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Sample records for preoptic area bed

  1. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does.

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    Meza, Enrique; Aguirre, Juan; Waliszewski, Stefan; Caba, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Previously, we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of Period1 (PER1) protein, the product of the clock gene Per1, in oxytocinergic and dopaminergic populations in the hypothalamus of lactating rabbit does. This is significant for the periodic production and ejection of milk, but the activation of other areas of the brain has not been explored. Here, we hypothesised that daily suckling would induce a rhythm in the preoptic area, lateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are important areas for the expression of maternal behavior in mammals, including the rabbit. To this end, we analysed PER1 expression in those areas through a complete 24-h cycle at lactation day 7. Does were scheduled to nurse during either the day at 10:00 h [zeitgeber time (ZT)03] or the night at 02:00 h (ZT19). Non-pregnant, non-lactating females were used as controls. In contrast to control females, lactating does showed a clear, significant rhythm of PER1 that shifted in parallel with the timing of nursing in the preoptic area and lateral septum. We determined that the maximal expression of PER1 at 8 h after scheduled nursing decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after the absence of suckling. This effect was more pronounced in the lateral septum than in the preoptic area. We conclude that daily suckling is a powerful stimulus inducing rhythmic activity in brain structures in the rabbit that appear to form part of a maternal entrainable circuit. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preoptic hypnogenic area and reticular activating system.

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    Bremer, F

    1973-06-01

    The stimulation, in the encéphale isolé cat, of the basal preoptic hypnogenic area be brief electrical pulses evokes bilaterally an extracellular positive (P) field potential of 20 to 60 msec duration in the brain stem and thalamic activating ascending reticular system. The properties of this P wave have led to consider it as the extracellular and abbreviated counterpart of an hyperpolarizing postsynaptic inhibitory process which, by the functional depression it exerts on the arousal system, would be instrumental in the induction and maintenance of synchronized sleep. The positive field potential response of the reticular system shows the same recruiting build-up and amplitude modulation, and the same sensibility to amphetamine and to barbiturates, as the cortical potential of diffuse distribution which is evoked simultaneously. It is strychnine--and picrotoxin--resistant. Preoptic stimulation exerts, within a 100 msec interval, a strong suppressive effect on the excitatory response evoked in the n. centromedian by a mesencephalic reticular testing shock. On the other hand, the application of the latter as a conditioning stimulus results in a marked increase of the amplitude of the P wave response of the CM to a testing preoptic shock. A negative feedback interpretation of this interaction is suggested. No clear evidence of a tonic functioning of the preoptic hypnogenic structure could be found in experiments involving the production of small bilateral lesions in the basal preoptic area in the encéphale isolé cat. Reasons limiting the interpretation of this negative result are given. The functional significance, on the basis of experimental data, of the diffuse cortical synchronization produced by the low frequency stimulation of the basal preoptic area and of other hypnogenic structures is discussed.

  3. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

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    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  4. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  5. Topological and histological description of preoptic area and hypothalamus in cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón,Laura; Martha J Obando; Tovar,Mario O.; Pandolfi, Matías; Hurtado,Hernan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topological and histological descriptions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi were performed. Standard histological paraffin sections were used and stained with Nissl technique, and plastic sections for high-resolution optic microscopy (HROM). The preoptic area showed some differences related to the location of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM) and the size of the neurons in this region, as they were the biggest in all the preoptic...

  6. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

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    Wong, C J

    2000-01-01

    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  7. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  8. Development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and the influence of estrogen-like compounds.

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    He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry Ann; Cui, Li; Greenfield, Lazar John; Paule, Merle Gale

    2013-10-15

    One of the well-defined sexually dimorphic structures in the brain is the sexually dimorphic nucleus, a cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The rodent sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area can be delineated histologically using conventional Nissl staining or immunohistochemically using calbindin D28K immunoreactivity. There is increasing use of the bindin D28K-delineated neural cluster to define the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rodents. Several mechanisms are proposed to underlie the processes that contribute to the sexual dimorphism (size difference) of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Recent evidence indicates that stem cell activity, including proliferation and migration presumably from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche, may play a critical role in the postnatal development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and its distinguishing sexually dimorphic feature: a signifi-cantly larger volume in males. Sex hormones and estrogen-like compounds can affect the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Despite considerable research, it remains un-clear whether estrogen-like compounds and/or sex hormones increase size of the sexually dimor-phic nucleus of the preoptic area via an increase in stem cell activity originating from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche.

  9. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

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    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  10. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

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    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that

  11. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  12. Antisense mRNA for NPY-Y1 receptor in the medial preoptic area increases prolactin secretion

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    N.A. Silveira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors within the medial preoptic area in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin release. Four bilateral microinjections of sense (control or antisense 18-base oligonucleotides of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA (250 ng corresponding to the NH2-terminus of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor were performed at 12-h intervals for two days into the medial preoptic area of ovariectomized Wistar rats (N = 16, weighing 180 to 200 g, treated with estrogen (50 µg and progesterone (25 mg two days before the experiments between 8.00 and 10:00 a.m. Blockade of Y1 receptor synthesis in the medial preoptic area by the antisense mRNA did not change plasma luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone but did increase prolactin from 19.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml in the sense group to 52.9 ± 9.6 ng/ml in the antisense group. The plasma hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and the values are reported as mean ± SEM. These data suggest that endogenous neuropeptide Y in the medial preoptic area has an inhibitory action on prolactin secretion through Y1 receptors.

  13. Early histone modifications in the ventromedial hypothalamus and preoptic area following oestradiol administration.

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    Gagnidze, K; Weil, Z M; Faustino, L C; Schaafsma, S M; Pfaff, D W

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the primary female sex behaviour, lordosis, in laboratory animals depends on oestrogen-induced expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) within a defined cell group in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The minimal latency from oestradiol administration to lordosis is 18 h. During that time, ligand-bound oestrogen receptors (ER), members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, recruit transcriptional coregulators, which induce covalent modifications of histone proteins, thus leading to transcriptional activation or repression of target genes. The present study aimed to investigate the early molecular epigenetic events underlying oestrogen-regulated transcriptional activation of the Pgr gene in the VMH of female mice. Oestradiol (E₂) administration induced rapid and transient global histone modifications in the VMH of ovariectomised female mice. Histone H3 N-terminus phosphorylation (H3S10phK14Ac), acetylation (H3Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3) exhibited distinct temporal patterns facilitative to the induction of transcription. A transcriptional repressive (H3K9me3) modification showed a different temporal pattern. Collectively, this should create a permissive environment for the transcriptional activity necessary for lordosis, within 3-6 h after E₂ treatment. In the VMH, changes in the H3Ac and H3K4me3 levels of histone H3 were also detected at the promoter region of the Pgr gene within the same time window, although they were delayed in the preoptic area. Moreover, examination of histone modifications associated with the promoter of another ER-target gene, oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), revealed gene- and brain-region specific effects of E₂ treatment. In the VMH of female mice, E₂ treatment resulted in the recruitment of ERα to the oestrogen-response-elements-containing putative enhancer site of Pgr gene, approximately 200 kb upstream of the transcription start site, although it failed to increase ER

  14. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

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    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  15. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

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    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  16. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

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    Ulrich eHerget

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression level are subject to environment-induced plasticity.Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proenkephalin a/b, neurotensin, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin. Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish.

  17. Neonatal handling reduces the number of cells in the medial preoptic area of female rats.

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    Camozzato, Tatiane S C; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha, Camila B; Miguel, Sandro P R; Bonzanini, Laisa; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Fernandes, Marilda C; Lucion, Aldo B

    2009-01-09

    Early-life events may induce alterations in neuronal function in adulthood. A crucial aspect in studying long-lasting effects induced by environmental interventions imposed to the animal several weeks before is finding a stable change that could be causally related to the phenotype observed in adulthood. In order to explain an adult trait, it seems necessary to look back to early life and establish a temporal line between events. The neonatal handling procedure is an experimental tool to analyze the long-lasting impact of early-life events. Aside from the neuroendocrine response to stress, neonatal handling also alters the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. Reductions in ovulation and surge of the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the proestrous day were shown in female rats. Considering the importance of the medial preoptic area (MPA) for the control of ovulation, the present study aimed to verify the effects of neonatal handling on the numerical density and cell size in the MPA in 11-day-old and 90-day-old female rats. Cellular proliferation was also assessed using BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in 11-day-old pups. Results showed that neonatal handling induces a stable reduction in the number of cells and in the size of the cell soma, which were lower in handled females than in nonhandled ones at both ages. Cellular proliferation in the MPA was also reduced 24 h after the last manipulation. The repeated mother-infant disruption imposed by the handling procedure "lesioned" the MPA. The dysfunction in the ovulation mechanisms induced by the handling procedure could be related to that neuronal loss. The study also illustrates the impact of an environmental intervention on the development of the brain.

  18. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

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    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  19. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area.

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    Gavrilov, Yury V; Ellison, Brian A; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Reddy, Hasini; Haybaeck, Johannes; Mignot, Emmanuel; Baumann, Christian R; Scammell, Thomas E; Valko, Philipp O

    2016-05-01

    To examine the integrity of sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in postmortem brains of narcolepsy type 1 patients. Postmortem examination of five narcolepsy and eight control brains. VLPO galanin neuron count did not differ between narcolepsy patients (11,151 ± 3,656) and controls (13,526 ± 9,544). A normal number of galanin-immunoreactive VLPO neurons in narcolepsy type 1 brains at autopsy suggests that VLPO cell loss is an unlikely explanation for the sleep fragmentation that often accompanies the disease. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

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    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  1. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

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    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  2. GFAP expression in astrocytes of suprachiasmatic nucleus and medial preoptic area are differentially affected by malnutrition during rat brain development.

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    Mendonça, João Esmeraldo Frota; Vilela, Maria Cristina Ramos; Bittencourt, Heitor; Lapa, Raíssa Maria; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Alessio, Maria Luíza Martins; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; De Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Da Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate, in young rats, the effects of malnutrition on astrocyte distribution of two hypothalamic regions, the circadian pacemaker suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the medial preoptic area (MPA). Control rats were born from mothers fed on commercial diet since gestation and malnourished rats from mothers fed on multideficient diet, from the beginning of gestation (GLA group) or from the onset of lactation (LA group). After weaning, pups received ad libitum the same diet as their mothers, and were maintained under a 12/12 h light/dark cycle. The animals were analyzed either at 30-33, or 60-63 days of life. Brain coronal sections (50 microm) were processed to visualize glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Compared to control rats, both malnourished groups of 30 and 60 days exhibited a reduced number of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the SCN. The total GFAP-immunoreactive area in the SCN of the GLA group differed from the control group at both age ranges analyzed. The GFAP expression as measured by the relative optical density (ROD) exhibited a 50-60% reduction in the MPA in both malnourished groups, compared to controls. The results suggest that malnutrition early in life leads to alterations in gliogenesis or glial cell proliferation in both nuclei, being these alterations greater in the MPA. Compensatory plasticity mechanisms in the GFAP-expression seem to be developed in the astrocyte differentiation process in the SCN, especially when the malnutrition is installed from the lactation.

  3. Serotonin promotes feminization of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, but not the calbindin cell group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Amanda M K; Paul, Alexandria T; Pritchard, Rory A; Michel, Rebecca; Zup, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone and its metabolites masculinize the brain during a critical perinatal window, including the relative volume of sexually dimorphic brain areas such as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN), which is larger in males than females. Serotonin (5HT) may mediate this hormone action, since 5HT given during the second week of life decreases (i.e., feminizes) SDN volume in males and testosterone-treated females. Although previous work indicates that the 5HT2A/2C receptor is sufficient to induce feminization, it is unclear whether other serotonin receptors are required and which subpopulation(s) of SDN cells are specifically organized by 5HT. Therefore, we injected male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups with saline, a nonselective 5HTR agonist, a 5HT2A/2C agonist, or a 5HT2A/2C antagonist over several timecourses in early life, and measured the Nissl-SDN as well as a calbindin+ subdivision of the SDN, the CALB-SDN. When examined on postnatal day 18 or early adulthood, the size of the Nissl-SDN was feminized in males treated with any of the serotonergic drugs, eliminating the typical sex difference. In contrast, the sex difference in CALB-SDN size was maintained regardless of serotoninergic drug treatment. This pattern suggests that although gonadal hormones shape the whole SDN, individual cellular phenotypes respond to different intermediary signals to become sexually dimorphic. Specifically, 5HT mediates sexual differentiation of non-calbindin population(s) within the SDN. The results also caution against using measurement of the CALB-SDN in isolation, as the absence of an effect on the CALB-SDN does not preclude an effect on the overall nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1241-1253, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Release of norepinephrine in the preoptic area activates anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons and stimulates the surge of luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawka, Raphael E; Poletini, Maristela O; Leite, Cristiane M; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B D; Carolino, Ruither O G; Helena, Cleyde V V; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids.

  5. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in rat medial preoptic area neurones during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, A E; Augood, S J; McGowan, E M

    1992-08-01

    Evidence suggests that medial preoptic area (MPOA) neurones containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are modulated directly by oestrogen. We have used an alkaline phosphatase-labelled antisense oligonucleotide probe to examine glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD) mRNA expression within individual cells of the MPOA, diagonal band of Broca (DBB) and parietal cortex in rats killed at noon on each day of the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy (n = 4-5). As a fall in extracellular GABA concentrations occurs in the MPOA on the afternoon of proestrus, the GAD67 mRNA content of cells was also examined in proestrous rats at 15:00h immediately prior to the preovulatory luteinising hormone (LH) surge. The MPOA was found to have an intermediate number of GAD67 mRNA-containing cells compared with the DBB and cortex (P less than 0.01) but expressed the lowest mean hybridisation signal (P less than 0.01). The parietal cortex had significantly fewer (P less than 0.01) GAD mRNA-containing cells than either the MPOA or DBB but these contained higher mean density of signal (P less than 0.01). The hybridisation signal for GAD mRNA was abolished by either ribonuclease pre-treatment or the use of excess non-labelled probe. No significant (P greater than 0.05) differences in GAD67 mRNA were detected in animals killed at noon throughout the oestrous cycle or after ovariectomy. On the afternoon of proestrus (15:00h) there was a significant 40% reduction in mean GAD67 mRNA content within cells of only the MPOA compared with noon (P less than 0.05). The numbers of cells in the MPOA expressing GAD67 mRNA were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  7. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  8. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  9. Seasonal changes of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors and aromatase expression in the medial preoptic area of the wild male ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder. In this study, using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the mRNA and protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom in the medial preoptic area (MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrel during the breeding season (April, the non-breeding season (June and pre-hibernation (September. AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom protein/mRNA were present in the MPOA of all seasons detected. The immunostaining of AR and ERα showed no significant changes in different periods, whereas ERβ and P450arom had higher immunoreactivities during the breeding season and pre-hibernation when compared to those of the non-breeding season. Consistently, both the protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERβ were higher in the MPOA of pre-hibernation and the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, whereas no significant difference amongst the three periods was observed for AR and ERα levels. These findings suggested that the MPOA of hypothalamus may be a direct target of androgen and estrogen. Androgen may play important regulatory roles through its receptor and/or the aromatized estrogen in the MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrels.

  10. The effects of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway stimulation on dopamine in the medial preoptic area and copulation in DHT-treated castrated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Satoru M; Wersinger, Scott R; Hull, Elaine M

    2007-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) provides important facilitative influence on male rat copulation. We have shown that the nitric oxide-cGMP (NO-cGMP) pathway modulates MPOA DA levels and copulation. We have also shown that systemic estradiol (E(2)) maintains neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the MPOA of castrates, as well as relatively normal DA levels. This effect of E(2) on nNOS probably accounts for at least some of the previously demonstrated behavioral facilitation by intra-MPOA E(2) administration in castrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPOA NO-cGMP pathway in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates should restore DA levels and copulatory behaviors. Reverse-dialysis of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased extracellular DA in the MPOA of DHT-treated castrates and restored the ability to copulate to ejaculation in half of the animals. A cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased extracellular DA, though not as robustly, but did not restore copulatory ability. The effectiveness of the NO donor in restoring copulation and MPOA DA levels is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the lack of behavioral effects of 8-Br-cGMP, despite its increase in MPOA DA, suggests that NO may have additional mediators in the MPOA in the regulation of copulation. Furthermore, the suboptimal copulation seen in the NO donor-treated animals suggests the importance of extra-MPOA systems in the regulation of copulation.

  11. Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors in the medial preoptic area on body temperature in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Trina; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA). A precalibrated thermocouple wire implanted near the hypothalamus was used to assess Tbr. Specific agonist for each ionotropic glutamate receptor was microinjected into the mPOA and its effects on temperature and LMA were measured in the rats. The rats were also microinjected with the respective ionotropic receptor antagonists, 15min prior to the microinjection of each agonist. Amongst amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid, AMPA increased Tb and LMA when injected at the mPOA. Specific antagonists for AMPA receptors was able to attenuate this increase (ptemperature.

  12. 腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响%Effects of Microinjection of Histamine in Ventrolateral Preoptic Area on Rat Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇炜; 若剑; 陈晓青; 易卉玲; 黄丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of histamine in rat ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakeful⁃ness cycle. Methods Histamine was microinjected into ventrolateral preoptic area through stereotaxic technique,sleeping and waking time phases were recorded and analyzed by electroencephalograph. Results Microinjection of 50 μmol/L histamine had no significant effect ,but 100 μmol/L histamine de⁃creased sleeping time and increased waking time significantly. Conclusion Histamine is involved in reg⁃ulation of sleep-waking cycle and promotes wakefulness significantly in the ventrolateral preoptic area.%目的:研究组胺作用于腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响。方法通过脑立体定位、腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺,脑电图仪记录及分析睡眠、觉醒时相。结果微量注射50μmol/L组胺无明显影响,而100μmol/L组胺显著减少大鼠睡眠,增加觉醒。结论组胺在腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期发挥重要的调节作用,具有明显的促觉醒作用。

  13. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    area within the lateral hypothalamic region that consistently innervated magnocellular perikarya of the PVN. Finally, all areas of the lateral hypothalamic region contributed substantially to fibres terminating in the perinuclear shell of the PVN. These results demonstrate that anatomically distinct...

  14. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  15. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

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    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  16. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

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    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  17. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  18. Evidence that gonadal steroids modulate nitric oxide efflux in the medial preoptic area: effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and correlation with luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, S; Xu, B; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1996-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. This study was undertaken to determine 1) NO activity in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) where LHRH- and NO synthase-containing neurons are coextensive; 2) whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, which stimulates LHRH release, augments NO activity in the MPOA; and 3) whether NO activation in the MPOA underlies the steroid dependency of NMDA-induced pituitary LH release. As extracellular levels of cGMP in discrete brain sites are a reliable index of basal and stimulated activity of NO, extracellular cGMP levels in the MPOA of freely moving, awake rats were measured by microdialysis in the current study. In the first experiment, the MPOA of intact and castrated male rats were microdialyzed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 5 microliters/min. The basal level of cGMP efflux was determined from the initial seven samples collected at 20-min intervals. The NO response to a single i.v. injection of NMDA (10 mg/kg) or saline was assessed in the next five samples. In the second experiment, the basal and NMDA-evoked NO effluxes in the MPOA of ovariectomized (ovx) and estrogen-treated ovx rats were examined. Results showed that in both sexes, the absence of gonadal steroids resulted in significantly lower basal cGMP levels. Additionally, the cGMP response to NMDA was steroid dependent. Whereas in castrated rats it failed to affect cGMP efflux, NMDA in intact male rats promptly raised cGMP levels at 20 min, and these elevated levels were maintained through the duration of the experiment. This NMDA-induced cGMP response, observed selectively in intact rats, was also associated with stimulation of plasma LH levels. In female rats, NMDA similarly enhanced MPOA cGMP efflux and pituitary LH secretion in estradiol benzoate-treated, but not in oil-treated, ovx rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-amino-5-phosphoropentanoic acid

  19. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shinjae; Weber, Franz; Zhong, Peng; Tan, Chan Lek; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Beier, Kevin T; Hörmann, Nikolai; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Zhe; Do, Johnny Phong; Yao, Shenqin; Krashes, Michael J; Tasic, Bosiljka; Cetin, Ali; Zeng, Hongkui; Knight, Zachary A; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2017-05-25

    In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep. However, the sleep-active neurons are spatially intermingled with wake-active neurons, making it difficult to target the sleep neurons specifically for circuit analysis. Here we identify a population of preoptic area sleep neurons on the basis of their projection target and discover their molecular markers. Using a lentivirus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 or a light-activated chloride channel for retrograde labelling, bidirectional optogenetic manipulation, and optrode recording, we show that the preoptic area GABAergic neurons projecting to the tuberomammillary nucleus are both sleep active and sleep promoting. Furthermore, translating ribosome affinity purification and single-cell RNA sequencing identify candidate markers for these neurons, and optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations demonstrate that several peptide markers (cholecystokinin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and tachykinin 1) label sleep-promoting neurons. Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit.

