeptides in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system: lateral retrochiasmatic area as a common gate for neuronal fibers towards the median eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, M

    1984-01-01

    The source and topography of neuropeptide-containing axons in the median eminence are summarized. Several of these neuropeptide-containing neurons (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, cholecystokinin) are localized in the paraventricular nucleus. The periventricular and medial preoptic nuclei constitute the main sources of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone axons in the median eminence, respectively. Dynorphins and alpha-neo-endorphin-synthetizing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus also project to the median eminence. Wherever they originate, the projections may follow a common organization pattern and use a common gate--the lateral retrochiasmatic area--to enter the median eminence.

  8. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital); Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T[sub 2]- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T[sub 2]-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author).

  9. The preoptic-suprachiasmatic nuclei though morphologically heterogeneous are equally affected by streptozotocin diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, G; Hofer, R; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    Pituitary and gonadal disorders consistent with abnormal LHRH and LH secretion occur in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. A key role in the synthesis and regulation of LHRH and in the phasic LH release is played by the preoptic-suprachiasmatic region which is mainly formed by the medial preoptic area, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Therefore we have studied this region by morphology and morphometry in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal animals, the neurons of the above mentioned nuclei were morphologically and morphometrically dissimilar. Independent of their localization, reduced cytoplasmic and nuclear areas were observed in the neurons of diabetic animals. These lesions are consistent with hypotrophied neurons. Consequently, diabetes may impair both synthesis and regulation of LHRH and may therefore account for pituitary disorders, testicular atrophy, and lacking preovulatory LH peaks. The structural differences of the neurons of the three nuclei in normal animals underline their different physiological role. Yet, the similarity of the changes found in all three nuclei suggests a generalized hypofunction of the whole preoptic-suprachiasmatic region under diabetic condition.

  10. The effects of knife cuts in the sub-paraventricular zone of the female rat hypothalamus on oestrogen-induced diurnal surges of plasma prolactin and LH, and circadian wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A G; Sheward, W J; Whale, D; Fink, G

    1989-08-01

    To investigate the role of suprachiasmatic efferent connections in the expression of diurnal hormone rhythms, the efferent pathway from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (the putative circadian generator in the rat) to the subparaventricular zone (the main terminal area of suprachiasmatic efferents) was disrupted using bilateral horizontal knife cuts in ovariectomized oestrogen-treated rats. The position of the knife cut was assessed by observing its effect on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity (a marker for suprachiasmatic efferents into the sub-paraventricular zone). The size of both the diurnal plasma LH and prolactin surges was markedly and consistently reduced over the 3-week period following the lesion in animals with a total deafferentation of the subparaventricular zone, compared with sham-operated animals or lesioned animals with an intact subparaventricular zone. When lesioned animals were grouped according to the presence or absence of damage to the preoptic area, no significant differences were found in the sizes of the plasma hormone surges. When similar knife cuts were given to animals whose activity cycles were observed, no significant effects were noted in the ability of the animals to synchronize to a light/dark regime or to free-run in constant light conditions. These results suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus influences the diurnal surges of plasma LH and prolactin in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized rats, initially by an interaction with the subparaventricular zone and not by a direct influence on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones or other more rostral structures.

  11. The control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, P; Baillien, M; Ball, G F; Panzica, G C; Balthazart, J

    2001-11-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons. Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been

  12. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  13. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Morten P; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R; Harper, Ronald M

    2004-01-19

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity peaked 0.8s following stimulation, and then markedly declined below baseline to a trough at 9.7s. Hypothalamic responses were not uniformly distributed across the recorded PVH field. Activity changes emerged from subregions within the visualized area, and were widespread at the overall activity zenith and nadir. Isolated pixels appeared opposite in activity pattern to overall changes. We suggest that transient activity increases represent initial PVH neural stress responses, and that subsequent profound declines result from neural inhibitory feedback.

  14. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  15. Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating male copulatory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Le, Brandon; Zhou, Zifei; Crews, David

    2008-01-01

    Copulatory behaviors are generally dependent on testicular androgens in male vertebrates, being eliminated by castration and re-instated by testosterone administration. It is postulated that a critical factor in this hormonal gating is up-regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area, and consequent enhanced nitric oxide synthesis in response to stimuli associated with a receptive female. Previous studies have suggested that nNOS protein is more abundant in behaviorally relevant preoptic regions of testosterone-exposed animals than in hormone-deprived controls. This study sought to elucidate the molecular events underlying this apparent up-regulation by examining preoptic nNOS mRNA abundance at several time points following testosterone administration in a castration and replacement paradigm. Castrated male whiptails (Cnemidophorus inornatus) were implanted with testosterone, and at four time points over the subsequent 18 days their sexual behavior was tested. A rostral periventricular area previously implicated in hormonal gating of male-typical copulatory behavior was then excised by laser microdissection, and nNOS transcript abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR. As neither this technique nor nNOS mRNA measurements have previously been performed in this area of the brain, expression was concommitantly assayed on adjacent sections by in situ hybridization or NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Results are consistent with transcriptional up-regulation of nNOS by testosterone and a central role for the enzyme in mediating hormonal gating of copulatory behavior. PMID:18184320

  16. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during phasic respiratory events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the spatiotemporal organization of cellular activity in the medial paraventricular hypothalamus during spontaneously-occurring periods of increased inspiratory effort followed by prolonged respiratory pauses (sigh/apnea) in the freely-behaving cat. Paraventricular hypothalamic activity...

  17. Functional identification of central afferent projections conveying information of acute "stress" to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    c-fos, corticotropin-releasing factor, neurosecretory neurons, paraventricular nucleus, transcription factors, neuroendocrinology, cholera toxin subunit B, retrograde tracing......c-fos, corticotropin-releasing factor, neurosecretory neurons, paraventricular nucleus, transcription factors, neuroendocrinology, cholera toxin subunit B, retrograde tracing...

  18. Paraventricular hypothalamic adrenoceptors and energy metabolism in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Gaykema, Ron P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the exercise-induced changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, free fatty acids (FFA), and blood glucose was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15

  19. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...... and nadir. Isolated pixels appeared opposite in activity pattern to overall changes. We suggest that transient activity increases represent initial PVH neural stress responses, and that subsequent profound declines result from neural inhibitory feedback....

  20. Neuropeptide Y in the arcuato-paraventricular pathway and diet selection in the vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard; Max, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most important brain peptides involved in feeding behavior. It influences both food choice and fluid homeostasis. The paraventricular and arcuate nuclei belong to the main pathway through which NPY stimulates carbohydrate intake. In this study, we measured NPY in various hypothalamic microdissected areas in Brattleboro di/di rats, a rat model of diabetes insipidus with specific dietary preferences. We confirmed that this rat is characterized by an increased fat intake (+10%; p<0.001) and a decreased carbohydrate intake (-10%; p<0.001) leading to a completely different dietary profile than that of di/+ controls. This profile was associated with a decrease in NPY in the paraventricular nucleus (-33%; p<0.005) and in the ventromedial nucleus (-24%; p<0.002). Intake of carbohydrate was negatively correlated with the gradient of NPY concentration between the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei. NPY could therefore contribute to the qualitative changes of feeding behavior in the Brattleboro rat through altered transport/release of the peptide and participate in the balance of neuropeptides that determines food choice in this strain of rat.

  1. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivelan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons. Keywords: EEG, sleep, orexin-saporin, methamphetamine

  2. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg) or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons.

  3. Multiparametric characterization of neuronal subpopulations in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourget, Romain; Sangare, Aude; Geoffroy, Hélène; Gallopin, Thierry; Rancillac, Armelle

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of neuronal properties is a necessary first step toward understanding how the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) neuronal network regulates slow-wave sleep (SWS). Indeed, the electrophysiological heterogeneity of VLPO neurons suggests the existence of subtypes that could differently contribute in SWS induction and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to define cell classes in the VLPO using an unsupervised clustering classification method. Electrophysiological features extracted from 289 neurons recorded in whole-cell patch-clamp allowed the identification of three main classes of VLPO neurons subdivided into five distinct subpopulations (cluster 1, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b). The high occurrence of a low-threshold calcium spike (LTS) was one of the most distinctive features of cluster 1 and 3. Since sleep-promoting neurons are generally identified by their ability to generate an LTS and by their inhibitory response to noradrenaline (NA), 189 neurons from our dataset were also tested for this neurotransmitter. Neurons from cluster 3 were the most frequently inhibited by NA. Biocytin labeling and Neurolucida reconstructions of 112 neurons furthermore revealed a small dendritic arbor of cluster 3b neurons compared, in particular, to cluster 2b neurons. Altogether, we performed an exhaustive characterization of VLPO neuronal subtypes that is a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neuronal network within the VLPO and thereby sleep physiology.

  4. Regulation of progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat medial preoptic nucleus by estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds: an in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, P J; Lane, M V; Merchenthaler, I

    1997-12-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) is concentrated in neurons of the preoptic area and other regions of the rat hypothalamus where it is colocalized with the estrogen receptor and regulated by changes in the steroid hormonal milieu. To date, little is known about the regulation of PR mRNA by estrogens and whether antiestrogenic compounds are capable of modulating its expression. The present studies used in situ hybridization to ascertain the time course of PR mRNA regulation in the medial preoptic nucleus by 17beta-estradiol, determine the effective dose required to elicit a response, and compare the efficacy of 17beta-estradiol with a variety of estrogenic or antiestrogenic compounds. The first series of studies revealed that the treatment of ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol resulted in an increase in PR expression within 2 h, after which it remained elevated until 10 h postinjection and then returned to baseline levels. When ovariectomized rats were injected with 25-1000 ng/kg of 17beta-estradiol and euthanized 6 h later, a dose-dependent increase in the level of PR mRNA was observed, with a maximal response at 1000 ng/kg and an EC50 of 93.5 ng/kg. Subsequent studies evaluated the efficacy of a variety of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the rat preoptic nucleus. 17Beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and 17alpha-estradiol all significantly increased the level of PR mRNA, although the degree of induction varied with each compound. The injection of tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene, droloxifene, clomiphene, GW 5638, or ICI 182,780 had no significant estrogenic effect on PR gene expression at the dose evaluated. In contrast, when tamoxifen or raloxifene, but not ICI 182,780, was administered in the antagonist mode, a significant dose-related decrease in the estradiol-induced level of PR mRNA was seen in the preoptic area. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that PR mRNA expression in the rat preoptic area is rapidly

  5. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  6. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Andersson, Josefin; Nilsberth, Camilla

    2007-08-23

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) binding to its EP(3) receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP(3) receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP(3) receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP(3alpha) isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP(3gamma), corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP(3) receptor expression, whereas EP(3beta) was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP(3) receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated.

  7. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E.; Soriano, Renato N.; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R.; Francescato, Heloísa D. C.; Saia, Rafael S.; Coimbra, Terezila M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release. PMID:28118407

  8. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A R; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release.

  9. Depolarizing actions of hydrogen sulfide on hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

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    C Sahara Khademullah

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a novel neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions as well and corticotrophin hormone (CRH secretion. Since the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN is a central relay center for autonomic and endocrine functions, we sought to investigate the effects of H2S on the neuronal population of the PVN. Whole cell current clamp recordings were acquired from the PVN neurons and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS was bath applied at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mM. NaHS (1, 10, and 50 mM elicited a concentration-response relationship from the majority of recorded neurons, with almost exclusively depolarizing effects following administration. Cells responded and recovered from NaHS administration quickly and the effects were repeatable. Input differences from baseline and during the NaHS-induced depolarization uncovered a biphasic response, implicating both a potassium and non-selective cation conductance. The results from the neuronal population of the PVN shed light on the possible physiological role that H2S has in autonomic and endocrine function.

  10. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats.

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    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR, and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in PVN in regulating the AAR.Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin.Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR.

  11. The hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the echidna and platypus.

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    Ashwell, Ken W S; Lajevardi, Shahab-Eddin; Cheng, Gang; Paxinos, George

    2006-01-01

    The monotremes are an intriguing group of mammals that have major differences in their reproductive physiology and lactation from therian mammals. Monotreme young hatch from leathery skinned eggs and are nourished by milk secreted onto areolae rather than through nipples. Parturition and lactation are in part controlled through the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. We have used Nissl staining, enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, calbindin, oxytocin, neurophysin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and carbocyanine dye tracing techniques to examine the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and the course of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract in two monotremes: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). In both monotremes, the supraoptic nucleus consisted of loosely packed neurons, mainly in the retrochiasmatic position. In the echidna, the paraventricular nucleus was quite small, but had similar chemoarchitectural features to therians. In the platypus, the paraventricular nucleus was larger and appeared to be part of a stream of magnocellular neurons extending from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. Immunohistochemistry for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein and carbocyanine dye tracing suggested that hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract neurons in the echidna lie mainly in the retrochiasmatic supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic regions, but most neurophysin and oxytocin immunoreactive neurons in the echidna were found in the paraventricular, lateral hypothalamus and supraoptic nuclei and most oxytocinergic neurons in the platypus were distributed in a band from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. The small size of the supraoptic nucleus in the two monotremes might reflect functional aspects of monotreme lactation.

  12. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

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    Jasmine Sethi

    Full Text Available Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle.

  13. Both olfactory epithelial and vomeronasal inputs are essential for activation of the medial amygdala and preoptic neurons of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Masaoka, M; Rai, D; Kondo, Y; Sakuma, Y

    2011-12-29

    Chemosensory inputs signaling volatile and nonvolatile molecules play a pivotal role in sexual and social behavior in rodents. We have demonstrated that olfactory preference in male rats, that is, attraction to receptive female odors, is regulated by the medial amygdala (MeA), the cortical amygdala (CoA), and the preoptic area (POA). In this paper, we investigated the involvement of two chemosensory organs, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), in olfactory preference and copulatory behavior in male rats. We found that olfactory preferences were impaired by zinc sulfate lesion of the OE but not surgical removal of the VNO. Copulatory behaviors, especially intromission frequency and ejaculation, were also suppressed by zinc sulfate treatment. Neuronal activation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the MeA, the CoA, and the POA was analyzed after stimulation by airborne odors or soiled bedding of estrous females using cFos immunohistochemistry. Although the OE and VNO belong to different neural systems, the main and accessory olfactory systems, respectively, both OE lesion and VNO removal almost equally suppressed the number of cFos-immunoreactive cells in those areas that regulate olfactory preference. These results suggest that signals received by the OE and VNO interact and converge in the early stage of olfactory processing, in the AOB and its targets, although they have distinct roles in the regulation of social behaviors.

  14. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  15. EP3 receptors mediate PGE2-induced hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus excitation and sympathetic activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Yu, Yang; Wei, Shun-Guang; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important mediator of the inflammatory response, acts centrally to elicit sympathetic excitation. PGE2 acts on at least four E-class prostanoid (EP) receptors known as EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Since PGE2 production within the brain is ubiquitous, the different functions of PGE2 depend on the expression of these prostanoid receptors in specific brain areas. The type(s) and location(s) of the EP receptors that mediate sympathetic responses to central PGE2 remain unknown. We examined this question using PGE2, the relatively selective EP receptor agonists misoprostol and sulprostone, and the available selective antagonists for EP1, EP3, and EP4. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of PGE2, sulprostone or misoprostol increased renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate. These responses were significantly reduced by ICV pretreatment with the EP3 receptor antagonist; the EP1 and EP4 receptor antagonists had little or no effect. ICV PGE2 or misoprostol increased the discharge of neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). ICV misoprostol increased the c-Fos immunoreactivity of PVN neurons, an effect that was substantially reduced by the EP3 receptor antagonist. Real-time PCR detected EP3 receptor mRNA in PVN, and immunohistochemical studies revealed sparsely distributed EP3 receptors localized in GABAergic terminals and on a few PVN neurons. Direct bilateral PVN microinjections of PGE2 or sulprostone elicited sympathoexcitatory responses that were significantly reduced by the EP3 receptor antagonist. These data suggest that EP3 receptors mediate the central excitatory effects of PGE2 on PVN neurons and sympathetic discharge. PMID:21803943

  16. Paraventricular nucleus Sim1 neuron ablation mediated obesity is resistant to high fat diet.

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    Dong Xi

    Full Text Available Single minded 1 (SIM1 is a transcription factor involved in brain patterning and control of energy balance. In humans, haploinsufficiency of SIM1 causes early-onset obesity. Mice deficient in the homologous gene, SIM1, also exhibit early onset obesity and increased sensitivity to a high fat diet. SIM1 is expressed in several areas of the brain implicated in control of energy balance including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, the supraoptic nucleus (SON, the medial amygdala and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract. We have previously shown that mice with global Sim1 neuron ablation exhibit obesity with hyperphagia as the primary defect. The PVN has a critical role in feeding and in high-fat appetite, thus, we sought to determine the effect of Sim1 neuron ablation limited to the PVN. We achieved PVN-SIM1 limited ablation through stereotactic injection of diphtheria toxin into the PVN of Sim1Cre-iDTR mice. The specificity of this ablation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of the PVN, supraoptic nucleus and the amygdala. Mice with PVN Sim1 neuron ablation, similar to mice with global Sim1 neuron ablation, exhibit early onset obesity with hyperphagia as the primary defect. However, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice have a decreased response to fasting-induced hyperphagia. Consistent with this decrement, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice have a decreased hyperphagic response to PVN injection of agouti-related peptide (AgRP. When PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice are placed on a high fat diet, surprisingly, their intake decreases and they actually lose weight. When allowed ad lib access to high fat diet and normal chow simultaneously, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice exhibit overall decreased intake. That is, in PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice, access to fat suppresses overall appetite.

  17. Lesions of the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus attenuate fear expression

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    Yonghui eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT has generated interest because of its strong projections to areas of the brain associated with the regulation of emotional behaviors. The posterior aspect of the PVT (pPVT is notable for its projection to the central nucleus of the amygdala which is essential for the expression of a conditioned fear response. The present study was done to determine if the pPVT is involved in the expression of fear by examining the effect of post-conditioning lesions of the pPVT. Male rats were trained to bar press for food pellets on a variable ratio schedule. Fear conditioning was done using auditory tones (30 s that co-terminate with footschocks (0.65 mA, 1.0 s. Rats were anesthetized 24 hours later and small bilateral electrolytic lesions of the pPVT were made. Fear expression to the tone was assessed using suppression of bar-pressing and freezing after one week of recovery from the surgical procedure. Small bilateral lesions of the pPVT increased bar-pressing for food and decreased freezing during the presentation of the conditioned tone. Lesions of the pPVT had no effect on fear extinction, fear conditioning to a novel tone, or the motivation for food as assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. The results of the experiment support a role for the pPVT in fear expression. In contrast, the pPVT does not appear to be involved in fear learning or extinction nor does it appear to play a role in the motivation of rats to bar press for food.

  18. Mechanism of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in regulating asthmatic attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Rong Dong; Jian Xiao; Nina Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUD: It has been confirmed that c-fos expession increased markedly in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus(PVN)during asthmatic attack in rats,and PVN has extensive physiological functions,involving in the regulation of respiratory system,etc.OBJECTIVE: To observe the alteration of electroencephalogram(EEG)and power spectra in PVN during the asthmatic attack,and the alteraiton of lung function and diaphragmatic muscle discharge after bilateral PVN lesion in asthmatic rats.DESIGN:A randomized control study.SETTING: Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Southeast University.MATERIALS: Forty-eight male adult SD rats of 260-300g were used.The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=8):control group,asthma group,electrolytic lesion of PVN group,KA-induced lesion of PVN group,sham electrolytic lesion of PVN group and sham kainic acid(KA)-induced lesion of PVN group.KA,chicken ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide were purchased from American Sigma Company.Bordetella pertrssis vaccine (Institute of Biological Products of Shanghai);stereotaxic apparartus (Jianwan Ⅱ,China);Iesion-producing device (YC-2 programmable stimulato,Chengdu Iustrument Company);MD2000 signal processing system(Nanjing Medical School); data acquisition system (RM6240B,Chengdu Instrument Company).METHODS:The experiments were carried out in the Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Southeast University from January to August in 2006.①Rats except for control group were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg chicken ovalbumin and 100 mg aluminum hydroxide and Bordetella pertussis vaccine containing 5×109 heat-killed in 1 mL of sterile saline.From the fifteenth to seventeenth days rats received three times aerosolized ovalbumin challenge. In rats of the control group and asthma group three steel electrodes were placed into the left PVN(AP-1.8 mm,LR 0.4 mm,OH-7.9 mm).parietal cortex and subcutaneous tissue in

  19. Neuropeptide Y secretion increases in the paraventricular nucleus in association with increased appetite for food.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, S P; Dube, M G; Sahu, A; Phelps, C P; Kalra, P S

    1991-01-01

    Feeding in mammals is a periodic behavior; however, knowledge of how the brain signals an intermittent eating pattern is scanty. Recent indirect evidence indicates that one of the signals encoded in the structure of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is to stimulate robust feeding. Therefore, two series of experiments were undertaken to characterize NPY secretion within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in association with eating behavior in the rat. Dynamic changes in NPY concentration in several hypothal...

  20. Effects of electrical stimulated hypothalamuic paraventricular nucleus ongastric ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Fu Zhang; Yong Mei Zhang; Chang Dong Yan

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect and regulation of electrical stimulation on the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)of hypothalamus using rat gastric ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-RI)induced ulcer model.METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150 g-250 g were used. The surgically prepared ratswere kept fasting for 24 h, but allowed free access to water. They were then anesthetized with urathane(1 g/kg), the celiac artery was clamped with a small clip (holding force 145 g) for 30min, reperfusion wasestablished by removal of the clamp, 60min after reperfusion, the rats were killed and their stomachs wereremoved and perfused intragastrically with 100 mL/L formalin for 30min, and the ulcer index was scoredaccording to Guth et al. The PVN was obtained according to atlas of Paxinos and Watson. The electrodesand cannula were inserted into the PVN for the electrical stimulation, electrical injury and PVN injection,RESULTS In control group (30min ischemia and 60ain reperfusion only), ulcer index was 184.70±60.80(n = 8); in electrical stimulations of PVN (0.2mA, 0.4mA and 0.6mA) + I-RI group, ulcer indexes were102.40±20.39, 85.37±39.76 and 45.00±19.04 (n =8) respectively. Compared with the control groupthere was significant difference ( P < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. In electrical lesion of bilateral PVN+ I-RI group, ulcer index was greatly increased (230.00±47.30, n = 8). Microinjection of 3% L-glutamate0.5μL into PVN could produce similar effect to that of PVN stimulation (ulcer index 75.14±37.18, n = 8).A further study indicated that the MDA, pepsin activity and gastric acidity were reduced by PVN stimulationbut no obvious changes of gastric juice volume, total acid output and gastric mucus barrier were observed.CONCLUSION The PVN is one of the specific CNS areas capable of protecting the gastric ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats, and related to decreased MPA, pepsin activity, gastric acidity, while gastric juicevolume, total acid output and gastric

  1. A role for VGF in the hypothalamic arcuate and paraventricular nuclei in the control of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderi, N; Buijs, F N; Salgado-Delgado, R; Merkenstein, M; Basualdo, M C; Ferri, G-L; Escobar, C; Buijs, R M

    2014-04-18

    The arcuate nucleus is the main receptive area of the brain for peripheral and central metabolic cues and its integrity is essential for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In the arcuate nucleus, different neuronal populations process metabolic signals and transmit this information to other nuclei of the hypothalamus by means of neurotransmitters and a combination of neuropeptides whose expression is modulated by the nutritional status. Here we investigated the changes in expression and synthesis of the polypeptide VGF in the arcuate nucleus of rats, in relation to the two main categories of neurons that show colocalization with VGF: the orexigenic NPY-expressing cells and the anorexigenic POMC-expressing cells. The results show that fasting is the most important stimulus for VGF expression, and that the up-regulation of VGF mRNA is restricted to the NPY area of the arcuate nucleus. POMC neurons express VGF under all feeding conditions, but especially in ad libitum-fed and fasted-refed animals. We also show that VGF arcuate neurons project to the pre-autonomic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, providing anatomical evidence suggesting VGF as a central modulator of the autonomic nervous system.

  2. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  3. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

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    Iustin V Tabarean

    Full Text Available The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons.

  4. Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Arcuate Nuclei Contribute to Elevated Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pregnant Rats: Roles of Neuropeptide Y and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Gotthardt, Laura C; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-12-01

    Pregnancy increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the contributions of the hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei in α-chloralose-anesthetized pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Baseline arterial pressure (AP) was lower, and heart rate (HR), lumbar sympathetic activity, and splanchnic SNA were higher in pregnant rats compared with nonpregnant rats. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus via bilateral muscimol nanoinjections decreased AP and HR more in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats and decreased lumbar SNA only in pregnant rats. Similarly, after arcuate muscimol nanoninjections, the decreases in AP, HR, and lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activities were greater in pregnant rats than in nonpregnant rats. Major arcuate neuronal groups that project to the paraventricular nucleus express inhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) and excitatory α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Inhibition of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 also decreased AP, HR, and lumbar SNA in pregnant rats but not in nonpregnant rats. Conversely, paraventricular nucleus NPY expression was reduced in pregnant animals, and although blockade of paraventricular NPY Y1 receptors increased AP, HR, and lumbar sympathetic activity in nonpregnant rats, it had no effects in pregnant rats. Yet, the sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic effects of paraventricular NPY nanoinjections were similar between groups. In conclusion, the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei contribute to increased basal SNA during pregnancy, likely due in part to decreased tonic NPY inhibition and increased tonic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone excitation of presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

  5. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS AND PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMOUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Our previous studies indicated that the increased arginine vasopressin(AVP) in ischemic brain regions of gerbils could exacerbate the ischemic brain edema. This experiments is further clarify the relation between AVP and cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. Methods. The contents of AVP, AVP mRNA, AVP immunoreactive(ir) neurons in supraoptic nucleus(SON)and paraventricular nucleus(PVN) after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were respectively determined by radioim-munoassay(RIA), immunocytochemistry( Ⅱ C), situ hybridization and computed image pattem analysis. Results. The contents of AVP in SON, PVN were increased, and the AVP ir positive neurons in SON and PVN were also significantly increased as compared with the controls after ischemia and reperfusion. And there were very light staining of AVP ir positive neurons in the other brain areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC) and periven-tricular hypothalamic nucleus (PE), but these have no significant changes as compared with the controls. During dif-ferent periods of cerebral ischemia (30~ 120 min) and reperfusion (30 min), AVP mRNA expression in SON and PVN were more markedly increased than the controls. Condusions. The transcription of AVP gene elevated, then promoting synthesis and release of AVP in SON,PVN. Under the specific condition of cerebral ischemia and repeffusion, the activity and contents of central AVP in-creased abnormally is one of the important factors which causes ischemia brain damage.

  6. Morphology and distribution of neurons expressing serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hypothalamus and the surrounding diencephalic and telencephalic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Eric; Scrogin, Karie; Dudás, Bertalan

    2010-07-01

    Disorders of serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in disturbances of numerous hypothalamic functions including circadian rhythm, mood, neuroendocrine functions, sleep and feeding. Among the serotonin receptors currently recognized, 5-HT(1A) receptors have received considerable attention due to their importance in the etiology of mood disorders. While previous studies have shown the presence of 5-HT(1A) receptors in several regions of the rat brain, there is no detailed map of the cellular distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat diencephalon. In order to characterize the distribution and morphology of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors in the diencephalon and the adjacent telencephalic areas, single label immunohistochemistry was utilized. Large, multipolar, 5-HT(1A)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were mainly detected in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and in the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, while the supraoptic nucleus contained mainly fusiform neurons. Medium-sized 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons with triangular or round-shaped somata were widely distributed in the diencephalon, populating the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, substantia innominata, dorsomedial and premamillary nuclei, paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. The present study provides schematic mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons in the rat diencephalon. In addition, the morphology of the detected 5-HT(1A)-IR neural elements is also described. Since rat is a widely used laboratory animal in pharmacological models of altered serotoninergic neurotransmission, detailed mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR structures is pivotal for the neurochemical characterization of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  7. [Role of paraventricular nucleus in natriuresis and diuresis induced by volume expansion in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Lin, M Z; Han, G C

    2000-02-01

    In sham-lesioned and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) lesioned rabbits, the peak increases of urine volume (UV) induced by volume expansion (VE) were 0.59+/-0.09 and 0.31+/-0.03 ml/min (P0.05). In rabbits with renal denervation there was no significant change in natriuretic response after PVN lesion (P>0.05), but lesion of PVN significantly attenuated diuretic response (P0.05). These results suggest that PVN is involved in the regulation of natriuresis and diuresis induced by VE, which are mediated by vagal afferent nerve, whereas the renal sympathetic efferent nerve may be involved in natriuretic response.

  8. Regional haemodynamic effects of noradrenaline injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of conscious, unrestrained rats: possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, H; Harland, D; Gardiner, S M; Kemp, P A; Bennett, T

    1992-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline bilaterally injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei were investigated in conscious, unrestrained Long-Evans rats and homozygous, vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats, chronically instrumented with pulsed Doppler probes for measurement of regional haemodynamics. In Long-Evans rats, incremental doses of noradrenaline (0.01-10 nmol) caused dose-related increases in blood pressure and a substantial, dose-related, superior mesenteric vasoconstriction. These changes were accompanied by bradycardia and reductions in renal and hind-quarter vascular conductances. In Brattleboro rats, noradrenaline (10 nmol) had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or renal or superior mesenteric vascular conductances. However, there was a slight vasodilatation in the vascular bed of the hindquarters. In Long-Evans rats, intravenous pretreatment with phentolamine had no effect on the bradycardia but partly inhibited the pressor response to noradrenaline injected into the paraventricular nuclei. These effects were associated with a smaller superior mesenteric vasoconstriction and an abolition of the vasoconstriction in the hindquarters. Combined intravenous pretreatment with phentolamine and propranolol had no effect on the heart rate or pressor responses to noradrenaline injected into the paraventricular nuclei, but reduced the superior mesenteric vasoconstriction, potentiated the vasoconstriction in the hindquarters and eliminated the renal vasoconstriction. These results suggest that, in untreated Long-Evans rats, alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated constriction in the mesenteric vascular bed and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated dilatation in the vascular bed of the hindquarters have important influences on the pressor response to noradrenaline injected into the paraventricular nuclei. In the presence of the vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist, d(CH2)5[Tyr(Et)]DAVP, the pressor and heart rate responses to noradrenaline injected into the

  9. Adiponectin modulates excitability of rat paraventricular nucleus neurons by differential modulation of potassium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyda, Ted D; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-07-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin acts at two seven-transmembrane domain receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2, present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate neuronal excitability and endocrine function. Adiponectin depolarizes rat parvocellular preautonomic neurons that secrete either thyrotropin releasing hormone or oxytocin and parvocellular neuroendocrine corticotropin releasing hormone neurons, leading to an increase in plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone concentrations while also hyperpolarizing a subgroup of neurons. In the present study, we investigate the ionic mechanisms responsible for these changes in excitability in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurons. Patch clamp recordings of currents elicited from slow voltage ramps and voltage steps indicate that adiponectin inhibits noninactivating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in a majority of neurons. This inhibition produced a broadening of the action potential in cells that depolarized in the presence of adiponectin. The depolarizing effects of adiponectin were abolished in cells pretreated with tetraethyl ammonium (0/15 cells depolarize). Slow voltage ramps performed during adiponectin-induced hyperpolarization indicate the activation of voltage-independent potassium current. These hyperpolarizing responses were abolished in the presence of glibenclamide [an ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker] (0/12 cells hyperpolarize). The results presented in this study suggest that adiponectin controls neuronal excitability through the modulation of different potassium conductances, effects which contribute to changes in excitability and action potential profiles responsible for peptidergic release into the circulation.