  20. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  1. Mineral resources of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas, Lake County, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, W.J.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Johnson, F.L. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1988-01-01

    The Devel's Garden lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas include approximately 70,940 acres and are underlain entirely by Pleistocene or Holocene lava flows and associated sediments. There is no evidence of hydrothermal alteration in the study areas. No resources were identified in the study areas, but there is low potential for perlite resources in the southern part of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed and the northern half of the Squaw Ridge Lava Bed areas. All three study areas have low potential for geothermal resources and for oil and gas resources.

  2. The Increase in Signaling by Kisspeptin Neurons in the Preoptic Area and Associated Changes in Clock Gene Expression That Trigger the LH Surge in Female Rats Are Dependent on the Facilitatory Action of a Noradrenaline Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Bruna; Ribeiro, Aline B; Leite, Cristiane M; Uchôa, Ernane T; Carolino, Ruither O; Cardoso, Thais S R; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José A; Plant, Tony M; Poletini, Maristela O; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) of the preoptic area are considered to provide a major stimulatory input to the GnRH neuronal network that is responsible for triggering the preovulatory LH surge. Noradrenaline (NA) is one of the main modulators of GnRH release, and NA fibers are found in close apposition to kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V. Our objective was to interrogate the role of NA signaling in the kisspeptin control of GnRH secretion during the estradiol induced LH surge in ovariectomized rats, using prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. In control rats, the estradiol-induced LH surge at 17 hours was associated with a significant increase in GnRH and kisspeptin content in the median eminence with the increase in kisspeptin preceding that of GnRH and LH. Prazosin, administered 5 and 3 hours prior to the predicted time of the LH surge truncated the LH surge and abolished the rise in GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence. In the preoptic area, prazosin blocked the increases in Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin content in association with a disruption in the expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1. Together these findings demonstrate for the first time that NA modulates kisspeptin synthesis in the RP3V through the activation of α1-adrenergic receptors prior to the initiation of the LH surge and indicate a potential role of α1-adrenergic signaling in the circadian-controlled pathway timing of the preovulatory LH surge.

  3. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility. (DLC)

  4. Lonicera japonica-induced inhibition of interleukin-1 beta thermogenesis and E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 expression in the preoptic area of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Dong; Rongbo Tu; Rui Pan; Xinhua Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been shown that interleukin-1β(IL-I β)can induce fever by activating vascular endothelial cells and macrophages of the supraoptic crest to generate prostaglandin E2,which binds with receptors of the thermo-sensitive hypothalamic neurons.Lonicera japonica is one of the medicinal plants used widely in Asia for its antipyretic properties.However,these mechanisms have not yet been intensively studied.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the antipyretic effect and mechanisms of Lonicera japonica on IL-1 β-induced febrile New Zealand rabbits by observing expression changes of E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 (EP3)mRNA in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus(POAH). DESIGN:A randomized controlled study. SETTING:Electrophysiological Laboratory at the Department of Pathophysiology,Medical College of Jinan University; Department of Orthopaedics,First Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Jinan University. MATERIALS:The experiment was performed from April to December 2005,using a total of 32 New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes,weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.All the animal experiments were performed according to the internationally accepted ethical guidelines.Lonicera japonica injection was purchased from Huanghe pharmaceutical factory of Xi'an,China.IL-1 β was purchased from Sigma,USA.METHODS:A total of 32 rabbits were divided randomly into four groups:①Normal saline(NS)control group; ②Lonicerajaponica treatment group;③IL-1 β treatment group; and ④Lonicerajaponica plus IL-1 β treatment group.In the first 3 groups,the rabbits were given separate intravenous(I.v.)injections of 1 mL NS,1 mL l.Lonicera japonica,and 100 ng IL-1 β(dissolved in 0.9% NS without pyrogen).In the lonicera japonica plus IL-I βgroup each rabbit was given I.v.injections of l mL NS and,30 minutes later, 100 ng IL-I β. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Colonic temperature of each rabbit was measured at 0,10,20,30,40,50, 60,and 70 minutes after injection and the maximum temperature rise( △ T)and the

  5. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  6. Bubbles trapped in a fluidized bed: Trajectories and contact area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poryles, Raphaël; Vidal, Valérie; Varas, Germán

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the dynamics of bubbles in a confined, immersed granular layer submitted to an ascending gas flow. In the stationary regime, a central fluidized zone of parabolic shape is observed, and the bubbles follow different dynamics: either the bubbles are initially formed outside the fluidized zone and do not exhibit any significant motion over the experimental time or they are located inside the fluidized bed, where they are entrained downwards and are, finally, captured by the central air channel. The dependence of the air volume trapped inside the fluidized zone, the bubble size, and the three-phase contact area on the gas injection flow rate and grain diameter are quantified. We find that the volume fraction of air trapped inside the fluidized region is roughly constant and of the order of 2%-3% when the gas flow rate and the grain size are varied. Contrary to intuition, the gas-liquid-solid contact area, normalized by the air injected into the system, decreases when the flow rate is increased, which may have significant importance in industrial applications.

  7. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas. The eastern limit of the coal bed is along the...

  8. Accumulation of coal-bed gas in the Wangying-Liujia area of the Fuxin basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bo; Jiang Bo; Xu Fengyin; Kong Xiangwen; Li Guizhong; Wang Xiaoyi; Chen Weiyin; Geng Meng

    2012-01-01

    The gas enrichment conditions in the Fuxin basin are compared to those of the Powder River basin.The coal bed depth,the gas content,the individual coal bed layer thickness,and the overall structure thickness of the Powder River basin in the U.S.were examined.The main factors affecting gas enrichment were examined.These factors include the coal-forming environment,the gas sources,the geological structure,the presence of magmatic activity,and the local hydrology.The coal-bed gas enrichment area in the Wangying-Liujia block of the Fuxin basin is then discussed by analogy.A hydrodynamic-force/dike-plugging modet based on a magma fractured bed is proposed to explain the gas enrichment in this part of the Fuxin basin.High gas production is predicted in areas having similar conditions.This work will aid future coal-bed gas exploration and development.

  9. The preoptic-suprachiasmatic nuclei though morphologically heterogeneous are equally affected by streptozotocin diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, G; Hofer, R; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    Pituitary and gonadal disorders consistent with abnormal LHRH and LH secretion occur in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. A key role in the synthesis and regulation of LHRH and in the phasic LH release is played by the preoptic-suprachiasmatic region which is mainly formed by the medial preoptic area, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Therefore we have studied this region by morphology and morphometry in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal animals, the neurons of the above mentioned nuclei were morphologically and morphometrically dissimilar. Independent of their localization, reduced cytoplasmic and nuclear areas were observed in the neurons of diabetic animals. These lesions are consistent with hypotrophied neurons. Consequently, diabetes may impair both synthesis and regulation of LHRH and may therefore account for pituitary disorders, testicular atrophy, and lacking preovulatory LH peaks. The structural differences of the neurons of the three nuclei in normal animals underline their different physiological role. Yet, the similarity of the changes found in all three nuclei suggests a generalized hypofunction of the whole preoptic-suprachiasmatic region under diabetic condition.

  10. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  11. Both olfactory epithelial and vomeronasal inputs are essential for activation of the medial amygdala and preoptic neurons of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Masaoka, M; Rai, D; Kondo, Y; Sakuma, Y

    2011-12-29

    Chemosensory inputs signaling volatile and nonvolatile molecules play a pivotal role in sexual and social behavior in rodents. We have demonstrated that olfactory preference in male rats, that is, attraction to receptive female odors, is regulated by the medial amygdala (MeA), the cortical amygdala (CoA), and the preoptic area (POA). In this paper, we investigated the involvement of two chemosensory organs, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), in olfactory preference and copulatory behavior in male rats. We found that olfactory preferences were impaired by zinc sulfate lesion of the OE but not surgical removal of the VNO. Copulatory behaviors, especially intromission frequency and ejaculation, were also suppressed by zinc sulfate treatment. Neuronal activation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the MeA, the CoA, and the POA was analyzed after stimulation by airborne odors or soiled bedding of estrous females using cFos immunohistochemistry. Although the OE and VNO belong to different neural systems, the main and accessory olfactory systems, respectively, both OE lesion and VNO removal almost equally suppressed the number of cFos-immunoreactive cells in those areas that regulate olfactory preference. These results suggest that signals received by the OE and VNO interact and converge in the early stage of olfactory processing, in the AOB and its targets, although they have distinct roles in the regulation of social behaviors.

  12. The control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, P; Baillien, M; Ball, G F; Panzica, G C; Balthazart, J

    2001-11-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons. Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been

  13. Performance study of vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed treating domestic wastewater in suburban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H.; Sin, S.N.; Cui, L.H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-06-15

    A practical and affordable wastewater treatment system serving small community in suburban areas was studied. The system was a vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed integrated with the rhythmical movement of wastewater and air like that of a sequencing batch reactor. The removal mechanisms capitalized on the pollutant removal process in conventional constructed wetland. Cyperus alternifolius was planted into the coal slag bed to form a novel plant-soil-microbial interactive system. Nutrients in the domestic wastewater, which cause environmental nuisance like eutrophication, were targeted to be eliminated by the process design. Operated with the contact time of 18 h, the treatment systems achieved around 60% removal efficiency for carbonaceous matters. The removals of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus were about 50% and 40%, respectively, while the removal of total suspended solids was approaching 80%. From the current study.. the construction cost of the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed was 256 RMB/m{sup 3} and the operation cost was 0.13 RMB/m{sup 3}. With the advantages of ease of operation, low costs, desirable treatment efficiency and aesthetic value, the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed is proposed to be an alternative for onsite domestic wastewater treatment in suburban areas.

  14. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  15. Lower Devonian tentaculite bed in the Satun area, southern peninsular Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Salyapongse, Sirot; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2006-05-01

    A Lower Devonian (Emsian) tentaculite fauna including Nowakia acuaria [Richer, R., 1854. Thüringische Tentaculiten. Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. 6, 275-290] occurs in black shale in the basal part of a siliciclastic sequence exposed north of Satun, southern peninsular Thailand. Similar tentaculite beds with Nowakia have been reported from several areas in the Fang, Sri Sawat, and Trang areas of Thailand, the Langkawi Islands and the Mahang-Baling areas of Malaysia. The depositional environments in which the tentaculite-bearing black shale accumulated extended from modern northern Thailand to northwestern Malaysia during the Early Devonian (Emsian).

  16. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  17. The 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in the RSA by area, race, ownership and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, M F; Price, M R

    1990-05-05

    This study used published data to analyse the 1983 distribution of hospitals and hospital beds in South Africa by 'race', geographical area, type of hospital (academic, specialist, general or other) and the nature of ownership (e.g. state, for-profit). Hospitals and hospital beds were found to be inequitably distributed. Overall bed ratios were 150 whites per bed compared with 260 blacks/Asians/coloureds per bed. The distribution of beds by geographical area was 130 people per bed for urban whites, 260 for rural whites and 150, 460 and 300 for urban, rural non-'homeland', and 'homeland' blacks/Asians/coloureds respectively. These differentials are inefficient and unjust, and should be regularly documented to spur their decline. The continued collection of population group information from health service users is required to monitor changes in 'race' disparities. The analysis of distribution by ownership and type suggested that only the public sector is able to provide a hospital service with the appropriate balance of all levels of care for the entire population; but within this sector the dominant position of tertiary care needs to be re-examined. The study highlighted the absence of adequate information on health care resource allocation and utillisation. Appropriate studies in these areas are required and consideration should be given to unifying the planning and management of all hospital resources.

  18. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  19. Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating male copulatory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Le, Brandon; Zhou, Zifei; Crews, David

    2008-01-01

    Copulatory behaviors are generally dependent on testicular androgens in male vertebrates, being eliminated by castration and re-instated by testosterone administration. It is postulated that a critical factor in this hormonal gating is up-regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area, and consequent enhanced nitric oxide synthesis in response to stimuli associated with a receptive female. Previous studies have suggested that nNOS protein is more abundant in behaviorally relevant preoptic regions of testosterone-exposed animals than in hormone-deprived controls. This study sought to elucidate the molecular events underlying this apparent up-regulation by examining preoptic nNOS mRNA abundance at several time points following testosterone administration in a castration and replacement paradigm. Castrated male whiptails (Cnemidophorus inornatus) were implanted with testosterone, and at four time points over the subsequent 18 days their sexual behavior was tested. A rostral periventricular area previously implicated in hormonal gating of male-typical copulatory behavior was then excised by laser microdissection, and nNOS transcript abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR. As neither this technique nor nNOS mRNA measurements have previously been performed in this area of the brain, expression was concommitantly assayed on adjacent sections by in situ hybridization or NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Results are consistent with transcriptional up-regulation of nNOS by testosterone and a central role for the enzyme in mediating hormonal gating of copulatory behavior. PMID:18184320

  20. Assessment of Total Suspended Sediment and Bed Sediment Grains in Upstream Areas of Lata Berangin, Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorjima Abd Wahab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of suspended sediment yield and the size of sediment grains an indicator of hydrological cycle, especially in the river. The sediment transportation process is one of the measurements of water resources management. Equilibrium of the river depends on the flow rate of water and by several factors such as frequency of rainfall, climate changes and land use activities that changes then effected to the river flow. Sedimentation problems occur in reservoirs, rivers, lakes, flood plains and offshore. This study was carried out in the upstream area, Lata Berangin, Hulu Keruak, Besut, Terengganu. This study was implemented to prove the sedimentation problem, especially the formation of total suspended sediment (TSS and the bed sediment grain size. There are three important parameters were quantified in this study such as the distribution of sediment grain size (phi, TSS (mg/L and the river discharge values (Q (m³/s. The technique of analysis of primary data obtained which determine the bed sediment grain size according with the procedure of Gerald and Kenneth and the phi (ϕ value in this study using the scale Udden-Wentworth that included median, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and the Gravimetric Method used to analyze the concentration TSS is the Gravimetric Method. From the result, the highest TSS up to 6.0 mg/L which is categorized under the class I, based on the National Water Quality Standard. Overall, the estimated daily-suspended sediment load values up to 1.1649 tonne/day at Station 2.  Then, from the statistics for the median, mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis showed that the size of sediment falls between phi -0.30φ to phi -1.00 φ which classified as very coarse and the majority of the sediment texture and a very leptokurtic, leptokurtic texture showed sedimentation production is not so high. Overall, the sedimentation problem in Lata Berangin, Hulu Keruak still in stable level. Most of this upstream

  1. Seismic studies of coal bed methane content in the west coal mining area of Qinshui Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Guangui⇑; Peng Suping; Yin Caiyun; Xu Yanyong; Chen Fengying; Liu Jinkai

    2013-01-01

    The coal bed methane content (CBMC) in the west mining area of Jincheng coalfield, southeastern Qinshui Basin, is studied based on seismic data and well-logs together with laboratory measurements. The results show that the Shuey approximation has better adaptability according to the Zoeppritz equation result;the designed fold number for an ordinary seismic data is sufficient for post-stack data but insufficient for pre-stack data regarding the signal to noise ratio (SNR). Therefore a larger grid analysis was created in order to improve the SNR. The velocity field created by logging is better than that created by stack velocity in both accuracy and effectiveness. A reasonable distribution of the amplitude versus offset (AVO) attributes can be facilitated by taking the AVO response from logging as a standard for calibrating the amplitude distribution. Some AVO attributes have a close relationship with CBMC. The worst attri-bute is polarization magnitude, for which the correlation coefficient is 0.308; and the best attribute is the polarization product from intercept, of which the correlation coefficient is ?0.8136. CBMC predicted by AVO attributes is better overall than that predicted by direct interpolation of CBMC; the validation error of the former is 14.47%, which is lower than that of the latter 23.30%. CBMC of this area ranges from 2.5 m3/t to 22 m3/t. Most CBMC in the syncline is over 10 m3/t, but it is below 10 m3/t in the anticline;on the whole, CBMC in the syncline is higher than that in anticline.

  2. Pittsburgh Coal Bed Resource Areas in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The base of the Pittsburgh Coal bed and its stratigraphically (non-coal) equivalent horizon is used to subdivide Upper Pennsylvanian Series strata into the overlying...

  3. Distribution of Exotic Vegetation at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado (Area Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a region coverage showing the exotic vegetation distributions within Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO). Data was collected using a Trimble...

  4. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  5. Equity and coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in an area of intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtei Frank

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no clear consensus on the most sustainable and effective distribution strategy for insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs. Tanzania has been a leader in social marketing but it is still not clear if this can result in high and equitable levels of coverage. Methods A cluster-randomized survey of ITN and bed net ownership and use was conducted in a rural area exposed to intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission in NE Tanzania where ITN distribution had been subject to routine delivery of national strategies and episodic free distribution through local clinics. Data were collected on household assets to assess equity of ITN coverage and a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT was performed in all ages. Results Among 598 households in four villages the use of any or insecticidal bed nets in children less than five years of age was 71% and 54% respectively. However there was a 19.8% increase in the number of bed nets per person (p Conclusion Marked inequity persists with the poorest households still experiencing the highest risk of malaria and the lowest ITN coverage. Abolition of this inequity within the foreseeable future is likely to require mass or targeted free distribution, but risks damaging what is otherwise an effective commercial market.

  6. Analysis Method for Predicting Strain in Interior Beds and Sub-Resolution Faults from Area Balance Theory in Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extensional basins include mainly grabens and half grabens displaced along a lower detachment. Based on area balance theory, there is a linear relationship between a height of regional and the lower detachment h on the outside of the basin and "lost area S" from the regional in the basin. The pre-growth beds above lower detachment are of the same extensional displacement so that an "S-h diagram" can be used to determine the depth to lower detachment and to calculate the total extensional displacement of the beds above the lower detachment. The extensional displacement is dominated by the heave of various scale normal faults. The displacement of obvious faults can be immediately figured out from the measured bed-length. The requisite extension calculated by area balance is the layer-parallel strain, which could be accommodated by displacement on sub-resolution faults. Accordingly, the layer-parallel strain can help us predict the magnitude and distribution of sub-resolution faults on the basis of analysis of the structural style and rheological behavior.

  7. The potential of aerial photography for estimating surface areas of intertidal Pacific oyster beds (Crassostrea gigas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, B.J.; Baars, J.M.D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pacific oysters were introduced into the Eastern Scheldt in 1964 for breeding purposes. The first spatfall of wild Pacific oysters was recorded in 1976, and a second larval outburst in 1982 definitely settled wild Pacific oysters in the Eastern Scheldt waters. Oyster beds on intertidal and subtidal

  8. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Resource Areas in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the digital compilation of geologic and resource maps provided mostly by State geologic surveys and depicts the projected area of occurrence of the...

  9. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  10. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivelan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons. Keywords: EEG, sleep, orexin-saporin, methamphetamine

  11. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg) or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons.

  12. Multiparametric characterization of neuronal subpopulations in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourget, Romain; Sangare, Aude; Geoffroy, Hélène; Gallopin, Thierry; Rancillac, Armelle

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of neuronal properties is a necessary first step toward understanding how the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) neuronal network regulates slow-wave sleep (SWS). Indeed, the electrophysiological heterogeneity of VLPO neurons suggests the existence of subtypes that could differently contribute in SWS induction and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to define cell classes in the VLPO using an unsupervised clustering classification method. Electrophysiological features extracted from 289 neurons recorded in whole-cell patch-clamp allowed the identification of three main classes of VLPO neurons subdivided into five distinct subpopulations (cluster 1, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b). The high occurrence of a low-threshold calcium spike (LTS) was one of the most distinctive features of cluster 1 and 3. Since sleep-promoting neurons are generally identified by their ability to generate an LTS and by their inhibitory response to noradrenaline (NA), 189 neurons from our dataset were also tested for this neurotransmitter. Neurons from cluster 3 were the most frequently inhibited by NA. Biocytin labeling and Neurolucida reconstructions of 112 neurons furthermore revealed a small dendritic arbor of cluster 3b neurons compared, in particular, to cluster 2b neurons. Altogether, we performed an exhaustive characterization of VLPO neuronal subtypes that is a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neuronal network within the VLPO and thereby sleep physiology.

  13. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to (/sup 3/H)thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix.

  14. Regulation of progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat medial preoptic nucleus by estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds: an in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, P J; Lane, M V; Merchenthaler, I

    1997-12-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) is concentrated in neurons of the preoptic area and other regions of the rat hypothalamus where it is colocalized with the estrogen receptor and regulated by changes in the steroid hormonal milieu. To date, little is known about the regulation of PR mRNA by estrogens and whether antiestrogenic compounds are capable of modulating its expression. The present studies used in situ hybridization to ascertain the time course of PR mRNA regulation in the medial preoptic nucleus by 17beta-estradiol, determine the effective dose required to elicit a response, and compare the efficacy of 17beta-estradiol with a variety of estrogenic or antiestrogenic compounds. The first series of studies revealed that the treatment of ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol resulted in an increase in PR expression within 2 h, after which it remained elevated until 10 h postinjection and then returned to baseline levels. When ovariectomized rats were injected with 25-1000 ng/kg of 17beta-estradiol and euthanized 6 h later, a dose-dependent increase in the level of PR mRNA was observed, with a maximal response at 1000 ng/kg and an EC50 of 93.5 ng/kg. Subsequent studies evaluated the efficacy of a variety of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the rat preoptic nucleus. 17Beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and 17alpha-estradiol all significantly increased the level of PR mRNA, although the degree of induction varied with each compound. The injection of tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene, droloxifene, clomiphene, GW 5638, or ICI 182,780 had no significant estrogenic effect on PR gene expression at the dose evaluated. In contrast, when tamoxifen or raloxifene, but not ICI 182,780, was administered in the antagonist mode, a significant dose-related decrease in the estradiol-induced level of PR mRNA was seen in the preoptic area. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that PR mRNA expression in the rat preoptic area is rapidly

  15. Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic beds in the Podutik area near Ljubljana (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Novak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Podutik area near Ljubljana in a very shallow lagoon environment of the restricted shelf on the Dinaric carbonate platform the Main dolomite formation originated in Norian and Rhaetian. In the northern part of the carbonate platform on the opened shelfarea the Dachstein limestone has been deposited. In the studied area both above-mentioned lithologic units occur in the typical Lofer development. Due to lack of fossils the Rhaetian stage is not separated from the Norian one. The boundary between the Triassicand the Jurassic period is marked chiefly by the gradual lithologic transition. It is focused into the zone, where the Lofer limestone with large megalodontids passes into the limestone with characteristically dark red calcite veinlets, intercalations of oolitic and onkolitic limestone and algae Palaeodasycladus mediterraneus Pia.

  16. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  17. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Andersson, Josefin; Nilsberth, Camilla

    2007-08-23

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) binding to its EP(3) receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP(3) receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP(3) receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP(3alpha) isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP(3gamma), corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP(3) receptor expression, whereas EP(3beta) was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP(3) receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated.

  18. Light Particle Tracking Model for Simulating Bed Sediment Transport Load in River Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel E. Herrera-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a fast computational particles tracer model is developed based on Particle-In-Cell method to estimate the sediment transport in the access zone of a river port area. To apply the particles tracer method, first it is necessary to calculate the hydrodynamic fields of the study zone to determine the velocity fields in the three directions. The particle transport is governed mainly by the velocity fields and the turbulent dispersion. The mechanisms of dispersion and resuspension of particles are based in stochastic models, which describes the movement through a probability function. The developed code was validated using two well known cases with a discrete transformation obtaining a max relative error around 4.8% in both cases. The simulations were carried out with 350,000 particles allowing us to determine under certain circumstances different hydrodynamic scenarios where the zones are susceptible to present erosion and siltation at the entrance of the port.

  19. Paleoenvironment of the Lowest Hominid-bearing Bed in the Sangiran Area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, I.; Hyodo, M.; Matsu'ura, S.; Kondo, M.; Takeshita, Y.; Aziz, F.; Kumai, H.

    2012-12-01

    The first hominid migration out of Africa and dispersion to the eastern Asia are one of the main anthropological issues. However, we do not have consensus on their ages and pathway. The Sangiran area, Indonesia, has yielded more than 80 Homo erectus fossils. The mandibular bone, Pithecanthropus B (Sangiran 1b), has been found around the T11 volcanic ash layer in the upper part of the Sangiran Formation (the Lower Pleistocene). This specimen is one of the oldest Sangiran hominid fossils. Magnetostratigraphy shows that the T11 lies around the lower boundary of the Jaramillo subchronozone (1.07 Ma). We carried out pollen analysis of the sequence across T11 to reveal paleoenvironment when the possible first hominid arrival occurred in the Sangiran area, and discuss the causes of the emigration and settlement. In the layer from 1.0 m below to 0.5 m above T11, herbaceous taxa including Gramineae (> 50%) is dominant. They are accompanied by the aquatic taxa Typha and freshwater algae Pediastrum. The abundance of Gramineae shows dry environment. This sequence is also characterized by occurrences of Casuarinaga and Lagerstroemia, Salix, Corylus and Myrica, all living in dry lowlands. These features show that there was an open forest near freshwater. Around 0.5 m above T11, a big change in environment occurred. In the sequence above it, Gramineae (30-50%) decreased and Casuarinaga almost disappeared. Additionally, an increase in spores (10-40%) preferring a wet land shows an occurrence of wetting. At the same time, Manilkara (20-50%) increased sharply and became a main component of vegetation. The percentages of Psidium and Musa rose slightly. These taxa consist of many edible fruits. The lowland taxa like Lagerstroemia or Salix disappeared, which might show an occurrence of cooling. These environmental changes are consistent with the previous study based on diatom analysis. The result shows that around T11 there was a transgression, which may be correlated with marine

  20. Coal bed methane deposit law in Yiliang syncline coal mining area%彝良向斜煤矿区瓦斯赋存特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔军伟; 张光超

    2013-01-01

    通过对彝良向斜煤矿区主要可采煤层瓦斯含量的测定,分析了地质构造、埋藏深度、围岩性质、煤层厚度及煤变质程度对瓦斯赋存的影响作用.研究了该区煤层瓦斯赋存规律,对东部煤层瓦斯含量异常区进行详细的分析,并对其成因进行了初步探讨,其结论对于该区后续煤矿开采具有重要的指导意义.%Though testing the coal-bed methane content of main coal bed in Yiliang syncline coal mining area, obtained the factors influencing the coal-bed methane content is geological structures, burial depth, nature of rock and coal seam thickness and coal rank. Analyzed the coal-bed methane occurrence regularity and coal-bed methane abnormal area on the eastern section, and investigated the causes of formation. The conclusion is of a great guiding significance for the follow-up coal mining.

  1. The influence of near-bed hydrodynamic conditions on cold-water corals in the Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davies, A.J.; Ross, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions were recorded for almost one year in the Viosca Knoll area (lease block 826), one of the most well-developed cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, a reef-like cold-water coral ecosystem, dominated by the coral Lophelia pertusa, resembles coral habita

  2. Sr isotope tracing of aquifer interactions in an area of accelerating coal-bed methane production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, C.D.; Pearson, B.N.; Ogle, K.M.; Heffern, E.L.; Lyman, R.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology & Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    Sr isotope data on groundwater samples from coal and overlying sandstone aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, demonstrate that the Sr isotope ratio effectively identifies groundwater from different aquifers where major ion geochemistry and 0 and H stable isotope data fail. Groundwaters from sandstone aquifers have a uniform Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.7126-0.7127. Waters from coal seams vary from Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio = 0.7127 near the recharge area to 0.7151 farther into the basin. The distinct Sr isotope signatures of sandstone and coal aquifers may reflect different sources of Sr in these two rock types: Sr in sandstones is held primarily in carbonate cement, whereas coals contain more radiogenic Sr in organic matter. The Sr isotope ratio is useful in identifying wells that contain mixed waters, whether due to well construction or to incomplete aquifer isolation. Measurement and continued monitoring of the Sr isotope ratio in groundwaters should provide a powerful tool for characterizing the impact of the burgeoning coal-bed methane industry on the hydrology of the Powder River Basin.

  3. Toxicity of bed sediments from the Niagara River Area of Concern and tributaries, New York, to Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca, 2014-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.

    2016-09-20

    The Niagara River was designated as an Area of Concern in 1987 on both the United States and Canadian sides of the international boundary line because past industrial discharges and hazardous waste sites had caused extensive degradation of aquatic habitats. The degradation of the “benthos”, or the benthic macroinvertebrate community, was identified as one of seven beneficial use impairments caused by contaminated bed sediments. The U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in 2014 and 2015 to gather more extensive data on (a) the toxicity of bed sediments and (b) the status of macroinvertebrate communities on the main stem and tributaries of the Niagara River. This report addresses the first component of that study (toxicity of bed sediments), and summarizes results from laboratory toxicity tests that compare the survival and growth of two macroinvertebrate species between bed sediments from study sites and laboratory controls. Sediment toxicity was negligible at most sites, however poor performance of one or both test species in bed sediments from several tributary sites suggests that the quality of sediments may be adversely affecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities in some tributaries to the Niagara River.

  4. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  5. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E.; Soriano, Renato N.; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R.; Francescato, Heloísa D. C.; Saia, Rafael S.; Coimbra, Terezila M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release. PMID:28118407

  6. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A R; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release.

  7. Evaluation of Adsorbed Arsenic and Potential Contribution to Shallow Groundwater in Tulare Lake Bed Area, Tulare Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Fujii, R.; Chalmers, A.T.; Tanji, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated As concentrations in shallow groundwater in parts of the Tulare Basin, California, are a concern because of potential migration into deeper aquifers that could serve as a source of future drinking water. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adsorbed As and the potential contribution to groundwater using (i) isotopic dilution, (ii) successive extraction with an electrolyte solution resembling the pore-water chemical composition, and (iii) PO4 exchange for As. Sediment samples collected from 2 to 4 m below land surface in the Tulare Lake bed area contained a total As concentration of 24 mg As kg-1. Pore water extracted under hydraulic pressure contained a total As concentration of 590 ??g As L-1, which predominantly contained As as arsenate [As(V), 97%], a minor amount of arsenite [As(III), 3%], and non-detectable organic As. The isotopic dilution method [73As(V)] estimated that the concentration of adsorbed As(V) on the sediment was 5.7 mg As kg-1 at pH 8.5 and 6.7 mg As kg-1 at pH 7.5, respectively. Fourteen successive 24-h extractions with the artificial pore water released up to 57 to 61% of the adsorbed As(V) that was determined by isotopic dilution, indicating that only a portion of the adsorbed As could be released to groundwater. The phosphate-exchangeable As (0.1 M PO4, pH 8.5 or 7.5) was 63% of the isotopically exchangeable As(V). Thus, extraction of As by 0.1 M PO4 at ambient pHs is recommended as a method to determine the potential amount of As(V) on sediments that could be released to the solution phase. The overall results indicated that adsorbed As could be a significant source of As to groundwater. However, other factors that affect As transport such as the leaching rate need to be considered.

  8. A simulation study on the design of gradient coils in MRI for the imaging area above the patient bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Wang, Qiuliang; Hu, Xinning; Zhu, Xuchen; Crozier, Stuart; Wang, Yaohui; Liu, Feng

    2017-03-01

    A novel method is proposed for the simulation study the design of gradient coils in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system which generate linear magnetic field gradients only in the region above the patient’s bed. In MRI, the gradient coils are usually designed to create linear-varying magnetic gradient fields in a region that is typically described as a diameter of spherical volume (DSV). In practice, the space under the patient’s bed is not used for imaging, but is still treated as part of the design target in conventional approaches. This work proposes a new design scheme in which only the DSV space above the patient’s bed is considered. In the simulation study, the coil patterns have been obtained using a boundary element method (BEM). Compared to conventional gradient coil design methods, the new scheme produces similar fields above the patient’s bed with much sparser wire spacing (for the case tested: the primary layer and shielding layer have 36%/10% and 6%/17% larger wire spacing for X- and Y-gradient coils, respectively). The new design therefore has reduced inductance compared to conventional coils; a reduction of approximately 23% and 11% for the X- and Y-gradient coils, respectively. The resistances of the coils are also reduced. Based on an acoustic analysis, the new gradient coils are slightly quieter (3 dB for the typical operating frequency) than conventional gradient systems.

  9. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sethi

    Full Text Available Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle.

  10. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  12. Radial and tangential migration of telencephalic somatostatin neurons originated from the mouse diagonal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis; Morales-Delgado, N; Merchán, P; Castro-Robles, B; Martínez-de-la-Torre, M; Díaz, C; Ferran, J L

    2016-07-01

    The telencephalic subpallium is the source of various GABAergic interneuron cohorts that invade the pallium via tangential migration. Based on genoarchitectonic studies, the subpallium has been subdivided into four major domains: striatum, pallidum, diagonal area and preoptic area (Puelles et al. 2013; Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas), and a larger set of molecularly distinct progenitor areas (Flames et al. 2007). Fate mapping, genetic lineage-tracing studies, and other approaches have suggested that each subpallial subdivision produces specific sorts of inhibitory interneurons, distinguished by differential peptidic content, which are distributed tangentially to pallial and subpallial target territories (e.g., olfactory bulb, isocortex, hippocampus, pallial and subpallial amygdala, striatum, pallidum, septum). In this report, we map descriptively the early differentiation and apparent migratory dispersion of mouse subpallial somatostatin-expressing (Sst) cells from E10.5 onward, comparing their topography with the expression patterns of the genes Dlx5, Gbx2, Lhx7-8, Nkx2.1, Nkx5.1 (Hmx3), and Shh, which variously label parts of the subpallium. Whereas some experimental results suggest that Sst cells are pallidal, our data reveal that many, if not most, telencephalic Sst cells derive from de diagonal area (Dg). Sst-positive cells initially only present at the embryonic Dg selectively populate radially the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (from paraseptal to amygdaloid regions) and part of the central amygdala; they also invade tangentially the striatum, while eschewing the globus pallidum and the preoptic area, and integrate within most cortical and nuclear pallial areas between E10.5 and E16.5.

  13. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  14. Malaria vectors and their blood-meal sources in an area of high bed net ownership in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson A; Mulaya, Nicholas L; Musaki, Sandra K; Shiroko, Joan N; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2016-02-09

    Blood-meal sources of malaria vectors affect their capacity to transmit the disease. Most efficient malaria vectors prefer human hosts. However, with increasing personal protection measures it becomes more difficult for them to find human hosts. Here recent malaria vector blood-meal sources in western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors, outdoors and exiting through windows were collected in three study areas within the western Kenya highlands from June 2011 to June 2013. A census of people, livestock and of insecticide-treated nets was done per house. Mosquito blood-meal sources were determined as human, goat, bovine or chicken using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays. Most (86.3 %) households possessed at least one bed net, 57.2 % had domesticated animals and 83.6 % had people sharing houses with livestock at night. Most (94.9 %) unfed malaria vectors were caught exiting through windows. Overall, 53.1 % of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto obtained blood-meals from humans, 26.5 % from goats and 18.4 % from bovines. Single blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. from humans were 26.5 %, 8.2 % from bovines and 2.0 % from goats. Mixed blood-meal sources by An. gambiae s.s. identified included: 24.5 % human/goat, 10.2 % human/bovine, 8.2 % human/bovine/goat and also 8.2 % bovine/goat. One An. arabiensis mosquito obtained blood-meal only from humans. An unusually high frequency of animal and mixed human-animal blood meals in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.s. was revealed in the western Kenya highlands where bed net coverage is above the WHO target. The shift in blood-meal sources from humans to livestock is most likely the vectors' response to increased bed net coverage and the close location of livestock frequently in the same house as people at night. Livestock-targeted interventions should be considered under these circumstances to address residual malaria transmission.

  15. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  16. A Study on Identification of Conglomerate Reservoir Parameters and Oil/Water Beds in Ke82 Well Areas of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is mainly about the calculation of reservoir parameters and the interpretation method for identifying oil/water beds in Ke82 well areas of Junggar basin. It is difficult to determine the reservoir parameters with common logging methods such as core calibration log because of the diversity of minerals and rocks and the complexity of pore structures in the conglomerate reservoir of Junggar basin. Optimization logging exploration is a good method to determine the porosity by establishing the multi-mineral model with logging curves based on the integration of geological, core and well testing data. Permeability is identified by BP algorithm of neural network. Hydrocarbon saturation is determined by correlating Archie's and Simandoux formulas. Comparing the exploratory result and core data, we can see that these methods are effective for conglomerate logging exploration. We processed and explained six wells in the Ke82 well areas. And actual interpretation has had very good results, 85 % of which conform to well testing data. Therefore, this technique will be effective for identifying conglomerate parameters.

  17. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin V Tabarean

    Full Text Available The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons.

  18. Synaptic contact between median preoptic neurons and subfornical organ neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO. In contrast, after injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, in the POMe, abundant labeled axon varicosities were observed in the SFO. Using electron microscopy, synapses were identified between retrogradely labeled dendrites and cell bodies, and anterogradely labeled axon terminals, indicating that POMe neurons innervate SFO neurons projecting to the PVN. The possibility that POMe neurons play multiple roles in the neuronal circuit responsible for vasopressin release and/or cardiovascular regulation is also discussed.

  19. Progress on Technology of Coal Bed Methane Development and Utilization in China Coal Mining Area%我国煤矿区煤层气开发利用技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁宇

    2013-01-01

    According to rich coal bed methane resources in China and high difficult development actual conditions, the state enhanced the attention degree and the investment dynamic to the technology and innovation of the coal bed methane development. A series of breakthrough progress was made.The paper summarized the new progresses on the basic theory,key technology,heavy equipment,transportation and utilization, development mode and others in the coal bed methane development and utilization in coal mining area. The paper analyzed the problems and challenges faced to the coal bed methane development and utilization in coal mining area. The paper provided the development orientation of the coal bed methane development and utilization in coal mining area in order to provide the references to the high efficient development and utilization of the coal bed methane in coal mining area.%针对我国煤层气资源丰富但开发难度较大的实际情况,国家通过加大科技创新重视程度和投入力度,取得了一系列突破性进展,对煤矿区煤层气开发利用中的基础理论、关键技术、重大装备、集输利用、开发模式等方面取得的新进展进行了总结,同时剖析了煤矿区煤层气开发利用面临的问题,并提出了煤矿区煤层气开发利用技术的发展方向,以期为煤矿区煤层气高效开发利用提供参考.

  20. The influence of near-bed hydrodynamic conditions on cold-water corals in the Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions were recorded for almost one year in the Viosca Knoll area (lease block 826), one of the most well-developed cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, a reef-like cold-water coral ecosystem, dominated by the coral Lophelia pertusa, resembles coral habitats found off the southeastern US coast and the North East Atlantic. Two landers were deployed in the vicinity and outside of the coral habitat and measured multiple near-bed parameters, including temperature, salinity, current speed and direction and optical and acoustic backscatter. Additionally, the lander deployed closest to the coral area was equipped with a sediment trap that collected settling particles over the period of deployment at 27 day intervals. Long-term monitoring showed, that in general, environmental parameters, such as temperature (6.5-11.6 °C), salinity (34.95-35.4) and current speed (average 8 cm s -1, peak current speed up to 38 cm s -1) largely resembled conditions previously recorded within North East Atlantic coral habitats. Major differences between site VK 826 and coral areas in the NE Atlantic were the much higher particle load, and the origin of the particulate matter. Several significant events occurred during the deployment period beginning with an increase in current speed followed by a gradual increase in temperature and salinity, followed by a rapid decrease in temperature and salinity. Simultaneously with the decrease in temperature and salinity, the direction of the current changed from west to east and cold and less turbid water was transported upslope. The most prominent event occurred in July, when a westward flow lasted over 21 days. These events are consistent with bottom boundary layer dynamics influenced by friction (bottom Ekman layer). The Mississippi River discharges large quantities of sediment and dominates sedimentation regimes in the area. Furthermore, the Mississippi River disperses large amounts of terrestrial organic

  1. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  2. Improving efficient use of geological field data in evaluating reservoir property change in rocks by area within individual well intersections of beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, Sh.V.; Ayrbabamyants, L.P.; Kopytkina, N.A.; Korol' kov, V.V.; Kuklev, Yu.M.; Sosnin, N.Ye.

    1982-01-01

    Questions are reviewed of selective treatment using hydrophobic emulsions. Using these emulsions balances the influx profile, elevates the output frequency and includes additional oil-saturated beds in the development.

  3. A corticotropin releasing factor pathway for ethanol regulation of the ventral tegmental area in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Matthews, Robert T; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-16

    A growing literature suggests that catecholamines and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) interact in a serial manner to activate the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) to drive stress- or cue-induced drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Data suggest that these behaviors are driven in part by BNST projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Together, these findings suggest the existence of a CRF-signaling pathway within the BNST that is engaged by catecholamines and regulates the activity of BNST neurons projecting to the VTA. Here we test three aspects of this model to determine: (1) whether catecholamines modify CRF neuron activity in the BNST; (2) whether CRF regulates excitatory drive onto VTA-projecting BNST neurons; and (3) whether this system is altered by ethanol exposure and withdrawal. A CRF neuron fluorescent reporter strategy was used to identify BNST CRF neurons for whole-cell patch-clamp analysis in acutely prepared slices. Using this approach, we found that both dopamine and isoproterenol significantly depolarized BNST CRF neurons. Furthermore, using a fluorescent microsphere-based identification strategy we found that CRF enhances the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs onto VTA-projecting BNST neurons in naive mice. This action of CRF was occluded during acute withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. These findings suggest that dopamine and isoproterenol may enhance CRF release from local BNST sources, leading to enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission on VTA-projecting neurons, and that this pathway is engaged by patterns of alcohol exposure and withdrawal known to drive excessive alcohol intake.