  10. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIANE CAMPOS CRUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  11. Activation of Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptors by Shilajit on Preoptic Hypothalamic Neurons of Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-02-29

    Shilajit, a mineral pitch, has been used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine to treat many human ailments, and is reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form. This study examined the possible mechanism of Shilajit action on preoptic hypothalamic neurons using juvenile mice. The hypothalamic neurons are the key regulator of many hormonal systems. In voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -60 mV, and under a high chloride pipette solution, Shilajit induced dose-dependent inward current. Shilajit-induced inward currents were reproducible and persisted in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting a postsynaptic action of Shilajit on hypothalamic neurons. The currents induced by Shilajit were almost completely blocked by 2 μM strychnine (Stry), a glycine receptor antagonist. In addition, Shilajit-induced inward currents were partially blocked by bicuculline. Under a gramicidin-perforated patch clamp mode, Shilajit induced membrane depolarization on juvenile neurons. These results show that Shilajit affects hypothalamic neuronal activities by activating the Stry-sensitive glycine receptor with α₂/α₂β subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that Shilajit contains some ingredients with possible glycine mimetic activities and might influence hypothalamic neurophysiology through activation of Stry-sensitive glycine receptor-mediated responses on hypothalamic neurons postsynaptically.

  12. EFFECT OF ANESTHETIZING THE REGION OF THE PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEI ON ENERGY-METABOLISM DURING EXERCISE IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIJK, G; VISSING, J; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    1994-01-01

    The ventromedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei are known to influence glucoregulation during exercise. The extensive projections of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) to the sympathetic nervous system suggest that the PVN also may be involved in glucoregulation during exercise. The r

  13. Time-dependent effects of neuropeptide Y infusion in the paraventricular hypothalamus on ingestive and associated behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; Strubbe, JH

    2003-01-01

    In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of

  14. Synaptic innervation to rat hippocampus by vasopressin-immuno-positive fibres from the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Hernández, V S

    2013-01-03

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) exerts a modulatory role on hippocampal excitability through vasopressin V(1A) and V(1B) receptors. However, the origin and mode of termination of the AVP innervation of the hippocampus remain unknown. We have used light and electron microscopy to trace the origin, distribution and synaptic relationships of AVP-immuno-positive fibres and nerve terminals in the rat hippocampus. Immuno-positive fibres were present in all areas (CA1-3, dentate gyrus) of the whole septo-temporal extent of the hippocampus; they had the highest density in the CA2 region, strongly increasing in density towards the ventral hippocampus. Two types of fibres were identified, both establishing synaptic junctions. Type A had large varicosities packed with immuno-positive large-granulated peptidergic vesicles and few small clear vesicles forming type I synaptic junctions with pyramidal neuron dendrites, dendritic spines and with axonal spines. Type B had smaller varicosities containing mostly small clear vesicles and only a few large-granulated vesicles and established type II synaptic junctions mainly with interneuron dendrites. The AVP-positive axons in stratum oriens appeared to follow and contact metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α)-immuno-positive interneuron dendrites. Fluoro-Gold injection into the hippocampus revealed retrogradely labelled AVP-positive somata in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Hypothalamo-hippocampal AVP-positive axons entered the hippocampus mostly through a ventral route, also innervating the amygdala and to a lesser extent through the dorsal fimbria fornix, in continuation of the septal AVP innervation. Thus, it appears the AVP-containing neurons of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei serve as important sources for hippocampal AVP innervation, although the AVP-expressing neurons located in amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis reported previously may also contribute.

  15. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached...... to a charge-coupled device camera, and positioned over the PVH in five cats. Electrodes for assessing state variables, including electroencephalographic activity, eye movement, and somatic muscle tone were also placed. After surgical recovery, reflected light intensity was measured continuously at 2.5 Hz...... during spontaneously varying sleep/waking states. Sequential state transitions from active waking to quiet waking, quiet sleep and active sleep were accompanied by progressively increased levels of PVH activity. Overall activity was highest during active sleep, and decreased markedly upon awakening...

  16. Radioautographic studies on the neurohypophysial projections of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Assenmacher, I.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of labelled axonal pathways was studied after unilateral stereotaxic injection of /sup 3/H-leucine into either supraoptic nuclei (SON) or paraventricular nuclei (PVN). In addition to extrahypothalamic projections of both nuclei, the main efferents appeared to run towards the neurohypophysis, yet with a strikingly different pattern. At the neurohypophysial level, the SO-neurohypophysial tract crossed the inner layers of the median eminence (ME) before scattering in the neural lobe. The PV-neurohypophysial pathway, by contrast, provided an exclusive innervation to the external layer of the whole neurohypophysial organ, including the median eminence, infundibular stalk and neural lobe. The functional correlates of the clear-cut anatomical distinctness between the two magnocellular neurosecretory are discussed.

  17. Optogenetic identification of hypothalamic orexin neuron projections to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2017-04-01

    Orexin neurons, and activation of orexin receptors, are generally thought to be sympathoexcitatory; however, the functional connectivity between orexin neurons and a likely sympathetic target, the hypothalamic spinally projecting neurons (SPNs) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) has not been established. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons project directly to SPNs in the PVN, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was selectively expressed in orexin neurons to enable photoactivation of ChR2-expressing fibers while examining evoked postsynaptic currents in SPNs in rat hypothalamic slices. Selective photoactivation of orexin fibers elicited short-latency postsynaptic currents in all SPNs tested (n = 34). These light-triggered responses were heterogeneous, with a majority being excitatory glutamatergic responses (59%) and a minority of inhibitory GABAergic (35%) and mixed glutamatergic and GABAergic currents (6%). Both glutamatergic and GABAergic responses were present in the presence of tetrodotoxin and 4-aminopyridine, suggesting a monosynaptic connection between orexin neurons and SPNs. In addition to generating postsynaptic responses, photostimulation facilitated action potential firing in SPNs (current clamp configuration). Glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, postsynaptic currents were diminished by application of the orexin receptor antagonist almorexant, indicating orexin release facilitates glutamatergic neurotransmission in this pathway. This work identifies a neuronal circuit by which orexin neurons likely exert sympathoexcitatory control of cardiovascular function.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to establish, using innovative optogenetic approaches in a transgenic rat model, that there are robust heterogeneous projections from orexin neurons to paraventricular spinally projecting neurons, including excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Endogenous orexin release modulates glutamatergic, but not GABAergic

  18. Estradiol Valerate and Remifemin ameliorate ovariectomy-induced decrease in a serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangxia; Jin, Biao; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2016-11-01

    Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats. We also explored the therapeutical effects of estradiol valerate and Remifemin in this model. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomy (OVX) group with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate treatment (OVX+E) group and ovariectomy with Remifemin (OVX+ICR) group. Serotonin expression was evaluated in the DR and POAH using immunofluorescence and quantified in the DR using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was analyzed in the DR by TUNEL assay. The number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons and the level of serotonin expression in the DR decreased significantly following OVX compared to the SHAM group. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the DR in any group. In addition, following OVX, the number of serotonin-positive fibers decreased significantly in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), especially in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Treatment with either estradiol or Remifemin for 4 weeks countered the OVX-induced decreases in serotonin levels in both the DR and the hypothalamus, with levels in the treated rats similar to those in the SHAM group. A fluorescently labeled retrograde tracer was injected into the VLPO at the 4-week time point. A significantly lower percentage of serotonin with CTB double-labeled neurons in CTB-labeled neurons was demonstrated after ovariectomy, and both estradiol and Remifemin countered this OVX

  19. Neuroendocrine-autonomic integration in the paraventricular nucleus: novel roles for dendritically released neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J E

    2015-06-01

    Communication between pairs of neurones in the central nervous system typically involves classical 'hard-wired' synaptic transmission, characterised by high temporal and spatial precision. Over the last two decades, however, knowledge regarding the repertoire of communication modalities used in the brain has notably expanded to include less conventional forms, characterised by a diffuse and less temporally precise transfer of information. These forms are best suited to mediate communication among entire neuronal populations, now recognised to be a fundamental process in the brain for the generation of complex behaviours. In response to an osmotic stressor, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) generates a multimodal homeostatic response that involves orchestrated neuroendocrine (i.e. systemic release of vasopressin) and autonomic (i.e. sympathetic outflow to the kidneys) components. The precise mechanisms that underlie interpopulation cross-talk between these two distinct neuronal populations, however, remain largely unknown. The present review summarises and discusses a series of recent studies that have identified the dendritic release of neuropeptides as a novel interpopulation signalling modality in the PVN. A current working model is described in which it is proposed that the activity-dependent dendritic release of vasopressin from neurosecretory neurones in the PVN acts in a diffusible manner to increase the activity of distant presympathetic neurones, resulting in an integrated sympathoexcitatory population response, particularly within the context of a hyperosmotic challenge. The cellular mechanism underlying this novel form of intercellular communication, as well as its physiological and pathophysiological implications, is discussed. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  20. Role of the paraventricular nucleus in the reflex diuresis to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rishabh Charan; Sharma, Ravindra Kumar; Gulati, Kavita; Ravi, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The changes in urine flow and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) due to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction (PLO) were examined in anesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand white rabbits. PLO was produced by pressurizing an isolated pouch created in the right external jugular vein at the points of entry of the right lymphatic ducts. During this maneuver, urine flow increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 mL/10 min to 12 ± 0.5 mL/10 min (P < 0.0001) and RSNA increased from 24.0 ± 4 to 40.0 ± 5 μV·s (P < 0.0001). Bilateral lesioning of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus or cervical vagotomy abolished these responses. PLO increased c-fos gene expression in the PVN. The increase in urine flow due to PLO was attenuated by muscimol and abolished by kynurenic acid microinjections into the PVN. The results show that (i) neurons in the PVN are an important relay site in the reflex arc, which is activated by PLO; and (ii) this activation is regulated by glutamatergic and partly by GABAergic input to the PVN.

  1. Activation of gastric afferents increases noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Y; Kannan, H; Higuchi, T; Negoro, H; Yamaguchi, K; Yamashita, H

    2000-01-14

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves on plasma levels of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were examined in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves increased the plasma levels of OXT, but not AVP. The concentrations of extracellular noradrenaline (NA) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured by in vivo microdialysis in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves evoked an increase followed by a slight decrease in the concentrations of NA. The responses of spontaneous firing magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the PVN to both electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves and intravenous (i.v.) administration of CCK-8 were examined. Most of the putative OXT-secreting cells recorded were excited by both electrical stimulation of gastric vagal nerves and i.v. administration of CCK-8. These results suggest that gastric vagal afferents activate the central noradrenergic system from the brainstem to the PVN and secretion of OXT.

  2. Roles of prefrontal cortex and paraventricular thalamus in affective and mechanical components of visceral nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurik, Angela; Auffenberg, Eva; Klein, Sabine; Deussing, Jan M; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2015-12-01

    Visceral pain represents a major clinical challenge in the management of many gastrointestinal disorders, eg, pancreatitis. However, cerebral neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral nociception are poorly understood. As a representative model of visceral nociception, we applied cerulein hyperstimulation in C57BL6 mice to induce acute pancreatitis and performed a behavioral test battery and c-Fos staining of brains. We observed a specific pain phenotype and a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), the periaqueductal gray, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Using neuronal tracing, we observed projections of the PVT to cortical layers of the mPFC with contacts to inhibitory GABAergic neurons. These inhibitory neurons showed more activation after cerulein treatment suggesting thalamocortical "feedforward inhibition" in visceral nociception. The activity of neurons in pancreatitis-related pain centers was pharmacogenetically modulated by designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, selectively and cell type specifically expressed in target neurons using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of PVT but not periaqueductal gray neurons attenuated visceral pain and induced an activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. Activation of glutamatergic principle neurons in the mPFC, but not inhibitory neurons, also reversed visceral nociception. These data reveal novel insights into central pain processing that underlies visceral nociception and may trigger the development of novel, potent centrally acting analgesic drugs.

  3. The hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray are the sources of dopamine fibers in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT sends a very dense projection to the nucleus accumbens. This area of the striatum plays a key role in motivation and recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT may have a similar function. It is well known that a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA to the nucleus accumbens is a key regulator of motivation and reward-related behavior. Dopamine (DA fibers have also been localized in the PVT but the source of these fibers in the rat has not been unequivocally identified. The present study was done to re-examine this question. Small iontophoretic injections of cholera toxin B (CTb were made in the PVT to retrogradely label tyrosine hydroxylase (TH neurons. Neurons that were double-labeled for TH/CTb were found scattered in DA cell groups of the hypothalamus (ventrorostral A10, A11, A13, A15 DA cell groups and the midbrain (dorsocaudal A10 embedded in the periaqueductal gray. In contrast, double-labeled neurons were absent in the retrorubral field (A8, substantia nigra (A9 and VTA (A10 of the midbrain. We conclude that DA fibers in the PVT do not originate from VTA but from a heterogeneous population of DA neurons located in the hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray.

  4. Peripherally injected CCK-8S activates CART positive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noetzel, Steffen; Inhoff, Tobias; Goebel, Miriam; Taché, Yvette; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; Grötzinger, Carsten; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Mönnikes, Hubert; Kobelt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been observed in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of CART peptide inhibits food intake in rodents. The aim of the study was to determine whether intraperitoneally (ip) injected CCK-8S affects neuronal activity of PVN-CART neurons. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 μg/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n = 4/group). The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons was determined in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the PVN (mean ± SEM: 102 ± 6 vs. 150 ± 5 neurons/section, p < 0.05) and compared to vehicle treated rats (18 ± 7, p < 0.05 vs. 6 and 10 μg/kg CCK-8S). CCK-8S at both doses induced an increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the NTS (65 ± 13, p < 0.05, and 182 ± 16, p < 0.05). No effect on the number of c-Fos neurons was observed in the ARC. Immunostaining for CART and c-Fos revealed a dose-dependent increase of activated CART neurons (19 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 7; p < 0.05), only few activated CART neuron were observed in the vehicle group (1 ± 0). The present observation shows that CCK-8S injected ip induces an increase in neuronal activity in PVN-CART neurons and suggests that CART neurons in the PVN may play a role in the mediation of peripheral CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects. PMID:20307613

  5. Deafferentation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) exaggerates the sympathoadrenal system activity in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondicova, K; Kvetnansky, R; Mravec, B

    2014-07-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is a key structure in the regulation of the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems response to acute and chronic stress challenges. In this study, we examined the effect of a mechanical posterolateral deafferentation of the PVN on the activity of sympathoadrenal system (SAS) and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring plasma concentrations of epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone (CORT) in rats exposed to acute immobilization (IMO) stress. The surgical posterolateral deafferentation of the PVN (PVN-deaf) was performed by Halasz knife, in brain of the adult male Sprague Dawley rats, according to coordinates of a stereotaxic atlas. Sham-operated (SHAM) animals underwent a craniotomy only. The animals were allowed to recover 14 days. Thereafter, the tail artery was cannulated and the animals exposed to acute IMO for 2 h. The blood samples were collected via cannula at the time points of 0, 5, 30, 60, and 120 min of the IMO. Concentrations of plasma EPI, NE, and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. The IMO-induced elevation of plasma EPI concentrations in the PVN-deaf rats reached statistical significance at 60 min of the IMO, when compared to SHAM rats. Similarly, the stress-induced elevation of the NE plasma levels in the PVN-deaf rats was significantly exaggerated at all time intervals of IMO in comparison with SHAM rats, whereas plasma CORT levels were significantly reduced. In contrast to the traditional view of excitatory role of the PVN in response to stress, our data indicate that some projections from the PVN to caudally localized hypothalamic structures, the brainstem or the spinal cord, exert inhibitory effect on the SAS system activity during acute IMO stress. The data indicate that stress-induced activation of the HPA axis is partially dependent on inputs from the brainstem to the PVN.

  6. Intermedin in the paraventricular nucleus attenuates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in chronic heart failure rats.

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    Xian-Bing Gan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Intermedin (IMD is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP family together with adrenomedullin (AM and amylin. It has a wide distribution in the central nervous system (CNS especially in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR is enhanced in chronic heart failure (CHF rats. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IMD in the PVN on CSAR and its related mechanisms in CHF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were subjected to left descending coronary artery ligation to induce CHF or sham-operation (Sham. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded. CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Acute experiments were carried out 8 weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery under anesthesia. IMD and angiotensin II (Ang II levels in the PVN were up-regulated in CHF rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD caused greater decreases in CSAR and the baseline RSNA and MAP in CHF rats than those in Sham rats. The decrease of CSAR caused by IMD was prevented by pretreatment with AM receptor antagonist AM22-52, but not CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37. Ang II in the PVN significantly enhanced CSAR and superoxide anions level, which was inhibited by PVN pretreatment with IMD or tempol (a superoxide anions scavenger in Sham and CHF rats. CONCLUSION: IMD in the PVN inhibits CSAR via AM receptor, and attenuates the effects of Ang II on CSAR and superoxide anions level in CHF rats. PVN superoxide anions involve in the effect of IMD on attenuating Ang II-induced CSAR response.

  7. Interleukin-6 gene knockout influences energy balance regulating peptides in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrick, A; Schéle, E; Pinnock, S B; Wernstedt-Asterholm, I; Dickson, S L; Karlsson-Lindahl, L; Jansson, J-O

    2009-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that also affects metabolic function because IL-6 depleted (IL-6(-/-)) mice develop late-onset obesity. IL-6 appears to act in the central nervous system, presumably in the hypothalamus, to increase energy expenditure that appears to involve stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explored possible central mechanisms for the effects exerted by IL-6 on body fat. Therefore, we measured the effects of IL-6 depletion in IL-6(-/-) mice on expression of key hypothalamic peptide genes involved in energy balance by the real time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, co-localisation between such peptides and IL-6 receptor alpha was investigated by immunohistochemistry. IL-6 deficiency decreased the expression of several peptides found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is a nucleus that has been attributed an adipostatic function. For example, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is reported to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, was decreased by 40% in older IL-6(-/-) mice. Oxytocin, which is reported to prevent obesity, was also decreased in older IL-6(-/-) animals, as was arginine vasopressin (AVP). The IL-6 receptor alpha was abundantly expressed in the PVN, but also in the supraoptic nucleus, and was shown to be co-expressed to a high extent with CRH, AVP, oxytocin and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone. These data indicate that depletion of endogenous IL-6, a body fat suppressing cytokine, is associated with the decreased expression of CRH and oxytocin (i.e. energy balance regulating peptides) as well as AVP in the PVN. Because IL-6 receptor alpha is co-expressed with CRH, oxytocin and AVP, IL-6 could stimulate the expression of these peptides directly.

  8. Neurotensin in the posterior thalamic paraventricular nucleus: inhibitor of pharmacologically relevant ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya; Badve, Preeti S; Curtis, Genevieve R; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Barson, Jessica R

    2017-09-06

    Individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption may have preexisting neurochemical disturbances that contribute to their vulnerability. This study examined the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), a limbic structure recently shown to participate in ethanol intake. To identify individuals prone to ethanol overconsumption, we tested Long-Evans rats in behavioral paradigms and found high levels of vertical time (rearing behavior) in a novel activity chamber to be a consistent predictor of subsequent excessive 20 percent ethanol drinking under the intermittent access model. Examining neurochemicals in the PVT, we found before ethanol exposure that prone rats with high rearing, compared with non-prone rats, had significantly lower levels of neurotensin (NTS) mRNA and peptide in the posterior (pPVT) but not anterior (aPVT) subregion of the PVT. Our additional finding that ethanol intake has no significant impact on either rearing or NTS levels indicates that these measures, which are different in prone rats before ethanol consumption, remain stable after ethanol consumption. The possibility that NTS directly controls ethanol drinking is supported by our finding that NTS administration specifically suppresses ethanol drinking when injected into the pPVT but not aPVT, with this effect occurring exclusively in higher drinkers that presumably have lower endogenous levels of NTS. Further, an NTS antagonist in the pPVT augments intake in lower drinkers with presumably more endogenous NTS, while NTS in the pPVT inhibits novelty-induced rearing that predicts excessive drinking. Together, these results provide strong evidence that low endogenous levels of NTS in the pPVT contribute to an increased propensity toward excessive ethanol drinking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

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    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  10. Pomegranate extract decreases oxidative stress and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by activating AMPK-Nrf2 in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Yan, Chunhong; Frost, Bess; Wang, Xin; Hou, Chen; Zeng, Mengqi; Gao, Hongli; Kang, Yuming; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, or “hypertension,” is associated with high levels of oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. While pomegranate extract is a known antioxidant that is thought to have antihypertensive effects, the mechanism whereby pomegranate extract lowers blood pressure and the tissue that mediates its antihypertensive effects are currently unknown. We have used a spontaneously hypertensive rat model to investigate the antihypertensive properties of pomegranate extract. We found that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with pomegranate extract significantly reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pomegranate extract reduced oxidative stress, increased the antioxidant defense system, and decreased inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats. We determined that pomegranate extract reduced mitochondrial superoxide anion levels and increased mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and improving mitochondrial dynamics and clearance. We went on to identify the AMPK-nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway as a mechanism whereby pomegranate extract reduces oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus to relieve hypertension. Our findings demonstrate that pomegranate extract alleviates hypertension by reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus, and reveal multiple novel targets for therapeutic treatment of hypertension. PMID:27713551

  11. Intermedin in paraventricular nucleus attenuates sympathetic activity and blood pressure via nitric oxide in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Bo; Sun, Hai-Jian; Chen, Dan; Liu, Tong-Yan; Han, Ying; Wang, Jue-Jin; Tang, Chao-Shu; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family, which shares the receptor system consisting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This study investigated the effects of IMD in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure and its downstream mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham operation. Acute experiments were performed 4 weeks later under anesthesia. IMD mRNA and protein were downregulated in 2K1C rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD caused greater decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats, which were prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin receptor antagonist AM22-52 or nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and attenuated by selective neuronal NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine hydrochloride or endothelial NO synthase inhibitor N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine dihydrochloride. AM22-52 increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats but not in sham-operated rats, whereas calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 had no significant effect. CRLR and RAMP3 mRNA, as well as CRLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 protein expressions, in the PVN were increased in 2K1C rats. Microinjection of IMD into the PVN increased the NO metabolites (NOx) level in the PVN in 2K1C rats, which was prevented by AM22-52. Chronic PVN infusion of IMD reduced, but AM22-52 increased, blood pressure in conscious 2K1C rats. These results indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits sympathetic activity and attenuates hypertension in 2K1C rats, which are mediated by adrenomedullin receptors (CRLR/RAMP2 or CRLR/RAMP3) and its downstream NO.

  12. Branched oxytocinergic innervations from the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei to superficial layers in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condés-Lara, Miguel; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier

    2007-07-30

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an interesting structure with diverse functions due to its different neuronal populations, neurotransmitters, and projections to other central nervous system structures. The PVN is a primary source of oxytocin (OT) in the central nervous system. In fact, a direct PVN projection to the spinal cord has been demonstrated by retrograde and anterograde tracers, and more than the 50% of this projection is oxytocinergic. This OT descending projection is proposed to be an endogenous system that controls the nociceptive information arriving at the spinal cord. However, we have no information about the specific organization of the OT descending innervations to the different spinal cord segments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the projecting PVN neurons arrive at cervical regions and then continue to lumbar regions. That is, we sought to establish if the OT projecting cells have a topic or a diffuse projection in order to obtain histological data to support the endogenous OT diffuse mechanism of analgesia described elsewhere. With this purpose in mind we combined the OT immunohistochemistry technique with retrograde neuronal tracers in the spinal cord. We applied Diamidino Yellow (DY) for the superficial dorsal horn cervical segments and True Blue (TB) for the lumbar segments. Data were collected from eight rats with well-placed injections. We only used the animals in which the tracer deposits were confined to superficial layers I and II of the dorsal horn. A mainly ipsilateral projection was observed, but stained neurons were also observed in the contralateral PVN. A large fraction of the stained PVN cells was doubled labeled but some were single labeled. Combining the retrograde tracer techniques and the OT detection procedure, we observed triple-labeled neurons. The present results demonstrate that PVN neurons send collaterals at least to the superficial cervical and lumbar segments of the

  13. Sulfated cholecystokinin-8 activates phospho-mTOR immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, Lisa; Inhoff, Tobias; Lommel, Reinhardt; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette; Grötzinger, Carsten; Bannert, Norbert; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Kobelt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The serin/threonin-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was detected in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and suggested to play a role in the integration of satiety signals. Since cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake and induces c-Fos in PVN neurons, the aim was to determine whether intraperitoneally injected CCK-8S affects the neuronal activity in cells immunoreactive for phospho-mTOR in the PVN. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 μg/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n=4/group). The number of c-Fosimmunoreactive (ir) neurons was assessed in the PVN, ARC and in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S increased the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN (6 μg: 103 ± 13 vs. 10 μg: 165 ± 14 neurons/section; p<0.05) compared to vehicle treated rats (4 ± 1, p<0.05), but not in the ARC. CCK-8S also dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos neurons in the NTS. Staining for phospho-mTOR and c-Fos in the PVN showed a dose-dependent increase of activated phospho-mTOR neurons (17 ± 3 vs. 38 ± 2 neurons/section; p<0.05), while no activated phospho-mTOR neurons were observed in the vehicle group. Triple staining in the PVN showed activation of phospho-mTOR neurons co-localized with oxytocin, corresponding to 9.8 ± 3.6% and 19.5 ± 3.3% of oxytocin neurons respectively. Our observations indicate that peripheral CCK-8S activates phospho-mTOR neurons in the PVN and suggest that phospho-mTOR plays a role in the mediation of CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects. PMID:20933028

  14. Regional haemodynamic effects of carbachol injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of conscious, unrestrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, H; Gardiner, S M; Kemp, P A; Bennett, T

    1994-06-01

    Carbachol was injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of conscious, unrestrained Long Evans rats, chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and pulsed Doppler probes to assess changes in regional haemodynamics. Bilateral microinjections of carbachol (1 ng-1 microgram) produced increases in blood pressure, bradycardias and vasoconstrictions in renal, superior mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds. In the presence of phentolamine, the bradycardic and hindquarters vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were unchanged while the pressor response was smaller due to a reduction in the renal and the superior mesenteric vasoconstriction. In the presence of propranolol, the bradycardic response was reduced, but the pressor and renal vasoconstrictor responses were potentiated, whereas the superior mesenteric and hindquarter vasoconstrictions were not changed significantly. In the presence of phentolamine and propranolol, the heart rate and pressor responses, as well as the renal vasoconstriction, were unchanged, whereas the superior mesenteric vasoconstriction was reduced and the hindquarters vasoconstriction was potentiated. Together these results are consistent with an involvement of the sympathoadrenal system in the pressor response to carbachol injected into the PVN of untreated animals. They indicate that alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric vascular bed is a particularly important component in that regard. In the presence of the vasopressin antagonist, d(CH2)5(Tyr(Et))DAVP, alone or in combination with phentolamine and propranolol, the pressor response to carbachol was substantially reduced, while the renal and superior mesenteric vasoconstrictor effects were completely abolished; the bradycardia was not significantly affected by this treatment. These results indicate an important involvement of vasopressin in the cardiovascular responses to carbachol injected into the PVN of untreated animals

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Paraventricular Nucleus Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity Induced by Maternal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Li Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal maternal separation (MS is a major early life stress that increases the risk of emotional disorders, visceral pain perception and other brain dysfunction. Elevation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN precipitates early life colorectal distension (CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity and pain in adulthood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 signaling in the pathogenesis of postnatal MS-induced visceral hypersensitivity and pain during adulthood. The TLR4 gene was selectively knocked out in C57BL/10ScSn mice (Tlr4-/-. MS was developed by housing the offspring alone for 6 h daily from postnatal day 2 to day 15. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain were assessed in adulthood. Tlr4+/+, but not Tlr4-/-, mice that had experienced neonatal MS showed chronic visceral hypersensitivity and pain. TLR4 immunoreactivity was observed predominately in microglia in the PVN, and MS was associated with an increase in the expression of protein and/or mRNA levels of TLR4, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β in Tlr4+/+ mice. These alterations were not observed in Tlr4-/- mice. Local administration of lipopolysaccharide, a TLR4 agonist, into the lateral cerebral ventricle elicited visceral hypersensitivity and TLR4 mRNA expression in the PVN, which could be prevented by NBI-35965, an antagonist to CRFR1. The present results indicate that neonatal MS induces a sensitization and upregulation of microglial TLR4 signaling activity, which facilitates the neighboring CRF neuronal activity and, eventually, precipitates visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood.Highlights(1Neonatal MS does not induce chronic visceral hypersensitivity and pain in Tlr4-/- mice.(2Neonatal MS increases the expression of TLR4 mRNA, CRF protein and mRNA, CRFR1 protein, TNF-α protein, and IL-1β protein in Tlr4+/+ mice.(3TLR4 agonist LPS (i.c.v. elicits visceral

  16. Intracisternally Injected L-Proline Activates Hypothalamic Supraoptic, but Not Paraventricular, Vasopressin-Expressing Neurons in Conscious Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Takemoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When injected into specific rat brain regions, the neurotransmitter candidate L-proline produces various cardiovascular changes through ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors. The present study used an immunohistochemical double-labeling approach to determine whether intracisternally injected L-proline in freely moving rats, which increases blood pressure, activates hypothalamic vasopressin-expressing neurons and ventral medullary tyrosine-hydroxylase- (TH- containing neurons. Following injection of L-proline, the number of activated hypothalamic neurons that coexpressed vasopressin and c-Fos was much greater in the supraoptic nucleus (SON than in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of rats with increased blood pressure. The number of activated TH-containing neurons was significantly greater following L-proline treatment than following control injections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF. These results clearly demonstrate that intracisternally injected L-proline activates hypothalamic supraoptic, but not paraventricular, vasopressin-expressing neurons and medullary TH-containing (A1/C1 neurons in freely moving rats.

  17. Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-02-09

    The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were significantly augmented by propofol; the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents of noradrenalin-inhibited neuron were evidently attenuated by propofol; such inhibition effect was suppressed by histamine; and both triprolidine (antagonist for H1 histamine receptor) and ranitidine (antagonist for H2 histamine receptor) were able to increase the inhibition rate of propofol in presence of histamine. Present study demonstrated that propofol-induced inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents on noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were mediated by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors.