  4. 焦作矿区煤层气开发的水文地质条件分析%Analysis on hydrogeological condition for coal bed methane exploitation in Jiaozuo coal-mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付江伟; 傅雪海; 胡晓; 刘爱华

    2011-01-01

    水文地质条件对煤层气的富集高产起着重要的控制作用.在系统研究焦作矿区水文地质特征的基础上,分析了水文地质条件对煤层气赋存、渗流、运移及煤层气生产的影响.焦作矿区水文地质条件,整体上有利于煤层气的赋存,但局部地下水强径流带,煤层气以水流为载体被逸散;岩溶裂隙发育区,煤系埋藏较浅而且又接近地表水体的区域,断裂发育且有可能成为导水通道的区域,地表水可能进入煤层,不利于煤层气的开采.煤层气勘探开发选择井位时,在其他条件相同情况下,煤层气井应选择存离断层较远的稍深部位.煤层气生产应合理处理可能造成的环境地质问题.%Hydrogeological conditions play an important role in high concentration of coal-bed methane.Based on the systematic study of hydro-geological characteristics in Jiaozuo Mining Area, the influence made by hydrogeological conditions on the occurrence, seepage, migration, recoverability and production of coal bed methane was analyzed.Hydrogeological conditions in Jiaozuo are over ally beneficial to the occurrence of coal bed methane, but in the strong runoff zone with local groundwater, coal bed methane migrate taking water flow as a carrier.Karsts-cranny developing area, coal region of measures exposed or buried in shallow and also closed to the surface water, which can flow into the seam through fissures will adversely affected coal bed methane mining.More developing fractures may become the water-channels, so when we select wells for coal-bed methane exploration and development, at the same conditions of other cases, the coal bed methane wells should be selected in deeper and more distant from the site of the fault.Coal bed methane production should be reasonable to deal with potential environmental geological problems.

  5. Activation of Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptors by Shilajit on Preoptic Hypothalamic Neurons of Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-02-29

    Shilajit, a mineral pitch, has been used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine to treat many human ailments, and is reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form. This study examined the possible mechanism of Shilajit action on preoptic hypothalamic neurons using juvenile mice. The hypothalamic neurons are the key regulator of many hormonal systems. In voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -60 mV, and under a high chloride pipette solution, Shilajit induced dose-dependent inward current. Shilajit-induced inward currents were reproducible and persisted in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting a postsynaptic action of Shilajit on hypothalamic neurons. The currents induced by Shilajit were almost completely blocked by 2 μM strychnine (Stry), a glycine receptor antagonist. In addition, Shilajit-induced inward currents were partially blocked by bicuculline. Under a gramicidin-perforated patch clamp mode, Shilajit induced membrane depolarization on juvenile neurons. These results show that Shilajit affects hypothalamic neuronal activities by activating the Stry-sensitive glycine receptor with α₂/α₂β subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that Shilajit contains some ingredients with possible glycine mimetic activities and might influence hypothalamic neurophysiology through activation of Stry-sensitive glycine receptor-mediated responses on hypothalamic neurons postsynaptically.

  6. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...transformation-scale models (i.e. models which treat the physics of waves propagating from offshore areas into the coastline). Each phase is further divided...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  7. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long

    2011-07-01

    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  8. The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar : gut content and stable isotope analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugendo, B.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der; Mgaya, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of bay habitats, consisting of mangrove creeks and channel, seagrass beds, and mud and sand flats, as feeding grounds for a number of fish species was studied in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, using gut content analysis and stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Gut

  9. 中国南方湿润区红层地貌及相关问题探讨%Perspectives on the red beds landforms in humid area of southern China and some related problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭华

    2011-01-01

    我国红层出露面积广大,但地学界对红层关注不足,各学科对红层问题的研究缺乏融合,存在着"多张皮"的问题;尤其是对红层这个特殊的脆弱地理单元的土地退化及生态环境问题缺少关注。南方湿润区是我国红层集中分布区之一,大部分红层区存在着严重的地貌灾害和水土流失问题,甚至分布着许多"红层荒漠"。红层区的土地退化虽与人的不合理利用关系密切,但其机理仍然是岩石地貌发育的自然演变问题。本文认为自然过程是一种多因子的综合作用过程,是互为因果的系统问题。本文分析了红层地貌及其红层区坡面侵蚀机理的研究现状,提出了红层地貌研究面临的科学问题,认为应该以系统动力学的思想方法,用跨学科的方式对红层与地貌发育-自然灾害-水土流失-生态退化-综合地理环境-生产和生活之间相互关系进行综合研究,以寻求国土治理和环境优化对策。%Although red beds are a widespread landscape in China,geosciences academia fail to pay much attention to it,and a lack of collaboration among related fields results in a trend that different disciplines have different interpretations of the same issue;specifically,much concern on red beds,the fragile geographical unit,is highly needed with regard to land degradation and environmental problems.Humid area in southern China is one of the places where red beds are densely distributed.However,most of red beds areas are suffering from serious geomorphological catastrophes and soil-water erosion;even worse,many places are witnessing huge patches of 'red beds desert'.Even if we might admit that irrational land use contributes to the land degradation in red beds,there is no doubt that land degradation is a natural result of rock landscape evolution.This paper first indicates that natural evolution serves as a process of multi-factors' effect,which can be regarded as a system of

  10. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... few days or weeks. This is called bed rest. Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  11. Estradiol Valerate and Remifemin ameliorate ovariectomy-induced decrease in a serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangxia; Jin, Biao; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2016-11-01

    Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats. We also explored the therapeutical effects of estradiol valerate and Remifemin in this model. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomy (OVX) group with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate treatment (OVX+E) group and ovariectomy with Remifemin (OVX+ICR) group. Serotonin expression was evaluated in the DR and POAH using immunofluorescence and quantified in the DR using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was analyzed in the DR by TUNEL assay. The number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons and the level of serotonin expression in the DR decreased significantly following OVX compared to the SHAM group. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the DR in any group. In addition, following OVX, the number of serotonin-positive fibers decreased significantly in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), especially in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Treatment with either estradiol or Remifemin for 4 weeks countered the OVX-induced decreases in serotonin levels in both the DR and the hypothalamus, with levels in the treated rats similar to those in the SHAM group. A fluorescently labeled retrograde tracer was injected into the VLPO at the 4-week time point. A significantly lower percentage of serotonin with CTB double-labeled neurons in CTB-labeled neurons was demonstrated after ovariectomy, and both estradiol and Remifemin countered this OVX

  12. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  13. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  14. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  16. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  18. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that there are ways to control bed bugs. Getting good, solid information is the first step in both prevention and control. While there is no chemical quick fix, there are effective strategies to control bed bugs involving both non-chemical and chemical methods. Bed bugs can be hard to find and ...

  19. 鄱阳湖滨沙岭地区网纹层的顶界年代%Top Boundary Age of the Vermiculated Beds in the Shaling Area of the Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志勇; 李徐生; 陈英勇; 弋双文; 鹿化煜; 杨达源

    2012-01-01

    been accumulated since 29 ka. From these OSL ages, it can be thought that the age of the layers with mature vermiculated mottles is older than 80 ka and the age of the layers with immature vermiculated mottles ranges from 71 ka to 29 ka. The top boundary age of vermiculated beds can be inferred to be 80-29 ka if the layers with immature vermiculated mottles are taken as the vermieulated beds. The top boundary age of vermiculated beds is older than 80 ka if the layers with mature vermiculated mottles are taken as the vermiculated beds. Both inferred top boundary ages are much younger than 400 ka, which was previously reported as the formation age of the vermiculated beds. However, this conclusion is drawn on three OSL ages in Shaling area and should be validated by other studies in the future.%鄱阳湖滨沙岭地区的沙山由交替出现的砂层与粉砂层构成。对3个剖面的调查发现,该地区发育的网纹大体可分为3种类型,Ⅰ类网纹密集且粗大,为典型的网纹,位于剖面底部,Ⅱ类网纹较稀疏、细,位于Ⅰ类网纹之上,Ⅲ类网纹界线模糊,位于剖面上部。Ⅰ类、Ⅱ类网纹属于成熟的网纹,而Ⅲ类属于不成熟的网纹。对剖面中砂层的光释光测年表明,测量等效剂量时没有出现信号饱和的问题,年剂量也没有受风化作用的影响,因而OSL年龄可以视为砂层的沉积年龄。基于砂层的沉积年龄,我们判断成熟网纹层的沉积时代早于80ka,不成熟网纹层的沉积时代略晚于71ka,而早于29ka。

  20. Archean Mass-independent Fractionation of Sulfur Isotope:New Evidence of Bedded Sulfide Deposits in the Yanlingguan-Shihezhuang area of Xintai, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanhe; HOU Kejun; WAN Defang; YUE Guoliang

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios (34S/33S/32S) of Archean bedded sulfides deposits were measured in the Yanlingguan Formation of the Taishan Group in Xintai, Shandong Province, East of China; δ33S =-0.7‰ to 3.8‰,δ34S = 0.1‰-8.8‰, △33S = -2.3‰ to -0.7‰ The sulfur isotope compositions show obvious mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures. The presence of MIF of sulfur isotope in Archean sulfides indicates that the sulfur was from products of photochemical reactions of volcanic SO2 induced by solar UV radiation, implying that the ozone shield was not formed in atmosphere at that time, and the oxygen level was less than 10-5PAL (the present atmosphere level). The sulfate produced by photolysis of SO2 with negative △33S precipitated near the volcanic activity center; and the product of element S with positive △33S precipitated far away from the volcanic activity center. The lower △33S values of sulfide (-2.30‰ to-0.25‰) show that Shihezhuang was near the volcanic center,and sulfur was mostly from sulfate produced by photolysis. The higher △33S values (-0.5‰ to-2‰)indicate that Yanlingguan was far away from the volcanic center and that some of sulfur were from sulfate, another from element S produced by photolysis. The data points of sulfur isotope from Yanlingguan are in a line parallel to MFL (mass dependent fractionation line) on the plot of δ34S-δ33S,showing that the volcanic sulfur species went through the atmospheric cycle into the ocean, and then mass dependent fractionation occurred during deposition of sulfide. The data points of sulfur isotope from Shihezhuang represent a mix of different sulfur source.

  1. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  2. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  3. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    Samplers, Birckbeck-type bed load traps, etc.- in this regard used as a calibration technique but in general independent and throughout accepted bed load measurement methods) could be obtained. Finally in 2006, the measurement equipment was enlarged to an integrative and innovative bed load measurement system by installing Geophones. In addition hydrological, geological, meteorological and other related data are collected. For further investigations there is a chance to test new measurement techniques under well known boundary conditions at the fully equipped gauging stations. The instrumentation will allow observing transport processes in detail within the study reach. Calibration Measurements take place during the rainfall and snow melting season from May to August, furthermore in November due to Genoa depressions causing heavy rainfall in the catchment area of the Drau River. Especially the initiation of motion, the bed load transport rate and bed load transport processes (cross sectional variation, periodicity in bed load movement) are analysed. Moreover, for understanding bed load transport processes the initiation of motion is of central importance. As a result it could be shown that the counted number of geophone impulses per unit time is proportional to the transported sediment volume, calculated out of direct bed load measurements and the associated flow discharge. The scatter between geophone impulses, caused by bed load transport fluctuations, and flow discharge can be reduced if the sum of geophone impulses is averaged over longer time intervals (time lag between moving gravel sheet maximums is about 25 minutes). Furthermore, the assumed spatial and temporal variability of the bed load movement could now be proven. In addition it could be proven, that commonly used bed load predictors underestimate the measured bed load transport. In conclusion the results of the investigation are showing new aspects for understanding bed load transport processes. The installed

  4. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversi

  5. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  7. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Uvalde County Kerr County Gillespie County Bandera County Mason County Menard County 100°30’W 100°0’W 99°30’W 29°30’N 30°0’N 30°30’N TEXAS So uth Llan o R...semiarid area, New Mexico : U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 352–G, p. 193–253. • The authors investigate sediment supply mechanisms to a...Jr., 1963, A preliminary study of sediment trans- port parameters, Rio Puerco near Bernardo, New Mexico : U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper

  8. Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-02-09

    The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were significantly augmented by propofol; the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents of noradrenalin-inhibited neuron were evidently attenuated by propofol; such inhibition effect was suppressed by histamine; and both triprolidine (antagonist for H1 histamine receptor) and ranitidine (antagonist for H2 histamine receptor) were able to increase the inhibition rate of propofol in presence of histamine. Present study demonstrated that propofol-induced inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents on noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were mediated by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors.

  9. Relationships Between sea bed Morphology, Chemosynthetic Biota and Fluid Flow in the Source area of the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D. R.; McMurtry, G. M.; Matsumoto, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Sissano or Aitape tsunami that struck the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the evening of July 17th 1998 left more than 2,000 people dead and 12,000 homeless as three villages were completely destroyed and four more badly damaged. The source of the local tsunami remains controversial and has been postulated as due to seabed dislocation either by thrust or sediment slump, although there is increasing recognition that the latter alternative is most likely. The alternative source mechanisms of the tsunami were addressed during 1999 to 2001 by offshore studies including the acquisition of multibeam bathymetry, sub-bottom profiling, sediment sampling, seabed observation from the JAMSTEC Dolphin 3K Remotely Operated Vehicle and Shinkai 2000 Manned Submersible and seismic profiling. One of the most intriguing discoveries during the offshore surveys was of extant chemosynthetic biological communities, comprising bacterial mats, mussels, and tubeworms. These were found in the amphitheatre region where the source of the tsunami was located. Their presence indicates the active expulsion of sulphide- and methane-rich pore fluids from the sediment. The spatial variation and style of the faunas provides evidence on the mechanisms controlling fluid expulsion, the chemical composition of the fluid, and the levels of fluid flow. There is also undoubtedly a close association between the chemosynthetic faunas, levels of fluid flow and the generation of sediment slumping. We present evidence that shows that the variations in the type and concentration of biota together with variation in the location of active venting and sulphide rich sediments allows discrimination between areas of recently active and less active seabed deformation. We surmise that variations in extant mussel shell size may enable the relative timing of deformation to be elucidated. In conclusion, we propose that detailed mapping of the features and biotas described above supports a slump origin for the

  10. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  11. Experimental Study on Mining Influence in Coal Mining Area with Loose Sand Bed%松散沙层煤矿区采动影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立忠; 李虎民; 姜升

    2015-01-01

    The development and sustainability of intensive coal mines are restricted seriously by the coal mining under villages,which needed to be addressed. The current method is to relocate the involved villages,but there are some disadvanta-ges such as high cost,lack of land and the residents′reluctance to move. Therefore,reconstruction of the villagers′houses be-fore mining in the would-be subsidence area serves as a new way to prevent the coal mining under villages. In Xiaojihan Coal Mine,the observation of building anti-deformation and surface movement are made respectively in the testing building and the observation stations in order to make experimental study on the mining effect and mining without relocation. The result shows that the villagers′houses with anti-deformation structure could be resistant to the mining influence. It is feasible to make mining without relocation in the mining area with good application value.%村庄压煤问题严重制约着村庄密集型煤矿的发展和生产接续,亟待解决。目前的解决方法是对涉及到的村庄进行搬迁,但这样做有成本高、用地指标紧张和农民不愿搬离原址等弊端。因此,充分利用拟沉陷区进行村庄采前就地重建为村庄压煤问题的解决提供了新思路。通过小纪汗煤矿抗变形结构试验房和地表移动变形观测站,进行建筑物变形观测和地表移动变形观测,开展采动区影响和不搬迁开采试验研究。结果表明:采取相应抗变形结构的民房可以抵抗该矿的采动影响,可以进行该地区的不搬迁开采推广,具有很好的应用价值。

  12. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to serotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions. In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunoreactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed. The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innervation of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  13. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.

  14. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  15. Modification of the Engelund bed-load formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Meng; Danxun Li; Xingkui Wang

    2016-01-01

    The classic Engelund bed-load formula involves four oversimplified assumptions concerning the quantity of particles per unit bed area that can be potentially entrained into motion, the probability of sediment being entrained into motion at a given instant, the mean velocity of bed-load motion, and the dimen-sionless incipient shear stress. These four aspects are reexamined in the light of new findings in hydrodynamics, and a modified bed-load formula is then proposed. The modified formula shows promise as being reliable in predicting bed-load transport rates in a wide range of flow intensities.

  16. 西南红层地区泥化夹层演化过程中的微观特征研究%The Research of the Microscopic Characteristics of the Argillation Intercalations’ Evolution Process in Southwest Red Bed Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易靖松; 孙金辉; 鲜杰良

    2016-01-01

    The red bed area in southwest of China often occurs many geological disasters, and causes serious casualties and property losses. The argillation intercalations were widely distributed in southwest red bed region, it was the worst of the engineering characteristics, structural planes in rock mass slope and was the key to red layer in southwest slope geological hazard control factors, along with all kinds of engineering geological problems. Based on many different period time sampling different intensity of hydration of clay layer, after the indoor experimental re-search and analysis, the mineral composition, chemical elements and microstructure change rule of the evolution process were obtained from argillaceous rock to argillation intercalations in southweast area. According to test results of experiment, the evolution process is divided into three stages:ion exchange adsorption stage, minerals dissolved stage, mineral production phase stage.%西南红层地区地质灾害频发,通常造成严重的人员伤亡和财产损失。泥化夹层在西南红层地区分布广泛,是斜坡岩体中工程特性最差的结构面,也是控制西南红层地区斜坡地质灾害的关键因素,常常引发各种工程地质问题。通过对不同期次不同水化作用强度的泥化夹层取样,进行室内试验研究分析,获取了西南红层地区泥质岩层~泥化夹层演化过程中矿物成分、化学元素和微观结构变化规律。根据试验结果将演化过程划分为三个阶段:离子交换吸附阶段、矿物溶解阶段、软化崩解阶段。

  17. 平山湖勘查区主采煤层煤质特征及其变化规律研究%Pingshan Lake Exploration Area Main Working Bed Coal Quality Characteristic and its Change Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚惠姣; 李晓君

    2015-01-01

    According to hirayama lake exploration area minable seam coal sample of coal and rock , industrial analysis , total sulfur con-tent and calorific value analysis data , evaluated the hirayama lake exploration area main working bed coal , poroperm characteristics , based on this research is mainly focused on the ash content , sulfur content and volatile matter in coal .Studies have shown that hiraya-ma lake exploration area of coal in ash , low sulfur content , high volatile matter , calorific value of characteristics .Raw coal ash content increased gradually from bottom to up , total sulfur content change is not obvious , volatile increase gradually;Plane ash has a "high, middle low"around the distribution characteristics of sulfur content distribution is just the opposite .%根据平山湖勘查区可采煤层煤样的煤岩、工业分析、全硫分及发热量分析数据,评价了平山湖勘查区主采煤层的煤岩煤质特征,在此基础上重点研究了煤中灰分、硫分及挥发分变化规律。研究表明,平山湖勘查区煤具有中灰分、低硫分、高挥发分、中发热量等特征。纵向上原煤灰分自下而上逐渐增大,全硫分变化不明显,挥发分逐渐增大;平面上灰分具有呈“中间高,四周低”的分布特点,硫分分布则正好相反。

  18. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  19. Moving-bed sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  20. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  1. Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  2. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice.

  3. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  5. The effects of perinatal testosterone exposure on the DNA methylome of the mouse brain are late-emerging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghahramani, Negar M; Ngun, Tuck C; Chen, Pao-Yang; Tian, Yuan; Krishnan, Sangitha; Muir, Stephanie; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Arnold, Arthur P; de Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G; Pellegrini, Matteo; Vilain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated the organizational effects of testosterone on the DNA methylome and transcriptome in two sexually dimorphic forebrain regions-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/preoptic area and the striatum...

  6. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  7. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  8. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  9. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  10. New discovery of larger seagrass beds with areas > 50 ha in temperate waters of China:An unusual large seagrass (Zos-tera japonica) bed in the Yellow River estuary%中国温带海域新发现较大面积(大于50ha)的海草床:Ⅰ黄河河口区罕见大面积日本鳗草海草床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 张晓梅; 徐少春; 宋肖跃; 林海英; 王朋梅; 顾瑞婷

    2016-01-01

    日本鳗草(Zostera japonica)原是中国沿海潮间带较为常见的海草种类,近些年来随着生境的破坏其分布面积急遽下降,较大面积连续分布的海草床已经非常少见。2015年5月和8月,在山东黄河河口区发现了超过1000 ha几乎连续分布的日本鳗草海草床,与互花米草生境相邻,形成独特的生态景观。对日本鳗草生物量和种群补充等基本生物学指标也进行了调查。该发现极大丰富了中国海草数据库,并为日本鳗草的深入研究及保护提供了得天独厚的实验基地。%The dwarf eelgrassZostera japonica was common in the intertidal zone along the coast of China. Nowadays, largerZ. japonica beds are very rare because of the rapid decline resulting from increasingly severe habitat destruction. However, in this study, a large and continuousZ. japonica bed with an area > 1000 ha was found in the Yellow River estuary of Shandong province. This bed was adjacent to aSpartina alterniflora habitat, forming a unique ecological landscape. The basic biological indicators, including biomass and recruitment ofZ. japonica, were obtained during two field investigations in May and August, 2015. This discovery will greatly enrich the seagrass distribution databases of China and provide a unique site for further research on this species.

  11. Present Status and Outlook or Coal Bed Methane Industrial Development in Coal Mine Area%煤矿区煤层气产业化发展现状与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宝宏; 刘见中; 赵路正

    2011-01-01

    总结了中国近年来煤矿区煤层气排放、抽采、利用现状及清洁发展机制(CDM)项目进展.由于中国煤层气地质条件具有板块构造复杂;煤体结构破坏严重,渗透率普遍偏低;储层非均质性强;高煤阶煤和低煤阶煤占主导等特殊性,决定了中国煤层气产业化发展必须走煤层气与煤炭协调开发的道路,且应实行煤层气地面开发与井下抽采相结合的煤层气资源开发利用.通过与美国对比,指出中国70%以上煤田不适合地面大规模煤层气开发,而应结合井下采矿工程进度,采取地面井下相结合,地面预采、采动开采和井下抽采多种方式进行开发.最后分析了煤矿区煤层气开发与地面煤层气开发相比具有的优势和面临的困难,指出在国家激励政策的推动下,随着国家科技重大专项关键技术的研发和示范工程验证推广,煤矿区煤层气产业化进程必将得以加快.%The paper summarized the present status of the coal bed methane drainage, extraction and utilization and the progress of the clean development mechanism project in China coal mine in recent years.Due to the geological condition of the coal bed methane in China was complicated in the plate tectonics, the coal structure was seriously destroyed and the permeability was commonly low, the non- homogeneity of the deposit was strong, the high rank and low rank coal were taking the main position and other specialty, thus the coal bed methane industrial development in China shall be along the road of the coal bed methane and coal coordinative development.In addition,the coal bed methane resources development and utilization policy in combination with the coal bed methane surface development and the underground mine drainage should be implemented.In comparison with the USA, over 70% of the coalfields in China would not be suitable to have a large scale coal bed methane development at surface, but in according to the underground

  12. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  13. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  14. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  15. Lateral erosion in an experimental bedrock channel: The influence of bed roughness on erosion by bed load impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Gran, Karen B.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Paola, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bed load particle impacts as a mechanism of lateral bedrock erosion. In addition, we explored how changes in channel bed roughness, as would occur during development of an alluvial cover, influence rates of lateral erosion. Experimental channels were constructed to have erodible walls and a nonerodible bed using different mixtures of sand and cement. Bed roughness was varied along the length of the channel by embedding sediment particles of different size in the channel bed mixture. Lateral wall erosion from clear-water flow was negligible. Lateral erosion during periods in which bed load was supplied to the channel removed as much as 3% of the initial wetted cross-sectional area. The vertical distribution of erosion was limited to the base of the channel wall, producing channels with undercut banks. The addition of roughness elements to an otherwise smooth bed caused rates of lateral erosion to increase by as much as a factor of 7 during periods of bed load supply. However, a minimum roughness element diameter of approximately half the median bed load particle diameter was required before a substantial increase in erosion was observed. Beyond this minimum threshold size, further increases in the relative size of roughness elements did not substantially change the rate of wall erosion despite changes in total boundary shear stress. The deflection of saltating bed load particles into the channel wall by fixed roughness elements is hypothesized to be the driver of the observed increase in lateral erosion rates.

  16. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  17. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  18. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  19. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  20. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  1. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  2. Occurrence characteristics and prospective evaluation of coal-bed methane of physicochemical prospecting area in Dafang County of Guizhou Province%贵州省大方县理化勘查区煤层气赋存特征及远景评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉勇

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical exploration area in Dafang County of Guizhou Province containing coal seam of Upper Permian Longtan Formation is mainly anticline-syncline coal-accumulating basin,and is rich in coal-bed methane resources.This article evaluates the prospective of coal-bed methane in this region comprehensively by analyzing and concluding the geological character and coal-formation condition of this region.%贵州大方理化勘查区主要含煤层为上二叠统龙潭组,为一些背向斜构造聚煤盆地,区内蕴藏着丰富的煤层气资源。文章通过对该区地质特征及成气条件的分析和总结,对煤层气资源进行综合远景评价。

  3. The importance of bed sediment sand content for the structure of a static armor layer in a gravel bed river

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curran, Joanna Crowe; Waters, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    ...% were armored under one of three different flow rates. First‐ and second‐order statistical analyses were applied to digital elevation models of unarmored, armored, and clustered bed surface areas to identify changes in surface structure...

  4. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  5. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  6. Stabilizing effect of plasma discharge on bubbling fluidized granular bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Dang, Sai-Chao; Ma, Qiang; Xia, Wei-Dong

    2015-07-01

    Fluidized beds have been widely used for processing granular materials. In this paper, we study the effect of plasma on the fluidization behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed with an atmospheric pressure plasma discharger. Experiment results show that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with the discharge of plasma. When the discharge current reaches a minimum stabilization current Cms, air bubbles in the bed will disappear and the surface fluctuation is completely suppressed. A simplified model is proposed to consider the effect of electric Coulomb force generated by the plasma. It is found that the Coulomb force will propel the particles to move towards the void area, so that the bubbling fluidized bed is stabilized with a high enough plasma discharge. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11035005 and 11034010).

  7. Achievements of China's Coal-bed Methane Exploration and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingbo; Tian Wenguang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Status quo of China's coal-bed methane exploration and development China's coal-bed methane resources China is abundant in coal-bed methane. The new round of resource assessment indicates that 119 potential coal-bed methane targets with burial depth of 2000m and area of 41.5×104km2 are distributed in more than 45 coal-bearing basins. The total resources of coal-bed methane is almost equivalent to that of conventional gas, ranking the third in the world. Among the basins, there are 8 has a coverage of more than 1×1012m3, they are Yili, Tuha,Ordos, Dianqiangui, Juggar, Hailaer, Erlian, and Qinshui.

  8. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  11. Effect of static bed height in the upper fluidized bed on flow behavior in the lower riser section of a coupled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewu Wang; Chunxi Lu; Chaoyu Yan

    2009-01-01

    To study olefin reduction by using an auxiliary reactor for FCC naphtha upgrading, a large-scale cold model of a riser-bed coupled to an upper fluidized bed was established. The effect of static bed height in the upper fluidized bed on particle flow behavior in the lower riser was investigated experimentally. A restriction index of solids holdup was used to evaluate quantitatively the restrictive effect of the upper fluidized bed. Experimental results show that, under the restrictive effect of the upper fluidized bed, the riser could be divided into three regions in the longitudinal direction: accelerating, fully developed and restriction. The axial distribution of solids holdup in the riser is characterized by large solids holdup in the top and bottom sections and small solids holdup in the middle section. Overall solids holdup increased with increasing static bed height in the upper fluidized bed, while particle velocity decreased. Such restrictive effect of the upper fluidized bed could extend from the middle and top sections to the whole riser volume when riser outlet resistance is increased, which increases with increasing static bed height in the upper fluidized bed. The upper bed exerts the strongest restriction on the area close to the riser outlet.

  12. New Dimensions of Moving Bed Biofilm Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Piculell, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a biological wastewater treatment process in which microorganisms grow as biofilms on suspended carriers. Conventionally, MBBRs are mainly designed and optimized based on the carrier surface area, neglecting the dynamic relationship between carrier design, reactor operation and biofilm characteristics, such as biofilm thickness and the composition of the microbial community. The purpose of this research project was to learn more about the roles of the ...

  13. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  14. Nitrogen removal in a combined system: vertical vegetated bed over horizontal flow sand bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, S; Neamkam, P; Shutes, R B

    2001-01-01

    Pig farm wastewater creates various problems in many areas throughout Thailand. Constructed wetland systems are an appropriate, low cost treatment option for tropical countries such as Thailand. In this study, a combined system (a vertical flow bed planted with Cyperus flabelliformis over a horizontal flow sand bed without plants) was used to treat settled pig farm wastewater. This system is suitable for using in farms where land is limited. The average COD and nitrogen loading rate of the vegetated vertical flow bed were 105 g/m2 x d and 11 g/m2 x d respectively. The wastewater was fed intermittently at intervals of 4 hours with a hydraulic loading rate of 3.7 cm/d. The recirculation of the effluent increased total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency from 71% to 85%. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies were 95% and 98%. Nitrification was significant in vertical flow Cyperus bed, and the concentration of nitrate increased by a factor of 140. The horizontal flow sand bed enhanced COD removal and nitrate reduction was 60%. Plant uptake of nitrogen was 1.1 g N/m2 x d or dry biomass production was 2.8 kg/m2 over 100 days.

  15. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  16. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  17. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced concept system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    DONLEE Technologies Inc. is developing with support of the US Department of Energy an advanced circulating fluidized bed technology known as the Vortex{trademark} Fluidized Bed Combustor (VFBC). The unique feature of the VFBC is the injection of a significant portion of the combustion air into the cyclone. Since as much as one-half of the total combustion air is injected into the cyclone, the cross-sectional area of the circulating fluidized bed is considerably smaller than typical circulating fluidized beds. The technology is being developed for two applications: Industrial-scale boilers ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steam generating capacity; and two-stage combustion in which a substoichiometric Vortex Fluidized Bed Combustor (2VFBC) or precombustor is used to generate a combustible gas for use primarily in boiler retrofit applications. This Level II analysis of these two applications indicates that both have merit. An industrial-scale VFBC boiler (60,000 lb/hr of steam) is projected to be economically attractive with coal prices as high as $40 per ton and gas prices between $4 and $5 per thousand cubic feet. The payback time is between 3 and 4 years. The 2VFBC system was evaluated at three capacities of application: 20,000; 60,000 and 100,000 lb/hr of steam. The payback times for these three capacities are 4.5, 2.1 and 1.55 years, respectively. The 2VFBC has potential applications for retrofit of existing pulverized coal-fired boilers or as a new large (utility) boiler. Pressurized operation of the 2VFBC has considerable potential for combined cycle power generation applications. Experimental development of both applications is presented here to demonstrate the potential of these two technologies.

  18. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  19. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  20. A bioassay for studying behavioural responses of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Gezan, S A; Woodcock, C M; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2011-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. Current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour and physiology modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. However, in order to identify semiochemicals that can be utilised in monitoring or control, a suitable olfactometer is needed that enables the study of the responses of bed bugs to volatile chemicals. Previous studies have used olfactometers that do not separate olfactory responses from responses to physical contact. In this study, a still-air olfactometer was used to measure behavioural responses to different bed bug-derived volatiles presented in an odour pot. Bed bugs were significantly more likely to visit the area above the odour pot first, and more frequently, in the presence of volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper but not in the presence of volatiles from conspecific bed bugs. Bed bug activity was found to be dependent on the presence of the volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper, the time during the scotophase and the sex of the insect being tested. The still-air olfactometer could be used to test putative semiochemicals, which would allow an understanding of their behavioural role in bed bug ecology. Ultimately, this could lead to the identification of new semiochemical tools for bed bug monitoring and control.

  1. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Morphology and distribution of neurons expressing serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hypothalamus and the surrounding diencephalic and telencephalic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Eric; Scrogin, Karie; Dudás, Bertalan

    2010-07-01

    Disorders of serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in disturbances of numerous hypothalamic functions including circadian rhythm, mood, neuroendocrine functions, sleep and feeding. Among the serotonin receptors currently recognized, 5-HT(1A) receptors have received considerable attention due to their importance in the etiology of mood disorders. While previous studies have shown the presence of 5-HT(1A) receptors in several regions of the rat brain, there is no detailed map of the cellular distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat diencephalon. In order to characterize the distribution and morphology of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors in the diencephalon and the adjacent telencephalic areas, single label immunohistochemistry was utilized. Large, multipolar, 5-HT(1A)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were mainly detected in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and in the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, while the supraoptic nucleus contained mainly fusiform neurons. Medium-sized 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons with triangular or round-shaped somata were widely distributed in the diencephalon, populating the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, substantia innominata, dorsomedial and premamillary nuclei, paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. The present study provides schematic mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons in the rat diencephalon. In addition, the morphology of the detected 5-HT(1A)-IR neural elements is also described. Since rat is a widely used laboratory animal in pharmacological models of altered serotoninergic neurotransmission, detailed mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR structures is pivotal for the neurochemical characterization of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  3. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  4. Bed bugs, public health, and social justice: Part 1, A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Christopher; Jones, Susan C

    2011-04-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs poses an urgent situation since infestations are rampant globally, nationally, and locally. In Ohio, bed bugs have become a virtual epidemic in many towns and cities, especially in central and southwestern regions of the state. These blood-feeding insects cause an array of adverse health effects in humans. Furthermore, bed bugs disproportionately occur in urban areas, and housing and the built environment are now recognized as dominant influences on health. Bed bugs' potential role in disease transmission remains unqualified to date, and research on this issue is urgently needed. The escalating global bed bug resurgence leaves the divided public health community in a precarious social justice position if the lack of response to bed bug infestations disproportionately impacts underserved populations. Bed bugs are an urgent public health and environmental justice concern, and the authors recommend that public health agencies respond with authority of agency.

  5. FBR and RBR particle bed space reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compact, high-performance nuclear reactor designs based on High-Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) particulate fuel are investigated. The large surface area available with the small-diameter (approx. 500 microns) particulate fuel allows very high power densities (MW's/liter), small temperature differences between fuel and coolant (approx. 10/sup 0/K), high coolant-outlet temperatures (1500 to 3000/sup 0/K, depending on design), and fast reactor startup (approx. 2 to 3 seconds). Two reactor concepts are developed - the Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR), where the fuel particles are packed into a thin annular bed between two porous cylindrical drums, and the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR), where the fuel particles are held inside a cold rotating (typically approx. 500 rpm) porous cylindrical drum. The FBR can operate steady-state in the closed-cycle He-cooled mode or in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode. The RBR will operate only in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode.

  6. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  7. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  8. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  9. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-04-15

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  10. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  11. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  12. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  13. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  14. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  15. Bed bugs in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Safdar, Nasia; Beier, John C; Doggett, Stephen L

    2012-11-01

    Infestations caused by bed bugs have resurfaced during the past decade across all continents. Even though bed bugs primarily cause skin manifestations in humans, a major stigma is placed upon people or institutions found to carry them. It is important for healthcare facilities to be prepared for this pest by implementing policies, carefully selecting materials used for hospital furniture, and educating providers on early identification and control.

  16. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  17. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  18. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  19. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  20. Stratigraphic implications of Sinian-Early Cambrian volcanic ash beds on the Yangtze Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junming; ZHU Maoyan; YANG Aihua; LI Guoxiang; YANG Jinghong; Christoph HEUBECK

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic ash beds from shallow- to deep-water facies strata of the Sinian-Early Cambrian (Meishucunian) on the Yangtze Platform consist of bentonites and tuffites which are readily recognized in the field by their physical features and confirmed by geochemical analyses.Geochemistry suggests that the volcanic ash beds in Meishucunian time are rhyolite and rhyodacite while those in the Qiongzhusian and Sinian are andesite and trachyandesite.The ash beds in the time-equivalent strata, even in different areas display rather similar geochemical features, whereas the ash beds in different strata even in the same areas show large chemical difference.The results suggest that these ash beds can be used for intra- and extra-basinal correlations of the Sinian-Early Cambrian interval on the Yangtze Platform.Additionally, these ash beds suggest high potentials for further U-Pb dating strategies.

  1. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations.

  2. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  3. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  4. Microvessel density in the placental bed among preeclampsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Mota Coelho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Morphological changes in the spiral arteries of the placental bed have been studied in patients with preeclampsia, one of the largest causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The reports show that vasospasm and vascular endothelial injury were two major pathological conditions for preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to investigate the microvessel density of spiral arteries in the placental bed, in pregnancies complicated by hypertension and proteinuria, and in normal pregnancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional survey of immunohistochemical studies on biopsies from the spiral arteries of the placental bed, among women undergoing cesarean sections for clinical and obstetrical reasons at Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Placental bed biopsies were obtained during cesarean section after placenta removal, with direct viewing of the central area of placenta insertion. The microvessel density of spiral arteries was measured by immunohistochemical methods in decidual and myometrial segments, using CD34 antibody. RESULTS: Biopsies containing spiral arteries were obtained from 34 hypertensive pregnant women with proteinuria, and 26 normotensive pregnant women. The microvessel densities in decidual and myometrial segments of the placental bed were compared between the groups. It was observed that, with increasing blood pressure and proteinuria, the microvessel density gradually decreased. CONCLUSION: The presence of high levels of hypertension and proteinuria may be associated with a progressive decrease in microvessel density in the placental bed.

  5. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  6. Reward associated with singing behavior correlates with opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus in male European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren V Riters

    Full Text Available Birdsong consists of species-specific learned vocal sequences that are used primarily to attract mates and to repel competitors during the breeding season. However, many birds continue to sing at times when vocal production has no immediate or obvious impact on conspecific behavior. The mechanisms that ensure that animals produce important behaviors in contexts in which the function of these behaviors is not immediate or obvious are not known. One possibility is that animals engage in such behaviors because they are associated with pleasure. Here we examined the hypothesis that male European starlings sing outside of the breeding season in part because the act of singing in this context is facilitated and/or maintained by opioid-mediated reward. We measured song-associated reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP test in male starlings producing fall, non-breeding season-typical song. We used quantitative real time PCR to measure expression of the enkephalin opioid precursor preproenkephalin (PENK and mu opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM; a region in which opioids are implicated in both reward and starling fall song and additionally the song control region HVC as a control. Starlings developed a strong preference for a place that had been paired previously with the act of producing fall-typical song, indicating that fall song production was associated with a positive affective state. Both PENK and MOR mRNA expression in the POM, but not HVC, correlated positively with both individual reward state (as reflected in CPP and undirected singing behavior. These results suggest that singing induces opioid receptor and enkephalin expression in the POM and consequent reward, and/or that opioid release in the POM induced by individual or environmental factors (e.g., the presence of food, safety of a flock or the absence of predators induces a positive affective state which then facilitates singing behavior.

  7. Indoor Test Analysis of Seepage Deformation of Bedding Layer and Main Rockfill Area for Nazixia Concrete Facing Sand-gravel-fill Dam%纳子峡混凝土面板堆石坝垫层及主堆石区渗透变形室内试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 沈振中; 杨旭东; 马小刚

    2011-01-01

    根据大通河纳子峡面板砂砾石坝的工程特点和料场情况,对纳子峡水电站下游C1料场B、F区及河床的天然砂砾石土科做了筛分试验,绘制了土料的颗粒级配曲线,得出C1料场B、F区土料满足垫层设计要求,且F区土料更优;同理天然砂砾石亦满足主堆石区料设计要求.根据设计要求的颗粒级配、砂土的相对密度、压实度等,对垫层2A1、砂砾石料区3B1土料做了渗透变形试验,发现土料渗透变形破坏均经历了土样保持原状、细颗粒浮动、形成渗漏通道及土样完全破坏4个阶段,绘制了流速-渗透坡降双对数曲线图,据此求得了垫层2A1、主堆石区3B1土料的临界坡降,再根据现行规范取安全系数2 0,从而求得垫层2A1、主堆石区3B1土料允许渗透坡降分别为0.463、0.163.%According to the characteristics of engineering project and the conditions of the quarry for concrete facing sand-gravel-fill dam of Nazixia in Datonghe River, screen analysis test of section B &? F at downstream Cl quarry and sand gravel soil material of river bed is implemented. And the grain gradation curves ot soil material are plotted. Then the soil materials of section B &- F in Cl quarry satisfy the requirements of the bedding layer but the section F is more perfect. Moreover, the sand gravel meets design requirement of main rockfill area quarry. According to the design requirements of grain gradation, relative density of sand soil, degree of compaction, the seepage deformation tests of 2Albedding layer, 3B1 soil materials of sand gravel quarry are carried out. It finds out that ihe seepage deformation damage of soil material has divided into four stages: soil sample keeping original state* fine grain floating, seepage path forming, soil sample damaging. At the same time, double logarithmic curve between velocity and seepage gradient is plotted. In view of the a-bove, the critical gradient of bedding layer 2Al and 3B1 soil

  8. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  9. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  10. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei Xu

    Full Text Available Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas.This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI. Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people, however only 169 (48.0% households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2% residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05, however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN was significantly lower (34.5%, P<0.0001. The annual cash income per person (ACIP was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (P<0.0001, where families with an ACIP of CNY10000 or more were much more likely to use nets. House type was strongly associated with bed net use (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 2.81, 7.91; P<0.0001, where those with traditional wood walls and terracotta roofs were significantly more likely to use nets, and the head of household's knowledge was an independent factor (OR: 5.04, 95% CI: 2.72, 9.35; P<0.0001, where those who knew bed nets prevent malaria were significantly more likely to use nets too.High bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  11. The porosity in a fluidized bed heat transfer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G; Visser, G.; Valk, M.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model of heat transfer between a fluidized bed and an immersed surface and a model of gas flow and porosity, both recently published, were combined and further modified in the area of low velocities where the particle convective component of heat transfer is low or neglectable. Experi

  12. The porosity in a fluidized bed heat transfer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.; Valk, M.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model of heat transfer between a fluidized bed and an immersed surface and a model of gas flow and porosity, both recently published, were combined and further modified in the area of low velocities where the particle convective component of heat transfer is low or neglectable. Experi

  13. Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ghaffarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol, Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming.