  18. Dual projections of single orexin- or CART-immunoreactive, lateral hypothalamic neurons to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell in the rat: Light microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Y; Lee, Hyun S

    2016-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a major relay station to the limbic forebrain areas such as the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). Both PVT and AcbSh are known to receive feeding/arousal-related peptidergic fibers including orexin (ORX) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide. In the first series of experiments, we examined the peptidergic fiber distribution in the AcbSh; the density of ORX (or CART) fibers in the AcbSh was substantially lower than that in the PVT. At the light microscopic level, ORX (or CART) terminals formed close appositions to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-, or enkephalin (Enk)-immunoreactive neuronal elements in the AcbSh. In the second series of experiments, we addressed the question of whether single ORX (or CART) cells in the hypothalamus provided divergent axon collaterals to the PVT and AcbSh. ORX neurons with dual projections were found in the medial, central, and lateral subdivisions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which amounted to an average of 1.6% of total ORX cells. CART neurons with divergent axon collaterals were observed in the LH, zona incerta, dorsal hypothalamic area, and retrochiasmatic nucleus, which represented a mean of 2.5% of total CART cells. None of arcuate CART cells sent dual projections. These data suggested that a portion of ORX (or CART) neurons in the hypothalamus, via divergent axon collaterals, might concurrently modulate the activity of PVT and AcbSh cells to affect feeding and drug-seeking behaviors.

  19. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to serotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions. In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunoreactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed. The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innervation of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  20. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.

  1. Gender difference in age-related number of corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the role of sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the total number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stained neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases with age. To determine whether this age-related change depends on gender and whether circulating sex hormones play a role, we

  2. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Wang, Fu-Xin [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154002 (China); Ren, Jun [Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative Medicine, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Zhiming [Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing 400042 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  3. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

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    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice.

  4. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

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    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

  5. The effects of three types of stress on fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, hippocampus and amygdala in female rats at different stages of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Masuo; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Fujioka, Takashi; Tobe, Ikuyo; Nakamura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry to reveal the Fos protein (a marker of neuronal activation), the present experiments examined whether there were differences in the responses of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), hippocampus, and amygdala of pregnant rats exposed to three types of stressors (restraint, immobilization, and communication-box stress), all having inherently different severities, at three pregnancy stages (6 days into pregnancy, or P6, early-pregnancy), P12 (mid-pregnancy) and P18 (late...

  6. [Effect of the intermittent hypoxic training on the functioning of peptidergic neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and brain stem neurons in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A V

    1998-03-01

    Internittent hypoxic training (IHT) increased the quantity and secretory activity of peptidergic neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PHN) and activated neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of n.vagus. These structures seem to take part in realisation of the IHT activating effect on condition of the pancreatic delta-cells. The effect involves insulin-stimulating and insuloprotective effects realised via hypothalamic and neuro-conducting ways of regulation of the endocrine pancreas with a direct participation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  7. Regional haemodynamic effects of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid agonists microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of conscious, unrestrained rats.

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    Bachelard, H; Pître, M

    1995-06-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of bilateral injection into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of selective mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptor agonists were investigated in conscious, unrestrained Wistar Kyoto rats, chronically instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes for measurement of regional haemodynamics. 2. The selective mu-agonist [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly5ol]enkephalin (DAMGO), injected bilaterally into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (0.01-1.0 nmol), caused increases in blood pressure, tachycardias, vasoconstriction in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and substantial vasodilatation in the hindquarter vascular bed. 3. The administration of increasing doses (0.01-5.0 nmol) of the selective delta-agonist [D-Phe2,5]enkephalin (DPDPE) or the selective kappa-agonist, U50488H into the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) had no significant effect on blood pressure, heart rate, or regional haemodynamics. 4. Together, the present results are further evidence of a role for opioid peptides, especially acting at mu-receptors in the PVN, in the central regulation of the cardiovascular system, whereas a role for opioid peptides, acting at delta- and kappa-receptors in the PVN, seems less obvious from the present results.

  8. Reciprocal connections between CART-immunoreactive, hypothalamic paraventricular neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe cells in the rat: Light microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji S; Lee, Hyun S

    2014-04-29

    Based on the overlapping physiological roles of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides and serotonin, the present study examined the anatomical connection between the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the dorsal raphe (DR). The first series of experiments were performed to investigate descending projections from the CART-immunoreactive (CART-ir) PVN to serotonergic DR cells. CART-ir varicosities made contact with serotonergic DR neurons. An anterograde tracing study revealed that varicosities originating from the PVN formed close appositions to serotonergic neuronal profiles along the entire rostro-caudal extent of the DR. A retrograde study demonstrated that CART neurons projecting to the DR were mainly localized in the caudal parvicellular PVN, comprising approximately 3.0%±0.4% (n=8) of total CART cells. A second series of experiments was performed to investigate ascending projections from the DR to CART-ir PVN cells. Serotonin transporter-ir boutons made contact with CART-ir PVN neurons. Anterograde tracing revealed that varicosities originating from the DR formed close appositions to CART-ir PVN cells. Retrograde examination demonstrated that serotonergic neurons projecting to the parvicellular PVN were located along the entire rostro-caudal extent of the DR. The present observation provided an anatomical basis for accumulating evidence in the literature that suggests a functional interaction between the CART and serotonin systems during the regulation of energy balance, emotional behavior, and arousal.

  9. Leptin activates oxytocin neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in both control and diet-induced obese rodents.

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    Mario Perello

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to reduce body weight and fat mass. Recent studies suggest that parvocellular oxytocin (OXT neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN can mediate body weight reduction through inhibition of food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, the role of OXT neurons of the PVN as a primary target of leptin has not been investigated. Here, we studied the potential role of OXT neurons of the PVN in leptin-mediated effects on body weight regulation in fasted rats. We demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV leptin activates STAT3 phosphorylation in OXT neurons of the PVN, showed that this occurs in a subpopulation of OXT neurons that innervate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, and provided further evidence suggesting a role of OXT to mediate leptin's actions on body weight. In addition, our results indicated that OXT neurons are responsive to ICV leptin and mediate leptin effects on body weight in diet induced obese (DIO rats, which are resistant to the anorectic effects of the hormone. Thus, we conclude that leptin targets a specific subpopulation of parvocellular OXT neurons of the PVN, and that this action may be important for leptin's ability to reduce body weight in both control and obese rats.

  10. Ovarian hormone deprivation reduces oxytocin expression in Paraventricular Nucleus preautonomic neurons and correlates with baroreflex impairment in rats

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    Vitor Ulisses De Melo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation.

  11. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus stimulates sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system and make vasopressin release in rat.

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    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2016-10-06

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays essential roles in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. It was shown that microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN produced a pressor response. In this study, we explored the probable mechanisms of this pressor response. AngII was microinjected into the PVN and cardiovascular responses were recorded. Then, the responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a ganglionic blocker, Hexamethonium, or a vasopressin V1 receptor blocker. Hexamethonium pretreatment (i.v.) greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that the sympathetic system is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Systemic pretreatment (i.v.) with V1 antagonist greatly and significantly attenuated the pressor response to AngII, with no significant effect on heart rate, indicating that vasopressin release is involved in the cardiovascular effect of AngII in the PVN. Overall, we found that AngII microinjected into the PVN produced a pressor response mediated by the sympathetic system and vasopressin release, indicating that other than circulating AngII, endogenous AngII of the PVN increases the vasopressin release from the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endogenous angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus regulates arterial pressure during hypotension in rat, a single-unit study.

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    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) controls cardiovascular regulation through vasopressin and sympathetic system. The PVN contains angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII receptors. We have already shown that microinjection of AngII into PVN produced a pressor response concomitant with an increase in firing rate of some PVN neurons. This study was performed to find if PVN AngII plays a regulatory function during hypotension. Hypovolemic-hypotension was induced and the possible role of the PVN AngII in returning arterial pressure toward normal was assessed by monitoring cardiovascular response and single-unit activity of the PVN neurons. Hemorrhage augmented the pressor, tachycardic and single-unit responses to AngII. After-hemorrhage injection of PD123319, an AT2 antagonist, into PVN resulted in a significant decrease in firing rate of some neurons, indicating that AngII was released into the PVN due to hemorrhage. Using single-unit recording, we found that PVN receives electrical signals from baroreceptors and from circulating AngII through circumventricular organs. In addition, by producing hemorrhagic-hypotension and bilateral blockade of AT2 receptors of the PVN, we found that AngII regulates arterial pressure toward normal during hypotension. So for the first time, it was verified that brain renin-angiotensin system is also a major regulatory system of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of the blood-brain barrier within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: influence of fetal glucocorticoid excess.

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    Frahm, Krystle A; Tobet, Stuart A

    2015-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical contributor to brain function. To understand its development and potential function in different brain regions, the postnatal (P) BBB was investigated in the mouse cortex (CTX), lateral hypothalamus, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Brains were examined on postnatal days (P)12, P22 and P52 for BBB competency and for pericytes as key cellular components of the BBB demarcated by immunoreactive desmin. Glucocorticoid influences (excess dexamethasone; dex) during prenatal development were also assessed for their impact on the blood vessels within these regions postnatally. At P12, there was significantly more extravascular leakage of a low molecular weight dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) in the CTX than within hypothalamic regions. For pericytes, there were low levels of desmin immunoreactivity at P12 that increased with age for all regions. There was more desmin immunoreactivity present in the PVN at each age examined. Fetal dex exposure resulted in decreased blood vessel density within the PVN at P20. In the CTX, dex exposure increased BBB competency, in contrast to the PVN where there was a decrease in BBB competency and increased pericyte presence. Overall, unique alterations in the functioning of the BBB within the PVN may provide a novel mechanism for fetal antecedent programming that may influence adult disorders.

  14. Projections from a single NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neuron in the paraventricular nucleus to different brain regions involved in feeding.

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    Maejima, Yuko; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Shimomura, Kenju

    2016-12-01

    The anorexigenic neuropeptide NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1-containing neurons are distributed in the brain regions involved in feeding regulation, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Functionally, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN regulate feeding through the hypothalamus and brain stem. However, the neural network of PVN NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons has yet to be elucidated. Axon collateral branches allow individual neurons to target multiple neurons. In some cases, each target neuron can be located in different nuclei. Here we show that a single neuron in the PVN projects axonal collaterals to both the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which are important brain regions for feeding regulation. In this study, after injection of different retrograde tracers into the DVC and ARC, both tracer-labeled neurons were detected in the identical PVN neuron, indicating the axon collateral projections from the single PVN neuron to the DVC and ARC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that approximately 50 % of the neurons with axon collateral projections from the PVN to the DVC and ARC were found to be NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons. Our data suggest that a single NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neuron in the PVN projects to both the ARC and the DVC with axon collateral projection. Although the physiological significance remains to be elucidated, our data offer new perspectives on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 function at the neural network level and food intake regulation.

  15. Blocking of orexin receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus has no effect on conditioned fear

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    Xinwen eDong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala and recent experimental evidence indicates a role for the PVT in conditioned fear. Furthermore, the PVT contains a high density of orexin receptors and fibers and acute injections of orexin antagonist into the PVT produce anxiolytic effects. The present study was done to determine if administration of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA in the region of the PVT interfered with the expression of conditioned fear in rats exposed to cued and contextual conditioning paradigms. Infusion of 0.5 µl of the DORA N-biphenyl-2-yl-1-{[(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2yl sulfanyl] acetyl}-L-prolinamide at a concentration of 0.1, 1.0, and 10 nmol had no effect on the freezing produced by exposing rats to an auditory cue or the context associated with foot shock. In contrast, the 1.0 and 10 nmol doses were anxiolytic in the social interaction test. The results of the present study do not support a role for orexin receptors in the PVT in the expression of learned fear. The finding that the 1.0 and 10 nmol doses of DORA in the PVT region were anxiolytic in the social interaction test is consistent with other studies indicating a role for orexins in the PVT in anxiety-like behaviors.

  16. Tonic inhibitory control exerted by opioid peptides in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus on regional hemodynamic activity in rats.

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    Lessard, Andrée; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-07-01

    1. Systemic and regional cardiovascular changes were measured following bilateral microinjection of specific and selective opioid-receptor antagonists into the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) of awake, freely moving rats. 2. PVN microinjection of increasing doses of the specific opioid antagonist naloxone - methiodide (1 - 5.0 nmol), or a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (0.05 - 0.5 nmol), evoked important cardiovascular changes characterized by small and transient increases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), vasoconstriction in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and vasodilation in the hindquarter vascular bed. 3. No significant cardiovascular changes were observed following PVN administration of the highly selective delta-opioid-receptor antagonist, ICI 174864 (0.1 - 1 nmol), or the selective kappa-opioid-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphine (0.1 - 1 nmol). 4. Most of the cardiovascular responses to naloxone (3 nmol) and beta-funaltrexamine (0.5 nmol) were attenuated or abolished by an i.v. treatment with a specific vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist. 5. These results suggest that endogenous opioid peptides and mu-type PVN opioid receptors modulate a tonically-active central depressor pathway acting on systemic and regional haemodynamic systems. Part of this influence could involve a tonic inhibition of vasopressin release.

  17. Ovarian Hormone Deprivation Reduces Oxytocin Expression in Paraventricular Nucleus Preautonomic Neurons and Correlates with Baroreflex Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Vitor U.; Saldanha, Rayssa R. M.; Dos Santos, Carla R.; De Campos Cruz, Josiane; Lira, Vitor A.; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Michelini, Lisete C.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension increases dramatically in women after menopause, however the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Oxytocinergic (OTergic) neurons are largely present within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Several studies have shown that OTergic drive from PVN to brainstem increases baroreflex sensitivity and improves autonomic control of the circulation. Since preautonomic PVN neurons express different types of estrogen receptors, we hypothesize that ovarian hormone deprivation causes baroreflex impairment, autonomic imbalance and hypertension by negatively impacting OTergic drive and oxytocin levels in pre-autonomic neurons. Here, we assessed oxytocin gene and protein expression (qPCR and immunohistochemistry) within PVN subnuclei in sham-operated and ovariectomized Wistar rats. Conscious hemodynamic recordings were used to assess resting blood pressure and heart rate and the autonomic modulation of heart and vessels was estimated by power spectral analysis. We observed that the ovarian hormone deprivation in ovariectomized rats decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased sympathetic and reduced vagal outflows to the heart and augmented the resting blood pressure. Of note, ovariectomized rats had reduced PVN oxytocin mRNA and protein expression in all pre-autonomic PVN subnuclei. Furthermore, reduced PVN oxytocin protein levels were positively correlated with decreased baroreflex sensitivity and negatively correlated with increased LF/HF ratio. These findings suggest that reduced oxytocin expression in OTergic neurons of the PVN contributes to the baroreflex dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation observed with ovarian hormone deprivation.

  18. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  19. Neuropeptide Y level in paraventricular nucleus of experimental diabetic rats: correlation with sympathetic activity and body weight

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    Pallab K Ganguly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pallab K GangulyCollege of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neuropeptide Y (NPY, colocalized with norepinephrine neuron, is known to modulate sympathetic activity and feeding behavior. Although experimental type 1 diabetes has increased sympathetic activity at the early part of the disease process, little effort was made so far to understand the correlation between NPY level in the hypothalamus and sympathetic activity in diabetes. Male Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight, IV. The animals were then studied after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Control animals received only citrate vehicle. In an effort to clarify the modulatory effect of NPY at the early stage of diabetes, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of hypothalamus was sampled by microdialysis for NPY and norepinephrine level. While NPY level was increased immediately within 2 weeks (along with feeding behavior, norepinephrine level was increased only after 8 weeks following injection of streptozotocin. The animals lost significant weight. These results are interpreted to mean that a strong correlation exists between the feeding behavior and NPY level in PVN. Since NPY is known to inhibit sympathetic activity it is possible that NPY receptors are down-regulated following diabetes. The higher level of norepinephrine indicating higher sympathetic activity did not allow the animals to gain weight. In addition, controversy exists regarding pleiotropic activities of NPY related to the feeding behavior of these animals.Keywords: streptozotocin-induced diabetes, increased sympathetic activity, feeding behavior, down-regulation of NPY receptors

  20. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART signaling within the paraventricular thalamus modulates cocaine-seeking behaviour.

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    Morgan H James

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse. A recent study demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of CART negatively modulates reinstatement of alcohol seeking, however, the site(s of action remains unclear. We investigated the paraventricular thalamus (PVT as a potential site of relapse-relevant CART signaling, as this region is known to receive dense innervation from CART-containing hypothalamic cells and to project to a number of regions known to be involved in mediating reinstatement, including the nucleus accumbens (NAC, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and basolateral amygdala (BLA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine before being extinguished to a set criterion. One day following extinction, animals received intra-PVT infusions of saline, tetrodotoxin (TTX; 2.5 ng, CART (0.625 µg or 2.5 µg or no injection, followed by a cocaine prime (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Animals were then tested under extinction conditions for one hour. Treatment with either TTX or CART resulted in a significant attenuation of drug-seeking behaviour following cocaine-prime, with the 2.5 µg dose of CART having the greatest effect. This effect was specific to the PVT region, as misplaced injections of both TTX and CART resulted in responding that was identical to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that CART signaling within the PVT acts to inhibit drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking behaviour, presumably by negatively modulating PVT efferents that are important for drug seeking, including the NAC, mPFC and BLA. In this way, we identify a possible target for future pharmacological interventions designed to suppress drug seeking.

  1. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

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    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  2. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is differentially recruited by stimuli conditioned to the availability of cocaine versus palatable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzeu, Alessandra; Cauvi, Gabrielle; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert; Martin-Fardon, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is not traditionally considered part of the brain addiction neurocircuitry but has received growing attention with regard to a role in the modulation of drug-seeking behavior. This study sought to establish the pattern of neural activation induced by a response-reinstating discriminative stimulus (S(D) ) conditioned to either cocaine (COC) or a conventional reinforcer using a palatable food substance, sweetened condensed milk (SCM). Male Wistar rats were trained to associate one S(D) (S(+) ; COC or SCM availability) and a distinctly different S(D) (S(-) ; non-reward; i.e. the availability of saline or the absence of SCM). Following extinction of COC- and SCM-reinforced responding, rats were presented with the respective S(+) or S(-) alone and tested for the reinstatement of reward seeking. The COC S(+) and SCM S(+) elicited identical reinstatement, whereas the non-reward S(-) was behaviorally ineffective. PVT sections were obtained following completion of the reinstatement tests and labeled for Fos. The number of Fos(+) neurons was compared among rats that were presented with the COC S(+) , SCM S(+) or S(-) . Rats that were presented with the COC S(+) exhibited a significant increase in Fos expression compared with rats that were presented with the S(-) . Moreover, Fos expression was significantly correlated with the number of reinstatement responses that were induced by the COC S(+) . In contrast, the SCM S(+) and S(-) produced identical increases in Fos expression, without behaviorally relevant correlations. The findings implicate the PVT as an important site that is selectively recruited during COC-seeking behavior.

  3. Bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized rats: role of the paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeda, E; Schlicker, E; Luczaj, W; Harasim, E; Baranowska-Kuczko, M; Malinowska, B

    2015-06-01

    The activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors decreases and increases blood pressure (BP) in anaesthetized and conscious rats, respectively. The aim of our study was to check the possible involvement of CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in rats. Methanandamide (metabolically stable analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide) and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 were microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart). Receptor antagonists were administered intravenously (i.v.) 5 min before S1. Methanandamide and CP55940 decreased blood pressure by 15 - 20%. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reversed the depressor effect into a pressor response of 20 - 30%. The pressor effect of CP55940 observed in the presence of AM251 i.v. was reduced by AM251 given additionally into the PVN but not by the i.v. injection of the CB2 antagonist SR144528 or the vanilloid TRPV1 antagonist ruthenium red. In the presence of the peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonist AM6545, CP55940 given into the PVN increased BP by 40%. AM6545 reversed the decrease in BP induced by CP55940 i.v. into a marked increase. Bilateral chemical lesion of the PVN by kainic acid abolished all cardiovascular effects of CP55940 i.v. In conclusion, the cannabinoid CP55940 administered to the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats can induce depressor and pressor effects. The direction of the response probably depends on the sympathetic tone. The centrally induced hypertensive response of CP55940 can, in addition, be masked by peripheral CB1 receptors.

  4. Microinjection of glycine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus produces diuresis, natriuresis, and inhibition of central sympathetic outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krowicki, Zbigniew K; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and glycine-immunoreactive fibers are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), yet the functional significance of this innervation is unclear. Therefore, these studies examined the changes in cardiovascular and renal function and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by the microinjection of glycine (5 and 50 nmol) into the PVN of conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of glycine into, but not outside of, the PVN dose-dependently increased urine flow rate and urinary sodium excretion and decreased RSNA. At the higher dose, PVN glycine also decreased heart rate; neither 5 nor 50 nmol PVN glycine altered mean arterial pressure. The glycine (50 nmol)-evoked diuresis and natriuresis were abolished in rats continuously infused intravenously with [Arg(8)]-vasopressin. Furthermore, chronic bilateral renal denervation prevented the bradycardia and diuresis to PVN glycine and blunted the natriuresis. In other studies, unilateral PVN pretreatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (1.6 nmol) prevented the effects of PVN glycine (50 nmol) on heart rate, RSNA, and renal excretory function. When microinjected bilaterally, PVN strychnine (1.6 nmol per site) evoked a significant increase in heart rate and RSNA without altering renal excretory function. These findings demonstrate that in conscious rats glycine acts in the PVN to enhance the renal excretion of water and sodium and decrease central sympathetic outflow to the heart and kidneys. Although endogenous PVN glycine inputs elicit a tonic control of heart rate and RSNA, the renal excretory responses to PVN glycine seem to be caused primarily by the inhibition of arginine vasopressin secretion.

  5. Midline thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons display diurnal variation in resting membrane potentials, conductances, and firing patterns in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons in the rodent midline thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receive inputs from brain stem and hypothalamic sites known to participate in sleep-wake and circadian rhythms. To evaluate possible diurnal changes in their excitability, we used patch-clamp techniques to record and examine the properties of neurons in anterior PVT (aPVT) in coronal rat brain slices prepared at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2–6 vs. ZT 14–18 and recorded at ZT 8.4 ± 0.2 (day) vs. ZT 21.2 ± 0.2 (night), the subjective quiet vs. aroused states, respectively. Compared with neurons recorded during the day, neurons from the night period were significantly more depolarized and exhibited a lower membrane conductance that in part reflected loss of a potassium-mediated conductance. Furthermore, these neurons were also significantly more active, with tonic and burst firing patterns. Neurons from each ZT period were assessed for amplitudes of two conductances known to contribute to bursting behavior, i.e., low-threshold-activated Ca2+ currents (IT) and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Data revealed that amplitudes of both IT and Ih were significantly larger during the night period. In addition, biopsy samples from the night period revealed a significant increase in mRNA for Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 low-threshold Ca2+ channel subtypes. Neurons recorded from the night period also displayed a comparative enhancement in spontaneous bursting at membrane potentials of approximately −60 mV and in burst firing consequent to hyperpolarization-induced low-threshold currents and depolarization-induced current pulses. These novel in vitro observations reveal that midline thalamic neurons undergo diurnal changes in their IT, Ih, and undefined potassium conductances. The underlying mechanisms remain to be characterized. PMID:22219029

  6. Aerobic training normalizes autonomic dysfunction, HMGB1 content, microglia activation and inflammation in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Gustavo Santos; Nair, Anand R; Silva Soares, Pedro Paulo; Michelini, Lisete Compagno; Francis, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training (ExT) is recommended to treat hypertension along with pharmaceutical antihypertensive therapies. Effects of ExT in hypothalamic content of high mobility box 1 (HMGB1) and microglial activation remain unknown. We examined whether ExT would decrease autonomic and cardiovascular abnormalities in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and whether these effects were associated with decreased HMGB1 content, microglial activation, and inflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR underwent moderate-intensity ExT for 2 wk. After ExT, cardiovascular (heart rate and arterial pressure) and autonomic parameters (arterial pressure and heart rate variability, peripheral sympathetic activity, cardiac vagal activity, and baroreflex function) were measured in conscious and freely-moving rats through chronic arterial and venous catheterization. Cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and brain were collected for molecular and immunohistochemistry analyses of the PVN. In addition to reduced heart rate variability, decreased vagal cardiac activity and increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, arterial pressure variability, cardiac, and vasomotor sympathetic activity, SHR had higher HMGB1 protein expression, IκB-α phosphorylation, TNF-α and IL-6 protein expression, and microglia activation in the PVN. These changes were accompanied by higher plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of HMGB1. The ExT + SHR group had decreased expression of HMGB1, CXCR4, SDF-1, and phosphorylation of p42/44 and IκB-α. ExT reduced microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokines content in the PVN, and improved autonomic control as well. Data suggest that training-induced downregulation of activated HMGB1/CXCR4/microglia/proinflammatory cytokines axis in the PVN of SHR is a prompt neural adaptation to counterbalance the deleterious effects of inflammation on autonomic control. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological

  7. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the regulation of paraventricular nucleus to gastric ischemia-reperfusion injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Yong-mei; QIAO Wei-li; ZHANG Jian-fu; WANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    Background We investigated the role in electrical stimulations of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on gastric mucosal cells and the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family members induced by gastric ischemia-repertusion (Gl-R). And we elucidated the molecular mechanisms of the protection of PVN from GI-R injuries.Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: Group Ⅰ, the sham-operated GI-R control group;Group Ⅱ, the sham-operated electrical stimulations to PVN + sham-operated GI-R control group; Group Ⅲ, the GI-R group; and Group Ⅳ, the electrical stimulations to PVN + GI-R group. In all of the experiments, the PVN was stimulated prior to the induction of GI-R. The GI-R model was established by clamping the celiac artery for 30 minutes to induce ischemia and then was released to allow reperfusion for 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours and 6 hours, respectively. The gastric mucosal cellular apoptosis, proliferation, and the expression and activity of MAPKs protein were observed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively.Results Compared with the GI-R group, the application of electrical stimulations in the PVN significantly depressed gastric mucosal cellular apoptosis and enhanced gastric mucosal cellular proliferation following the 30-minute, 1-hour and 3-hour intervals of reperfusion; it also promoted the activation of p-ERK during the early phase of reperfusion but inhibited the activation of p-JNK1/2 and p-p38 following the 30-minute, 1-hour and 3-hour intervals of reperfusion.Conclusions The protection of PVN against GI-R injuries may attribute to the inhibition of apoptosis and the promotion of the proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during GI-R. This protective effect is mediated by activating the ERK pathway and depressing the JNK, p38 MAPK pathways of the gastric mucosal cells.

  8. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  9. A potential role for the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus in mediating individual variation in Pavlovian conditioned responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lewis Haight

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence to suggest that the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT mediates cue-reward learning, especially as it relates to drug-seeking behavior. However, its exact role in these complex processes remains unknown. Here we will present and discuss data from our own laboratory which suggests that the PVT plays a role in multiple forms of stimulus-reward learning, and does so via distinct neurobiological systems. Using an animal model that captures individual variation in response to reward-associated cues, we are able to parse the incentive from the predictive properties of reward cues and to elucidate the neural circuitry underlying these different forms of cue-reward learning. When rats are exposed to a classical Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, wherein a cue predicts food reward, some rats, termed sign-trackers, approach and manipulate the cue upon its presentation. This behavior is indicative of attributing incentive salience to the cue. That is, the cue gains excessive control over behavior for sign-trackers. In contrast, other rats, termed goal-trackers, treat the cue as a mere predictor, and upon its presentation go to the location of reward delivery. Based on our own data utilizing this model, we hypothesize that the PVT represents a common node, but differentially regulates the sign- vs. goal-tracking response. We postulate that the PVT regulates sign-tracking behavior, or the attribution of incentive salience, via subcortical, dopamine-dependent mechanisms. In contrast, we propose that goal-tracking behavior, or the attribution of predictive value, is the product of top-down glutamatergic processing between the prelimbic cortex and the PVT. Together, data from our laboratory and others support a role for the PVT in cue-motivated behaviors and suggest that it may be an important locus within the neural circuitry that goes awry in addiction and related disorders.

  10. Nitric oxide inhibition in paraventricular nucleus on cardiovascular and autonomic modulation after exercise training in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelari, Rosiane Batista; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Lenhard, Adriane; de Aguiar Corrêa, Fernando Morgan; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2011-02-23

    It is well known that regular physical exercise alter cardiac function and autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV). The paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) is an important site of integration for autonomic and cardiovascular responses, where nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiovascular parameters and autonomic modulation by means of spectral analysis after nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in the PVN in conscious sedentary (S) or swimming trained (ST) rats. After swimming training protocol, adult male Wistar rats, instrumented with guide cannulas to PVN and femoral artery and vein catheters were submitted to mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) recording. At baseline, the physical training induced a resting bradycardia (S: 374±5, ST: 346±1bpm) and promoted adaptations in HRV characterized by an increase in high-frequency oscillations (HF; 26.43±6.91 to 88.96±2.44) and a decrease in low-frequency oscillations (LF; 73.57±6.91 to 11.04±2.44) in normalized units. The microinjection of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the PVN of sedentary and trained rats promoted increase in MAP and HR. l-NAME in the PVN did not significantly alter the spectral parameters of HRV of sedentary animals, however in the trained rats increased LF oscillations (11.04±2.44 to 27.62±6.97) and decreased HF oscillations (88.96±2.44 to 72.38±6.97) in normalized units compared with baseline. Our results suggest that NO in the PVN may collaborate to cardiac autonomic modulation after exercise training.

  11. Exercise training normalizes an increased neuronal excitability of NTS-projecting neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Sonner, Patrick M; Son, Sook Jin; Silva, Fabiana C P; Jackson, Keshia; Michelini, Lisete C

    2012-05-01

    Elevated sympathetic outflow and altered autonomic reflexes, including impaired baroreflex function, are common findings observed in hypertensive disorders. Although a growing body of evidence supports a contribution of preautonomic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to altered autonomic control during hypertension, the precise underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intrinsic excitability and repetitive firing properties of preautonomic PVN neurons that innervate the nucleus tractus solitarii (PVN-NTS neurons) were altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Moreover, given that exercise training is known to improve and/or correct autonomic deficits in hypertensive conditions, we evaluated whether exercise is an efficient behavioral approach to correct altered neuronal excitability in hypertensive rats. Patch-clamp recordings were obtained from retrogradely labeled PVN-NTS neurons in hypothalamic slices obtained from sedentary (S) and trained (T) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats. Our results indicate an increased excitability of PVN-NTS neurons in SHR-S rats, reflected by an enhanced input-output function in response to depolarizing stimuli, a hyperpolarizing shift in Na(+) spike threshold, and smaller hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Importantly, we found exercise training in SHR rats to restore all these parameters back to those levels observed in WKY-S rats. In several cases, exercise evoked opposing effects in WKY-S rats compared with SHR-S rats, suggesting that exercise effects on PVN-NTS neurons are state dependent. Taken together, our results suggest that elevated preautonomic PVN-NTS neuronal excitability may contribute to altered autonomic control in SHR rats and that exercise training efficiently corrects these abnormalities.