  14. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start w...

  15. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  16. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  17. Atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion research, development and application

    CERN Document Server

    Valk, M

    1994-01-01

    The use of fluidized bed coal combustion technology has been developed in the past decade in The Netherlands with a view to expanding the industrial use of coal as an energy supply. Various research groups from universities, institutes for applied science and from boiler industries participated and contributed to this research area. Comprehensive results of such recent experimentation and development work on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal are covered in this volume. Each chapter, written by an expert, treats one specific subject and gives both the theoretical background as well a

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  19. Reported bed net ownership and use in social contacts is associated with uptake of bed nets for malaria prevention in pregnant women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Erly, Steven; Adusei, Charity; Bell, Melanie L; Kessie, David Komla; Biritwum-Nyarko, Alberta; Ehiri, John

    2017-01-04

    Despite progress made in the last decades, malaria persists as a pressing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection and serious health outcomes for themselves and their unborn child. Risk can be mitigated through appropriate use of control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets. Although social networks can influence uptake of preventive strategies, the role of social influence on bed net ownership has not been explored. During an evaluation of a bed net distribution programme, the influence of non-health care advisors on ownership and use of bed nets by pregnant women in Kumasi, Ghana was examined. Data were collected through in-person interviews with 300 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in an urban hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants were asked about their bed net ownership, bed net use, and information about three personal contacts that they go to for pregnancy advice. Information about these advisors was combined into an influence score. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between the score and bed net ownership. Those who owned a bed net were further assessed to determine if interpersonal influence was associated with self-reported sleeping under the bed net the previous night. Of the 294 women in the analysis, 229 (78%) reported owning bed nets. Of these bed net owners, 139 (61%) reported using a bed net the previous night. A dose response relationship was observed between the interpersonal influence score and bed net ownership and use. Compared to the lowest influence score, those with the highest influence score (>1 SD above the mean) were marginally more likely to own a bed net [OR = 2.37, 95% CI (0.87, 6.39)] and much more likely to use their bed net [5.38, 95% CI (1.89, 15.25)] after adjusting for other factors. Interpersonal influence appears to have modest impact on ownership and use of bed nets by pregnant women in an urban area of Ghana. Further

  20. Impact of different discharge patterns on bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhecheng

    2011-01-01

    Beds are one of the most important resources in a healthcare system. How to manage beds efficiently is an important indicator of the efficiency of the healthcare system. Bed management is challenging to many healthcare service providers in many aspects. In recent years, population growth and aging society impose extra pressure on bed requirement. There are usually two key performance indicators of a bed management system: bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time. In this paper, different discharge patterns and their impacts on the bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time are studied. A discrete event simulation model is constructed to evaluate the existing discharge pattern in a Singapore regional hospital using actual hospital admission and discharge transaction data. Then different discharge patterns are tested in the same context. Simulation results show that a proper discharge pattern significantly smoothes the fluctuation of bed occupancy rate and reduce the bed waiting time.

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  2. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  4. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  5. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  6. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  7. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  8. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  9. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  10. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF FLUIDIZED BED PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant is a new and potential method to transform it to harmless inorganic material, such as CO2 and H2O. So far, most of photocatalytic reactors were cylinder or tabulate photoreactor. The relevant photocatalyst was TiO2 nanometer powder. Although a few investigators had aimed their research field to fluidized bed reactor, their reaction systems were of biphase, such as solid-liquid or solid-gas. Few people focused their research on the triphasic fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor[1]. Compared with traditional photoreactors, a triphasic fluidized bed photoreactor has more advantages[2]: (1) The solid photocatalyst can be separated easily. (2) Its configuration meets the requirement of higher surface area-to-volume ratio of photocatalytic, which is much lower in a fixed bed or a plate photoreactor. (3) The UV light can be used more efficiently. (4) The mass transfer conditions can be controlled and improved easily. (5) It suited to pilot-scale or large-scale operations. For the UV light penetration and photon efficiency should be considered, the photocatalytic reactor differed greatly from a typical fluidized bed reactor.

  11. Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (piliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function.

  12. Biomass ash-bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in FBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, H.J.M.; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial-scale ins......In (bubbling) fluidized-bed combustion and gasification of biomass, several potential problems are associated with the inorganic components of the fuel. A major problem area is defluidization due to bed agglomeration. The most common found process leading to defluidization in commercial...... describes a fundamental study on the mechanisms of defluidization. For the studied process of bed defluidization due to sintering of grain-coating layers, it was found that the onset of the process depends on (a) a critical coating thickness, (b) on the fluidization velocity when it is below approximately...... four times the minimum fluidization velocity, and (c) on the viscosity (stickiness) of the outside of the grains (coating)....

  13. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  14. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  15. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  16. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  17. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6070 - Bed board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed board. 880.6070 Section 880.6070 Food and... GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6070 Bed board. (a) Identification. A bed board is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  19. Lower Kittanning Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Lower Kittanning coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal...

  20. Upper Freeport Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Upper Freeport coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal...

  1. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values...

  2. Pittsburgh Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pittsburgh coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  3. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Original Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with original resource values...

  4. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed County Statistics (Geology) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness...

  5. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  6. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  7. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  9. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  10. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  11. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  12. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  13. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., > or = 22 days) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, experimental studies revealed changes in the gray matter (GM) of the brain after simulated microgravity. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning and motor behavior. Long duration head-down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on the brain. VBM analysis revealed a progressive decrease from pre- to in- bed rest in GM volume in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate. Over the same time period, there was a progressive increase in GM volume in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus. The majority of these changes did not fully recover during the post-bed rest period. Analysis of lobular GM volumes obtained with BRAINS showed significantly increased volume from pre-bed rest to in-bed rest in GM of the parietal lobe and the third ventricle. Temporal GM volume at 70 days in bed rest was smaller than that at the first pre-bed rest measurement. Trend analysis showed significant positive linear and negative quadratic relationships between parietal GM and time, a positive linear relationship between third ventricle volume and time, and a negative linear

  14. Application of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik M.W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the safety of using Saudi date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers. Date palm trees mulch was used as bedding material for 10 days. Final Composite regulated elements (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, moisture, and EC were improved by use of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material especially in concrete area (1.85%, 0.50%, 1.42%, 0.59%, 2.56%, 0.26%, 60.00%, 49.40%, 7.53, 30%, 16.88 for N, P, K, Na, Ca. Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, Moisture and Electrical conductivity, respectively. On a dry matter basis, highly enriched element fresh manure was collected from the concrete section bedded with date palm trees mulch. Both Concrete area bedded with date palm trees mulch and Sand area bedded with date palm trees mulch were free of salmonella after 10 days. Date palm trees mulch was unsuitable medium for pathogenic bacteria especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 .Total viable bacterial counts failed to increase with the incubation time (104. Date palm tree mulch was unsuitable medium for flies and minimizes density of house flies. Date palm trees mulch seemed to be a safe, comfortable and effective bedding material for cow’s feedlots.

  15. Hospital Bed Type, the Electronic Medical Record, and Safe Bed Elevation in the Intensive Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Zachary W; Duquaine, Damon; Ohkuma, Rika; Schneider, Eric B; Whitman, Glenn J R

    2016-01-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, head of bed (HOB) elevation above 30° decreases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The research team studied (a) compliance with proper HOB elevation in their cardiac surgical intensive care unit, (b) the accuracy of HOB angles recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and (c) the effect of bed type on (a) and (b). Nurses were polled to discover how HOB angles were measured in practice. HOB angles were compliant in 80% of observations. Compliance was more frequent in beds with side-of-bed angle indicators (SBI) than beds with under-bed angle indicators (UBI; 88% vs 77%, P = .04). Charting in the EMR was accurate in 50% of SBI bed observations but only 20% of UBI bed observations (P bed type. Bedside indicators are underutilized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  17. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  18. Comprehensive Mathematical Model for Coal Combustion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓钟; 吕俊复; 杨海瑞; 刘青; 岳光溪; 冯俊凯

    2001-01-01

    Char combustion is on a special reducing condition in the dense bed of a circulating fluidized bedcombustor. Experimental findings were used to develop a comprehensive mathematical model to simulate thehydrodynamic and combustion processes in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. In the model, gas-solidinteraction was used to account for the mass transfer between the bubble phase and the emulsion phase in thedense bed, which contributes to the reducing atmosphere in the dense bed. A core-annular structure wasassumed in the dilute area rather than a one-dimensional model. The submodels were combined to build thecomprehensive model to analyze the combustion in a circulating fluidized bed combustor and the effect ofoperating parameters on the coal combustion. The model predictions agree well with experimental results.

  19. Performance of a magnetically stabilized bed reactor with immobilized yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V; Hristov, J; Dobreva, E; al-Hassan, Z; Penchev, I

    1996-05-01

    This paper is focused on the possibility to apply the magnetic stabilization technique in bioprocessing. The feasibility of a continuous ethanol fermentation process with immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) was demonstrated. The fermentation processes were carried out in an external magnetic field, transverse to the fluid flow. The flexibility to change the bed expansion owing to the independent change of the fluid flow and the field intensity (the "magnetization FIRST" mode) permitted the creation of fixed beds with different particle arrangements, which affected the bed porosity, the effective fluid-particle contact area, and the mass transfer processes on the particle-fluid interface. As a result, higher ethanol concentration, ethanol production, and glucose uptake rates than in conventional packed bed reactor were reached.

  20. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...... inspiration to researchers on how to possibly build their own customized systems....

  1. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  2. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia); Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat [Department of Mechanical & Chemical Engineering, Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur 1704 (Bangladesh); Naser, Jamal, E-mail: jnaser@swin.edu.au [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2016-07-12

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO{sub 2} emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can’t model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  3. A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Ovi, Ifat Rabbil Qudrat; Naser, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries. Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. Biomass is a widely accessible renewable energy source which reduces CO2 emissions for producing thermal energy or electricity. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging. CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. Available CFD codes can model the gas phase combustion but it can't model the solid phase of biomass conversion. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase. It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Packed bed is considered as a porous bed and User Defined Functions (UDFs) platform is used to introduce solid phase user defined variables in the CFD. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method (DTRM) is applied to model the radiation heat transfer. Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion.

  4. What is a hospital bed day worth? A contingent valuation study of hospital Chief Executive Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Katie; Barnett, Adrain G; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-02-14

    Decreasing hospital length of stay, and so freeing up hospital beds, represents an important cost saving which is often used in economic evaluations. The savings need to be accurately quantified in order to make optimal health care resource allocation decisions. Traditionally the accounting cost of a bed is used. We argue instead that the economic cost of a bed day is the better value for making resource decisions, and we describe our valuation method and estimations for costing this important resource. We performed a contingent valuation using 37 Australian Chief Executive Officers' (CEOs) willingness to pay (WTP) to release bed days in their hospitals, both generally and using specific cases. We provide a succinct thematic analysis from qualitative interviews post survey completion, which provide insight into the decision making process. On average CEOs are willing to pay a marginal rate of $216 for a ward bed day and $436 for an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) bed day, with estimates of uncertainty being greater for ICU beds. These estimates are significantly lower (four times for ward beds and seven times for ICU beds) than the traditional accounting costs often used. Key themes to emerge from the interviews include the importance of national funding and targets, and their associated incentive structures, as well as the aversion to discuss bed days as an economic resource. This study highlights the importance for valuing bed days as an economic resource to inform cost effectiveness models and thus improve hospital decision making and resource allocation. Significantly under or over valuing the resource is very likely to result in sub-optimal decision making. We discuss the importance of recognising the opportunity costs of this resource and highlight areas for future research.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  6. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  7. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  8. Distribution features, transport mechanism and destruction of cuttings bed in horizontal well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-hua; SUN Chao; TONG Hua

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to develop methods of solving the issue of cuttings bed in horizontal wells,a 3-D transient model is established to simulate the distribution features and the transport mechanism of cuttings bed.The CFD calculation results show that the cuttings at the cross-sectional area of the mutation location such as the drilling pipe connector would easily settle down to build up a cuttings bed and the transport performance of the cuttings in a horizontal well can only be improved to some extent by adjusting the working parameters without using any destruction tools for the cuttings bed,thus the issue of a cuttings bed can not be solved in general.Accordingly,a new approach to effectively prevent and actively destroy the cuttings bed by using the Cuttings Bed Impeller (CBI) is proposed,the sensitivity analysis of which is conducted to determine the optimal structural parameters and the best matched working parameters from a perspective of the wellbore cleaning.Results show that the use of the CBI produces a number of benefits,including the reduced drill string torque to avoid the stuck pipe incidents with corresponding improvement in hole quality,a shorter trip time,and less wear on the drill string,the top drive and the casing.This research offers theoretical guidelines for the design of destruction tools for the cuttings bed and for the wellbore cleaning control in the horizontal drilling.

  9. Bed site selection by neonate deer in grassland habitats on the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bed site selection is an important behavioral trait influencing neonate survival. Vegetation characteristics of bed sites influence thermal protection of neonates and concealment from predators. Although previous studies describe bed site selection of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in regions of forested cover, none determined microhabitat effects on neonate bed site selection in the Northern Great Plains, an area of limited forest cover. During summers 2007–2009, we investigated bed site selection (n  =  152) by 81 radiocollared neonate white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota, USA. We documented 80 (52.6%) bed sites in tallgrass–Conservation Reserve Program lands, 35 (23.0%) bed sites in forested cover, and 37 (24.3%) in other habitats (e.g., pasture, alfalfa, wheat). Bed site selection varied with age and sex of neonate. Tree canopy cover (P ratio  =  1.035, 95% CI  =  1.008–1.062) for every 1-cm increase in vertical height of understory vegetation. Management for habitat throughout the grasslands of South Dakota that maximizes vertical height of understory vegetation would enhance cover characteristics selected by neonates.

  10. Realistic packed bed generation using small numbers of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidis, D., E-mail: dimitrios.pavlidis04@imperial.ac.uk; Lathouwers, D.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A method for generating 3D, periodic, closely packed beds of small numbers (<50) of spheres is presented. • The method is able to reproduce characteristics for the entirety (including nearwall area) of a randomly stacked bed. • Results are in good agreement with reference numerical data. -- Abstract: A method for stochastically generating three-dimensional, periodic, closely packed beds of small numbers (less than 50) of spheres is presented. This is an essential and integral part of realistic modelling of fluid flow and heat transfer through packed beds. In order to be able to reproduce the entirety of these complex geometries (in the radial direction) using small numbers of spheres, they are divided into two regions: the near-wall region (up to 4–5 sphere diameters from the solid wall in the wall-normal direction) and the core region. Near-wall stackings are doubly periodic and include a solid wall, while core stackings are triply periodic. A computational method for generating such geometries is presented for each region. Both are based on overlap removal methods. Results are compared against reference numerical data. Diagnostics used to evaluate the models include average packing fractions and coordination numbers, porosity profiles and distributions of the angle between two spheres which touch a common neighbour. Results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the available reference data.

  11. State-of-the-art review and report on critical aspects and scale-up considerations in the design of fluidized-bed reactors. Final report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on the design of distributor plates and opening geometry to provide uniform flow over the reactor area. The design of granular bed filters is also considered. Pressure drops and particle size in the bed are discussed. (LTN)

  12. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  13. A methodology for projecting hospital bed need: a Michigan case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langley Shaun A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Michigan's Department of Community Health (MDCH is responsible for managing hospitals through the utilization of a Certificate of Need (CON Commission. Regulation is achieved by limiting the number of beds a hospital can use for inpatient services. MDCH assigns hospitals to service areas and sub areas by use patterns. Hospital beds are then assigned within these Hospital Service Areas and Facility Sub Areas. The determination of the number of hospital beds a facility subarea is authorized to hold, called bed need, is defined in the Michigan Hospital Standards and published by the CON Commission and MDCH. These standards vaguely define a methodology for calculating hospital bed need for a projection year, five years ahead of the base year (defined as the most recent year for which patient data have been published by the Michigan Hospital Association. MDCH approached the authors and requested a reformulation of the process. Here we present a comprehensive guide and associated code as interpreted from the hospital standards with results from the 2011 projection year. Additionally, we discuss methodologies for other states and compare them to Michigan's Bed Need methodology.

  14. [Configuration of pyrolytic chars from waste tires in fluidized bed reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu-qi; Yan, Jian-hua; Gu, Jie-yuan; Cen, Ke-fa

    2004-11-01

    With the fluidized bed as main reactor, the configuration of chars of waste tire was investigated. The change of specific surface area, porosity and specific pore volume of chars received at various temperature, diameter of bed materials and superficial fluidization number was mainly researched. The specific surface area and porosity of chars had the peak value at 650 degrees C or 750 degrees C, which showed there exists the best pyrolysis temperature from the angle of char quality and it will decrease with smaller diameter of bed materials, 0.135-0.304mm. The porosity of chars decreases with the fluidization number increasing. The change tendency of the specific surface area of chars with the fluidization number is correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. At 550 degrees C the specific surface area of chars decreases with the fluidization number increasing, while at 650 degrees C the other way round. The change tendency of the specific pore volume of chars with the temperature is correlated with the diameter of bed materials. With larger bed materials (0.304-0.4mm), the specific pore volume of chars rises at fisrt, then decreases with the temperature increasing, and with smaller bed materials, it decreases with the temperature increasing.

  15. Pattern recognition of the acoustic Sea-bed Profiling —Records and sea-bed geological classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Wenyun; LIN Yijun; ZHANG Shuying

    2001-01-01

    The physical properties of pattern characteristics for typical Acoustic Sea-bed Profiling Records (ASPRs) in the area of Changjiang Estuary and the East China Sea are analyzed in this paper. Nine pattern characteristics are summarized and it was shown that 9 geological categories can be determined by 4 pattern characteristics. Based on the above analysis, a Bayes-based pattern characteristics classifier for interpretation of ASPRs is developed.

  16. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of several types of spent livestock bedding in a batch leach-bed reactor: substrate characterization and process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, S; Torrijos, M; Debord, R; Esposito, G; van Hullebusch, E D; Steyer, J P; Escudié, R

    2017-01-01

    Spent animal bedding is a valuable resource for green energy production in rural areas. The properties of six types of spent bedding collected from deep-litter stables, housing either sheeps, goats, horses or cows, were compared and their anaerobic digestion in a batch Leach-Bed Reactor (LBR) was assessed. Spent horse bedding, when compared to all the other types, appeared to differ the most due to a greater amount of straw added to the litter and a more frequent litter change. Total solids content appeared to vary significantly from one bedding type to another, with consequent impact on the methane produced from the raw substrate. However, all the types of spent bedding had similar VS/TS (82.3-88.9)%, a C/N well-suited to anaerobic digestion (20-28, except that of the horse, 42) and their BMPs were in a narrow range (192-239NmLCH4/gVS). The anaerobic digestion in each LBR was stable and the pH always remained higher than 6.6 regardless of the type of bedding. In contrast to all the other substrates, spent goat bedding showed a stronger acidification resulting in a methane production lag phase. Finally, spent bedding of different origins reached, on average, (89±11)% of their BMP after 60days of operation. This means that this waste is well-suited for treatment in LBRs and that this is a promising process to recover energy from dry agricultural waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field

  18. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  19. Coal-Bed Methane Resource of Mesozoic Basins in Jiamusi Landmass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chengrun; Wu Wei; Zheng Qingdao

    2002-01-01

    As a new-replacement of energy resource, coal bed methane is the important gas resource with great strategic significance. There are several number of Mesozoic coal-bearing basins in Jiamusi landmass, eastern Heilongjiang Province. Theresult of the resource assessment revealed that the total resource less than 1 500 m,s depth in the area is about 2 100×108m3. It shows that Jiamusi landmass has great potential of coal-bed gas and is one of the most prospecting districts for developing coal-bed gas in CBM-province Northeast China.

  20. New environment-compatible heat-power plant Moabit with circulating fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, H.; Kuenisch, H.J.

    1987-06-09

    The authors report on the optimal utilisation of a city location for generating power and heat in a heat-power plant using circulating atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Because fluidized-bed combustion eliminates the need for secondary flue gas scrubbing equipment, the construction is highly compact. Also, this type of plant produces no waste water, so there is no disposal problem. Taking all aspects into consideration, circulating fluidized-bed combustion is especially interesting for heat-power plants in municipal areas with electrical block outputs of between 100 and 200 MW.

  1. Volatiles combustion in fluidized beds. [Quarterly] technical progress report, 4 December 1994--4 March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass II, R.A.; Mansker, L.D.; Hesketh, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the conditions in which volatiles will bum within both the dense and freeboard regions of fluidized beds. Experiments using a fluidized bed operated at incipient fluidization are being conducted to characterize the effect of particle surface area, initial fuel concentration, and particle type on the inhibition of volatiles within a fluidized bed. The work conducted during the period 4 December, 1994 through, 3 March 1995 is presented in this technical progress report. The research consists of the application of a detailed chemical kinetics model for propane combustion and planned improvements in the experimental system.