  12. Dehydration-induced drinking decreases Fos expression in hypothalamic paraventricular neurons expressing vasopressin but not corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotus, Cheryl; Arnhold, Michelle M; Engeland, William C

    2007-03-01

    Water-restricted (WR) rats exhibit a rapid suppression of plasma corticosterone following drinking. The present study monitored Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos) to assess the effect of WR-induced drinking on the activity of vasopressin (VP)-positive magnocellular and parvocellular neurons and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adult male rats received water for 30 min (WR) in the post meridiem (PM) each day for 6 days and were killed without receiving water or at 1 h after receiving water for 15 min. In WR rats, Fos increased in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but not CRH neurons. After drinking, Fos was reduced in VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons but did not change in CRH neurons. To assess the severity of osmotic stress, rats were sampled throughout the final day of WR. Plasma osmolality, hematocrit and plasma VP were increased throughout the day before PM rehydration, and plasma ACTH and corticosterone were elevated at 1230 and 1430, respectively, showing that WR activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the early PM before the time of rehydration. To determine the effects of WR-induced drinking on CRH neurons activated by acute stress, WR rats underwent restraint. Restraint increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone and Fos in CRH neurons; although rehydration reduced plasma ACTH and Fos expression in VP neurons, Fos in CRH neurons was not affected. These results suggest that inhibition of VP magnocellular and parvocellular neurons, but not CRH parvocellular neurons, contributes to the suppression of corticosterone after WR-induced drinking.

  13. Expression of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors, as well as corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in fornix transected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Han; Hong Liu; Yanhui Zhang; Yuxiu Shi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hippocampus regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through negative feedback. The hypothalamic paraventdcular nucleus receives neuronal input from the hippocampus via the fornix.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the negative feedback effect of the hippocampus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is contributed to the inhibitory effect of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus on the paraventricular nucleus via the fomix.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology, China Medical University between September 2006 and September 2008.MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-rat anti-MR and rabbit anti-rat anti-GR antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA. Rabbit anti-rat anti-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and rabbit anti-rat anti-arginine vasopressin antibodies were purchased from Wuhan Boster.METHODS: A total of 90 male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into model and sham-surgery groups (n=45). Fornix transection was performed in the model group, while the sham-surgery group underwent surgery, but no fornix transection.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, as well as CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus. Western blot was used to measure alterations in MR, GR, and CRH protein expression following fomix transection.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-surgery group, there were no obvious changes in MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, or CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus within 4 days of fornix transection. However, after 7-10 days, significantly decreased MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, and increased CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus were observed (P < 0.05-0.01).CONCLUSION: Negative feedback from the

  14. Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H; Graham, Brett A; Dayas, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine

  15. Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H.; Graham, Brett A.; Dayas, Christopher V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine

  16. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana;

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  17. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  18. Upregulation of the expression of vasopressin gene in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the lithium-induced diabetes insipidus rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, H; Ueta, Y; Serino, R; Nomura, M; Kabashima, N; Shibuya, I; Takasugi, M; Nakashima, Y; Yamashita, H

    1997-10-24

    The expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) was investigated in rats with lithium (Li)-induced polyuria, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and radioimmunoassay. The male Wistar rats consuming a diet that contained LiCl (60 mmol/kg) for 4 weeks developed marked polyuria. The Li-treated rats produced a large volume of hypotonic urine with low ionic concentrations. Plasma sodium concentrations were found to be slightly increased in the Li-treated rats compared with those in controls. Plasma concentration of AVP and transcripts of AVP gene in the PVN and SON were significantly increased in the Li-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that dehydration and/or the activation of visceral afferent inputs may contribute to the elevation of plasma AVP and the upregulation of AVP gene expression in the PVN and the SON of the Li-induced diabetes insipidus rat.

  19. Electroacupuncture activates corticotrophin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalammus to alleviate edema in a rat model of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Brian M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that electroacupuncture (EA has beneficial effects in patients with inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms of EA anti-inflammation, using a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced hind paw inflammation and hyperalgesia. Design Four experiments were conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6–7/per group. Inflammation was induced by injecting CFA into the plantar surface of one hind paw. Experiment 1 examined whether EA increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels. Experiments 2 and 3 studied the effects of the ACTH and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH receptor antagonists, ACTH(11–24 and astressin, on the EA anti-edema. Experiment 4 determined whether EA activates CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalammus. EA treatment, 10 Hz at 3 mA and 0.1 ms pulse width, was given twice for 20 min each, once immediately post and again 2 hr post-CFA. Plasma ACTH levels, paw thickness, and paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus were measured 2 h and 5 h after the CFA. Results EA significantly increased ACTH levels 5 h (2 folds after CFA compared to sham EA control, but EA alone in naive rats and CFA alone did not induce significant increases in ACTH. ACTH(11–24 and astressin blocked EA anti-edema but not EA anti-hyperalgesia. EA induced phosphorylation of NR1, an essential subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor, in CRH-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus. Conclusion The data demonstrate that EA activates CRH neurons to significantly increase plasma ACTH levels and suppress edema through CRH and ACTH receptors in a rat model of inflammation.

  20. Neuroendoscopic biopsy and the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus of the ventricular and paraventricular region in pediatric patients: a nationwide study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Tomoru; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro; Ohira, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    A neuroendoscopic biopsy is a minimally invasive and useful procedure for the diagnosis and initial management of tumor-associated hydrocephalus. We describe the nationwide investigation of the current status of neuroendoscopic biopsy for intra- and paraventricular tumors in children, as well as the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus in pediatric patients. The main items examined included the patient's age and sex, location of the tumor, pathological diagnosis, complications, treatment and efficacy of treatment of the tumor-associated hydrocephalus, and the dissemination during the postoperative course. Two hundred twenty-one pediatric patients (mean 8.6 years) from 67 institutions were registered. Endoscopic tumor biopsies were performed in 206 patients (93.2 %), and a histopathological diagnosis could be performed in 195 of these 206 patients (94.7 %). The most frequently histopathologically diagnosed tumor was a germ cell tumor (41.5 %), followed by astrocytic tumors (24.1 %) and cystic lesions (15.9 %). Associated hydrocephalus was observed in 177 patients (80.1 %), 101 of whom underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The efficacy rate of the ETV in the perioperative period was 99.0 %, and the long-term response rate was 90.1 %. Perioperative complications other than fever were found in 24 patients (10.9 %). In the statistical analysis, pediatric long-term response rate to ETV (p = 0.025) showed significantly more favorable results for pediatric than adult patients (p < 0.05). Neuroendoscopic procedures involving pediatric intra- and paraventricular tumors were considered to be very useful, with a low incidence of complication, and were associated with higher safety.

  1. Refeeding-activated glutamatergic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) mediate effects of melanocortin signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).

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    Singru, Praful S; Wittmann, Gábor; Farkas, Erzsébet; Zséli, Györgyi; Fekete, Csaba; Lechan, Ronald M

    2012-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that refeeding after a prolonged fast activates a subset of neurons in the ventral parvocellular subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus (PVNv) as a result of increased melanocortin signaling. To determine whether these neurons contribute to satiety by projecting to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the retrogradely transported marker substance, cholera toxin-β (CTB), was injected into the dorsal vagal complex of rats that were subsequently fasted and refed for 2 h. By double-labeling immunohistochemistry, CTB accumulation was found in the cytoplasm of the majority of refeeding-activated c-Fos neurons in the ventral parvocellular subdivision of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVNv). In addition, a large number of refeeding-activated c-Fos-expressing neurons were observed in the lateral parvocellular subdivision (PVNl) that also contained CTB and were innervated by axon terminals of proopiomelanocortin neurons. To visualize the location of neuronal activation within the NTS by melanocortin-activated PVN neurons, α-MSH was focally injected into the PVN, resulting in an increased number of c-Fos-containing neurons in the PVN and in the NTS, primarily in the medial and commissural parts. All refeeding-activated neurons in the PVNv and PVNl expressed the mRNA of the glutamatergic marker, type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2), indicating their glutamatergic phenotype, but only rare neurons contained oxytocin. These data suggest that melanocortin-activated neurons in the PVNv and PVNl may contribute to refeeding-induced satiety through effects on the NTS and may alter the sensitivity of NTS neurons to vagal satiety inputs via glutamate excitation.

  2. Mechanisms of the regional hemodynamic effects of a mu-opioid receptor agonist microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of conscious unrestrained rats.

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    Bachelard, H; Pître, M; Lessard, A

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the mechanisms of the hemodynamic responses to microinjection of the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, in conscious rats chronically instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes. We found that i.v. pretreatment with phentolamine had no effect on the tachycardia elicited by DAMGO (1 nmol); however, the pressor response was reversed to a state of hypotension, the renal and superior mesenteric vasoconstrictions were attenuated and the hindquarter vasodilation was potentiated. In the presence of propranolol, the pressor response and renal vasoconstriction were unchanged, whereas the superior mesenteric vasoconstriction was reduced and the hindquarter vasodilation was abolished. Moreover, in those animals we observed bradycardia followed by tachycardia. Combined i.v. pretreatment with phentolamine and propranolol abolished the pressor and heart rate responses to DAMGO but had no effect on the renal and superior mesenteric vasoconstrictions, although the hindquarter vasodilation was reduced. Intravenous pretreatment with a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or captopril had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to DAMGO. Together, these results indicate that the hypertension observed after injection of DAMGO into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was secondary to alpha adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstrictions in renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds and to beta adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the hindquarter vascular bed, whereas the involvement of circulating vasopressin or angiotensin seems less obvious from the present findings. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that nonadrenergic, nonvasopressinergic and nonangiotensinergic vasoconstrictor mechanisms were acting in the renal and superior mesenteric vascular beds.

  3. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

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    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  4. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

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    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  5. Reward associated with singing behavior correlates with opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus in male European starlings.

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    Lauren V Riters

    Full Text Available Birdsong consists of species-specific learned vocal sequences that are used primarily to attract mates and to repel competitors during the breeding season. However, many birds continue to sing at times when vocal production has no immediate or obvious impact on conspecific behavior. The mechanisms that ensure that animals produce important behaviors in contexts in which the function of these behaviors is not immediate or obvious are not known. One possibility is that animals engage in such behaviors because they are associated with pleasure. Here we examined the hypothesis that male European starlings sing outside of the breeding season in part because the act of singing in this context is facilitated and/or maintained by opioid-mediated reward. We measured song-associated reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP test in male starlings producing fall, non-breeding season-typical song. We used quantitative real time PCR to measure expression of the enkephalin opioid precursor preproenkephalin (PENK and mu opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM; a region in which opioids are implicated in both reward and starling fall song and additionally the song control region HVC as a control. Starlings developed a strong preference for a place that had been paired previously with the act of producing fall-typical song, indicating that fall song production was associated with a positive affective state. Both PENK and MOR mRNA expression in the POM, but not HVC, correlated positively with both individual reward state (as reflected in CPP and undirected singing behavior. These results suggest that singing induces opioid receptor and enkephalin expression in the POM and consequent reward, and/or that opioid release in the POM induced by individual or environmental factors (e.g., the presence of food, safety of a flock or the absence of predators induces a positive affective state which then facilitates singing behavior.

  6. Central CRF neurons are not created equal: Phenotypic differences in CRF-containing neurons of the rat paraventricular hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Joanna eDabrowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF plays a key role in initiating many of the endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. CRF-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN are classically involved in regulating endocrine function through activation of the stress axis. However, CRF is also thought to play a critical role in mediating anxiety-like responses to environmental stressors, and dysfunction of the CRF system in extra-hypothalamic brain regions, like the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST, has been linked to the etiology of many psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Thus, although CRF neurons of the PVN and BNST share a common neuropeptide phenotype, they may represent two functionally diverse neuronal populations. Here, we employed dual-immunofluorescence, single-cell RT-PCR, and electrophysiological techniques to further examine this question and report that CRF neurons of the PVN and BNST are fundamentally different such that PVN CRF neurons are glutamatergic, whereas BNST CRF neurons are GABAergic. Moreover, these two neuronal populations can be further distinguished based on their electrophysiological properties, their co-expression of peptide neurotransmitters such as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin, and their cognate receptors. Our results suggest that CRF neurons in the PVN and the BNST would not only differ in their response to local neurotransmitter release, but also in their action on downstream target structures.

  7. Effect of Hyperosmotic Stimulation and Adrenalectomy on Vasopressin mRNA Levels in the Paraventricular and Supraoptic Nuclei of the Hypothalamus:

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    Suemaru,Shuso

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt loading and adrenalectomy on arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON of the hypothalamus were studied by semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry, using a synthetic oligonucleotide probe and a computer-assisted image analysis system. Salt loading (2% NaCl for 7 days produced marked increases in AVP mRNA levels in the magnocellular neurons of the PVN, SON, and accessory nuclei. Adrenalectomy caused an increase in AVP mRNA expression in the magnocellular part of the PVN and the expansion of hybridization signals into its medial parvocellular region, where the cell bodies of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH neurons are located. No apparent alteration of AVP mRNA levels was observed in the SON following adrenalectomy. These results indicate that hyperosmotic stimulation and the loss of circulating glucocorticoids had differential effects on AVP gene expression in the PVN and SON, and that the magnocellular PVN and SON neurons responded in different manners to the loss of feedback signals.

  8. Cross talk between AT1 receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 in microglia contributes to angiotensin II-derived ROS production in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

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    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Stranahan, Alexis M; Krause, Eric G; de Kloet, Annette D; Stern, Javier E

    2016-02-01

    ANG II is thought to increase sympathetic outflow by increasing oxidative stress and promoting local inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, the relative contributions of inflammation and oxidative stress to sympathetic drive remain poorly understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular targets have yet to be examined. ANG II has been shown to enhance Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated signaling on microglia. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine whether ANG II-mediated activation of microglial TLR4 signaling is a key molecular target initiating local oxidative stress in the PVN. We found TLR4 and ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamic microglia, providing molecular evidence for the potential interaction between these two receptors. In hypothalamic slices, ANG II induced microglial activation within the PVN (∼65% increase, P microglia) to ANG II-driven ROS production in the PVN. Taken together, these results support functional interactions between AT1 receptors and TLR4 in mediating ANG II-dependent microglial activation and oxidative stress within the PVN. More broadly, our results support a functional interaction between the central renin-angiotensin system and innate immunity in the regulation of neurohumoral outflows from the PVN.

  9. Fasted/fed states regulate postsynaptic hub protein DYNLL2 and glutamatergic transmission in oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

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    Suyama, Shigetomo; Kodaira-Hirano, Misato; Otgon-Uul, Zesemdorj; Ueta, Yoichi; Nakata, Masanori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    The neurons in the hypothalamus regulate food intake and energy metabolism on reception of systemic energy states. Accumulating evidences have indicated that synaptic transmission on the hypothalamic neurons is modulated by the metabolic condition related to fasted/fed states, and that this modulation of synaptic plasticity plays a role in regulation of feeding. It has been shown that oxytocin (Oxt) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus sense and integrate various peripheral and central signals and thereby induce satiety. However, whether metabolic conditions regulate the synaptic transmission on Oxt neurons in PVN remains unclear. The present study examined whether the fasted/fed states regulate synaptic transmission on Oxt neurons in PVN. The miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto Oxt neurons in PVN were increased under ad lib fed condition compared to 24h fasted condition. Furthermore, the NMDA receptor-mediated EPSC on Oxt neurons was increased under fed, compared to fasted, condition. In Oxt neurons, dynein light chain 2 (DYNLL2), a protein suggested to be implicated in the NMDA receptor trafficking to the postsynaptic site, was increased under fed, compared to fasted, condition. The present results suggest that feeding increases excitatory synaptic input on PVN Oxt neurons via mechanisms involving DYNLL2 upregulation and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic reorganization.

  10. Centrally mediated ejaculatory response via sympathetic outflow in rats: role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors in paraventricular nucleus.

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    Xia, J-D; Chen, J; Sun, H-J; Zhou, L-H; Zhu, G-Q; Chen, Y; Dai, Y-T

    2017-01-01

    Ejaculation is mediated by a spinal generator, which integrates inputs related to the sexual activity and coordinates sympathetic, parasympathetic, and motor outflow. Previous clinical studies indicate that primary premature ejaculation is related to the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In this study, we explored the roles of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) on ejaculatory responses and its potential mechanism in the rats. We found that microinjection of 0.20 nmol NMDA into the PVN reduced the latency of intromission and facilitated ejaculation during copulation. Moreover, delayed ejaculation and intromission were observed after the rats were microinjected with NMDA receptor antagonist D (-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5). However, we discovered that microinjection of NMDA into PVN significantly increased baseline lumbar splanchnic nerve activity (LSNA), and the NMDA dose was positively correlated with the increased LSNA (r = 0.875, p = 0.04). Meanwhile, the plasma norepinephrine level in rats injected with NMDA was much higher than that in rats injected with saline (1453.4 ± 136.4 pg/mL vs. 492.3 ± 36.8 pg/mL, p ejaculation through enhancing the activity of sympathetic system.

  11. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

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    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow.

  12. Blocking of orexin receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus has no effect on the expression of conditioned fear in rats.

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    Dong, Xinwen; Li, Yonghui; Kirouac, Gilbert J

    2015-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala and recent experimental evidence indicates a role for the PVT in conditioned fear. Furthermore, the PVT contains a high density of orexin receptors and fibers and acute injections of orexin antagonist into the PVT produce anxiolytic effects. The present study was done to determine if administration of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) in the region of the PVT interferes with the expression of conditioned fear in rats exposed to cued and contextual conditioning paradigms. Infusion of 0.5 μl of the DORA N-biphenyl-2-yl-1-[(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2yl) sulfanyl] acetyl-L-prolinamide at a concentration of 0.1, 1.0, and 10 nmol had no effect on the freezing produced by exposing rats to an auditory cue or the context associated with foot shock. In contrast, the 1.0 and 10 nmol doses were anxiolytic in the social interaction test. The results of the present study do not support a role for orexin receptors in the PVT in the expression of learned fear. The finding that the 1.0 and 10 nmol doses of DORA in the PVT region were anxiolytic in the social interaction test is consistent with other studies indicating a role for orexins in the PVT in anxiety-like behaviors.

  13. Differential Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, sacral parasympathetic nucleus and colonic motor response to water avoidance stress in Fischer and Lewis rats.

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    Million, M; Wang, L; Martinez, V; Taché, Y

    2000-09-22

    The responsiveness of hypothalamic CRF to various stressors is reduced in the young female Lewis relative to the histocompatible Fischer rat. Whether such a difference impacts the brain-gut response to water avoidance stress was investigated by monitoring Fos immunoreactivity in the brain and sacral spinal cord and fecal pellet output. Exposure for 60 min to water avoidance stress increased the number of Fos positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the parasympathetic nucleus of the lumbo-sacral spinal cord (L6-S1) in both Lewis and Fischer rats compared with non stress groups. The Fos response was lower by 32.0% in the PVN, and 63% in sacral parasympathetic nucleus in Lewis compared with Fischer rats while similar Fos expression was observed in the NTS. Stress-induced defecation was reduced by 52% in Lewis compared with Fischer rats while colonic motor response to CRF injected intracisternally resulted in a similar pattern and magnitude of defecation in both strains. The CRF receptor antagonist [D-Phe12,Nle(21,38)C(a)MeLeu(37)]-CRF(12-41) injected intracisternally antagonized partly the defecation response in Lewis and Fischer rats. These data indicate that a lower activation of PVN and sacral parasympathetic nuclei in Lewis compared with Fisher rats may contribute to the differential colonic motor response and that the blunted CRF hypothalamic response to stress, unlike responsiveness to central CRF plays a role.

  14. Endogenous GLP-1 acts on paraventricular nucleus to suppress feeding: projection from nucleus tractus solitarius and activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone, nesfatin-1 and oxytocin neurons.

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    Katsurada, Kenichi; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Kodaira, Misato; Suyama, Shigetomo; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kario, Kazuomi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2014-08-22

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been used to treat type 2 diabetic patients and shown to reduce food intake and body weight. The anorexigenic effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists are thought to be mediated primarily via the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). GLP-1, an intestinal hormone, is also localized in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1, particularly that in the NTS neurons, in feeding regulation remains to be established. The present study examined whether the NTS GLP-1 neurons project to PVN and whether the endogenous GLP-1 acts on PVN to restrict feeding. Intra-PVN injection of GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin (9-39) increased food intake. Injection of retrograde tracer into PVN combined with immunohistochemistry for GLP-1 in NTS revealed direct projection of NTS GLP-1 neurons to PVN. Moreover, GLP-1 evoked Ca(2+) signaling in single neurons isolated from PVN. The majority of GLP-1-responsive neurons were immunoreactive predominantly to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nesfatin-1, and less frequently to oxytocin. These results indicate that endogenous GLP-1 targets PVN to restrict feeding behavior, in which the projection from NTS GLP-1 neurons and activation of CRH and nesfatin-1 neurons might be implicated. This study reveals a neuronal basis for the anorexigenic effect of endogenous GLP-1 in the brain.

  15. Long-Term Over-Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance Partly via the Y5 Receptor.

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    Min Long

    Full Text Available Intracerebroventricular injection and overexpression of Neuropeptide Y (NPY in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN has been shown to induce obesity and glucose metabolism disorder in rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism contributing to glucose metabolic disturbance induced by NPY. Recombinant lentiviral NPY vectors were injected into the PVN of rats fed a high fat (HFD or low-fat diet. 8 weeks later, in vivo intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that insulin resistance of adipose tissue were induced by NPY overexpression with or without HFD. NPY increased food intake, but did not change blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or lipid levels. However, NPY decreased the expression of pGSK3β, PI3K p85 and pAKTSer473 in adipose tissue of rats. In vitro, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with NPY, NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists. Glucose consumption and 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake were partly inhibited by NPY, while a decrease in PI3K-AKT pathway signaling and a decreased expression of pGSK3α and pGSK3β were observed. Nevertheless, a Y5 receptor antagonist (L-152,804 reversed the effects of NPY on glucose uptake and consumption. These data suggest that long-term over-expression of NPY in PVN contributes to the establishment of adipose tissue insulin resistance, at least partly via the Y5 Receptor.

  16. Mct8 and trh co-expression throughout the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is modified by dehydration-induced anorexia in rats.

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    Alvarez-Salas, Elena; Mengod, Guadalupe; García-Luna, Cinthia; Soberanes-Chávez, Paulina; Matamoros-Trejo, Gilberto; de Gortari, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with endocrine and neuromodulatory effects. TRH from the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) participates in the control of energy homeostasis; as a neuromodulator TRH has anorexigenic effects. Negative energy balance decreases PVN TRH expression and TSH concentration; in contrast, a particular model of anorexia (dehydration) induces in rats a paradoxical increase in TRH expression in hypophysiotropic cells from caudal PVN and high TSH serum levels, despite their apparent hypothalamic hyperthyroidism and low body weight. We compared here the mRNA co-expression pattern of one of the brain thyroid hormones' transporters, the monocarboxylate transporter-8 (MCT8) with that of TRH in PVN subdivisions of dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) and control rats. Our aim was to identify whether a low MCT8 expression in anorexic rats could contribute to their high TRH mRNA content.We registered daily food intake and body weight of 7-day DIA and control rats and analyzed TRH and MCT8 mRNA co-expression throughout the PVN by double in situ hybridization assays. We found that DIA rats showed increased number of TRHergic cells in caudal PVN, as well as a decreased percentage of TRH-expressing neurons that co-expressed MCT8 mRNA signal. Results suggest that the reduced proportion of double TRH/MCT8 expressing cells may be limiting the entry of hypothalamic triiodothyronine to the greater number of TRH-expressing neurons from caudal PVN and be in part responsible for the high TRH expression in anorexia rats and for the lack of adaptation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to their low food intake.

  17. Early interference with p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

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    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Shun-Guang; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2013-04-01

    Blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) can upregulate p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and ANG II type-1 receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical cardiovascular and autonomic center. We tested the hypothesis that brain p44/42 MAPK signaling contributes to the development of ANG II-induced hypertension. The ANG II infusion (120 ng/kg per min, subcutaneously) induced increases in phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK and ANG II type-1 receptors in the PVN after 1 week, before the onset of hypertension, that were sustained as hypertension developed during a 2- or 3-week infusion protocol. Bilateral PVN microinjections of small interfering RNAs for p44/42 MAPK, at the onset of the ANG II infusion or 1 week later, prevented the early increase in p44/42 MAPK activity. The early treatment normalized ANG II type-1 receptor expression in the PVN and attenuated the hypertensive response to the 2-week infusion of ANG II. The later small interfering RNA microinjections had a transient effect on ANG II type-1 receptor expression in PVN and no effect on the hypertensive response to the 3-week infusion of ANG II. The early treatment also normalized the pressure response to ganglionic blockade. The ANG II infusion induced increases in mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines that were not affected by either small interfering RNA treatment. These results suggest that the full expression of ANG II-induced hypertension depends on p44/42 MAPK-mediated effects. A potential role for p44/42 MAPK in modulating the ANG II-induced central inflammatory response might also be considered. MAPK signaling in PVN may be a novel target for early intervention in the progression of ANG II-dependent hypertension.

  18. Gene expression profiling in the stress control brain region hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reveals a novel gene network including Amyloid beta Precursor Protein

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    Deussing Jan M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pivotal role of stress in the precipitation of psychiatric diseases such as depression is generally accepted. This study aims at the identification of genes that are directly or indirectly responding to stress. Inbred mouse strains that had been evidenced to differ in their stress response as well as in their response to antidepressant treatment were chosen for RNA profiling after stress exposure. Gene expression and regulation was determined by microarray analyses and further evaluated by bioinformatics tools including pathway and cluster analyses. Results Forced swimming as acute stressor was applied to C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and resulted in sets of regulated genes in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, 4 h or 8 h after stress. Although the expression changes between the mouse strains were quite different, they unfolded in phases over time in both strains. Our search for connections between the regulated genes resulted in potential novel signalling pathways in stress. In particular, Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting 2 (GNAi2 and Amyloid β (A4 precursor protein (APP were detected as stress-regulated genes, and together with other genes, seem to be integrated into stress-responsive pathways and gene networks in the PVN. Conclusions This search for stress-regulated genes in the PVN revealed its impact on interesting genes (GNAi2 and APP and a novel gene network. In particular the expression of APP in the PVN that is governing stress hormone balance, is of great interest. The reported neuroprotective role of this molecule in the CNS supports the idea that a short acute stress can elicit positive adaptational effects in the brain.

  19. Functions of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat, correlating single-unit and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nasimi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a complex structure with both neuroendocrine and autonomic functions including cardiovascular control. The PVN contains angiotensin II (AngII) immunoreactive cells, fibers, as well as AT1 and AT2 receptors of AngII. We microinjected AngII into the PVN of normotensive anesthetized rats and simultaneously recorded blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and single-unit responses. The roles of AT1 and AT2 receptors in these responses were also evaluated. Microinjection of AngII into the PVN produced a short excitatory single-unit response and two types of pressor responses: short duration with a decrease in HR and long with an increase in HR. Microinjection of losartan, an AT1 antagonist, into the PVN produced two response types, attenuation and augmentation of the pressor and firing rate responses to AngII. Microinjection of PD123319, an AT2 antagonist, into the PVN greatly attenuated pressor and single-unit response to AngII, indicating that the pressor response was mediated through AT2 receptors too. In conclusion, microinjection of AngII into the PVN stimulates neurons resulting in an increase in firing rate and consequently produces a short or long pressor response. These responses were mediated through AT1 and AT2 receptors; however, AT1 receptor may produce inhibition too. The results suggest that AngII of the PVN may be a neurotransmitter playing a role in arterial pressure regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ca2+-dependent and Na+-dependent K+ conductances contribute to a slow AHP in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons: a novel target for orexin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Kolaj, Miloslav; Renaud, Leo P

    2010-10-01

    Thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) neurons exhibit a postburst apamin-resistant slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) that is unique to midline thalamus, displays activity dependence, and is abolished in tetrodotoxin. Analysis of the underlying sI(AHP) confirmed a requirement for Ca(2+) influx with contributions from P/Q-, N-, L-, and R subtype channels, a reversal potential near E(K)(+) and a significant reduction by UCL-2077, barium or TEA, consistent with a role for K(Ca) channels. sI(AHP) was significantly reduced by activation of either the cAMP or the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. Further analysis of the sAHP revealed an activity-dependent but Ca(2+)-independent component that was reduced in high [K(+)](o) and blockable after Na(+) substitution with Li(+) or in the presence of quinidine, suggesting a role for K(Na) channels. The Ca(2+)-independent sAHP component was selectively reduced by activation of the PKC signaling pathway. The sAHP contributed to spike frequency adaptation, which was sensitive to activation of either cAMP or PKC signaling pathways and, near the peak of membrane hyperpolarization, was sufficient to cause de-inactivation of low threshold T-Type Ca(2+) channels, thus promoting burst firing. PVT neurons are densely innervated by orexin-immunoreactive fibers, and depolarized by exogenously applied orexins. We now report that orexin A significantly reduced both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent sI(AHP), and spike frequency adaptation. Furthermore orexin A-induced sI(AHP) inhibition was mediated through activation of PKC but not PKA. Collectively, these observations suggest that K(Ca) and K(Na) channels have a role in a sAHP that contributes to spike frequency adaptation and neuronal excitability in PVT neurons and that the sAHP is a novel target for modulation by the arousal- and feeding-promoting orexin neuropeptides.

  1. Central mechanism of the cardiovascular responses caused by L-proline microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Azevedo, Silvana; Busnardo, Cristiane; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Previously, we reported that microinjection of L-proline (L-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of L-Pro (3-100nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer D-Proline (D-Pro) or Mannitol. The PVN pretreatment with either a selective non-NMDA (NBQX) or selective NMDA (LY235959 or DL-AP7) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the cardiovascular response to L-Pro (33nmol/100nL). The dose-effect curve for the pretreatment with increasing doses of LY235959 was located at the left in relation to the curves for NBQX and DL-AP7, showing that LY235959 is more potent than NBQX, which is more potent than DL-AP7 in inhibiting the cardiovascular response to L-Pro. The cardiovascular response to the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN was not affected by local pretreatment with N(ω)-Propyl-l-arginine (N-Propyl), a selective inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), suggesting that NO does not mediate the responses to L-Pro in the PVN. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionotropic receptors in the PVN, blocked by both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists, mediate the pressor response to L-Pro that results from activation of PVN vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons and vasopressin release into the systemic circulation.

  2. ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus contributes to sympathetic excitation in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-03-15

    Brain MAPK signaling pathways are activated in heart failure (HF) induced by myocardial infarction and contribute to augmented sympathetic nerve activity. We tested whether decreasing ERK1/2 (also known as p44/42 MAPK) signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a forebrain source of presympathetic neurons, would reduce the upregulation of sympathoexcitatory mediators in the PVN and augmented sympathetic nerve activity in rats with HF. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation to induce HF, with left ventricular dysfunction confirmed by echocardiography. One week after coronary artery ligation or sham operation, small interfering (si)RNAs targeting ERK1/2 or a nontargeting control siRNA was microinjected bilaterally into the PVN. Experiments were conducted 5-7 days later. Confocal images revealed reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 immunofluorescence in the PVN of HF rats treated with ERK1/2 siRNAs compared with HF rats treated with control siRNA. Western blot analysis confirmed significant reductions in both total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the PVN of HF rats treated with ERK1/2 siRNAs along with reduced expression of renin-angiotensin system components and inflammatory mediators. HF rats treated with ERK1/2 siRNAs also had reduced PVN neuronal excitation (fewer Fos-related antigen-like-immunoreactive neurons), lower plasma norepinephrine levels, and improved peripheral manifestations of HF compared with HF rats treated with control siRNAs. These results demonstrate that ERK1/2 signaling in the PVN plays a pivotal role in mediating sympathetic drive in HF induced by myocardial infarction and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAVENTRICULAR THALAMIC (PVT NEURONS IN RESPONSE TO CHRONIC COCAINE EXPOSURE: EFFECTS OF COCAINE- AND AMPHETAMINE-REGULATED TRANSCRIPT (CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann Wei eYeoh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is likely mediated in part through the dense projections to the PVT from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as orexin, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, both of which play key roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behaviour in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, very few studies have assessed the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons and how these parameters are altered by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. We set out to address these questions by employing an electrophysiological approach to record from anterior PVT (aPVT neurons from cocaine-treated and control animals. First, we determined the excitability of aPVT neurons by injecting a series of depolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP discharge properties. Second, we investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. We found that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibited tonic firing (TF, and initial bursting (IB consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF, single spiking (SS and reluctant firing (RF. Interestingly, cocaine exposure shifted the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. Further, application of CART suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioural data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behaviour. Together, these studies support previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in

  4. Variations in Phase and Amplitude of Rhythmic Clock Gene Expression across Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lauren E; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Morton, Sarah; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The molecular circadian clock is a self-regulating transcription/translation cycle of positive (Bmal1, Clock/Npas2) and negative (Per1,2,3, Cry1,2) regulatory components. While the molecular clock has been well characterized in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), only a few studies have examined both the positive and negative clock components in extra-SCN brain tissue. Furthermore, there has yet to be a direct comparison of male and female clock gene expression in the brain. This comparison is warranted, as there are sex differences in circadian functioning and disorders associated with disrupted clock gene expression. This study examined basal clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, Bmal1 mRNA) in the SCN, prefrontal cortex (PFC), rostral agranular insula, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), amygdala, and hippocampus of male and female rats at 4-h intervals throughout a 12:12 h light:dark cycle. There was a significant rhythm of Per1, Per2, and Bmal1 in the SCN, PFC, insula, PVN, subregions of the hippocampus, and amygdala with a 24-h period, suggesting the importance of an oscillating molecular clock in extra-SCN brain regions. There were 3 distinct clock gene expression profiles across the brain regions, indicative of diversity among brain clocks. Although, generally, the clock gene expression profiles were similar between male and female rats, there were some sex differences in the robustness of clock gene expression (e.g., females had fewer robust rhythms in the medial PFC, more robust rhythms in the hippocampus, and a greater mesor in the medial amygdala). Furthermore, females with a regular estrous cycle had attenuated aggregate rhythms in clock gene expression in the PFC compared with noncycling females. This suggests that gonadal hormones may modulate the expression of the molecular clock.

  5. Estrogen receptor-β in the paraventricular nucleus and rostroventrolateral medulla plays an essential protective role in aldosterone/salt-induced hypertension in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Zhang, Zhongming; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-06-01

    The identification of the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes that are involved in estrogen protection from hypertension and their specific locations in the central nervous system is critical to our understanding and design of effective estrogen replacement therapies in women. Using selective ER agonists and recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying small interference (si) RNA to silence either ERα (AAV-siRNA-ERα) or ERβ (AAV-siRNA-ERβ), the present study investigated regional specificity of different ER subtypes in the protective actions of estrogen in aldosterone (Aldo)-induced hypertension. Intracerebroventricular infusions of either diarylpropionitrile, a selective ERβ agonist, or propyl-pyrazole-triol, a selective ERα agonist, attenuated Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension in ovariectomized rats. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injections of siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension in intact females. Site-specific paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) injections of siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension. However, rats with PVN or RVLM injections of siRNA-ERα did not significantly increase blood pressure induced by Aldo. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of the PVN and RVLM of siRNA-injected rat confirmed a marked reduction in the expression of ERα and ERβ. In cultured PVN neurons, silencing either ERα or ERβ by culturing PVN neurons with siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ enhanced Aldo-induced reactive oxygen species production. Ganglionic blockade after Aldo infusion showed an increase in sympathetic activity in ERβ knockdown rats. These results indicate that both PVN and RVLM ERβ, but not ERα in these nuclei, contribute to the protective effects of estrogen against Aldo-induced hypertension. The brain regions responsible for the protective effects of estrogen interaction with ERα in Aldo-induced hypertension still need to be determined.

  6. Perinatal dexamethasone-induced alterations in apoptosis within the hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are influenced by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Carbone, David L; Quihuis, Alicia; Hiroi, Ryoko; Chong, David L; Handa, Robert J

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during development leads to long-term changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, although little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie these alterations. In this study, we investigated the effects of late gestational (days 18-22) or postnatal (days 4-6) administration of the GC receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX) on an apoptosis marker in two brain regions critical to HPA axis regulation, the hippocampus and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). One day after the final DEX injection, male and female rats were sacrificed, and brains were processed for immunohistochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3, an apoptotic cell death indicator. DEX increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the CA1 hippocampal region of both sexes following prenatal but not postnatal treatment. Prenatal DEX also increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the CA3 region, an elevation that tended to be greater in females. In contrast, postnatal DEX resulted in a much smaller, albeit significant, induction in CA3 caspase-3 compared with prenatal treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that prenatal but not postnatal DEX-induced hippocampal cleaved caspase-3 correlated with elevated mRNA of the proapoptotic gene Bad. Few caspase-3-ir cells were identified within the PVN regardless of treatment age, although postnatal but not prenatal DEX increased this number. However, the region immediately surrounding the PVN (peri-PVN) showed significant increases in caspase-3-ir cells following pre- and postnatal DEX. Together these findings indicate that developmental GC exposure increases apoptosis in HPAaxis-associated brain regions in an age- and sex-dependent manner.

  7. CB1 receptor activation in the rat paraventricular nucleus induces bi-directional cardiovascular effects via modification of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzęda, Emilia; Schlicker, Eberhard; Toczek, Marek; Zalewska, Iwona; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Malinowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We have shown previously that the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of urethane-anaesthetized rats induces depressor and pressor cardiovascular effects in the absence and presence of the CB1 antagonist AM251, respectively. The aim of our study was to examine whether the hypotension and/or hypertension induced by CP55940 given into the PVN results from its influence on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. CP55940 was microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart). Antagonists of the following receptors, NMDA (MK801), β2-adrenergic (ICI118551), thromboxane A2-TP (SQ29548), angiotensin II-AT1 (losartan) or GABAA (bicuculline), or the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME were administered intravenously 5 min before S2 alone or together with AM251. The CP55940-induced hypotension was reversed into a pressor response by AM251, bicuculline and L-NAME, but not by the other antagonists. The CP55940-induced pressor effect examined in the presence of AM251 was completely reversed by losartan, reduced by about 50-60 % by MK801, ICI118551 and SQ29548, prevented by bilateral adrenalectomy but not modified by bicuculline and L-NAME. Parallel, but smaller, changes in heart rate accompanied the changes in blood pressure. The bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids microinjected into the PVN of anaesthetized rats depend on stimulatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic inputs to the sympathetic tone; the glutamatergic input is related to AT1, TP and β2-adrenergic receptors and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla whereas the GABAergic input is reinforced by NO.

  8. Automated pipeline to analyze non-contact infrared images of the paraventricular nucleus specific leptin receptor knock-out mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Martinez, Myriam; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Gifford, Aliya; Cone, Roger; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of leptin resistance is indicated by elevated leptin levels together with other hallmarks of obesity such as a defect in energy homeostasis.1 As obesity is an increasing epidemic in the US, the investigation of mechanisms by which leptin resistance has a pathophysiological impact on energy is an intensive field of research.2 However, the manner in which leptin resistance contributes to the dysregulation of energy, specifically thermoregulation,3 is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leptin receptor expressed in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons plays a role in thermoregulation at different temperatures. Non-contact infrared (NCIR) thermometry was employed to measure surface body temperature (SBT) of nonanesthetized mice with a specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the PVN after exposure to room (25 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature. Dorsal side infrared images of wild type (LepRwtwt/sim1-Cre), heterozygous (LepRfloxwt/sim1-Cre) and knock-out (LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre) mice were collected. Images were input to an automated post-processing pipeline developed in MATLAB to calculate average and maximum SBTs. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sex, cold exposure and leptin genotype with SBT measurements. Findings indicate that average SBT has a negative relationship to the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype, the female sex and cold exposure. However, max SBT is affected by the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype and the female sex. In conclusion this data suggests that leptin within the PVN may have a neuroendocrine role in thermoregulation and that NCIR thermometry combined with an automated imaging-processing pipeline is a promising approach to determine SBT in non-anesthetized mice.

  9. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  10. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, V S; Coote, J H; Pyner, S

    2012-09-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine - BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold - FG or cholera toxin B subunit - CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS-PVN pathways.

  11. Differential regulation of parvocellular neuronal activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following single vs. repeated episodes of water restriction-induced drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Michelle M; Wotus, Cheryl; Engeland, William C

    2007-07-01

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids to maintain homeostasis, whereas prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids has deleterious effects. Due to the potential benefits of limiting stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, the present study uses drinking in dehydrated rats as a model to delineate mechanisms mobilized to rapidly inhibit HPA activity during stress. Using Fos expression as an indicator of neuronal activation, the effect of a single or repeated episode of dehydration-induced drinking on the activity of magnocellular and parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was examined. Adult male rats underwent a single episode or repeated (six) episodes of water restriction and were sacrificed before or after drinking water in the AM. Plasma osmolality, vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were elevated by water restriction and reduced after drinking in both models. Fos expression was elevated in AVP-positive magnocellular PVN neurons and AVP- and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular PVN neurons after water restriction. Fos expression was reduced in magnocellular AVP neurons after both models of restriction-induced drinking. In contrast, Fos expression did not change in AVP and CRH parvocellular neurons after a single episode of restriction-induced drinking, but was reduced after repeated episodes of restriction-induced drinking. These data indicate that drinking-induced decreases in glucocorticoids in dehydrated rats involve multiple factors including reduction in magnocellular release of vasopressin and reduction in parvocellular neuronal activity. The differential inhibition of PVN parvocellular neurons after repeated rehydration may reflect a conditioned response to repeated stress reduction.

  12. Differential regulation of parvocellular neuronal activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following single versus repeated episodes of water restriction-induced drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Michelle M.; Wotus, Cheryl; Engeland, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids to maintain homeostasis, whereas prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids has deleterious effects. Due to the potential benefits of limiting stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, the present study uses drinking in dehydrated rats as a model to delineate mechanisms mobilized to rapidly inhibit HPA activity during stress. Using Fos expression as an indicator of neuronal activation, the effect of a single or repeated episode of dehydration-induced drinking on the activity of magnocellular and parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was examined. Adult male rats underwent a single episode or repeated (six) episodes of water restriction and were sacrificed before or after drinking water in the AM. Plasma osmolality, vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were elevated by water restriction and reduced after drinking in both models. Fos expression was elevated in AVP-positive magnocellular PVN neurons and AVP- and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular PVN neurons after water restriction. Fos expression was reduced in magnocellular AVP neurons after both models of restriction-induced drinking. In contrast, Fos expression did not change in AVP and CRH parvocellular neurons after a single episode of restriction-induced drinking, but was reduced after repeated episodes of restriction-induced drinking. These data indicate that drinking-induced decreases in glucocorticoids in dehydrated rats involve multiple factors including reduction in magnocellular release of vasopressin and reduction in parvocellular neuronal activity. The differential inhibition of PVN parvocellular neurons after repeated rehydration may reflect a conditioned response to repeated stress reduction. PMID:17537436

  13. Chronic infusion of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and sympathoexcitation by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qiu-Yue; Li, Hong-Bao; Qi, Jie; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Huo, Chan-Juan; Li, Xiang; Bai, Juan; Gao, Hong-Li; Kou, Bo; Liu, Kai-Li; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2016-11-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), one of the active compounds in green tea, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular protective properties. This study was designed to determine whether chronic infusion of EGCG into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates ROS and sympathetic activity and delays the progression of hypertension by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and decreasing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR received bilateral PVN infusion of EGCG (20μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. SHR showed higher mean arterial pressure, plasma proinflammatory cytokines and circulating norepinephrine (NE) levels compared with WKY rats. SHR also had higher PVN levels of the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91(phox)), ROS, tyrosine hydroxylase, and PICs; increased NF-κB activity; and lower PVN levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and 67kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) than WKY rats. PVN infusion of EGCG attenuated all these changes in SHR. These findings suggest that SHR have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN. Chronic inhibition of ROS in the PVN restores the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating hypertensive response and sympathetic activity.

  14. Brief daily suckling shifts locomotor behavior and induces PER1 protein in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Enrique; Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Zavaleta, Yael; Caba, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Nursing in the rabbit is a circadian event during which mother and pups interact for a period of < 5 min every day. Here we explored behavioral and neuronal changes in the mother by analyzing the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and oxytocinergic (OT) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). We maintained lactating does in a light-dark cycle (lights on at 07 : 00 hours; ZT0); they were scheduled to nurse during either the day (ZT03) or the night (ZT19). Groups of intact and nursing females was perfused, one at each 4-h point through a 24-h cycle. We explored, by immunohistochemistry, the PER1 expression and double-labeling, with OT antibody, of neurons in the PVN and SON at lactation on day 7. In the SCN, intact and lactating groups had peak PER1 expression at ZT11; however, there was a reduction in PER1 at peak time in the nursing groups. There was a locomotor activity rhythm with increased activity around the time of lights-on in intact subjects and around the time of suckling in lactating does. There was an induction of PER1 in OT cells in the PVN and SON that shifted in phase with timing of nursing. We further explored the maintenance of the PER1 expression in OT cells in nursing-deprived does and found a significant decrease at 24 and 48 h after the last nursing. We conclude that suckling induced PER1 in the PVN and SON, but not in the SCN, in nursing does, and also shifted their locomotor behavior.

  15. Estrogen treatment increases the levels of regulator of G protein signaling-Z1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: possible role in desensitization of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G A; Barker, S A; Zhang, Y; Damjanoska, K J; Sullivan, N R; Garcia, F; D'souza, D N; Muma, N A; van De Kar, L D

    2004-01-01

    Desensitization of post-synaptic serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors may underlie the clinical improvement of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, Galphaz proteins mediate the 5-HT1A receptor-stimulated increases in hormone release. Regulator of G protein signaling-Z1 (RGSZ1) is a GTPase-activating protein selective for Galphaz proteins. RGSZ1 regulates the duration of interaction between Galphaz proteins and effector systems. The present investigation determined the levels of RGSZ1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats subjected to four different treatment protocols that produce desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors. These protocols include: daily administration of beta estradiol 3-benzoate (estradiol) for 2 days; daily administration of fluoxetine for 3 and 14 days; daily administration of cocaine for 7 or 14 days; and acute administration of (+/-)-1-(2,5 dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-amino-propane HCl (DOI; a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist). Estradiol treatment was the only protocol that increased the levels of RGSZ1 protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in a dose-dependent manner (46%-132% over control). Interestingly, previous experiments indicate that only estradiol produces a decreased Emax of 5-HT1A receptor-stimulation of hormone release, whereas fluoxetine, cocaine and DOI produce a shift to the right (increased ED50). Thus, the desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors by estradiol might be attributable to increased levels of RGSZ1 protein. These findings may provide insight into the adaptation of 5-HT1A receptor signaling during pharmacotherapies of mood disorders in women and the well-established gender differences in the vulnerability to depression.

  16. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  17. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  18. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  19. Recombinant CART peptide induces c-Fos expression in central areas involved in control of feeding behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus......Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...

  20. Radial and tangential migration of telencephalic somatostatin neurons originated from the mouse diagonal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis; Morales-Delgado, N; Merchán, P; Castro-Robles, B; Martínez-de-la-Torre, M; Díaz, C; Ferran, J L

    2016-07-01

    The telencephalic subpallium is the source of various GABAergic interneuron cohorts that invade the pallium via tangential migration. Based on genoarchitectonic studies, the subpallium has been subdivided into four major domains: striatum, pallidum, diagonal area and preoptic area (Puelles et al. 2013; Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas), and a larger set of molecularly distinct progenitor areas (Flames et al. 2007). Fate mapping, genetic lineage-tracing studies, and other approaches have suggested that each subpallial subdivision produces specific sorts of inhibitory interneurons, distinguished by differential peptidic content, which are distributed tangentially to pallial and subpallial target territories (e.g., olfactory bulb, isocortex, hippocampus, pallial and subpallial amygdala, striatum, pallidum, septum). In this report, we map descriptively the early differentiation and apparent migratory dispersion of mouse subpallial somatostatin-expressing (Sst) cells from E10.5 onward, comparing their topography with the expression patterns of the genes Dlx5, Gbx2, Lhx7-8, Nkx2.1, Nkx5.1 (Hmx3), and Shh, which variously label parts of the subpallium. Whereas some experimental results suggest that Sst cells are pallidal, our data reveal that many, if not most, telencephalic Sst cells derive from de diagonal area (Dg). Sst-positive cells initially only present at the embryonic Dg selectively populate radially the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (from paraseptal to amygdaloid regions) and part of the central amygdala; they also invade tangentially the striatum, while eschewing the globus pallidum and the preoptic area, and integrate within most cortical and nuclear pallial areas between E10.5 and E16.5.

  1. Distribution of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 in medaka (Oryzias latipes): cues to the definition of homologous cell groups in the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, M; Bourrat, F; Vernier, P

    2001-03-12

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 has been extensively studied in mammals and shown to contribute to the differentiation of several cell phenotypes in the nervous and endocrine systems. In this study, the gene homologous to the mammalian Nurr1 (NR4A2) was isolated in the teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes), and the distribution of its transcripts was analyzed within brains of embryos and adults. Nurr1 has a widespread distribution in the medaka brain. Large amounts of Nurr1 transcripts were found in the intermediate nucleus of the ventral telencephalon, preoptic magnocellular nucleus, ventral habenula, nucleus of the periventricular posterior tuberculum, and nuclei of glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. To search for homologous cell groups between teleost fish and tetrapods brains, the co-localization of Nurr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) transcripts was analyzed. Neither Nurr1 nor TH expression was detected in the ventral midbrain, but both transcripts were present in the periventricular nucleus of the posterior tuberculum. This observation supports the hypothesis that this nucleus is homologous to dopaminergic mesencephalic nuclei of mammals. The presence of Nurr1 in the preoptic magnocellular nucleus of medaka and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of mammals reinforces the hypothesis of homology between these areas. TH and Nurr1 transcripts are also co-localized, among others, in the nucleus of the paraventricular organ and nucleus of the vagus nerve. This work suggests that the differentiating role of Nurr1 in the central nervous system is conserved in gnathostomes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hindbrain lactate regulates preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron GnRH-I protein but not AMPK responses to hypoglycemia in the steroid-primed ovariectomized female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-07-09

    Steroid positive-feedback activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) neuroendocrine axis propagates the pre ovulatory LH surge, a crucial component of female reproduction. Our work shows that this key event is restrained by inhibitory metabolic input from hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons. GnRH neurons express the ultra-sensitive energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK); here, we investigated the hypothesis that GnRH nerve cell AMPK and peptide neurotransmitter responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia are controlled by hindbrain lack of the oxidizable glycolytic end-product L-lactate. Data show that hypoglycemic inhibition of LH release in steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats was reversed by coincident caudal hindbrain lactate infusion. Western blot analyses of laser-microdissected A2 neurons demonstrate hypoglycemic augmentation [Fos, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), phosphoAMPK (pAMPK)] and inhibition (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, GLUT3, MCT2) of protein expression in these cells, responses that were normalized by insulin plus lactate treatment. Hypoglycemia diminished rostral preoptic GnRH nerve cell GnRH-I protein and pAMPK content; the former, but not the latter response was reversed by lactate. Results implicate caudal hindbrain lactoprivic signaling in hypoglycemia-induced suppression of the LH surge, demonstrating that lactate repletion of that site reverses decrements in A2 catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme and GnRH neuropeptide precursor protein expression. Lack of effect of lactate on hypoglycemic patterns of GnRH AMPK activity suggests that this sensor is uninvolved in metabolic-inhibition of positive-feedback-stimulated hypophysiotropic signaling to pituitary gonadotropes.

  3. 腹外侧视前区5-羟色胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的作用%The role of serotonin in ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakefulness cycle of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章功良; 何延龙; 王烈成; 赵乐章; 张瑾; 钟明奎; 张景行

    2003-01-01

    目的通过腹外侧视前区(VLPO)微量注射5-羟色胺酸(5-HTP)、非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS)和5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀观察5-HT在VLPO对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响.方法采用脑立体定位、核团微量注射和多导睡眠描记技术.结果 VLPO双侧分别微量注射小剂量5-HTP(0.5 μg,0.1 μl)对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期无明显影响;而双侧注射大剂量5-HTP(1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠减少,觉醒增加;VLPO双侧注射5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀(6.0 μg,0.1 μl)可产生与大剂量5-HTP类似的作用;而VLPO双侧微量注射非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS,1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠增加,觉醒减少.大剂量5-HTP和MS对觉醒,睡眠成分改变具有明显的时间相关性.结论 5-HT在VLPO参与睡眠-觉醒周期调节且有促觉醒作用,其促觉醒作用可能与突触后物质表达有关.

  4. 针刺内关、神门穴对高脂血症大鼠心肌梗死后室旁核区和血清去甲肾上腺素含量的影响%Effects of Acupuncturing Neiguan (PC6) and Shenmen (HT7) Acupoints on Noradrena-line in Paraventricular Nucleus and Serum of Hyperlipidemia Rats with Acute Myocardi-al Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涌; 胡吴斌; 汪克明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acupuncturing "Neiguan" (PC6) and "Shenmen" (HT7)acupoints on noradrenaline (NE) levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the serum of hyperlipidemia rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Of 100 SD rats with hypercholesterolemia,20 were randomly chosen into the sham control group, others were ligated in the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce AMI models.Those AMI rats were randomly divided into model control group, "Neiguan" group and "Shenmen" group. There were 20 rats in each group. The rats in "Neiguan" group and "Shenmen" group were treated with acupuncture at bilateral "Neiguan" acupoints and bilateral "Shenmen" acupoints for 5 days, respectively. The levels of NE in the PVN and the serum were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and radio immunoassay. Results Compared with those in the sham control group,the NE levels in the PVN area in model control group were significantly decreased ( P<0. 01) , being contrary to significantly increased NE levels in the serum. Compared with those in the model control group,the NE levels in the PVN area in "Neiguan" group and in "Shenmen" group were significantly increased (P<0. 01) ,being contrary to significantly decreased NE levels in the serum ( P<0. 01) , but there was no significant difference in NE levels between "Neiguan" group and "Shenmen" group. Conclusion Acupuncture at "Neiguan" and "Shenmen" acupoints can increase NE levels in the PVN area and decrease NE levels in the serum of hyperlipidemia rats with AMI.%目的 观察针刺内关、神门穴对高脂血症大鼠急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)后室旁核(paraventricular nucleus,PVN)区和血清去甲肾上腺素(norepinephrine,NE)含量的影响.方法 从100只高脂血症SD大鼠中随机选择20只作为假手术对照组,其余大鼠结扎冠状动脉左前降支以复制AMI模型.将复制成功的大鼠随机分为模型对照组

  5. The systemic inhibition of nitric oxide production rapidly regulates TRH mRNA concentration in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and serum TSH concentration. Studies in control and cold-stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Rosa Maria; Cisneros, Miguel; Vargas, Miguel Angel; Lezama, Leticia; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-07

    Neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) that synthesize the peptide thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) control energy homeostasis. Identifying the circuits which regulate these neurons is critical to fully understand integration of metabolic information and the mechanisms that set thyroid hormone levels. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) acutely controls PVN TRH expression and thyrotropin (TSH) secretion by the anterior pituitary. The subcutaneous treatment of rats with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthases, enhanced PVN TRH mRNA and medio-basal hypothalamic TRH levels, and reduced serum TSH concentration. Analysis of the effect of a NO donor in primary cultures of hypothalamic or anterior pituitary cells suggested that the effect of NO includes a direct action on hypothalamic neurons. The cold stress-induced increase in TSH release was inhibited by sc L-NAME. Therefore, production of NO may control the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus is recruited by both natural rewards and drugs of abuse: recent evidence of a pivotal role for orexin/hypocretin signaling in this thalamic nucleus in drug-seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMatzeu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the successful treatment of drug addiction is the long-lasting susceptibility to relapse and multiple processes that have been implicated in the compulsion to resume drug intake during abstinence. Recently, the orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt system has been shown to play a role in drug-seeking behavior. The Orx/Hcrt system regulates a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding, energy metabolism, and arousal. It has also been shown to be recruited by drugs of abuse. Orx/Hcrt neurons are predominantly located in the lateral hypothalamus that projects to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT, a region that has been identified as a way-station that processes information and then modulates the mesolimbic reward and extrahypothalamic stress systems. Although not thought to be part of the drug addiction circuitry, recent evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. Evidence indicates a role for Orx/Hcrt transmission in the PVT in the modulation of reward function in general and drug-directed behavior in particular. One hypothesis is that following repeated drug exposure, the Orx/Hcrt system acquires a preferential role in mediating the effects of drugs vs. natural rewards. The present review discusses recent findings that suggest maladaptive recruitment of the PVT by drugs of abuse, specifically Orx/Hcrt-PVT neurotransmission.

  7. Role of nitric oxide of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO in the alterations of salivary flow, arterial pressure and heart rate induced by injection of pilocarpine into the MnPO and intraperitoneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Saad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO-donating agent, on pilocarpine-induced alterations in salivary flow, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR in rats. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were implanted with a stainless steel cannula directly into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO. Pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO induced an increase in salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg ip also increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO or ip (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO or ip prior to pilocarpine attenuated salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (40 µg injection into the MnPO increased MAP and decreased HR (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg body weight ip produced a decrease in MAP and an increase in HR (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine potentiated the increase in MAP and reduced HR (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine attenuated (100% the effect of pilocarpine on MAP, with no effect on HR. Administration of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO potentiated the effect of pilocarpine injected ip. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO attenuated the effect of ip pilocarpine on MAP and HR. The present study suggests that in the rat MnPO 1 NO is important for the effects of pilocarpine on salivary flow, and 2 pilocarpine interferes with blood pressure and HR (side effects of pilocarpine, that is attenuated by NO.

  8. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  9. Effects of microinjection of Substance P into the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei on respiration in guinea pigs%下丘脑室旁核微量注射P物质对豚鼠呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛德彬; 董榕; 刘悦

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨下丘脑室旁核(paraventricular nuclei,PVN)微量注射P物质(substance P,SP)对豚鼠呼吸运动的影响及其作用机制.方法:采用中枢立体定位技术,在豚鼠PVN预先植入带芯的不锈钢外套管.实验时切断双侧迷走神经,自主呼吸,通过内管恒速注射不同药物,持续记录呼吸流量、动脉血压、膈肌肌电活动.结果:与生理盐水组比较,微量注射SP后2~27min,膈肌肌电活动增强,通气量增加(均为P<0.001).微量注射SP后3~20min,血压升高(P<0.05).若先以SP的受体拮抗剂[D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-SP(DPDTDT)或血管升压素(vasopressin,VP)的V1受体拮抗剂[deamino-Pen1,Val4,D-arg8]-VP(DPVAVP)预处理,则SP的呼吸和血压效应消失.单独注射DPDTDT或DPVAVP对呼吸和血压没有显著影响.结论:PVN内微量注射SP有呼吸兴奋作用,此作用可能是由NK1受体或V1受体介导的.

  10. Slow-pressor angiotensin II hypertension and concomitant dendritic NMDA receptor trafficking in estrogen receptor β-containing neurons of the mouse hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus are sex and age dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Jose; Van Kempen, Tracey; Waters, Elizabeth M; Pickel, Virginia M; Iadecola, Costantino; Milner, Teresa A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of hypertension increases after menopause. Similar to humans, "slow-pressor" doses of angiotensin II (AngII) increase blood pressure in young males, but not in young female mice. However, AngII increases blood pressure in aged female mice, paralleling reproductive hormonal changes. These changes could influence receptor trafficking in central cardiovascular circuits and contribute to hypertension. Increased postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is crucial for the sympathoexcitation driving AngII hypertension. Estrogen receptors β (ERβs) are present in PVN neurons. We tested the hypothesis that changes in ovarian hormones with age promote susceptibility to AngII hypertension, and influence NMDA receptor NR1 subunit trafficking in ERβ-containing PVN neurons. Transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ERβ-containing cells were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering AngII (600 ng/kg/min) or saline for 2 weeks. AngII increased blood pressure in 2-month-old males and 18-month-old females, but not in 2-month-old females. By electron microscopy, NR1-silver-intensified immunogold (SIG) was mainly in ERβ-EGFP dendrites. At baseline, NR1-SIG density was greater in 2-month-old females than in 2-month-old males or 18-month-old females. After AngII infusion, NR1-SIG density was decreased in 2-month-old females, but increased in 2-month-old males and 18-month-old females. These findings suggest that, in young female mice, NR1 density is decreased in ERβ-PVN dendrites thus reducing NMDA receptor activity and preventing hypertension. Conversely, in young males and aged females, NR1 density is upregulated in ERβ-PVN dendrites and ultimately leads to the neurohumoral dysfunction driving hypertension.

  11. Separate populations of neurons within the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of the rat project to vagal and thoracic autonomic preganglionic levels and express c-Fos protein induced by lithium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, F; Carrasco, M; Vallo, J J

    1998-03-01

    The role of different hypothalamic nuclei, particularly the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), in the control of food intake and feeding behaviour is well known. It is also well established that lithium chloride (LiCl) causes various disorders in feeding behaviour. In this study, we analyzed the precise distribution of hypothalamic neurons activated by i.p. LiCl administration (LCA neurons) and compared it to that of hypothalamic neurons which project to autonomic preganglionic levels (HAP neurons). We also analysed the possibility that some neurons belong to both populations of nerve cells. To this end, a multiple-labelling technique, using two retrograde fluorescent tracers together with c-Fos-like immunohistochemistry, was performed. Fast Blue was injected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and Fluorogold (FG) in the thoracic intermedial-lateral cell column, to trace parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways, respectively. LiCl was used as stimulus for c-Fos-like immunohistochemistry. HAP neurons were located mainly in the dorsal, ventral and lateral regions of the parvocellular PVN, while LCA neurons were observed predominantly in the magnocellular region of the PVN rostrally to HAP neurons. A significant number of FG/Fos double-labelled neurons were located in the dorsal parvocellular subnucleus of the PVN (dp) in the LiCl-stimulated rats. We concluded that there is a clear segregation of LCA neurons from HAP neurons within the PVN. The presence of FG/Fos double-labelled neurons in the dp suggests that this nucleus could mediate a sympathetic response after LiCl administration.