  2. Condition and Extent of the Natural Oyster Beds and Barren Bottoms in the Vicinity of Apalachicola, Fla.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of oyster beds in the vicinity of Apalachicola, FL was conducted in 1915. The area of the oyster beds is 7,135 acres, or 11.1 square miles, of which...

  3. Modelling glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsbauer, A.; Frey, H.; Haeberli, W.

    2016-01-01

    Surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness enable modelling of glacier-bed topographies over large ice-covered areas. Due to the erosive power of glaciers, such bed topographies can contain numerous overdeepenings, which when exposed following glacier...... future lake formation with associated opportunities (tourism, hydropower) and risks (lake outbursts)....

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  5. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  6. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  7. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-03-18

    Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  8. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  9. Physician-patient communication in single-bedded versus four-bedded hospital rooms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Goossensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether physician-patient communication in multi-bedded rooms differs from communication in single rooms during ward rounds. Methods: Ward rounds in single bedded patient rooms and ward rounds in four bedded rooms were audiotaped and analyzed with an adapted version of MIARS.

  10. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced concept system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    DONLEE Technologies Inc. is developing with support of the US Department of Energy an advanced circulating fluidized bed technology known as the Vortex{trademark} Fluidized Bed Combustor (VFBC). The unique feature of the VFBC is the injection of a significant portion of the combustion air into the cyclone. Since as much as one-half of the total combustion air is injected into the cyclone, the cross-sectional area of the circulating fluidized bed is considerably smaller than typical circulating fluidized beds. The technology is being developed for two applications: Industrial-scale boilers ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steam generating capacity; and two-stage combustion in which a substoichiometric Vortex Fluidized Bed Combustor (2VFBC) or precombustor is used to generate a combustible gas for use primarily in boiler retrofit applications. This Level II analysis of these two applications indicates that both have merit. An industrial-scale VFBC boiler (60,000 lb/hr of steam) is projected to be economically attractive with coal prices as high as $40 per ton and gas prices between $4 and $5 per thousand cubic feet. The payback time is between 3 and 4 years. The 2VFBC system was evaluated at three capacities of application: 20,000; 60,000 and 100,000 lb/hr of steam. The payback times for these three capacities are 4.5, 2.1 and 1.55 years, respectively. The 2VFBC has potential applications for retrofit of existing pulverized coal-fired boilers or as a new large (utility) boiler. Pressurized operation of the 2VFBC has considerable potential for combined cycle power generation applications. Experimental development of both applications is presented here to demonstrate the potential of these two technologies.

  11. The effect of different methods of seed bed preparation on greenhouse cucumber yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Momeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different methods of seed bed preparation on yield of greenhouse cucumber, a two-year long experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with four replications in Jiroft from 2004. Different methods of seed bed preparation were as follows: 1 ridge with 20 cm height and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows with 40 cm distance, 2 furrow with 20 cm depth and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows inside, with 40 cm distance, and 3 planting on flat area with 40 cm distance. The results showed that the effect of planting bed on yield of greenhouse cucumber was significant. Furrow and flat area increased yield significantly, compared to the ridge treatment. Analysis of yield components such as plant height, number of pickling fruits, number of leaves, photosynthetic area and number of flowers showed that they are all correlated with fruit yield. The number of pickling fruits was significantly more in furrow and flat area than in ridge treatment. The height of cucumber plants on flat bed was significantly higher than that of the other treatments. The number of leaves and photosynthetic area of plants on flat bed were significantly greater than those in the other treatments. The least dead plants due to fungi disease were observed in ridge treatment. In view of yield and its components under the condition of this experiment, it can be concluded that flat area and furrow treatments are better than ridge treatment.

  12. Evaluation of an insecticide dust band treatment method for controlling bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard; Liu, Chaofeng; Buczkowski, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    Current bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., control usually involves insecticide applications that pose a high risk of insecticide exposure to residents and applicators. To minimize these risks and the amount of insecticides used, we designed and evaluated a dust band treatment technique. The laboratory assay showed that 1% cyfluthrin dust treated bands are highly effective in killing bed bugs. We further evaluated this technique in bed bug infested apartments. The "dust band" treatment consisted of installing a 3.8-cm-wide fabric band on furniture legs and brushing Tempo dust (1% cyfluthrin) (Bayer Environmental Science, Research Triangle Park, NC) onto the bands. In addition, interceptors were installed under furniture legs. Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran) aerosol spray was applied directly to live bed bugs found on furniture during biweekly inspections. This treatment was compared with two other treatments: "integrated pest management" (IPM) and "control." The IPM treatment included dust bands plus the following: applying hot steam to infested furniture and surrounding areas, installing mattress encasements, applying 1% cyfluthrin dust around room perimeters, and installing interceptors under furniture legs. Alpine aerosol was applied to live bed bugs found during biweekly inspections. In the control group, the apartments received cursory treatment with insecticide sprays by the existing pest control contractor hired by the property management office. Bed bug numbers before and after treatments were determined based on biweekly interceptor counts or a combination of interceptor counts and visual inspections. From 0 to 12 wk, mean bed bug counts of the dust band, IPM, and the control treatment decreased by 95, 92, and 85%, respectively. Both dust band and IPM resulted in higher bed bug reduction than the control. There was no significant difference in the final counts between dust band and IPM treatments. An additional field experiment showed installing 1% cyfluthrin dust

  13. Propagation of a Strong Shock Over a Random Bed of Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Neal, C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Salari, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, T. L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Balachandar, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Thakur, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Propagation of a strong shock through a bed of particles results in complex wave dynamics such as a reflected shock, a transmitted shock, and highly unsteady flow inside the particle bed. In this paper we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock propagation in air over a random bed of particles. We assume the flow is inviscid and governed by the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Simulations are carried out by varying the volume fraction of the particle bed at a fixed shock Mach number. We compute the unsteady inviscid streamwise and transverse drag coefficients as a function of time for each particle in the random bed as a function of volume fraction. We show that (i) there are significant variations in the peak drag for the particles in the bed, (ii) the mean peak drag as a function of streamwise distance through the bed decreases with a slope that increases as the volume fraction increases, and (iii) the deviation from the mean peak drag does not correlate with local volume fraction. We also present the local Mach number and pressure contours for the different volume fractions to explain the various observed complex physical mechanisms occurring during the shock-particle interactions. Since the shock interaction with the random bed of particles leads to transmitted and reflected waves, we compute the average flow properties to characterize the strength of the transmitted and reflected shock waves and quantify the energy dissipation inside the particle bed. Finally, to better understand the complex wave dynamics in a random bed, we consider a simpler approximation of a planar shock propagating in a duct with a sudden area change. We obtain Riemann solutions to this problem, which are used to compare with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  14. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  15. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...

  16. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  17. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described

  18. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  19. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  20. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  1. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  2. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  3. Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Dwyer, Dominic E; Peñas, Pablo F; Russell, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations.

  4. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described b

  5. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  6. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  8. Impacts of bedding directions of shale gas reservoirs on hydraulically induced crack propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas reservoirs are different from conventional ones in terms of their bedding architectures, so their hydraulic fracturing rules are somewhat different. In this paper, shale hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out by using the triaxial hydraulic fracturing test system to identify the effects of natural bedding directions on the crack propagation in the process of hydraulic fracturing. Then, the fracture initiation criterion of hydraulic fracturing was prepared using the extended finite element method. On this basis, a 3D hydraulic fracturing computation model was established for shale gas reservoirs. And finally, a series of studies were performed about the effects of bedding directions on the crack propagation created by hydraulic fracturing in shale reservoirs. It is shown that the propagation rules of hydraulically induced fractures in shale gas reservoirs are jointly controlled by the in-situ stress and the bedding plane architecture and strength, with the bedding direction as the main factor controlling the crack propagation directions. If the normal tensile stress of bedding surface reaches its tensile strength after the fracturing, cracks will propagate along the bedding direction, and otherwise vertical to the minimum in-situ stress direction. With the propagating of cracks along bedding surfaces, the included angle between the bedding normal direction and the minimum in-situ stress direction increases, the fracture initiation and propagation pressures increase and the crack areas decrease. Generally, cracks propagate in the form of non-plane ellipsoids. With the injection of fracturing fluids, crack areas and total formation filtration increase and crack propagation velocity decreases. The test results agree well with the calculated crack propagation rules, which demonstrate the validity of the above-mentioned model.

  9. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  10. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  11. Comparing ownership and use of bed nets at two sites with differential malaria transmission in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Hayden, Mary H; Olsen, Heather; Cavanaugh, Jamie L; Ruberto, Irene; Agawo, Maurice; Munga, Stephen

    2016-04-14

    Challenges persist in ensuring access to and optimal use of long-lasting, insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Factors associated with ownership and use may differ depending on the history of malaria and prevention control efforts in a specific region. Understanding how the cultural and social-environmental context of bed net use may differ between high- and low-risk regions is important when identifying solutions to improve uptake and appropriate use. Community forums and a household, cross-sectional survey were used to collect information on factors related to bed net ownership and use in western Kenya. Sites with disparate levels of transmission were selected, including an endemic lowland area, Miwani, and a highland epidemic-prone area, Kapkangani. Analysis of ownership was stratified by site. A combined site analysis was conducted to examine factors associated with use of all available bed nets. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with ownership and use of owned bed nets. Access to bed nets as the leading barrier to their use was identified in community forums and cross-sectional surveys. While disuse of available bed nets was discussed in the forums, it was a relatively rare occurrence in both sites. Factors associated with ownership varied by site. Education, perceived risk of malaria and knowledge of individuals who had died of malaria were associated with higher bed net ownership in the highlands, while in the lowlands individuals reporting it was easy to get a bed net were more likely to own one. A combined site analysis indicated that not using an available bed net was associated with the attitudes that taking malaria drugs is easier than using a bed net and that use of a bed net will not prevent malaria. In addition, individuals with an unused bed net in the household were more likely to indicate that bed nets are difficult to use, that purchased bed nets are better than freely distributed ones, and that bed nets should only

  12. Sediment transportation and bed morphology reshaping in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta supports the ecological function as a typical estuarine foreshore wetland. The wetland area is changing greatly every year because of sediment deposition and erosion, which influences the wetland function tremendously. Application of environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) to the Yellow River Delta is on the basis of the mobile bed dynamic model and wetting-drying process. Careful calibration is carried out for the numerical model which is set up for the Yellow River Delta, the sediment transport process of the model is compatible to the Yellow River situation. The simulated bed elevation by considering the sediment deposition in the Mouth is particularly focused on, the numerical results are in agreement with the measured bed morphology within 1992 2000. Simulation in this paper indicates that most of the sediment deposited just out of the Mouth which makes the mouth move forward into the sea 2.5 km per year. This paper presents good results in simulation of varying sediment deposition and provides further methods to predict the future morphology and area of the Yellow River Delta.

  13. Bed bugs: they are back! The role of the school nurse in bed bug management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciscione, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of bed bugs in all facets of our society. Bed bugs have even been found in schools, causing unnecessary exclusion of students and unfounded hysteria. School nurses are again called upon to be front-line sources of information to quell the hysteria and confusion related to this unsavory condition. By arming themselves with the best evidence regarding proper identification of bed bugs and their bites and information about integrated prevention measures to control transmission of infestations, school nurses can contribute to the control and management of bed bugs and aid in the overall battle against this "new and improved" invasion of the bed bugs.

  14. Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fiuidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens,Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range of sphericities from 0.063 to 0.213. bulk densities from 0.038 to 0.251 g/cm3. apparent densities from 0.52 to 0.97 g/cm3 and ratios of total surface area to volume from 21 to 224 cm-t. Fluidization characteristic curves were obtained by measuring pressure drops versus air velocity in a rectangular column of 0.20m x 0.11 m cross section. It was not possible to reach real fluidized regimes with the leaves due to strongly non-homogeneous beds. Nevertheless, the characteristic curves allowed for the identification of a transition regime from fixed- to expanded-beds, and parameters such as air velocity and pressure drop obtained from the experimental data at the transition were reproducible for specimens with lower surface area or lower specific gravity (i.e., Duranta repens, Schinus molle, and Bougainvillea spectabilis).The transition velocity and pressure drop could not be predicted by the literature developed for estimat0.5 and 1.0 helped to reduce channeling and decrease the transition velocities from fixed to expanded regimes although it did not affect the pressure drops after the bed expansion. The results suggest that drying fresh leaves using the MCB dryer operating in a fluidized mode would not be feasible because none of the materials investigated attained a high-quality fluidization. Operation of the MCB dryer may be possible by alternating between the fixed and vibrofluidized modes. For the specimens tested, the drying should be performed in a range of air velocities from 0.50 to 0.60 m/s to ensure that the operation is in a vibrofluidized regime. The

  15. Effect of pressure on combustion of char in fluidised beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, E.; Blackshaw, H.W.; Davidson, J.F.; Goodyer, P.T.Y.; Hopes, R.B.; Kossakowski, E.R.

    1984-07-01

    Measurements of burn-out time are reported, for 0.25-1.7 mm carbon particles in an air-fluidised 100 mm dia bed of sand at pressures up to 17 bar absolute and bed temperatures of 1023-1173 K. A variety of carbons was used including (i) coke (ii) chars formed from coals of different ranks: thus the carbons had various porosities and surface areas. The effect of increased pressure is to increase the combustion rate, because of the higher oxygen concentration which accelerates the chemical reactions of combustion. On the other hand, pressure has virtually no influence on diffusion of oxygen towards a burning particle, because the higher oxygen concentration is offset by a proportionately lower diffusion coefficient. The overall effect is that as pressure increases, the chemical rate controlling steps become less important, so at very high pressure, combustion is diffusion controlled.

  16. Energy Saving by Novel Bed-Integrated Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Kehayova, Nushka; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    to suck the human bio-effluents at the area of the body where they are generated before they spread in the room. The air polluted with released bio-effluents is exhausted into the mattress near the body and is either cleaned and released back in the room or is removed from the room by connecting......-bed hospital patient room (1.3 air changes per hour (ACH)) and double-bed patient room (1.6 ACH) was assessed by means of dynamic computer simulations. The estimated annual energy consumption for the rooms using the VM combined with CAV was compared to the annual energy consumption when the CAV ventilation...... the mattress to the exhaust of the room background ventilation system. Comprehensive research reveals that the method is highly efficient for removal of bio-effluents. The energy saving potential of the VM combined with constant air volume (CAV) ventilation operating at reduced ventilation rate in a single...

  17. High power density reactors based on direct cooled particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Horn, F. L.

    Reactors based on direct cooled High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) type particle fuel are described. The small diameter particle fuel is packed between concentric porous cylinders to make annular fuel elements, with the inlet coolant gas flowing inwards. Hot exit gas flows out along the central channel of each element. Because of the very large heat transfer area in the packed beds, power densities in particle bed reactors (PBRs) are extremely high resulting in compact, lightweight systems. Coolant exit temperatures are high, because of the ceramic fuel temperature capabilities, and the reactors can be ramped to full power and temperature very rapidly. PBR systems can generate very high burst power levels using open cycle hydrogen coolant, or high continuous powers using closed cycle helium coolant. PBR technology is described and development requirements assessed.

  18. Segregation/Mixing Behavior ofBinary Particles and Formation of Doubl e-Density-Fl uidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current separator with air-dense-medium fluidized bed can only turn out two products at the sametime with a single separating density. The double-density-fluidized bed means that two separating areas with differ-ent densities are formed in a fluidized cascade. In each separating area, the bed density is uniform and meets thetechnical requirement of coal preparation respectively. Therefore, the processed materials can be separated intcthree products according to density. In this paper, the fluidized behaviors of binary dense media were experimental-ly studied and the distribution characteristics of particle concentration and bed density in different bed structurewere discussed. The segregation and mixing mechanisms of binary dense media were analyzed. It was testified thatthe pyramidal part designed in the bed structure played a key role in the formation of double-density-fluidized bed.The pyramidal part intensified the segregation of binary particles between two separating areas and strengthened themixing in the low density area, which made for the density uniform of the area.

  19. On different regime relations between bed load transport and bed topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Duan, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Bed load transport is determined by the effective part of the total shear stress subtracting the form drag that arises from bed topography. Wang et al. (2004) quantified the overall topographic roughness of the channel bed with the parameter Sp and claimed that the increasing Sp corresponds with increasing flow resistance and decreasing bed load transport rate due to increasing form drag and decreasing skin friction. However, the flume experiments for non-uniform sediment transport on steep slope at the University of Arizona show opposite results that bed load transport increases with Sp. We investigate the physical reason of the contrasting results for the full understanding of the different regimes between bed load transport and bed topography. We develop the energy conveyance equation for water flow and bed load transport and apply it to the development of the equilibrium relation between bed load transport and energy dissipation due to the form drag. The energy theory for bed load transport shows that since our flume experiments achieved the equilibrium transport state with water and sediment circulating supplying, the bed topography Sp is determined by the flow and sediment grain size, and the bed load transport is positively related to the energy dissipation rate which is thus positively related to Sp. However, in the field experiment of Wang et al. (2004), at first, the referenced Sp is determined by the most recent significant flood whereas the bed load transport is always below the transport capacity with insufficient sediment supply. After one-time sediment feed, the bed load transport rapidly varies from ephemeral full capacity state to sediment starving state. In this process, the removal of relative fine sediment results in the rapid increment of Sp from the instant equilibrium state to the referenced Sp whereas the coarsen bed leads to decrement of bed load transport. Eventually, the sediment starving state results in the increasing Sp and decreasing

  20. [Prediction model of health workforce and beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ru; Liu, Jiawang

    2011-12-01

    To construct prediction model for health workforce and hospital beds in county hospitals of Hunan by multiple linear regression. We surveyed 16 counties in Hunan with stratified random sampling according to uniform questionnaires,and multiple linear regression analysis with 20 quotas selected by literature view was done. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on medical personnels in county hospitals included the counties' urban residents' income, crude death rate, medical beds, business occupancy, professional equipment value, the number of devices valued above 10 000 yuan, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, and utilization rate of hospital beds. Independent variables in the multiple linear regression model on county hospital beds included the the population of aged 65 and above in the counties, disposable income of urban residents, medical personnel of medical institutions in county area, business occupancy, the total value of professional equipment, fixed assets, long-term debt, medical income, medical expenses, outpatient and emergency visits, hospital visits, actual available bed days, utilization rate of hospital beds, and length of hospitalization. The prediction model shows good explanatory and fitting, and may be used for short- and mid-term forecasting.

  1. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  2. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  3. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality.

  4. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors. PMID:28229101

  5. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  6. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  7. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  8. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  9. Paediatric burn unit in Portugal: Beds needed using a bed-day approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João V; Viana, João; Amarante, José; Freitas, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high burden of children with burns, there is not a paediatric burn unit (PBU) in Portugal. We aimed to estimate the Portuguese health care providing needs on paediatric burns. We performed a nation-wide retrospective study, between 2009 and 2013, among less than 16 years-old inpatients with burns that met the transfer criteria to a burn unit in Portugal. A bed-day approach was used, targeting an occupancy rate of 70-75%, and possible locations were studied. The primary outcome was the number of beds needed, and secondary outcomes were the overload and revenue for each possible number of beds in a PBU. A total of 1155 children met the transfer criteria to a burn unit, representing a total of 17,371 bed-days. Occupancy rates of 11-bed, 12-bed, 13-bed and 14-bed PBU were, respectively, 79.7%, 75.3%, 71.0% and 66.8%. The 13-bed PBU scenario would represent an overload of 523 bed-days, revenue of more than 5 million Euros and a ratio of 1 PBU bed per 123,409 children. Using a groundbreaking approach, the optimal number of PBU beds needed in Portugal is 13. However, as half of the patients who met burn transfer criteria are not transferred, this bed number might be overestimated if this pattern maintains, despite the underestimation with our method approach. If a PBU is to be created the preferable location is Porto. Cost-effectiveness studies should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Bed and width oscillations form coherent patterns in a partially confined, regulated gravel-cobble-bedded river adjusting to anthropogenic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spatial organization of river systems in light of natural and anthropogenic change is extremely important because it can provide information to assess, manage, and restore them to ameliorate worldwide freshwater fauna declines. For gravel- and cobble-bedded alluvial rivers studies spanning analytical, empirical and numerical domains suggest that at channel-forming flows there is a tendency towards covarying bankfull bed and width undulations amongst morphologic units such as pools and riffles, whereby relatively wide areas have relatively higher minimum bed elevations and relatively narrow areas have relatively lower minimum bed elevations. The goal of this study was to determine whether minimum bed elevation and flow-dependent channel top width are organized in a partially confined, incising gravel-cobbled bed river with multiple spatial scales of anthropogenic and natural landform heterogeneity across a range of discharges. A key result is that the test river exhibited covarying oscillations of minimum bed elevation and channel top width across all flows analyzed. These covarying oscillations were found to be quasiperiodic at channel-forming flows, scaling with the length scales of bars, pools and riffles. Thus, it appears that alluvial rivers organize their topography to have quasiperiodic, shallow and wide or narrow and deep cross section geometry, even despite ongoing, centennial-scale incision. Presumably these covarying oscillations are linked to hydrogeomorphic mechanisms associated with alluvial river channel maintenance. The biggest conclusion from this study is that alluvial rivers are defined more so by variability in topography and flow than mean conditions. Broader impacts of this study are that the methods provide a framework for characterizing longitudinal and flow-dependent variability in rivers for assessing geomorphic structure and aquatic habitat in space, and if repeated, through time.