  12. A new pathway mediating social effects on the endocrine system: female presence acting via norepinephrine release stimulates gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in the paraventricular nucleus and suppresses luteinizing hormone in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobari, Yasuko; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-07-16

    Rapid effects of social interactions on transient changes in hormonal levels are known in a wide variety of vertebrate taxa, ranging from fish to humans. Although these responses are mediated by the brain, neurochemical pathways that translate social signals into reproductive physiological changes are unclear. In this study, we analyzed how a female presence modifies synthesis and/or release of various neurochemicals, such as monoamines and neuropeptides, in the brain and downstream reproductive hormones in sexually active male Japanese quail. By viewing a female bird, sexually active males rapidly increased norepinephrine (NE) release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, in which gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neuronal cell bodies exist, increased GnIH precursor mRNA expression in the PVN, and decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration in the plasma. GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary. It was further shown that GnIH can rapidly suppress LH release after intravenous administration in this study. Centrally administered NE decreased plasma LH concentration in vivo. It was also shown that NE stimulated the release of GnIH from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. Fluorescence double-label immunohistochemistry indicated that GnIH neurons received noradrenergic innervations, and immunohistochemistry combined with in situ hybridization have further shown that GnIH neurons expressed α2A-adrenergic receptor mRNA. These results indicate that a female presence increases NE release in the PVN and stimulates GnIH release, resulting in the suppression of LH release in sexually active male quail.

  13. Presença de receptores serotonérgicos no núcleo paraventricular do hipotálamo e sua participação no controle neural da ingestão de alimentos em pombos (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Aderley Serenita Sartori da

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Mestrado em Neurociências Investigação do possível envolvimento de receptores serotonérgicos presentes no Núcleo Paraventricular do Hipotálamo na regulação de comportamentos ingestivos e não ingestivos, após a administração de serotonina (5-HT) ou de metergolina (antagonista não seletivo de receptores serotonérgicos)

  14. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  15. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  16. Increased angiotensin II receptors in brain nuclei of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    We analyzed angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors by in vitro autoradiography in selective brain nuclei of control, salt-treated (1% NaCl in drinking water), deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-treated (DOCA pivalate, 25 mg/kg sc weekly), and DOCA-salt-treated (DOCA + salt treatments) uninephrectomized male Wistar-Kyoto rats. After 4 wk of treatment, only the DOCA-salt group developed hypertension. ANG II binding increased in median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ of salt- and DOCA-treated rats. DOCA-treated rats also showed increased ANG II binding in paraventricular nucleus. DOCA-salt-treated rats showed higher ANG II binding in nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema, as well as in the areas mentioned before. Although salt and/or DOCA treatments alone increased ANG II receptors in some brain nuclei, after combined DOCA-salt treatment there was significantly higher ANG II binding in all areas, except the median preoptic nucleus. These results suggest that increased ANG II receptors in selected brain areas may play a role in the pathophysiology of mineralocorticoid-salt experimental hypertension.

  17. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad eDobolyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand,tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39, is synthesized in only 2 brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control

  18. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  19. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  20. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  1. Identification of neural circuits involved in female genital responses in the rat: A dual virus and anterograde tracing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, L.; Murphy, A Z

    2010-01-01

    The spinal and peripheral innervation of the clitoris and vagina are fairly well understood. However, little is known regarding supraspinal control of these pelvic structures. The multisynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to map the brain neurons that innervate the clitoris and vagina. In order to delineate forebrain input onto PRV labeled cells, the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) or the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) 10 days prior to viral injections. These brain regions have been intimately linked to various aspects of female reproductive behavior. Four days after viral injections, into the vagina and clitoris PRV labeled cells were observed in the paraventricular nucleus, Barrington’s nucleus, the A5 region, and the nucleus paragigantocellularis. At 5 days post-viral administration, additional PRV labeled cells were observed within the preoptic region, VMN, PAG and lateral hypothalamus. Anterograde labeling from the MPO terminated among PRV positive cells primarily within the dorsal paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventrolateral VMN (VMNvl), caudal PAG and nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi). Anterograde labeling from the VMN terminated among PRV positive cells in the MPO and lateral/ventrolateral PAG. Anterograde labeling from the PAG terminated among PRV positive cells in the PVN, ventral hypothalamus and nPGi. Transynaptically labeled cells in the lateral hypothalamus, Barrington's nucleus and ventromedial medulla received innervation from all three sources. These studies, together, identify several CNS sites participating in the neural control of female sexual responses. They also provide the first data demonstrating a link between the MPO, VMNvl and PAG and CNS regions innervating the clitoris and vagina, providing support that these areas play a major role in female genital responses. PMID:16914428

  2. Effects of fluoxetine administration on regional galanin expression in obese Zucker rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P; Gutiérreza, Arantza; Casis, Luis; Macarulla, María Teresa; Zarate, Jon; Echevarría, Enrique

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the potential involvement of hypothalamic galanin system in the anorectic mechanism of fluoxetine in obese Zucker rats. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. The control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. Significant decreases in food intake, final body weight and total body fat were observed after fluoxetine treatment. Although fluoxetine-treated rats showed a decrease in urine elimination, this effect was not enough to compensate decreased water intake, leading to dehydration, as showed by decreased body water content. Chronic fluoxetine administration increased the numbers of galanin positively immunostained neural cells in medial and lateral preoptic areas, lateral hypothalamic area and paraventricular nucleus (rostral and magnocellular regions), without changes in dorsomedial, ventromedial, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei. Taken into account that galanin stimulates appetite, these results could represent rather a compensatory response against reduced food intake than a direct anorectic mechanism. Changes in the magnocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus suggest a role for galanin neural circuits at this level in fluoxetine-induced hydro-osmotic impairment.

  3. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  4. Expression of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in rats with metabolic syndrome%代谢综合征大鼠下丘脑室旁核神经元型一氧化氮合酶的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马同军; 吴锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the changes of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) in rats with metabolic syndrome, and explore the mechanisms of nitric oxide(NO) in PVN in inducing the metabolic syndrome. Methods : A high-fat,refined-carbohydrate diet was given to the rats for 24 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Immunohistostaining was performed to examine the expression of nNOS in PVN. Results: Compared with the normal control group,the expression of nNOS in the model group were up-regulated significantly(P<0.01). Conclusion :The fact that evidently up-regulated nNOS expression in PVN was seen in rats with metabolic syndrome suggest that the changes of nNOS activities may be involved in variation of the cerebral nemo endocrine.%目的:观察代谢综合征大鼠下丘脑室旁核(paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus,PVN)内神经元型一氧化氮合酶(neuronal nitric oxide synthase,nNOS)表达的变化,探讨PVN内一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)在代谢综合征发病中的作用机制.方法:高脂高糖诱导大鼠代谢综合征24周,应用免疫组织化学染色方法观察代谢综合征大鼠PVN内nNOS的表达.结果:与对照组相比较,模型组PVN内nNOS表达明显增加(P<0.01).结论:PVN内nNOS的表达在代谢综合征大鼠中明显升高,nNOS活性改变可能与代谢综合征神经内分泌改变有关.

  5. Developmental expression of estrogen receptor beta in the brain of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploskonka, Stephanie D; Eaton, Jennifer L; Carr, Michael S; Schmidt, Jennifer V; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-03-01

    Here, for the first time, the expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is characterized in the brains of the highly prosocial prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). ERβ immunoreactivity was compared in weanlings (postnatal Day 21) and adult males and females. The results indicate several major findings. First, unlike ERα, ERβ expression is not sexually dimorphic. Second, the adult pattern of ERβ-IR is established at the time of weaning, as there were no age-dependent effects on distribution. Finally, ERβ does not appear to be as widely distributed in voles compared with rats and mice. High levels of ERβ-IR were observed in several regions/nuclei within the medial pre-optic area, ventrolateral pre-optic nuclei, and in the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. The visualization of ERβ in prairie voles is important as the socially monogamous prairie vole functions as a human relevant model system for studying the expression of social behavior and social deficit disorders. Future studies will now be able to determine the effect of treatments on the expression and/or development of ERβ in this highly social species.

  6. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect per...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas.......This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...

  7. Distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the forebrain of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): implications for the neural action of steroids and nuclear definition in the avian hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, J; Absil, P; Foidart, A; Houbart, M; Harada, N; Ball, G F

    1996-10-01

    Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human placental aromatase and the other directed against quail recombinant aromatase, revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the enzyme in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Staining was enhanced in some birds by the administration of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, R76713 racemic Vorozole) prior to the perfusion of the birds as previously described in Japanese quail. Large numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase were found in nuclei in the preoptic region and in the tuberal hypothalamus. A nucleus was identified in the preoptic region based on the high density of aromatase immunoreactive cells within its boundaries that appears to be homologous to the preoptic medial nucleus (POM) described previously in Japanese quail. In several birds alternate sections were stained for immunoreactive vasotocin, a marker of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This information facilitated the clear separation of the POM in zebra finches from nuclei that are adjacent to the POM in the preoptic area-hypothalamus, such as the PVN and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Positively staining cells were also detected widely throughout the telencephalon. Cells were discerned in the medial parts of the ventral hyperstriatum and neostriatum near the lateral ventricle and in dorsal and medial parts of the hippocampus. They were most abundant in the caudal neostriatum where they clustered in the dorsomedial neostriatum, and as a band of cells coursing along the dorsal edge of the lamina archistriatalis dorsalis. They were also present in high numbers in the ventrolateral aspect of the neostriatum and in the nucleus taeniae. None of the telencephalic vocal control nuclei had appreciable numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase within their boundaries

  8. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  9. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  10. Different amounts of ejaculatory activity, a natural rewarding behavior, induce differential mu and delta opioid receptor internalization in the rat's ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-12-06

    Opioid receptors internalize upon specific agonist stimulation. The in vivo significance of receptor internalization is not well established, partly due to the limited in vivo models used to study this phenomenon. Ejaculation promotes endogenous opioid release which activates opioid receptors at the brain, including the mesolimbic system and medial preoptic area. The objective of the present work was to analyze if there was a correlation between the degree of in vivo mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) internalization in the ventral tegmental area and the execution of different amounts of ejaculatory behavior of male rats. To this aim, we analyzed the brains of rats that ejaculated once or six successive times and of sexually exhausted rats with an established sexual inhibition, using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results showed that MOR and DOR internalization increased as a consequence of ejaculation. There was a relationship between the amount of sexual activity executed and the degree of internalization for MOR, but not for DOR. MOR internalization was larger in rats that ejaculated repeatedly than in animals ejaculating only once. Significant DOR internalization was found only in animals ejaculating once. Changes in MOR, DOR and beta arrestin2 detection, associated to sexual activity, were also found. It is suggested that copulation to satiety might be useful as a model system to study the biological significance of receptor internalization.

  11. 下丘脑室旁核组胺H3受体对哮喘大鼠下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴功能的调控%Effect of histamine H3 receptor in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季吉; 董榕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether histamine H3 receptor in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) regulates the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats with asthma. Method: Rat model for asthma was established by Elwood's methods. A stainless steel jacket was implanted into the PVN using a technique of central three-dimensional position, and R(α)-methylhistamine [R-(α)-MeHA, a H3 receptor agonist] 2 μg or thioperamide (a H3 receptor antagonist) 5 μg was injected into the PVN. Levels of histamine in PVN were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the concentrations of CRH in median eminence, ACTH and CORT in plasma were detected by the radioimmunoassay. Relative levels of IL-10 in both hypothalataus tissue and plasma were measred by double-ligand-linked immunosorbent assay. Result: Levels of histamine in PVN decreased significantly, whereas the concentrations of CRH in median eminence, ACTH and CORT in plasma and the levels of IL-lO in both hypothalamus tissue and plasma were all increased significantly in acute episode asthms rats with treatment of R-(α)-MeHA compared with control rats, and these responses were blocked by treatment of thioperamide, a H3 receptors specific antagonist. Conclusion: Specific activation histamine H3 receptors in PVN can improve the function of HPA in rats with asthma.%目的:探讨哮喘大鼠下丘脑室旁核(paraventricular nuclei,PVN)内组胺H3受体对下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴(HPA)功能的调控.方法:根据Elwood方法,制备哮喘模型.采用中枢立体定位技术,在PVN内微量注射组胺H3受体激动剂R-(α)-甲基组胺[R-(α)-methylhistamine,R-(α)-MeHA]2 μg或组胺H3受体拮抗剂Thioperamide 5 μg,注射药物体积均为1μl.高效液相色谱法检测PVN内组胺含量;放射免疫分析方法检测正中隆起中促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH)和外周血中促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、皮质酮(CORT)含量;酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA

  12. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Vetrivelan R; Saper CB; Fuller PM

    2014-01-01

    Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, th...

  13. Distribution of type 1 cannabinoid receptor-expressing neurons in the septal-hypothalamic region of the mouse: colocalization with GABAergic and glutamatergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovszky, Erik; Wittmann, Gábor; Kalló, Imre; Füzesi, Tamás; Fekete, Csaba; Liposits, Zsolt

    2012-04-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the principal mediator of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. In this study, we addressed the topographic distribution and amino acid neurotransmitter phenotype of endocannabinoid-sensitive hypothalamic neurons in mice. The in situ hybridization detection of CB1 mRNA revealed high levels of expression in the medial septum (MS) and the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), moderate levels in the preoptic area and the hypothalamic lateroanterior (LA), paraventricular (Pa), ventromedial (VMH), lateral mammillary (LM), and ventral premammillary (PMV) nuclei, and low levels in many other hypothalamic regions including the suprachiasmatic (SCh) and arcuate (Arc) nuclei. This regional distribution pattern was compared with location of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic cell groups, as identified by the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2) mRNAs, respectively. The MS, DBB, and preoptic area showed overlaps between GABAergic and CB1-expressing neurons, whereas hypothalamic sites with moderate CB1 signals, including the LA, Pa, VMH, LM, and PMV, were dominated by glutamatergic neurons. Low CB1 mRNA levels were also present in other glutamatergic and GABAergic regions. Dual-label in situ hybridization experiments confirmed the cellular co-expression of CB1 with both glutamatergic and GABAergic markers. In this report we provide a detailed anatomical map of hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic systems whose neurotransmitter release is controlled by retrograde endocannabinoid signaling from hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic target neurons. This neuroanatomical information contributes to an understanding of the role that the endocannabinoid system plays in the regulation of endocrine and metabolic functions.

  14. Region-specific increases in FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the rat brain in response to chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shannon; Deurveilher, Samüel; Ko, Kristin Robin; Burns, Joan; Semba, Kazue

    2017-03-30

    Using a rat model of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) featuring periodic sleep deprivation with slowly rotating wheels (3h on/1h off), we previously observed that 99h of this protocol induced both homeostatic and allostatic (adaptive) changes in physiological and behavioural measures. Notably, the initial changes in sleep intensity and attention performance gradually adapted during CSR despite accumulating sleep loss. To identify brain regions involved in these responses, we used FosB/ΔFosB immunohistochemistry as a marker of chronic neuronal activation. Adult male rats were housed in motorized activity wheels and underwent the 3/1 CSR protocol for 99h, or 99h followed by 6 or 12days of recovery. Control rats were housed in home cages, locked activity wheels, or unlocked activity wheels that the animals could turn freely. Immunohistochemistry was conducted using an antibody that recognized both FosB and ΔFosB, and 24 brain regions involved in sleep/wake, autonomic, and limbic functions were examined. The number of darkly-stained FosB/ΔFosB-immunoreactive cells was increased immediately following 99h of CSR in 8/24 brain regions, including the medial preoptic and perifornical lateral hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, and paraventricular thalamic nucleus. FosB/ΔFosB labeling was at control levels in all 8 brain areas following 6 or 12 recovery days, suggesting that most of the immunoreactivity immediately after CSR reflected FosB, the more transient marker of chronic neuronal activation. This region-specific induction of FosB/ΔFosB following CSR may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the allostatic changes in behavioural and physiological responses to CSR.

  15. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  16. Dual function of methylprednisolone on paraventricular nucleus neurons after traumatic brain injury in rats%甲基强的松龙对脑创伤后大鼠下丘脑室旁核神经元的双重作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 王举磊; 张治国; 秦怀洲

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨甲基强的松龙(methylprednisolone,Mp)对创伤性脑损伤(traumatic brain injury,TBI)后下丘脑室旁核(paraventricular nucleus,PVN)神经元凋亡的影响. 方法 185只Wistar成年雄性大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组20只,创伤对照组45只,小剂量MP治疗组50只,大剂量MP治疗组70只.采用液压打击方法制作大鼠TBI模型.分别采用TUNEL标记、免疫组织化学以及透射电镜等方法检测PVN神经元细胞的数量及凋亡情况. 结果 假手术组大鼠PVN罕见凋亡神经元(0.7±1.6),创伤对照组PVN凋亡细胞伤后7d达到高峰(36.4±18.8),相应促肾上腺激素释放激素(corticotropin-releasing hormone,CRH)阳性细胞达到低谷(208.0±19.8).与创伤对照组比较,大剂量MP明显增加了神经元凋亡数量(70.7±27.2)(P<0.05),明显减少了大鼠CRH阳性神经元数量(141.7 ±32.6) (P <0.05),明显增加了大鼠短期死亡率(55%)(P<0.05);相反,小剂量MP明显减少了PVN神经元凋亡数量(17.6±6.9)(P<0.05),明显增高了CRH阳性神经元数量(249.2±20.3) (P <0.05),降低了大鼠短期死亡率(10%). 结论 TBI后大剂量MP能加重PVN神经元损伤,增加大鼠近期死亡率,而小剂量MP对伤后PVN神经元起保护作用,减少死亡率.%Objective To investigate the effect of methylprednisolone (MP) therapy on apoptosis of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats.Methods A total of 185 Wistar rats were divided into sham operation group (n =20),trauma control group (n =45),low-dose MP therapy group (n =50) and high-dose MP therapy group (n =70),according to the random number table.TBI models were induced by fluid percussion injury.TUNEL staining,immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope were used to detect PVN neuron number and apoptosis.Results Apoptotic neurons in the PVN were 0.7 ± 1.6,rare in sham operation group,whereas apoptotic neurons in trauma control group were

  17. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Monique Montagnese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping.The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  18. Anatomical and neurochemical definition of the nucleus of the stria terminalis in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, N; Balthazart, J; Absil, P; Grossmann, R; Mülhbauer, E; Viglietti-Panzica, C; Panzica, G C

    1998-06-29

    This study in birds provides anatomical, immunohistochemical, and hodological data on a prosencephalic region in which the nomenclature is still a matter of discussion. In quail, this region is located just dorsal to the anterior commissure and extends from the level of the medial part of the preoptic area at its most rostral end to the caudal aspects of the nucleus preopticus medialis. At this caudal level, it reaches its maximal elongation and extends from the ventral tip of the lateral ventricles to the dorsolateral aspects of the paraventricular nucleus. This area contains aromatase-immunoreactive cells and a sexually dimorphic population of small, vasotocinergic neurons. The Nissl staining of adjacent sections revealed the presence of a cluster of intensely stained cells outlining the same region delineated by the vasotocin-immunoreactive structures. Cytoarchitectonic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization data support the notion that this area is similar and is probably homologous to the medial part of the nucleus of the stria terminalis of the mammalian brain. The present data provide a clear definition of this nucleus in quail: They show for the first time the presence of sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic neurons in this region of the quail brain and provide the first detailed description of this region in an avian species.

  19. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  20. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  1. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  2. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  3. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  4. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  5. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  6. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 § 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  7. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  8. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  9. Neuroanatomical evidence for a role of central melanocortin-4 receptors and oxytocin in the efferent control of the rodent clitoris and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelez, Helene; Poirier, Sarah; Facchinetti, Patricia; Allers, Kelly A; Wayman, Chris; Alexandre, Laurent; Giuliano, François

    2010-06-01

    The clitoris and the vagina are the main peripheral anatomical structures involved in physiological changes related to sexual arousal and orgasm. Their efferent control and, more particularly, the neurochemical phenotype of these descending neuronal pathways remain largely uncharacterized. To examine if brain neurons involved in the efferent control of the clitoris and the vagina possess melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) and/or contain oxytocin (OT). Neurons involved in the efferent control of the vagina and clitoris were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing. PRV was injected into the vagina and clitoris in adult rats in estrous. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and brains were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The neurochemical phenotype of PRV-positive neurons was identified using double or triple immunocytochemical labeling against PRV, MC4-R, and OT. Double and triple labeling were quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Neuroanatomical brain distribution, number and percentage of double-labeled PRV/MC4-R and PRV-/OT-positive neurons, and triple PRV-/MC4-R-/OT-labeled neurons. The majority of PRV immunopositive neurons which also expressed immunoreactivity for MC4-R were located in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. The majority of PRV positive neurons which were immunoreactive (IR) for OT were located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), medial preoptic area (MPOA), and lateral hypothalamus. PRV positive neurons were more likely to be IR for MC4-R than for OT. Scattered triple-labeled PRV/MC4-R/OT neurons were detected in the MPOA and the PVN. These data strongly suggest that MC4-R and, to a less extent, OT are involved in the efferent neuronal control of the clitoris and vagina, and consequently facilitate our understanding of how the melanocortinergic pathway regulates female sexual function.

  10. Dynamic process of biosorption of long-chain fatty acids by anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.; Tseng, S.K.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    The preoptic area is anatomically divided into medial and lateral portions and both are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. We have recently reported the specific role of the adrenoceptors, present in the medial preoptic area, in the regulation of those functions.

  11. Dynamic process of biosorption of long-chain fatty acids by anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.; Tseng, S.K.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    The preoptic area is anatomically divided into medial and lateral portions and both are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. We have recently reported the specific role of the adrenoceptors, present in the medial preoptic area, in the regulation of those functions. I

  12. Distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R-J; Shu, Y-M; Wang, J; Yin, J-C; Xu, L; Zhou, J-N

    2014-04-18

    Vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OXT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. Day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. However, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. Here, we examined the distribution of VP, OXT and VIP immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using the immunohistochemical techniques. Most of VP and OXT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In addition, VP-ir or OXT-ir neurons were scattered in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, stria terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala. Interestingly, a high density of VP-ir fibers within the ventral lateral septum was observed in males but not in females. Both VP-ir and VIP-ir neurons were found in different subdivisions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) with partial overlap. VIP-ir cells and fibers were also scattered in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, amygdala and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings provide a comprehensive description of VIP and a detailed mapping of VP and OXT in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of these neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian behavior and social behavior.

  13. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  14. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  15. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  16. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  17. Study of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulating the splenic immune function in the rat—pseudorabies virus transsynaptic labeling%大鼠下丘脑室旁核对脾脏免疫功能神经调控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱家媛; 欧可群; 王蕾; 陈文玉; 马玉琼

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨PVN不同亚核在调控脾脏免疫功能中的作用。方法 4只SD大鼠脾脏内注射假狂犬病毒(PRV)96 h后,采用免疫组化法和体视学方法研究被假狂犬病毒跨突触感染的神经元在PVN不同亚核内的分布特点及其与PVN内AVP神经元位置配布间的相互关系。结果 PRV感染的神经元主要聚集于PVN尾段的尾侧大细胞亚核(PM)和外侧小细胞亚核(LP)(占总面积的73.49%),少量分布于喙段的前小细胞亚核(LP)、中段的背侧小细胞亚核(DP)和室周小细胞亚核内(PP)。其中LP及PM内的部分PRV感染神经元分布在AVP阳性神经元聚集的区域内。结论 PVN对脾脏免疫功能的调控除了传统神经内分泌途径外,还可能存在下列途径:PM内的AVP阳性神经元和LP、DP及AP内的神经元通过向延髓背侧及脊髓中间外侧柱的投射,然后再通过副交感和交感神经的直接神经支配途径调控脾脏的功能。%Objective To investigate the possible roles of the different subnuclei of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PNV) which may regulate splenic immune function. Methods 4 SD rats received splenic injection of pseudorabies virus(PRV).96 hours after injection, a block containing hypothalamus was taken and cut into 40 μm sections with cryostat. Immunohistochemical technique and stereology method were used to detect the distributing character of transsynaptic PRV infection neurons in the PVN and the localization relationship between PRV neurons and AVP neurons in the PVN.Results Transsynaptic PRV infection neurons distributed through out the PVN, but mainly concentrated in the lateral parvocellular (LP) subnucleus of PVN and posterior magnocellular (PM) subnuclei of PVN (occupied 73.49% of total surface area),a few distributed in the anterior, dorsal and periventricular parvocellular (AP,DP and PP)nuclei of PVN,few scatted in the

  18. 电针对雌性去势大鼠行为学和下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on behavioral and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in female ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 许浩; 胡光明; 尹刚; 王海颖; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察电针对雌性切除卵巢(去势)大鼠行为学、血浆雌二醇(E)及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响,探讨电针的抗抑郁效应及其机制.方法:SPF级SD雌性成年大鼠40只,随机分为正常对照组、去势组、电针组及美雌醇组.除正常对照组外大鼠均行双侧卵巢切除术.2周后,给予双侧内关、三阴交穴位电针干预处理2周.强迫游泳实验(FST)观察行为学变化;免疫组化观察下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达;放射免疫方法检测m浆E、FSH及LH变化.结果:大鼠卵巢切除4周后,FST显示不动时间明显增加(P水平降低(P水平明显升高(P<0.01),FSH(P<0.05,P<0.01)和LH(P<0.01,P<0.05)水平明显降低,室旁核c-fos阳性表达明娃增强.结论:去卵巢后,可致大鼠行为学改变,表现为抑郁倾向;电针干预具有明显抗抑郁效应,调整下丘脑轴是其可能机制.%Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depression-like behavior, estradiol (E2) and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Methods: SPF grade SD female rats were ovariectomized. After two weeks recovery, the rats in APU group were treated by EA in bilateral Neiguan and Sanyinjiao for two weeks and the rats in E group were treated by mestranol. Later let ail the rats in every group to undergo FST. To measure the sum of time about immobility, struggling and swimming in the second FST (within 5 minutes), the levels of Ej, FSH, LH in blood serum were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expressions of proto-oncogene c-fos in PVN were ovserved by immunohistochemistry. Results: The time of immobility increased significantly in OVX group after rats were ovariectomized for 4 weeks (P<0.01), the levels of E, in blood plasma decreased (P<0.05), and the levels of FSH (P<0.01) and LH (P<0.05) increased significantly. After treated by EA, the levels of Ej increased significantly

  19. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  20. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    2004-01-01

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  1. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  2. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  3. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  4. Driftless Area NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  5. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  6. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  7. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  8. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  10. Extra-neurohypophyseal axonal projections from individual vasopressin-containing magnocellular neurons in rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Salvador Hernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional neuroanatomical, immunohistochemical techniques and electrophysiological recording, as well as in vitro labeling methods may fail to detect long range extra-neurohypophyseal-projecting axons from vasopressin (AVP-containing magnocellular neurons (magnocells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Here, we used in vivo extracellular recording, juxtacellular labeling, post hoc anatomo-immunohistochemical analysis and camera lucida reconstruction to address this question. We demonstrate that all well-labeled AVP immunopositive neurons inside the PVN possess main axons joining the tract of Greving and multi-axon-like processes, as well as axonal collaterals branching very near to the somata, which project to extra-neurohypophyseal regions. The detected regions in this study include the medial and lateral preoptical area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral habenula, medial and central amygdala and the conducting systems, such as stria medullaris, the fornix and the internal capsule. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 was observed in axon-collaterals. These results, in congruency with several previous reports in the literature, provided unequivocal evidence that AVP magnocells have an uncommon feature of possessing multiple axon-like processes emanating from somata or proximal dendrites. Furthermore, the long-range non-neurohypophyseal projections are more common than an occasional phenomenon as previously thought.

  11. Maternal responsiveness and maternal selectivity in domestic sheep and goats: the two facets of maternal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindron, Pascal; Lévy, Frédéric; Keller, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats rapidly establish an exclusive relationship with their neonate following contact with it during a sensitive period of maternal responsiveness induced by the physiological events occurring at parturition. The data concerning the sensory, physiological, and neurobiological factors involved in the activation of both maternal responsiveness and the establishment of selective nursing indicates that these processes are activated simultaneously by the combined action of two main factors, the prepartum rise in circulating estrogen and the vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) caused by fetus expulsion. On the one hand, these two factors act on a neural network including the main olfactory system (MOB), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to induce maternal responsiveness towards any neonate. The intracerebral release of oxytocin (OT) from the PVN, and the triggering of olfactory attraction for amniotic fluid (AF) are key elements in this process. On the other hand, VCS at birth also sets the MOB ready to memorize the individual odor of the neonate, through the release of peptides and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and acetylcholine). In addition to the MOB, the network involved in recognition mainly includes the medial and cortical amygdala. Across consolidation processes, reorganization occurs in the network engaged in lamb recognition. Whether this memorization may be potentiated by other sensory cues is not known. The identification of the chemosensory compounds involved in the attraction for AF and in the recognition of the neonate is important for understanding the mechanisms of maternal attachment.

  12. The gut-brain axis interactions during heat stress and avian necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calefi, Atilio Sersun; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; Cohn, Daniel Wagner Hamada; Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Tsugiyama, Lucila Emiko; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J; Palermo-Neto, João

    2016-05-01

    The gut-brain axis is known to modulate behavioral and immune responses in animals; evidence supporting this modulation in chickens, however, is elusive. Here, we analyzed the effects of heat stress and/orClostridium perfringens (CP) infection on behavior, intestinal morphology, brain activity, and corticosterone serum levels in chickens. Broilers were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: a naïve group (N), a thioglycolate group (T), a thioglycolate heat-stressed group (T/HS35), an infected group (I), and an infected/stressed (I/HS35) group. Broilers in the I and I/HS35 groups were experimentally infected withClostridium perfringensfrom the 15th to the 19th day of life. Heat stress (35±1°C) was constantly applied to the broilers in the stressed groups from the 14th to the 19th day of life. Our data showed that heat stress andC. perfringensinfection produced significant differential responses in the chickens' behavior and in c-fosexpression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), nucleus taenia of the amygdala (Tn), medial preoptic area (POM), andglobus pallidus (GP) of the chickens. Heat stress ameliorated some of the intestinal lesions and the neuroendocrine changes induced byC. perfringensin the birds. Our results suggest the existence of clear relationships between the degree of intestinal lesions, the chickens' behavioral outcomes, brain activity, and serum levels of corticosterone. Together, they reinforce the importance of neuroimmunomodulation and especially of brain-gut axis interactions.

  13. The central administration of C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, activates sympathetic outflow and thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassolla, Priscila; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Mansur Machado, Frederico Sander; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rissato Garófalo, Maria Antonieta; de Almeida Brito, Nilton; Kagohara Elias, Lucila Leico; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; do Carmo Kettelhut, Isis; Carvalho Navegantes, Luiz Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigated the participation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), which is an important site for thermogenesis, in the anti-obesity effects of C75, a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS). We report that a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of C75 induced hypophagia and weight loss in fasted male Wistar rats. Furthermore, C75 induced a rapid increase in core body temperature and an increase in heat dissipation. In parallel, C75 stimulated IBAT thermogenesis, which was evidenced by a marked increase in the IBAT temperature that preceded the rise in the core body temperature and an increase in the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1. As with C75, an i.c.v. injection of cerulenin, a natural FAS inhibitor, increased the core body and IBAT temperatures. The sympathetic IBAT denervation attenuated all of the thermoregulatory effects of FAS inhibitors as well as the C75 effect on weight loss and hypophagia. C75 induced the expression of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus, preoptic area, dorsomedial nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, and raphé pallidus, all of which support a central role of FAS in regulating IBAT thermogenesis. These data indicate a role for IBAT in the increase in body temperature and hypophagia that is induced by FAS inhibitors and suggest new mechanisms explaining the weight loss induced by these compounds.

  14. Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the forebrain of the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, M; Senatori, O; Nicotra, A

    2009-10-01

    The current study reports for the first time the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the forebrain of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Numerous small TH-ir neurons were observed in the olfactory bulbs, located mainly in the periphery of the bulbs. The TH-ir telencephalic neurons are localized in the ventral telencephalic area where they are grouped in three distinct nuclei (Vv,Vd and Vp) composed of a small number of cells forming a continuous strip. The largest number of forebrain TH-ir neurons was observed in the diencephalon where both small and larger neurons are present. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons are subdivided in large nuclei located in the preoptic region (nSC, nPOp and nPOm), the thalamus (nDM), the pretectal region (nPPv and nAP), the hypothalamus (nPP and nRP) and the posterior tuberculum (nPT). Many diencephalic nuclei are distributed in periventricular regions and no TH-ir cells were observed in the paraventricular organ. A comparative analysis indicates that the present observations are consistent with the general pattern of TH-ir neurons distribution reported for the forebrain of other teleosts, but with some interspecies variability present, mainly in the diencephalon. This paper also provides valuable neuroanatomical information for P. reticulata, a teleost frequently used in toxicological tests, for future studies investigating the effects of environmental pollutants on the catecholaminergic system.

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadi, Elemer

    2013-08-01

    The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neurone, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network. The central neurones aggregate in distinct brainstem nuclei, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent. LC neurones project widely to most areas of the neuraxis, where they mediate dual effects: neuronal excitation by α₁-adrenoceptors and inhibition by α₂-adrenoceptors. The LC plays an important role in physiological regulatory networks. In the sleep/arousal network the LC promotes wakefulness, via excitatory projections to the cerebral cortex and other wakefulness-promoting nuclei, and inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting nuclei. The LC, together with other pontine noradrenergic nuclei, modulates autonomic functions by excitatory projections to preganglionic sympathetic, and inhibitory projections to preganglionic parasympathetic neurones. The LC also modulates the acute effects of light on physiological functions ('photomodulation'): stimulation of arousal and sympathetic activity by light via the LC opposes the inhibitory effects of light mediated by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on arousal and by the paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity. Photostimulation of arousal by light via the LC may enable diurnal animals to function during daytime. LC neurones degenerate early and progressively in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, leading to cognitive impairment, depression and sleep disturbance.

  16. Hypothalamo-hypophysial relations in amphibian larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.; Peute, J.; Terlou, M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of studies on the differentiation of the preoptic nucleus and of experiments regarding the effects of propylthiouracil and extirpation of the preoptic area demonstrate that in Xenopus laevis tadpoles a thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) is formed in peptidergic cells in the dorsal part o

  17. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  18. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  19. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  20. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  1. CHANCHELULLA ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey there seems to be little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Chanchelulla Roadless Area, California, except for a demonstrated resource of about 7200 tons containing 0. 084 oz gold/ton, 0. 84 oz silver/ton, and accessory copper at the Chanchelulla prospect. This prospect is located on a northwest-trending quartz vein. Limestone and small amounts of magnetite occur in the area but on the basis of available data no resources are identified. No potential for energy resources was identified.

  2. OLED area illumination source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  3. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  4. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  5. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  6. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  7. Area Handbook for Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Allison Butler

    This publication is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Areas Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political and military institutions and practices of various countries. The present handbook…

  8. Areas of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, John

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the recommendations made by the Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum (the Rose Report in 2009) that the curriculum should be organised into areas of learning. The implications for teachers are considered. By drawing upon past experience some major weaknesses and strengths implicit in the approach are identified and…

  9. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  10. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  11. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  12. Large area mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)]. E-mail: mikhail.rachev@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Srowig, Andre [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Gruen, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)

    2004-12-11

    A new time-of-flight spectrometer for the chemical analysis of cosmic dust particles in space has been simulated by Simion 7.0. The instrument is based upon impact ionization. This method is a reliable method for in situ dust detection and is well established. Instruments using the impact ionization flew on board of Helios and Galileo and are still in operation on board of the Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens missions. The new instrument has a large sensitive area of 0.1m2 in order to achieve a significant number of measurements. The mass resolution M/{delta}M>100 and the mass range covers the most relevant elements expected in cosmic dust. The instrument has a reflectron configuration which increases the mass resolution. Most of the ions released during the impact are focused to the detector. The ion detector consists of a large area ion-to-electron converter, an electron reflectron and a microchannel plate detector.

  13. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    resource of the river. Also, strips of riparian vegetation along the riverbank provide good areas for naturalists and birdwatching . Recreational resources...policies #1 and #2 when improvements are made costing at least 50 percent of the estimated current market value of the structure before improvements. o1 S 0...height and depth of flooding is provided in Table 1. Although depreciation values have been used in our analysis, market values also had to be considered

  14. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  15. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  16. SUBURBAN AREAS. ZONAS SUBURBANAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Valencia Londoño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: The suburban areas represent a category of use and appropriation of the soil that is particularly problematic in the Latin American context. The conflicts that tend to occur in this type of areas are given by the uncontrolled expansion of cities in a competition with the rural areas which deprives these from various environmental conditions and positive housing conditions. This article is the product of the research project “Methodology for the Intervention of Suburban Soils, Northern Aburra: A Case Study” in Medellin, Colombia, in order to disseminate core concepts that guide the study and generate academic exchange in this regard. Resumen: Las zonas suburbanas representan una categoría de uso y apropiación del suelo que es particularmente problemática en el contexto latinoamericano. Los conflictos que suelen verificarse en este tipo de zonas se dan por la expansión incontrolada de las ciudades en una competencia con las áreas rurales que priva a éstas de varias de sus condiciones ambientales y de habitabilidad positivas. El artículo es producto del proyecto de investigación “Metodología para la intervención de suelos suburbanos, caso de estudio Aburrá Norte” en Medellín, Colombia, con el fin de divulgar los conceptos de base que orientan el estudio y generar intercambio académico al respecto.

  17. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  18. Early Training-Induced Reduction of Angiotensinogen in Autonomic Areas-The Main Effect of Exercise on Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiali Jurdi Chaar

    Full Text Available Exercise training (T blunts functional deficits and renin-angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity in hypertensive individuals. There is no information on T-induced temporal changes of brain RAS. We evaluate now the simultaneous effects of T on functional responses and time course changes in the expression/activity of brain RAS components in autonomic cardiovascular-controlling areas.Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched normotensive controls (WKY were trained for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Sedentary (S groups served as time-controls. After arterial pressure (AP and heart rate (HR recordings at rest, fresh and fixed brains were harvested for qPCR and immunofluorescence assays. SHR-S vs. WKY-S exhibited higher mean AP (MAP and HR, increased pressure variability and sympathetic activity, elevated AT1 receptor (AT1 expression in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and higher Mas receptor expression in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM. In SHR, T promptly (T2 on reduced sympathetic variability to heart/vessels and largely decreased angiotensinogen expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN and NTS, with a late RVLM reduction (T4. AT1 expression was only reduced at T12 (PVN and NTS with transient, not maintained Mas receptor changes in PVN and RVLM. These responses were accompanied by baseline MAP and HR reduction in the SHR-T (from T4 on. In the SHR group, PVN angiotensinogen expression correlated positively with sympathetic activity, resting MAP and HR. In WKY-T, a precocious (T2-T12 RVLM AT1 decrease preceded the appearance of resting bradycardia (from T8 on.Early and maintained reduction of angiotensinogen content in autonomic areas of the SHR is the most prominent effect of training on brain RAS. Down-regulation of PVN RAS expression is an essential factor to drive cardiovascular benefits in SHR-T, while resting bradycardia in WKY-T is correlated to RVLM AT1 reduction.

  19. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  20. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  1. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  2. Dementia in Taiwan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Taiwan has an increasing aging population like other developed areas. The aging population will lead to an increased prevalence of dementia. Methods:This article will reflect the status of dementia in Taiwan, including updated epidemiology, diagnosis, subtypes, and optimal treatment of dementia. Results:The article also describes and interprets the Taiwan Dementia Policy to establish a clear, large view of the current state of management of dementia in Taiwan and future policy implementation. Conclusion:A comprehensive policy to dementia, from the basic researches to clinical care and treatment, is necessary to the increased aged population in Taiwan.

  3. Zeolites and Usage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  4. Cholera in Azov area

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Domashenko; T. A. Belomerya; N. V. Martynova; G. N. Daragan; Demkovich, O.O.; U. V. Malakhova; G. I. Zemlyanskaya; Popova, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child) and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children), which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the water...

  5. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  6. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiropoulo, P

    1982-01-01

    Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.

  8. Global protected area impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  9. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  10. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  11. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  12. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  13. Presence of TSH receptors in discrete areas of the hypothalamus and caudal brainstem with relevance for feeding controls-Support for functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jonathan R; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Wärnåker, Sara; Smedh, Ulrika

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that brain-derived thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and its receptor (TSHr) are present in hypothalamic extracts. No studies investigating both the anatomical location and functional significance of putative TSHr proteins in specific central nervous system (CNS) nuclei involved in feeding controls have yet been conducted. The aim was thus to determine whether TSHr are present in nuclei associated with feeding behavior, and if such receptors may be functional. Brain tissue from adult rats was analyzed for gene expression and receptor protein expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. To investigate whether putative TSHr may be functional, we evaluated food intake of rats given intraparenchymal nanoinjections of TSH into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). RT-qPCR confirmed previous reports that TSHr mRNA is expressed in CNS tissues of the adult rat. Immunohistochemistry showed TSHr-immunoreactivity in the arcuate, the ventromedial, the dorsomedial, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. We also found TSHr-ir in the dorsal hindbrain to be localized to the area postrema, NTS, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Further protein analysis with western blotting showed 120kDa TSHr-ir proteins present in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Injections of TSH into the NTS reduced food intake similar to the positive control, urocortin. These data suggest that functional TSHr are present in the caudal brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei of relevance for feeding control as a possibly uncleaved holoreceptor, and highlights a hindbrain component to central TSH inhibition of food intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lateral hypothalamic area orexin-A influence the firing activity of gastric distension-sensitive neurons and gastric motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Heling; Luan, Xiao; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2016-06-01

    The orexins system consists of two G-protein coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) and two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B. Orexin-A is an excitatory neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite. Recent studies have shown that orexin-A may promote gastric motility. We aim to explore the effects of orexin-A on the gastric -distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of orexin-A into the LHA and electrical stimulation of the PVN. There were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of orexin-A to the LHA could increase the firing rate of both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons. The gastric motility was significantly enhanced by injection of orexin-A into the LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by pre-treatment with orexin-A receptor antagonist SB334867. Electrical stimulation of the PVN could significantly increase the firing rate of GD neurons responsive to orexin-A in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility of rats. However, those effects could be partly blocked by pre-treatment with SB334867 in the LHA. It is suggested that orexin-A plays an important role in promoting gastric motility via LHA. The PVN may be involved in regulation of LHA on gastric motility.

  15. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  16. Cholera in Azov area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  17. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  18. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  19. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  20. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...... is illustrated by a case example. Furthermore, a case example illustrates how the additional time resistance in stairways affects the catchment area of an underground station compared to a ground-level station. It is also illustrated how catchment area analyses can serve in the planning of stops on a new line...

  1. Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  2. Special Protection Area Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Special Protection Area (SPA) is a geographic area designated by the County Council which has high quality or unusually sensitive water resources and environmental...

  3. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  4. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  5. VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...

  6. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    which forms of ‘urban life’ are suitable for the suburbs and discusses which urban life activities are resilient in the suburbs. What do the residents of respectively single-family housing areas and social housing areas want? Does the idea of vibrant urban qualities in suburban areas, that today...

  7. The non-evaginated secondary prosencephalon of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eMoreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The secondary prosencephalon (telencephalon plus hypothalamus is probably the most complex area of the brain, with complicated patterning specifications. As yet, no prosomeric subdivisions have been reported and only distinct histogenetic territories have been recognized. In the present comparative study we analyzed cross-correlated expression maps in the non-evaginated territories of the secondary prosencephalon in different vertebrates throughout development, to assess the existence of comparable divisions and subdivisions in the different groups. Each division is characterized by expression of a unique combination of developmental regulatory genes, and each appears to represent a self-regulated and topologically constant histogenetic brain compartment that gives rise to a specific cell group. The non-evaginated area of the telencephalon corresponds to the preoptic region, whereas the hypothalamus, topologically rostral to the diencephalic prethalamus, includes basal (mammillary and tuberal and alar (paraventricular and suprachiasmatic parts. This complex area is specified by a cascade of transcription factors, among which the Dlx family members and Nkx2.1 are essential for the correct development. The only exception is found in the subdivision named termed the supraoptoparaventricular area, in which the transcription factor Orthopedia is essential in restricting the fate of multiple categories of neuroendocrine neurons, in the absence of the Dlx/Nkx2.1 combination. Our analysis, based on own data and published results by other researchers, suggests that common features are shared at least by all tetrapods and, therefore, they most likely were present in the stem tetrapods. The available data for agnathans (lampreys and other fish groups indicate that not all subdivisions of the secondary prosencephalon were present at the origin of vertebrates, raising important questions about their evolution.

  8. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  9. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  10. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  11. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  12. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  13. Influence of circadian disruption on neurotransmitter levels, physiological indexes, and behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeru; Nakagawa, Hikaru; Suzuki, Kota; Ninomiya, Chisa; Ishiwata, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Brain monoamines - such as noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) - regulate several important physiological functions, including the circadian rhythm. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in NA, DA and 5-HT levels in various brain regions and their effect on core body temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity (Act) in rats following exposure to an artificial light/dark (LD) cycle. For this, male Wistar rats were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 23 °C and 50% relative humidity with free access to food and water. Rats were exposed to either natural (12 h:12 h) or artificial (6 h:6 h) LD cycles for 1 month, after which each brain region was immediately extracted and homogenized to quantify the amounts of NA, DA and 5-HT by high-performance liquid chromatography. Behavioural changes were also monitored by the ambulatory activity test (AAT). Notably, we found that artificial LD cycles disrupted the physiological circadian rhythms of Tc, HR and Act. Although the 5-HT levels of rats with a disrupted circadian rhythm decreased in cell bodies (dorsal and median raphe nuclei) and projection areas (frontal cortex, caudate putamen, preoptic area and suprachiasmatic nucleus) relative to the control group, NA levels increased both in the cell body (locus coeruleus) and projection area (paraventricular hypothalamus). No significant changes were found with respect to DA. Moreover, circadian rhythm-disrupted rats also showed anxious behaviours in AAT. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, but not the dopaminergic system, are affected by artificial LD cycles in brain regions that control several neural and physiological functions, including the regulation of physiological circadian rhythms, stress responses and behaviour.

  14. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  15. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  16. The effects of perinatal testosterone exposure on the DNA methylome of the mouse brain are late-emerging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghahramani, Negar M; Ngun, Tuck C; Chen, Pao-Yang; Tian, Yuan; Krishnan, Sangitha; Muir, Stephanie; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Arnold, Arthur P; de Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G; Pellegrini, Matteo; Vilain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated the organizational effects of testosterone on the DNA methylome and transcriptome in two sexually dimorphic forebrain regions-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum...

  17. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  18. FOUR NOTCH ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Four Notch Roadless Area, Texas, was conducted. The area has a probable resource potential for oil and gas. There is, however, little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources or other energy resources. Acquisition of seismic data and detailed comparisons with logs from wells from the vicinity of the Four Notch Roadless Area is necessary to better determine if the subsurface stratigraphy and structures are favorable for the accumulation of oil or gas.

  19. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    .g. the spatial policy discussed and recommended in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) emphasises the compact city concept, rural-urban linkages and conservation of nature and cultural heritage. This paper compares planning practice for rurban areas in three cases: Roskilde municipality (Denmark......), Staffanstorp municipality (Sweden) and Werv-area (the Netherlands). All three areas belong to the rurban zone and are selected to exemplify pro-active planning. The analysis focuses on how the concept of compact city is perceived and implemented, how rurban areas are managed in order to avoid further urban...

  20. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  1. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  2. Diaper Area Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic signs of infectious diseases may occur as primary infection of skin, accompanying of skin to systemic infections and noninfectious skin eruption of systemic infectious disease. In this review, skin infections of diaper area and diaper area manifestations of infections causing generalized skin lesions will be discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 31-9

  3. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  4. WEAVER BALLY ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Weaver Bally Roadless Area includes approximately 22 sq mi in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Trinity County, California. A mineral survey indicates that an area of less than 1 sq mi in the northern part of the Weaver Bally Roadless Area has a substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold and silver; a much larger area has a probable mineral-resource potential for the same elements. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of additional metallic, energy, or nonmetallic resources in the roadless area. Detailed studies, including further geochemical sampling and drilling could be done in the region of the Globe mines. In addition, the outcrops of dacite porphyry dikes and sills and associated hydrothermal alteration should be mapped in detail.

  5. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  6. Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, John D; Buntin, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized. In mammals, the Janus Kinase 2-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (JAK2-STAT5) signaling pathway mediates many of the actions of prolactin. To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated (phosphorylated) STAT5 (pSTAT5) in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females. The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species. The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive (pSTAT5-ir) cells was highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. Mean pSTAT5-ir cell densities in these eight brain areas were several fold higher in breeding females during late incubation/early post-hatching when plasma prolactin levels have been observed to peak than in non-breeding females or breeding females sampled at earlier stages when prolactin titers have been reported to be lower. Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone.

  7. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretory system in the hypothalamus of the Siberian hamster in long and short photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, F J P; Wilson, D; Wood, J; Hughes, D; Mercer, J G; Morgan, P J; Barrett, P

    2008-05-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is not only essential for the regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis, but also exerts complementary effects on energy metabolism within the brain. We hypothesised that increased activity of the TRH secretory system may contribute to seasonal adaptations in the Siberian hamster whereby food intake is decreased in winter, and catabolism of fat stores is increased to support thermogenesis. We determined the distribution of TRH producing neurones and TRH-R1 receptor expressing cells in the hypothalamus, and investigated whether photoperiod regulated this system. TRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell somata and preproTRH mRNA expression were found to be widely distributed throughout the medial hypothalamus, with particular clusters in the paraventricular nucleus, the medial preoptic area and periventricular nucleus, and in the dorsomedial hypothalamus extending into the lateral hypothalamic area. A partial sequence encoding TRH-R1 was cloned from hamster hypothalamic cDNA and used to generate a riboprobe for in situ hybridisation studies. TRH-R1 mRNA expressing cells were abundant throughout the hypothalamus, corresponding to the widespread presence of TRH-ir fibres. Photoperiod did not affect the expression of preproTRH mRNA in any region, and the only significant change in TRH-R1 expression was in the dorsomedial posterior arcuate region. This wide distribution of TRH-producing and receptive cells in the hypothalamus is consistent with its hypothesised neuromodulatory roles in the short-term homeostatic control of appetite, thermoregulation and energy expenditure, but the lack of photoperiodic change in TRH mRNA expression does not support the hypothesis that changes in this system underlie long-term seasonal changes in body weight.

  8. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  9. Hypovolemic hemorrhage induces Fos expression in the rat hypothalamus: Evidence for involvement of the lateral hypothalamus in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktalay, G; Millington, W R

    2016-05-13

    This study tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamus participates in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage by measuring Fos immunoreactivity and by inhibiting neuronal activity in selected hypothalamic nuclei with lidocaine or cobalt chloride. Previously, we reported that inactivation of the arcuate nucleus inhibited, but did not fully prevent, the fall in arterial pressure evoked by hypotensive hemorrhage. Here, we report that hemorrhage (2.2 ml/100g body weight over 20 min) induced Fos expression in a high percentage of cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus as shown previously. Lower densities of Fos immunoreactive cells were also found in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and posterior hypothalamus. Bilateral injection of lidocaine (2%; 0.1 μl or 0.3 μl) or cobalt chloride (5mM; 0.3 μl) into the tuberal portion of the LH immediately before hemorrhage was initiated reduced the magnitude of hemorrhagic hypotension and bradycardia significantly. Lidocaine injection into the VMH also attenuated the fall in arterial pressure and heart rate evoked by hemorrhage although inactivation of the mPOA or rostral LH was ineffective. These findings indicate that hemorrhage activates neurons throughout much of the hypothalamus and that a relatively broad area of the hypothalamus, extending from the arcuate nucleus laterally through the caudal VMH and tuberal LH, plays an important role in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  11. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  12. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  13. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  14. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  15. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  16. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  17. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  18. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  19. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  20. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  1. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  2. Revitalization Areas By Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...

  3. VT - Vermont Hospital Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Hospital service areas (HSAs) are organized by towns and are based on inpatient discharges where the diagnosis indicated the need for immediate care. Plurality...

  4. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  5. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  6. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  8. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  9. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  10. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  11. Areas on a Square Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Brian

    1974-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual method of counting squares to find the area of a plane shape, a method of counting lattice points (determined by vertices of a unit square) is proposed. Activities using this method are suggested. (DT)

  12. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  13. Microarthropods inventory in Cranendonck area

    OpenAIRE

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    April 2006, microarthropod fauna inventory on former agricultural grasslands on sandy soil in Cranendonck area (and two reference sites) using a split-tube sampler. Subject of interest is organic matter

  14. Suisun Marsh Primary Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Suisun Marsh or the 'Marsh' means tidal marsh, water-covered areas, diked-off wetlands, seasonal marshes, lowland grasslands, upland grasslands, and cultivated...

  15. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-08

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  16. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  17. Redhead production areas : Northwestern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of redhead production areas in northwestern Nevada. Breeding pair summaries are also provided for a number waterfowl species.

  18. Suisun Marsh Secondary Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Suisun Marsh or the 'Marsh' means tidal marsh, water-covered areas, diked-off wetlands, seasonal marshes, lowland grasslands, upland grasslands, and cultivated lands...

  19. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  20. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  1. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  2. Geothermal resource area 3: Elko County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 3 includes all of the land in Elko County, Nevada. There are in excess of 50 known thermal anomalies in this area. Several of the more major resources have been selected for detailed description and evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The other resources are considered too small, too low in temperature, or too remote to be considered for development in the near future. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the studied resource sites in Elko County were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics; the land ownership and land use patterns; existing population and projected growth rates; transportation facilities and energy requirements. These factors were then compared with resource site specific data to determine the most likely uses of the resource. The uses considered in this evaluation were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories several subdivisions were considered separately. It was determined that several of the geothermal resources evaluated in the Area Development Plan could be commercially developed. The potential for development for the seven sites considered in this study is summarized.

  3. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania......% wetland and 12% agricultural land. This analysis provides a simple template for defining where further action to protect remaining IBA sites in Tanzania would lead to enhanced conservation of avian biodiversity in that country and provides a methodology for analysis leading to conservation action...

  4. PLANNING DECISIONS IN LANDSLIDE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katarzyna Hełdak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the topic of planning decisions taken for the purposes of studies prepared on the municipality level and related to the development of landslide areas in Poland. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the scale of the issue consisting in designating areas at risk of subsidence of soil masses for investment purposes. The research emphasises the essential role of planning documentation in the prevention of investment in such areas. Other vital factors also include the SOPO (Landslide Counteracting System database as well as the staroste, who, in the course of preparation of planning documentation and issuing decisions on development conditions, issues opinions or agrees (depending on the type of document or decision on the planned investment in areas at risk of landslides. The study shows the complexity of the spatial planning and development system in Poland and the significant influence of bodies and institutions on the planned development of areas prone to the subsidence of soil masses.

  5. Effects of Suanzaoren Decoction on cAMP-PKA-CREB Signaling Pathway in Hypothala mic Paraventricular Nuclear(PVN)Mediated by GABAB1 R in Aged rat with REM Sleep Depriva-tion%酸枣仁汤对GABAB 1 R介导快动眼睡眠剥夺老年大鼠下丘脑室旁核cAMP-PKA-CREB信号通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游秋云; 王平; 张舜波; 黄攀攀; 章程鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observe the effect of Suanzao-Rentang on cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway in hypo-thalamic paraventricular nuclear(PVN)ofaged rat whose rapid eye movement sleep has been deprived.Methods Natural age24 month-old Wistar rats arerandomly divided into control group(isovolumetric saline),REM sleep deprivation elderly group(iso-volumetric saline),positive control group(estazolam 0.18 mg/(kg·d),Suanzao-Rentang low and high dose group(12.96,25.92 g/(kg·d).Each group isgiven intragastric administration for two weeks.After that,except for the control group,each group is made REM sleep deprivation 48hours production model of old rats with homemade improved multi-platform.Then,we use Immunohistochemistry for detecting changes of GABAB1R positive reactant in the rat PVN,enzyme-linked immunosorbent as-say and immunohistochemistry for detecting changes of cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)in part of PVN and cAMP re-sponse element binding protein(CREB)levels,as well as activity of homogenate phosphodiesterase(PDE)in PVN.Results Compared with the control group,the amountof positive reaction GABAB1 R in PVN sitessignificantly increases(P<0.01), cAMP and p-CREB levels significantly reduce,PDE activity significantly increases(P<0.01)in the REM sleep deprivation old rats;compared with the older group in which the ratesREM sleep hasbeen deprived,the positive reaction amountof GABAB1 R in PVN significantly reduces(P<0.01 ),cAMPbutp-CREB levels significantly increases,PDE activity significantly reduces(P<0.01)in Suanzao-Rentang low and high-dose group of rats.Conclusion The results show that Suanzao-Rentang possi-bly play a role in brain nerves by enhancing GABAB1 R expression whichactivates cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.%目的:观察酸枣仁汤对快动眼睡眠被剥夺老年大鼠下丘脑室旁核(PVN)cAMP-PKA-CREB信号通路的影响。方法将自然衰老24月龄Wistar大鼠随机分成空白对照组(等容生理盐水),老年REM睡眠剥夺组

  6.   Transformation of the industrial harbor areas to housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Meike

    2009-01-01

    Research question: How to read the universal (understood as the common and the social) and the individual (understood as the specific, private and intimate) in the meeting between urban and housing space? Questions in the project: How do the exterior spaces in these new harbour areas come to being...

  7. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  8. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    Danish suburbs are facing major challenges trying to coping with demographic changes, with structural changes in retail businesses and especially with sustainability-related challenges that have to do with cutting back on energy consumption for heating and transportation. Also climate changes...... and counteracting the segregation of the suburbs into sharply socially-separated residential areas are major challenges. Therefore, in these years the post-war era’s suburban areas are being revitalized and the suburb urban life and urban qualities are concepts, which are often brought up in this context....... In this paper I will explore the concepts “suburb” and “urban life”. More than half of the Danish population live in suburban areas, and the majority of suburbs were built in a short and hectic period in the years from 1960 to 1975 and in conformity with the functionalist ideals that gave rise to a number...

  9. The Visual What For Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    An area in the left fusiform gyrus labelled the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) is claimed to be especially, or even selectively, responsive to words. We explored how stimulus type and task demands affect activity in this area by conducting a PET experiment where words and pictures were presented...... in two conditions that differed in demands on shape processing: colour decision and categorization. The subjects also performed an object decision task with pictures only. The imaging data revealed a main effect of stimulus type: rCBF was higher during word compared with picture processing. When compared...... indicate that the putative VWFA is activated more by written words than pictures, but only under certain circumstances. As demands on shape processing increase, the difference in activation between words and pictures decreases and can even be abolished. We suggest that activation in the VWFA could reflect...

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  11. Neonatal oxytocin alters subsequent estrogen receptor alpha protein expression and estrogen sensitivity in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Paramadilok, Auratip; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-12-14

    In most species, the effects of oxytocin (OT) on female reproductive behavior are dependent upon estrogen, which increases both OT and OT receptor expression. It is also becoming apparent that OT neurotransmission can influence estrogen signaling, especially during development, as neonatal OT manipulations in prairie voles alter ERalpha expression and estrogen-dependent behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that OT developmentally programs ERalpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, a species previously used to establish the estrogen-dependence of OT signaling in adulthood. OT treatment for the first postnatal week significantly increased ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), but not in the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Conversely, neonatal OT antagonist (OTA) treatment significantly reduced ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the MPOA, but not in the VMH. Both treatments increased OT-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and reduced estrogen sensitivity, indicated by reduced sexual receptivity following chronic estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. Behavioral deficits in OTA-treated females were apparent during both paced and non-paced tests with 0.5 microg EB (but not 5.0 or 10.0 microg EB), whereas deficits in OT-treated females were only observed during the initial paced test with 0.5 and 5.0 microg EB (but not 10.0 microg EB). The current results demonstrate that OT can positively regulate ERalpha expression within the MPOA and VMH during development; however, endogenous OT selectively programs ERalpha expression within the MPOA. Thus, exogenous OT or OTA exposure during development may have long-term consequences on behavior through stable changes in ERalpha and OT expression.

  12. Autoradiographic visualization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in rat brain with (/sup 3/H)captopril: localization to a striatonigral pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strittmatter, S.M.; Lo, M.M.S.; Javitch, J.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-03-01

    The authors have visualized angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, peptidylpeptide hydrolase, EC 3.4.15.1) in rat brain by in vitro (/sup 3/H)captopril autoradiography. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to brain slices displays a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 1.8 x 10/sup -9/ M) and a pharmacological profile similar to that of ACE activity. Very high densities of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding were found in the choroid plexus and the subfornical organ. High densities were present in the caudate putamen and substantia nigra, zona reticulata. Moderate levels were found in the entopeduncular nucleus, globus pallidus, and median eminence of the hypothalamus. Lower levels were detectable in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, the media habenula, the median preoptic area, and the locus coeruleus. Injection of ibotenic acid or colchicine into the caudate putamen decreased (/sup 3/H)captopril-associated autoradiographic grains by 85% in the ipsilateral caudate putamen and by > 50% in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Thus, ACE in the substantia nigra is located on presynaptic terminals of axons originating from the caudate putamen, and ACE in the caudate putamen is situated in neuronal perikarya or at the terminals of striatal interneurons. The lack of effect of similar injections into the substantia nigra confirmed that the caudate putamen injections did not cause trans-synaptic changes. The presence of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding is consistent with an ACE-mediated production of angiotensin II in some brain regions. Although (/sup 3/H)captopril autoradiography reveals ACE in a striatonigral pathway, there is no evidence for angiotensin II involvement in such a neuronal pathway. 26 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  14. Neural substrate of cold-seeking behavior in endotoxin shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Almeida

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a leading cause of hospital death. Mild systemic inflammation is accompanied by warmth-seeking behavior (and fever, whereas severe inflammation is associated with cold-seeking behavior (and hypothermia. Both behaviors are adaptive. Which brain structures mediate which behavior is unknown. The involvement of hypothalamic structures, namely, the preoptic area (POA, paraventricular nucleus (PVH, or dorsomedial nucleus (DMH, in thermoregulatory behaviors associated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced systemic inflammation was studied in rats. The rats were allowed to select their thermal environment by freely moving in a thermogradient apparatus. A low intravenous dose of Escherichia coli LPS (10 microg/kg caused warmth-seeking behavior, whereas a high, shock-inducing dose (5,000 microg/kg caused cold-seeking behavior. Bilateral electrocoagulation of the PVH or DMH, but not of the POA, prevented this cold-seeking response. Lesioning the DMH with ibotenic acid, an excitotoxin that destroys neuronal bodies but spares fibers of passage, also prevented LPS-induced cold-seeking behavior; lesioning the PVH with ibotenate did not affect it. Lesion of no structure affected cold-seeking behavior induced by heat exposure or by pharmacological stimulation of the transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid-1 channel ("warmth receptor". Nor did any lesion affect warmth-seeking behavior induced by a low dose of LPS, cold exposure, or pharmacological stimulation of the TRP melastatin-8 ("cold receptor". We conclude that LPS-induced cold-seeking response is mediated by neuronal bodies located in the DMH and neural fibers passing through the PVH. These are the first two landmarks on the map of the circuitry of cold-seeking behavior associated with endotoxin shock.

  15. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An autoradiographic study of neurotensin receptors in the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, the brain region involved in neuroendocrine control. For this, we investigated the presence and the distribution of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus, using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-neurotensin (2000Ci/mM). This study was performed on nine adult human postmortem hypothalami. We first determined the biochemical kinetics of the binding and found that binding affinity constants were of high affinity and do not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Our analysis of the autoradiographic distribution shows that NT binding sites are widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites is not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities are mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic region and the anterior boarding limit (i.e. the diagonal band of Broca). Important NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, relatively moderate densities could be observed in the mammillary complex subdivisions, apart from the supramammillary nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic area. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high concentrations of NT binding sites in various structures in many regions in the human adult hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of the Distribution of CRH Neurons in Whole Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of CRH neurons in CRH-IRES-Cre;Ai3 mice via automatic imaging and stereoscopic cell counting in a whole mouse brain. We acquired four datasets of the CRH distributions with co-localized cytoarchitecture at a voxel resolution of 0.32 μm × 0.32 μm × 2 μm using brain-wide positioning system (BPS. Next, we precisely located and counted the EYFP-labeled neurons in different regions according to propidium iodide counterstained anatomical reference using Neuronal Global Position System. In particular, dense EYFP expression was found in piriform area, BST, central amygdalar nucleus, PVH, Barrington’s nucleus, and inferior olivary complex. Considerable CRH neurons were also found in main olfactory bulb, medial preoptic nucleus, pontine gray, tegmental reticular nucleus, external cuneate nucleus, and midline thalamus. We reconstructed and compared the soma morphology of CRH neurons in 11 brain regions. The results demonstrated that CRH neurons had regional diversities of both cell distribution and soma morphology. This anatomical knowledge enhances the current understanding of the functions of CRH neurons. These results also demonstrated the ability of our platform to accurately orient, reconstruct and count neuronal somas in three-dimension for type-specific neurons in the whole brain, making it feasible to answer the fundamental neuroscience question of exact numbers of

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of the Distribution of CRH Neurons in Whole Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Long, Ben; Yuan, Jing; Peng, Xue; Ni, Hong; Li, Xiangning; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Li, Anan

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of CRH neurons in CRH-IRES-Cre;Ai3 mice via automatic imaging and stereoscopic cell counting in a whole mouse brain. We acquired four datasets of the CRH distributions with co-localized cytoarchitecture at a voxel resolution of 0.32 μm × 0.32 μm × 2 μm using brain-wide positioning system (BPS). Next, we precisely located and counted the EYFP-labeled neurons in different regions according to propidium iodide counterstained anatomical reference using Neuronal Global Position System. In particular, dense EYFP expression was found in piriform area, BST, central amygdalar nucleus, PVH, Barrington's nucleus, and inferior olivary complex. Considerable CRH neurons were also found in main olfactory bulb, medial preoptic nucleus, pontine gray, tegmental reticular nucleus, external cuneate nucleus, and midline thalamus. We reconstructed and compared the soma morphology of CRH neurons in 11 brain regions. The results demonstrated that CRH neurons had regional diversities of both cell distribution and soma morphology. This anatomical knowledge enhances the current understanding of the functions of CRH neurons. These results also demonstrated the ability of our platform to accurately orient, reconstruct and count neuronal somas in three-dimension for type-specific neurons in the whole brain, making it feasible to answer the fundamental neuroscience question of exact numbers of various neurons in the

  19. Functional cross-talk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, V

    2002-06-01

    Under normal conditions, the adrenal glucocorticoids, the endproduct of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, provide a frontline of defence against threats to homeostasis (i.e. stress). On the other hand, chronic HPA drive and glucocorticoid hypersecretion have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of systemic, neurodegenerative and affective disorders. The HPA axis is subject to gonadal influence, indicated by sex differences in basal and stress HPA function and neuropathologies associated with HPA dysfunction. Functional cross-talk between the gonadal and adrenal axes is due in large part to the interactive effects of sex steroids and glucocorticoids, explaining perhaps why several disease states linked to stress are sex-dependent. Realizing the interactive nature by which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and HPA systems operate, however, has made it difficult to model how these hormones act in the brain. Manipulation of one endocrine system is not without effects on the other. Simultaneous manipulation and assessment of both endocrine systems can overcome this problem. This dual approach in the male rat reveals that testosterone can act and interact on different aspects of basal and stress HPA function. Basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release is regulated by testosterone-dependent effects on arginine vasopressin synthesis, and corticosterone-dependent effects on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) synthesis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In contrast, testosterone and corticosterone interact on stress-induced ACTH release and drive to the PVN motor neurones. Candidate structures mediating this interaction include several testosterone-sensitive afferents to the HPA axis, including the medial preoptic area, central and medial amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis. All of these relay homeostatic information and integrate reproductive and social behaviour. Because these modalities are affected

  20. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R; Francescato, Heloísa D. C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S

    2017-01-01

    ...) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine [Beta]-synthase (CBS...

  1. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  2. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  3. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  4. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  5. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  7. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  8. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm(2) , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  9. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  10. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  11. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  12. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  13. Area Handbook for Sierra Leone,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    During its fifteen years of independence since 1961, Sierra Leone has had some difficulty in maintaining political stability and in generating...performance has been comparatively weak. By the mid-1970s, however, there were indications that it might improve. The Area Handbook for Sierra Leone

  14. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  15. Study area description: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mary M.; Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    The boundary for the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) was largely determined by the co-occurrence of some of the largest tracts of intact sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) remaining in the western United States with areas of increasing resource extraction. The WBEA area includes two ecoregions in their entirety, Wyoming Basins and Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains, and portions of two others (Southern Rocky Mountains and Middle Rockies-Blue Mountains). Over half the study area is in Wyoming; the remainder includes parts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Private landowners manage most (33.1%) of the land base in the WBEA, followed by the U.S. Forest Service (27.3%) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (25.6%). Sagebrush is the dominant land cover type in the study area, totaling >130,000 km2 ; nearly half the sagebrush in the WBEA is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Sagebrush in the WBEA faces many potential threats that also influence the broader sagebrush ecosystem. Climate change, drought, land-use practices (e.g., livestock grazing, oil and gas development), and human development have eliminated and fragmented the sagebrush ecosystem, altered fire regimes, and accelerated the invasion of exotic plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Less than 2% of sagebrush in the WBEA is permanently protected from land cover conversion.

  16. LELATEMA AREA, N ORTHEASTERN TANZANIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U, Sr, Zn and heavy REE elements were deposited in the hydrothermal zone. Emplacement of gemstones (tanzanite and green grossular) in the area is structurally controlled along the. Lelatema fault system. .... hydrothermal processes as the temperature and pressure of ... transverse cracks and one pronounced rather.

  17. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    .g. the spatial policy discussed and recommended in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) emphasises the compact city concept, rural-urban linkages and conservation of nature and cultural heritage. This paper compares planning practice for rurban areas in three cases: Roskilde municipality (Denmark...

  18. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  19. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  20. Pigeon homing from unfamiliar areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wallraff, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic.

  1. [Emotion and Brodmann's areas: special reference on area 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-11-01

    Brodmann's brain maps, assembled in 1909, are still in use, but understanding of their animal-human homology is uncertain. Furthermore, in 1909, Brodmann did not identify human Area 12 (BA12); a location now important to understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and emotional function. We found Brodmann did identify human BA12 in later maps (1910 and 1914), not in the 1909 monograph. Because of its current link with FTLD, BA 12's translation from animal (1909) to human (1910 and 1914) is not only an historical puzzle. It impacts how Brodmann's areas, based on comparative animal-human cyto-architecture, are widely used in current research as functional loci in human brain. If Brodmann's maps are of current value, then an accurate rather than a generic Brodmann number is in order.

  2. Army (MANTECH) Thrust Area Concept: Optics Thrust Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-01-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.

  3. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  4. DOLLY ANN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate that much of the Dolly Ann Roadless Area, in the George Washington National Forest, Alleghany County, Virginia, has substantiated iron resource potential. Inferred low-grade iron resources occur in folded sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The area has an estimated 540 million long tons of contained iron in hematitic sandstone and 700,000 long tons contained iron in deposits of sandy Limonite. Other mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, quartzite suitable for high-silica uses, limestone suitable for agricultural uses, and clay and shale suitable for structural clay products, all of which can be readily obtained outside the wilderness. A potential for natural gas and geothermal energy may exist but cannot be quantified from present knowledge.

  5. An Incomplete Optimal Currency Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Graversen, Mads Byskov

    2014-01-01

    on migration rates. We use panel regressions to test these relationships and find out that migration between member states is very low after the Euro’s first decade. Combined with the lack of significant fiscal transfers we conclude that the currency union is still not an OCA.......The main objective of this study is to test if the Eurozone a decade after its launch can be considered an optimal currency area (OCA) as defined by Mundell (1961). In an OCA, asymmetric shocks – as the ones experienced by the Eurozone following the recent financial crisis – may be dampened by two...... instruments: fiscal transfers from one country to another, or migration. As fiscal transfers in the Eurozone are low, we study the economic significance of migration flows as automatic stabilizers of the currency area. We assume that there is a strong relationship between unemployment and relative wealth...

  6. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    Dinaric Karst is one of the largest karst regions in Europe and in the World. It is the paramount karst of Europe and type site of many karst features. Dinaric Karst Area covers an extensive part of the Dinarides, a mountain chain in Southern Europe named after Dinara Mt., an impressive and outstanding rocky wall on the border between Dalmatian part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Dinaric Karst occupies an area from the Friuli Plain (Doberdo Karst Plateau) and Slovenian mountains near Postojna cave on the northwest, to Skadar Lake and Prokletije Mt. on the southeast, from Central Bosnian Mountains on the northeast, and the Adriatic Sea seafloor with its islands. The Dinarides outspread in a so-called "Dinaric strike" (NW-SE) for 650 km in length and are up to 150 km wide across SW-NE. The biggest part of the Dinaric Karst Area is situated within Croatian territory (continental, Adriatic coastal and seafloor karst) comprising all karst features with exceptional examples exposed on the surface as well as in the underground. Classical karst area is the one situated in Slovenia, where typical karst features were described for the first time. Presentation of the outstanding values of Dinaric karst is based on the values that can be met in Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania, too. Dinaric Karst is the World's natural heritage because of its unique and outstanding geological characteristics and its living world; some of them are of outstanding natural beauty. Dinaric karst is an integral, compact karst area with extremely great thickness of carbonate rocks of predominantly Mesozoic age which in some areas exceeds 8.000 m. It bears several cycles of karstification thus giving world uniqueness to the area, especially regarding the wealth of submerged karst phenomena, among which vruljes are world unique features. Dinaric karst is one of the largest karst regions in the World. From the scientific perspective, the Dinaric Karst is one of

  7. Nuclear criticality safety: 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-31

    This Standard applies to the receipt, processing, storage, and shipment of fissionable material in the 300 Area and in any other facility under the control of the Reactor Materials Project Management Team (PMT). The objective is to establish practices and process conditions for the storage and handling of fissionable material that prevent the accidental assembly of a critical mass and that comply with DOE Orders as well as accepted industry practice.

  8. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  9. WFC3 Pixel Area Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dressel, L.; Fruchter, A.; Hack, W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Mack, J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the pixel area maps (PAMs) for the WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR detectors, and discuss the normalization of these images. HST processed flt images suffer from geometric distortion and therefore have pixel areas that vary on the sky. The counts (electrons) measured for a source on these images depends on the position of the source on the detector, an effect that is implicitly corrected when these images are multidrizzled into drz files. The flt images can be multiplied by the PAMs to yield correct and uniform counts for a given source irrespective of its location on the image. To ensure consistency between the count rate measured for sources in drz images and near the center of flt images, we set the normalization of the PAMs to unity at a reference pixel near the center of the UVIS mosaic and IR detector, and set the SCALE in the IDCTAB equal to the square root of the area of this reference pixel. The implications of this choice for photometric measurements are discussed.

  10. Area Optimized Advanced Encryption Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sandip R. Aher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of the Advanced Encryption Standard candidates has become led to intensive study of both hardware and software implementations. However, number of papers presents various implementation results, it shows that efficiency could still be greatly improved by applying effective design rules adapted to devices and algorithms. This paper shows various approaches for efficient FPGA implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. For different applications of the AES algorithm may require different s peed/area tradeoffs, we propose a vital study of the possible implementation schemes, but also the discussion of design methodology and algorithmic optimization in order to improve previous reported results. We propose system to evaluate hardware efficiency at different steps of the design process. We also use an optimal pipeline that takes the place and route constraints into account. Resulting circuits significantly improve the previous reported results: throughput has been up to 18.5 Gbits/sec and the area requirements can be limited to 542 slices and 10 RAM blocks with a ratio throughput/area improved by minimum 25% of the best-known designs in the Xilinx Virtex- E technology.

  11. 47 CFR 101.64 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.64 Section 101.64... Service areas. Service areas for 38.6-40.0 GHz service are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined below. EAs are.... Additionally, there are four EA-like areas: Guam and Northern Mariana Islands; Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  12. 47 CFR 24.202 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.202 Section 24.202... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.202 Service areas. Broadband PCS service areas are Major Trading Areas (MTAs) and Basic Trading Areas (BTAs) as defined in this section. MTAs and BTAs are based on the Rand...

  13. 10 CFR 850.26 - Regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated areas. 850.26 Section 850.26 Energy DEPARTMENT... Regulated areas. (a) If airborne concentrations of beryllium in areas in DOE facilities are measured at or above the action level, the responsible employer must establish regulated areas for those areas. (b)...

  14. 33 CFR 156.310 - Prohibited areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas. 156.310 Section... the Gulf of Mexico § 156.310 Prohibited areas. Lightering operations are prohibited within the following areas in the Gulf of Mexico: (a) Claypile—prohibited area. This prohibited area consists of...

  15. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office....503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies outside the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is...

  16. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żarnowiec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out whether the climate of the southern Poland allows for removing rainwater from industrial areas by evaporation from roof surfaces. The study covered the premises of a Logistics Centre with an approximate area of 34 hectares, located in the catchment of the Wedonka stream and in the region of water intake for Kraków at the Rudawa river. In the future, the Centre will comprise nine large warehouses. Road traffic associated with the project will cause potential risks for groundwater and surface water of this protected area. Therefore, the Centre’s investor decided to evaporate rainwater from the premises. To establish advisability of this plan, the study team designed and built a unique experimental station consisting of experimental roof, tank for collecting water for the sprinkler system, system for delivering, distributing and discharging water from the roof, measuring tilt tray, automatic meteorological station, and electronic devices for recording measurement data. The research on the experimental station was carried out from April to October in 2011 and 2012 and included continuous measurements of the volume of water supplied to and discharged from the roof. Moreover, the temperature of the roof and water in the tank and a number of important meteorological parameters were measured. The difference between supplied and discharged water, divided by the wetted surface of the roof, helped to determine thickness of the evaporation layer in millimeters. The study confirmed the possibility of removing potentially contaminated rainwater by evaporating it from roof surfaces of the Logistics Centre located near Kraków at an average rate of 5.9 dm3·m–2.d–1. However, due to high seasonal variability of rainfall and air temperature, it is necessary to temporarily collect water in an expansion tank of suitable capacity.

  17. R9 PM-10 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of nonattainment areas for particulate matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met national ambient air...

  18. Summary : Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a very brief report on the area designated as the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area. Topics covered include the area's history, its land status,...

  19. Home area networks and IPTV

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra

  20. Area-normalized thematic views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  1. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being......, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal...

  2. History of 100-B Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlen, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    The initial three production reactors and their support facilities were designated as the 100-B, 100-D, and 100-F areas. In subsequent years, six additional plutonium-producing reactors were constructed and operated at the Hanford Site. Among them was one dual-purpose reactor (100-N) designed to supply steam for the production of electricity as a by-product. Figure 1 pinpoints the location of each of the nine Hanford Site reactors along the Columbia River. This report documents a brief description of the 105-B reactor, support facilities, and significant events that are considered to be of historical interest. 21 figs.

  3. Large area and flexible electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  4. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  5. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contamination area. (g) Radioactive material area. The words “Caution, Radioactive Material(s)” shall be posted... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. 835.603....603 Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. Each access point to radiological areas and...

  6. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  7. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  8. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  9. Geodiversity assessment in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.

  10. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  11. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  12. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  13. Area-Efficient VLSI Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    be omput on the right, much as corn gocs through ith: 11N malid. \\ Vih , 1,,1 pir flF’lLk IlCks. 111C pri, ri. (1 ’lcuc ik, r1,cR l’d 1) cC I1.Ic U...o, de pattern :, aid the nutmbcr olI bits per character. lic . S\\N h i pu’iC ird i n𔃻 I icr1 1T ’ l, hcrc tlhc!, J ’ItI lIw h:ii ,[ ci’ci n1dll...in this sechiof. thec ti pper bounds on die .arvas of trees and phitnar graphs~ repr-ecia joint worlk witl my) aid % ior, Jon L. liciiLlc% 14 AREA

  14. Area terms in entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio; Lino, Eduardo Testé

    2014-01-01

    We discuss area terms in entanglement entropy and show that a recent formula by Rosenhaus and Smolkin is equivalent to the term involving a correlator of traces of the stress tensor in Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of the Newton constant. We elaborate on how to fix the ambiguities in these formulas: Improving terms for the stress tensor of free fields, boundary terms in the modular Hamiltonian, and contact terms in the Euclidean correlation functions. We make computations for free fields and show how to apply these calculations to understand some results for interacting theories which have been studied in the literature. We also discuss an application to the F-theorem.

  15. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  16. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power Light Company's (PP L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  17. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  18. Engineering sciences area and module performance and failure analysis area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Runkle, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Photovoltaic-array/power-conditioner interface studies are updated. An experiment conducted to evaluate different operating-point strategies, such as constant voltage and pilot cells, and to determine array energy losses when the array is operated off the maximum power points is described. Initial results over a test period of three and a half weeks showed a 2% energy loss when the array is operated at a fixed voltage. Degraded-array studies conducted at NE RES that used a range of simulated common types of degraded I-V curves are reviewed. The instrumentation installed at the JPL field-test site to obtain the irradiance data was described. Experiments using an optical filter to adjust the spectral irradiance of the large-area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS) to AM1.5 are described. Residential-array research activity is reviewed. Voltage isolation test results are described. Experiments performed on one type of module to determine the relationship between leakage current and temperature are reviewed. An encapsulated-cell testing approach is explained. The test program, data reduction methods, and initial results of long-duration module testing are described.

  19. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  20. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and that...

  1. 7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as a natural area and manage it accordingly. Several professional societies concerned with renewable natural resources encourage establishment of natural areas withdrawn from economic uses and recognition of natural areas maintained and managed in economic enterprises. (3) Natural areas are established and...

  2. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar;

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natur...

  3. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential areas. 203.672 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.672 Residential areas. (a) For the purposes of occupied conveyance considerations, a residential area is any area...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1315 Section 101.1315... SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System License Requirements § 101.1315 Service areas. In the frequency bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas...

  5. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  6. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 54.207 Section 54.207... SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.207 Service areas. (a) The term service area means a geographic area established by a state commission for the purpose of determining...

  7. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.523 Section 101.523... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.523 Service areas. (a) The service areas for 24 GHz are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in this paragraph (a). The Bureau of...

  8. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer...

  9. 47 CFR 101.1401 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1401 Section 101.1401... Service areas. Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service (MVDDS) is licensed on the basis of Designated Market Areas (DMAs). The 214 DMA service areas are based on the 210 Designated Market...

  10. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.73 Section 648.73... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.73 Closed areas. (a) Areas closed because of environmental degradation. Certain areas are closed to all surf clam and ocean quahog fishing because of...

  11. 33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.310 Section... of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat... aft reference area of a boat is the aftmost two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck,...

  12. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.102 Section 24.102... SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.102 Service areas. Narrowband PCS service areas are nationwide, regional, and Major Trading Areas (MTAs), as defined in this section. MTAs are based on the Rand McNally...

  13. 30 CFR 57.11052 - Refuge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuge areas. 57.11052 Section 57.11052 Mineral... Escapeways-Underground Only § 57.11052 Refuge areas. Refuge areas shall be— (a) Of fire-resistant construction, preferably in untimbered areas of the mine; (b) Large enough to accommodate readily the...

  14. 33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.210 Section... of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat...) The aft reference area of a boat is the aft most two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck,...

  15. A model for lightning in littoral areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The littoral or coastal areas are different compared to the maritime or continental areas considering lightning. Only the last years some research about these areas has been carried out. The need for a model, regarding the lightning activity in these areas is much needed. And now, with the changes i

  16. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring in Natura 2000 areas. Protected areas are expected to retain climatic suitability for species better than unprotected areas (P<0.001), but Natura 2000 areas retain climate suitability for species no better and sometimes less effectively than unprotected areas. The risk is high that ongoing efforts to conserve Europe's biodiversity are jeopardized by climate change. New policies are required to avert this risk. PMID:21447141

  17. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  18. Retail Trade Area Analysis Fessenden North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wanzek, Janet K.; Zetocha, Dale F.; Bastow-Shoop, Holly E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an indepth trade area analysis of Fessenden, North Dakota. Specific analyses included determining Fessenden's main and greater trade areas, identifying the demographic profile of Fessenden shoppers, examining important and less important services for patron shoppers of Fessenden, identifying neighboring cities that area shoppers patronize, determining distances area shoppers traveled to Fessenden, and listing popular newspapers and radio stations among area ...

  19. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  20. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  1. Local development in fragile areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Governa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years some keywords have been extensively used in international debate about local development policies: bottom-up approach, territoriality, policy integration, partnership, cooperation and negotiation among actors and interests. The use of these keywords hides a variety of cultural approaches, theories and practices; this means that we should study local development processes and policies analysing and deconstructing these theoretical approaches in specific situations and experiences. Within this framework, the article critically discuss local development policies involving “fragile” areas like those of the mountains in Lombardy. Reference will be made mainly to the results of a research-action activity on the integrated local development programmes (PISL for the Objective 2 areas of the Region financed during the period of European structural funds programming 2000-2006.Durant les vingt dernières années, quelques mots-clés ont été intensivement employés dans le débat international sur les politiques de développement local : bottom-up approach, territorialité, intégration politique, association, coopération et négociation entre les acteurs et les intérêts. L’utilisation de ce vocabulaire cache une série d’approches, théories et pratiques culturelles. Pour ne pas seulement se contenter de mots, il est nécessaire d’étudier les processus de développement et les politiques locales en analysant et déconstruisant les différentes approches théoriques à la lumière de situations et d’expériences spécifiques. Pour ce faire, cet article présente les politiques de développement local dans des zones fragiles telles que les montagnes de Lombardie. On fera principalement référence aux résultats d’une recherche-action sur les programmes de développement locaux intégrés (PISL pour les territoires de l’Objectif 2 de cette région, programmes financés au cours de la période 2000-2006 par des

  2. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  3. Role of Paraventricular Nucleus Glutamate Signaling in Regulation of HPA Axis Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanson, Nathan K; Herman, James P

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main neuroendocrine arm of the stress response, activation of which leads to the production of glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are secreted from the adrenal cortex, and have a variety of effects on the body, including modulation of the immune system, suppression of reproductive hormones maintenance of blood glucose levels, and maintenance of blood pressure. Glutamate plays an important role in coordination of HPA axis output. There is strong evidence that glutamate drives HPA axis stress responses through excitatory signaling via ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling. However, glutamate signaling via kainate receptors and group I metabotropic receptors inhibit HPA drive, probably via presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. Notably, kainate receptors are also localized in the median eminence, and appear to play an excitatory role in control of CRH release at the nerve terminals. Finally, glutamate innervation of the PVN undergoes neuroplastic changes under conditions of chronic stress, and may be involved in sensitization of HPA axis responses. Altogether, the data suggest that glutamate plays a complex role in excitation of CRH neurons, acting at multiple levels to both drive HPA axis responses and limit over-activation.

  4. GABAergic projections from lateral hypothalamus to paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus promote feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) cause hypophagia. However, activation of glutamatergic neurons in LH inhibits feeding. These results suggest a potential importance for other LH neurons in stimulating feeding. Our current study in mice showed that disruption of GABA release from adult LH GAB...

  5. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  6. Sistem Rantai Pasok Pupuk Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Rahmadi Putra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. Pupuk Kaltim is biggest manure manufacturer in Indonesia, where its market area covering entire Sulawesi, Bali, some of Kalimantan East Java, Papua, Japan, Taiwan, India, and Australia. Main produced product of PT Pupuk Kaltim is based fertilizer. To meet the demand, PT Kaltim produce up to 2,3 million tons per year.Identifiaction process of supply chain done by accesing company website of PT Kaltim. Then it is outlined each step of supply chain from aggregate planning, production process, suppliers selection, quality mangement, warehousing, performance measure and used transportation unit. From that criteria would visible supply chain of based-fertilizer in PT Pupuk Kaltim. By having long and wide supply chain, PT Pupuk Kaltim still have bullwhip effect because of inacurate in forecasting cause over-stock or out of stock in many production period. In quality, PT Kaltim had got ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 17025 certification in production management and sea-port. Keywords: Fertilizer, supply chain, analysis

  7. Aerosols of Mongolian arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobokova, L.; Marinayte, I.; Zhamsueva, G.

    2012-04-01

    Sampling was performed in July-August 2005-2010 at Station Sain Shand (44°54'N, 110°07'E) in the Gobi desert (1000 m a.s.l.), West Mongolia. Aerosol samples were collected with a high volume sampler PM 10 (Andersen Instruments Inc., USA) onto Whatman-41 filters. The substance was extracted from the filters by de-ionized water. The solution was screened through an acetate-cellulose filter with 0.2 micron pore size. Ions of ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as sulphate ions, nitrate ions, hydrocarbonate, chloride ions were determined in the filtrate by means of an atomic adsorption spectrometer Carl Zeiss Jena (Germany), a high performance liquid chromatographer «Milichrome A-02» (Russia), and an ionic chromatographer ICS-3000 (Dionex, USA). The PAH fraction was separated from aerosol samples using hexane extraction at room temperature under UV environment. The extract was concentrated to 0.1-0.2 ml and analysed by a mass-spectrometer "Agilent, GC 6890, MSD 5973 Network". Analysis of concentrations of aerosols components, their correlation ratios, and meteorological modeling show that the main factor affecting chemical composition of aerosols is a flow of contaminants transferred by air masses to the sampling area mainly from the south and south-east, as well as wind conditions of the area, dust storms in particular. Sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium are major ions in aerosol particles at Station Sain Shand. Dust-borne aerosol is known to be a sorbent for both mineral and organic admixtures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) being among superecotoxicants play an important role among resistant organic substances. PAH concentrations were determined in the samples collected in 2010. All aerosol samples contained dominant PAHs with 5-6 benzene rings ( (benze(k)fluoranthen, benze(b)flouranthen, benze(a)pyren, benze(?)pyren, perylene, benze(g,h,i)perylene, and indene(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene). Their total quantity varied between 42 and 90

  8. Electric Service Areas, Area showing what electric company serves a particular area, Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Service Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Area showing what electric company serves a...

  9. Plague in the genomic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M

    2012-03-01

    With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries. © 2012 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of

  10. Locating ATMs in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MoradiTabar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the banks and financial institutions have considerably attempted to provide better and more varied services to the customers. These varied services may satisfy needs of differentgroup of customers. In this regard, the location of these services as well as their level of accessibility (access to these services is greatly important. The importance of these issues is well recognized by responsible managers of the financial firms. In other words, the managers accept the importance of these services and they know that the quality and location of these services significantly affect their success in the business. Therefore, bank managers sought scientific methods, which may facilitate the locating process for their services. How to select the most effective methods and how to use these methods in this regard depend on following factors: the customers' demands, local capacities and fair distribution of theservices, etc. The effective impact of these factors as well as the interactive relationship between them should also be noted in the application. This study is a descriptive kind of research, which is applicable in various areas. Library and environmental studies were used to conduct the study. Considering the parameters that considerably affect the level of acceptability of ATMs services and analyzing the importance of these parameters according to this criterion, the researchers tried to use multiple attribute decision-making model. a heuristic algorithm was used in the context of this approach. Then, the most appropriate locations around the optimal locations were introduced based on fuzzy concept as well as quantitative and qualitative factors, including the minimum cost and maximum coverage according to the customers’ demands. The case study was located in the 13th district of Tehran city.

  11. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  12. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  13. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  14. Range ecosystem management for natural areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes methods for managing range ecosystems in natural areas. Preserved natural areas on rangeland may, in a short time, be only those which received...

  15. Geology of the Johnson River Area Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation, topography, and geology of the Johnson River area are representative of the entire eastern interior region of Alaska. This area has a vegetational...

  16. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  17. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  18. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  19. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  20. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.