  11. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...... difference between the area under the curve for the insulin response during the OGTT and that of the corresponding IVGI, respectively. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP measured during the OGTT were higher after the bed rest intervention (all P

  12. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed. As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22% of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4% unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p < 0.0038, and indicates that unfed bed bugs did not move as far as recently fed ones. A mathematical diffusion model was used to quantify bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm2/s to 0.416 cm2/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse.

  13. Characterization of biofilm in 200W fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saurey, Sabrina D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eisenhauer, Emalee E. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry

  14. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of vegetation on the system is less understood. Recent laboratory studies have focused on quantifying wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as a natural method to mitigate storm surges. The emergent vegetation, while promising for coastal protection, alters sediment transport rates directly by the physical presence of the plants near the bed and indirectly from reduction in near-bed shear stresses due to attenuated wave energy. The experimental work herein focuses on the area near the deeply submerged vegetated canopy limit (current work has a ratio of mean still water depth to plant height, H/h, = 7.9) to minimize the effect on the surface waves and discern the direct impact vegetation has on sand bed morphodynamics. Experiments were conducted in the large wave tank (49-m long by 1.83-m wide by 1.22-m deep) in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois in which a high reflection wave forcing was used over a uniform sand bed with a 0.25-mm median sediment diameter in which staggered and uniform arrangements of idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) were positioned along the bed (e.g., at predetermined sand bar troughs and over an entire sand bar). The resulting bathymetric evolution from the vegetated case experiments were compared to the base case of no vegetation using two optical methods: a high-resolution laser displacement sensor for three-dimensional surveys and digitized profiles via high-definition panoramic images of the entire test section. The experimental findings illustrate the profound

  15. Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2014-09-29

    Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more

  16. Performances of continuous dryer with inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluid bed dryer with inert particles represents a very attractive alternative to other drying technologies according to the main efficiency criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and speci­fic air consumption. A high drying efficiency results from the large con­tact area and from the large temperature difference between the inlet and outlet air. A rapid mixing of the particles leads to nearly isothermal conditions throughout the bed. A fluid bed dryer with inert particles was used for drying of slurries. Experiments were performed in a cylindrical column 215 mm in diameter with glass spheres as inert particles. In this paper, results of drying experi­ments with slurries of Zineb fungicide, copper hydroxide, calcium carbo­nate and pure water used as the feed material are presented. In our fluidized bed we successfully dried a number of other materials such as: fungicides and pesticides (Ziram, Propineb, Mangozeb, copper oxy-chloride, copper oxy-sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, other inorganic compounds (calcium sulphate, cobalt carbonate, electrolytic copper, sodium chloride, and a complex compound (organo-bentonite. The effects of operating conditions on dryer throughput and product quality were investigated. Main performance criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and specific air consumption, were quantified. Temperature profile along the bed was mapped, and nearly isothermal conditions were found due to thorough mixing of the particles. Analysis of drying and energy efficiencies as a function of inlet and outlet air temperature difference was performed for deeper insight in dryer behavior and for optimizing dryer design and operation from an energy point of view. A simple mathematical model based on an overall heat balance predicts the dryer performance quite well. The industrial prototype with fluid bed of 0.8 m in diameter and capacity 650 kg of evaporated moisture per

  17. Data and simulation modeling to determine the estimated number of primary care beds in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulat, P S; Foote, B L; Kasap, S; Splinter, G L; Lucas, M K

    1999-05-01

    Growth in managed care has resulted in an increased need for studies in health care planning. The article focuses on the estimated number of primary care beds needed in the state to provide quality services to all Oklahoma residents. Based on the 1996 population estimations for Oklahoma and its distribution to the 77 counties, a space-filling approach is used to determine 46 service areas, each of which will provide primary care service to its area population. Service areas are constructed such that residents of an area are within an acceptable distance to a primary care provider in the area. A simulation model is developed to determine the number of primary care beds needed in each service area. Statistical analysis on actual hospital data is used to determine the distributions of inpatient flow and length of stay. The simulation model is validated for acute care hospitals before application to the service areas. Sensitivity analysis on model input parameter values is performed to determine their effect on primary care bed calculations. The effect of age distribution on the bed requirement is also studied. The results of this study will assist the Oklahoma Health Care Authority in the development of sound health care policy decisions.

  18. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  19. Subglacial landforms beneath Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica: detailed bed topography from ice-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Edward C.; Pritchard, Hamish D.; Smith, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a digital elevation model of the bed of Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, derived from radio-echo sounding data. The data cover an 18 × 40 km area immediately upstream of the grounding line of the ice stream. This area is of particular interest because repeated seismic surveys have shown that rapid erosion and deposition of subglacial sediments has taken place. The bed topography shows a range of different subglacial landforms including mega-scale glacial lineations, drumlins and hummocks. This data set will form a baseline survey which, when compared to future surveys, should reveal how active subglacial landscapes change over time. These data also allow comparison between subglacial landforms in an active system with those observed in deglaciated areas in both polar regions. The data set comprises observed ice thickness data, an interpolated bed elevation grid, observed surface elevation data and a surface elevation grid. The data set is available at http://doi.org/269.

  20. Neuropeptides in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system: lateral retrochiasmatic area as a common gate for neuronal fibers towards the median eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, M

    1984-01-01

    The source and topography of neuropeptide-containing axons in the median eminence are summarized. Several of these neuropeptide-containing neurons (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, cholecystokinin) are localized in the paraventricular nucleus. The periventricular and medial preoptic nuclei constitute the main sources of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone axons in the median eminence, respectively. Dynorphins and alpha-neo-endorphin-synthetizing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus also project to the median eminence. Wherever they originate, the projections may follow a common organization pattern and use a common gate--the lateral retrochiasmatic area--to enter the median eminence.

  1. A turbulent bed contactor: energetic efficiency for particle collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gimenes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle collection experiments were conducted in a fluidizing irrigated bed to evaluate the performance of mobile packings: 38 x 50 mm plain oblate spheroids 38 mm ID plain spheres and alternative perforated spheres with a 38 mm ID and 10% and 25% free areas were used as fluidizing media in a 0.264 m diameter and 1.20 m high turbulent bed contactor (TBC. Particle collection experiments were carried out above the minimum fluidization velocity, using as particulate test powder polysized alumina (size 1.5 to 5.5 mm. Experimental results demonstrated that the perforated spheres performed better in collecting particles than the other packings tested. The efficiency of particle collection was analysed based on energy consumption in the TBC, using the energetic efficiency concept. It was verified that not much more energy was consumed per unit of gas flow in fluidized beds of perforated packings than in those of conventional plain sphere packings, since the perforated spheres were more energetically efficient for particle collection than plain spheres and oblate spheroid packings.

  2. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  3. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  4. Logging Evaluation of the Ordovician Carbonate Reservoir Beds in the Lungudong Region,Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wenjing; XIAO Chengwen; LIU Luofu; QI Guangzhong; JIANG Zhenxue; YUAN Yunchun; WANG Weili; YANG Song

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,great progress has been made constantly in oil and gas exploration in the Lungudong region of the Tarim Basin.However,progress has been slow in the evaluation of its main oil-producing horizons-the Ordovician carbonate reservoir beds.Based on previous researches and on the various data such as drilling,geology and oil test,in combination with the interpretation of each single-well imaging and conventional logging data,and through analysis and comparison,the identification methods in imaging and conventional logging for four types of carbonate reservoir beds in this region are summarized in this paper.Calculation formulas for four reservoir bed parameters,i.e.shale content,porosity,permeability and oil saturation in this region are proposed;and reservoir beds in this region are divided into three levels (Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ) by combining oil test data and logging data,The lower limits of the effective porosity of reservoir beds and the fracture porosity of effective reservoir beds are determined as 1.8% and 0.04%,respectively.The physical property parameters are calculated by conventional logging curves,and the most advantageous areas for reservoir development are predicted comprehensively.On the plane,the high-value zones of reservoir bed parameters are mainly concentrated in the N-S-trending strike-slip fault,the Sangtamu fault horst zone and near the LG38 well area;vertically,the reservoir bed parameters of the Yijianfang Formation are better than those of the Yingshan and Lianglitage formations.

  5. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  6. Is bed rest following embryo transfer necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lashen, H; Elgendy, M; Morgan, C; Sinclair, L

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of no bed rest following ET on the results of an IVF program. Historical cohort-control study. A University-based assisted conception unit. One thousand and nineteen (1019) IVF cycles were performed at our unit from June 1994 to August 1996. The historical control consisted of all the 19,697 IVF cycles reported in the United Kingdom national database from April 1994 to March 1995. No bed rest following ET in our patients. Pregnancy rate (PR) and clinical PR per cycles started and per ET procedure. The clinical PR per ET was significantly higher in our patients than in the national data (30% versus 22.9%), as was the clinical PR per cycle (23.5% versus 18.6%). The implantation rate in our patients was 17.2%. The favorable PR in our patients despite no bed rest following ET suggests the bed rest is not necessary.

  7. D7 debris-bed experiment. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G W; Ottinger, C A; Lipinski, R J

    1983-08-01

    The D7 experiment investigated heat removal from a shallow, stratified bed of UO/sub 2/ particulate in sodium. The particle diameters ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, with the largest particles at the bottom. The bed thickness was 74 mm and the average porosity was 41%. The incipient dryout power varied from 0.43 W/g to 0.25 W/g as the sodium subcooling (saturation temperature minus overlying pool temperature) was reduced from 390/sup 0/C to 170/sup 0/C. These powers were only slighlty above the incipient boiling powers. Such low dryout powers are believed due to the interaction of capillary force with bed stratification. With a subccoling of 130/sup 0/C several sudden decreases in the saturation temperature occurred. These are believed due to channel formation, which causes a reduction in the capillary pressure in the bed.

  8. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  9. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bed bugs easier to see. Be sure to purchase a high quality encasement that will resist tearing ... Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions Follow. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram Last updated on December ...

  10. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  11. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  12. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  13. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  14. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling bed bugs is complex. Using an integrated pest management (IPM) approach incorporates both non-chemical and pesticide methods. Success depends on the extent of the infestation, clutter on site, and resident participation.

  15. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  16. PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS IN GAS-SOLIDS FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiaotao Bi; Aihua Chen

    2003-01-01

    Pressure fluctuation data measured in a series of fluidized beds with diameters of 0.05, 0.1, 0.29, 0.60 and 1.56 m showed that the maximum amplitude or standard deviation increased with increasing the superficial gas velocity and static bed height for relatively shallow beds and became insensitive to the increase in static bed height in relatively deep beds. The amplitude appeared to be less dependent on the measurement location in the dense bed. Predictions based on bubble passage, bubble eruption at the upper bed surface and bed oscillation all failed to explain all observed trends and underestimated the amplitude of pressure fluctuations, suggesting that the global pressure fluctuations in gas-solids bubbling fluidized beds are the superposition of local pressure variations, bed oscillations and pressure waves generated from the bubble formation in the distributor region, bubble coalescence during their rise and bubble eruption at the upper bed surface.

  17. The influence of fibrous bed bulk density on the bed properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šećerov-Sokolović Radmila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean properties of seven different fibrous materials and the properties of their different bed bulk densities were investigated. The morphology of the surface, size and geometry were measured by optical microscopy. The bed porosity was measured by the weighing method. The experimental bed permeability, in a high range of bulk density, was calculated from the values of the sanitary water pressure drop at a constant temperature of 15°C, since the data followed Darcy's law. The Reynolds number for a fibrous bed was calculated using a relation from the literature. The Reynolds number was less than 1 for all ranges of fluid velocity. Three empirical relations for fibrous bed permeability were used and compared with the experimental data. It was determined that the empirical data depended on the fiber diameter and fraction of solid in the bed. The relative error linearly increased with increasing fiber diameter.

  18. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s{sup -1}), amplitude (0 mm-1 mm), bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m) as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups). The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within {+-}15%, was proposed. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Bed dynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with rod promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a gas-solid fluidized bed with different rod promoters have been investigated in terms of bed expansion and fluctuation, minimum fluidization velocity and distributor-to-bed pressure drop ratio at minimum fluidization velocity. Experimentation based on statistical design has been carried out and model equations using factorial design of experiments have been developed for the above mentioned quantities for a promoted gas-solid fluidized bed. The model equations have been tested with additional experimental data. The system variables include four types of rod promoters of varying blockage volume, bed particles of four sizes and four initial static bed heights. A comparison between the predicted values of the output variables using the proposed model equation with their corresponding experimental ones shows fairly good agreement.

  20. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  1. Pressure fluctuations in gas fluidized beds

    OpenAIRE

    Leckner Bo.; Palchonok Genadij I.; Johnsson Filip

    2002-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations in a fluidized bed are a result of the actions of the bubbles. However, the bubbles may be influenced by the air supply system and by the pressure drop of the air distributor. These interactions are treated for low as well as for high velocity beds by means of a simple model of the principal frequency of the pressure fluctuations. The model includes the interaction with the air supply system and describes qualitatively two important bubbling regimes: the single bubbl...

  2. BNNT Growth in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    fluidized bed and plasma assisted nanotube synthesis for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Within this context, we established new...bed and plasma assisted nanotube synthesis for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Within this context, we established new laboratories to...the path of using plasma assistance to growth BNNT in a manner similar to that of researchers at the Canadian Research Council. With our combined

  3. Calculating the need for intensive care beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gale A; Reynolds, Fiona; Stickley, John

    2012-11-01

    Prompted by high refused admission rates, we sought to model demand for our 20 bed paediatric intensive care unit. We analysed activity (admissions) and demand (admissions plus refused admissions). The recommended method for calculating the required number of intensive care beds assumes a Poisson distribution based upon the size of the local catchment population, the incidence of intensive care admission and the average length of stay. We compared it to the Monte Carlo method which would also include supra-regional referrals not otherwise accounted for but which, due to their complexity, tend to have a longer stay than average. For the new method we assigned data from randomly selected emergency admissions to the refused admissions. We then compared occupancy scenarios obtained by random sampling from the data with replacement. There was an increase in demand for intensive care over time. Therefore, in order to provide an up-to-date model, we restricted the final analysis to data from the two most recent years (2327 admissions and 324 refused admissions). The conventional method suggested 27 beds covers 95% of the year. The Monte Carlo method showed 95% compliance with 34 beds, with seasonal variation quantified as 30 beds needed in the summer and 38 in the winter. Both approaches suggest that the high refused admission rate is due to insufficient capacity. The Monte Carlo analysis is based upon the total workload (including supra-regional referrals) and predicts a greater bed requirement than the current recommended approach.

  4. Effects of bed material grain-size distribution on bed morphology at a river confluence - numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadian, Rasool; Đorđević, Dejana; Ghanbari, Sara

    2017-04-01

    River confluences play an important role in the drainage of a catchment and transport of sediments and pollutants within this area. Riverbed morphology at these important nodes of the river drainage network might be very complex as shown by numerous laboratory studies in movable bed models and scarce bathymetric surveys in the field. Different parameters were varied in laboratory confluences to infer which of them control morphodynamic processes at the confluence. It was shown that the development of three characteristic morphological elements, i.e. a bar with an avalanche face at the entrance of a tributary channel to the confluence, a scour hole and a separation zone bar in the confluence hydrodynamics zone, depended on: 1) the confluence plan-view (symmetrical or asymmetrical), 2) the junction angle, 3) the channel width ratio, 4) discharge and momentum-flux ratios of the combining flows, 5) sediment loads supplied into one or both upstream channels and 6) the sediment size of the bed material and of supplied sediments. However, most of studies were conducted with uniform sediments. There are only a few laboratory and numerical studies on the effect of bed material gradation on the erosion and deposition patterns in the confluence hydrodynamics zone (CHZ). This study, thus, focuses on effects that bed material grain-size distribution (GSD) has on these patterns at a river confluence. A layout of a 60o laboratory confluence of two straight channels with channel width ratio BT/BR=0.71 (where BT and BR are widths of tributary and main channels, respectively) is chosen for this numerical study. The laboratory confluence was created to study sediment transport and bed morphology at the confluence whose bed is filled with uniform sediments of D = 1.95 mm size. The experimental data from this confluence are selected for validation of a 3D finite-volume based model SSIIM1 that is used in the present study. Effects of GSD are analysed for four materials having the same D

  5. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  6. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  7. Multiscale statistical characterization of migrating bed forms in gravel and sand bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Lanzoni, Stefano; Wilcock, Peter R.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2011-12-01

    Migrating bed forms strongly influence hydraulics, transport, and habitat in river environments. Their dynamics are exceedingly complex, making it difficult to predict their geometry and their interaction with sediment transport. Acoustic instrumentation now permits high-resolution observations of bed elevation as well as flow velocity. We present a space-time characterization of bed elevation series in laboratory experiments of sand and gravel transport in a large 84 m long, 2.75 m wide flume. We use a simple filtering and thresholding methodology to estimate bed form heights and report that the shape of their probability density function (pdf) remains invariant to discharge for both gravel and sand and has a positive tail slightly thicker than Gaussian. Using a wavelet decomposition, we quantify the presence of a rich multiscale statistical structure and estimate the scale-dependent celerity of migrating bed forms, showing the faster movement of smaller bed forms relative to the larger ones. The nonlinear dynamics of gravel and sand bed forms is also examined, and the predictability time, i.e., the interval over which one can typically forecast the system, is estimated. Our results demonstrate that flow rate as well as bed sediment composition exert a significant influence on the multiscale dynamics and degree of nonlinearity and complexity of bed form evolution.

  8. Control of the Bed Temperature of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler by using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYGUN, H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating fluidized bed boilers are increasingly used in the power generation due to their higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Such boilers require an effective control of the bed temperature, because it influences the boiler combustion efficiency and the rate of harmful emissions. A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PSO-PID controller for the bed temperature of a circulating fluidized bed boiler is presented. In order to prove the capability of the proposed controller, its performances are compared at different boiler loads with those of a Fuzzy Logic (FL controller. The simulation results demonstrate some advantages of the proposed controller.

  9. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingwen Li; Pradeep Gopalakrishnana; Rahul Garg; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD-DEM simulations of small-scale systems.Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing,bed expansion,bubble behavior,solids velocities,and particle kinetic energy.Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters.However,a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters,indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20-40 particle diameters.Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds.Hence,for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns,the effect of wails has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  10. Effects of bed height on the biomechanics of hospital bed entry and egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryweather, Andrew S; Morse, Janice M; Doig, Alexa K; Godfrey, Nathan W; Gervais, Pierre; Bloswick, Donald S

    2015-01-01

    Although a significant proportion of patient falls in hospitals occur in the vicinity of the hospital bed, little is known about the contribution of bed height to fall risk. To compare lower extremity joint torques and angles during hospital bed entry and egress at two bed heights. Twelve adults (age > 55) were purposively selected and had variety of strength and mobility limitations. Biomechanical data for this pilot study were collected with three digital video cameras and processed to obtain estimates for joint torques and included angles. At the low bed height, hip torque for bed entry was significantly higher, and hip, knee, and ankle flexion angles were significantly smaller. The absence of significant differences in knee and ankle torques were the result of a compensation strategy that shifts the center of mass forward by flexing the torso during low bed ingress. Torque data from the egress motion were similar, however 50% of participants were unable to rise from the low bed without assistance. Healthcare providers should be aware that low bed heights pose safety risks to the population for which they were designed-elderly persons at high risk for falling.

  11. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  12. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  13. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  14. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  15. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Mancheno, M; Alarcon, J; Pesse, K

    1995-10-01

    Between 1991 and 1994, an intervention program with permethrin- and lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets was carried out over a period of nine months in each of five endemic, malarious areas of Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. This program was evaluated through household surveys, blood sampling, in-depth longitudinal studies, and entomologic analysis. Eighty-four communities (including approximately 35,000 individuals) were paired according to malaria incidence, size, and coverage with bed nets and then randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The results showed that peoples' acceptance of the measure was related to their perception of an immediate protective effect against insects. The effectiveness of the bed nets, measured as a reduction of malaria incidence in intervention communities as against control communities, showed large variations between and within the study areas. The protective efficacy varied between 0% and 70% when looking only at the postintervention differences between intervention and control groups. The average protection was 40.8% when considering a four-month incidence of clinical malaria attacks and 28.3% when considering a two-week malaria incidence. Important factors for the success of the bed net program were insect susceptibility to pyrethroids, high coverage with impregnated bed nets, high malaria incidence, good community participation, high mosquito densities when people go to bed, and a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum. In one area, where DDT spraying in the control communities was executed, the effectiveness of bed net impregnation was slightly better than that of spraying.

  16. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  17. 21 CFR 880.5120 - Manual adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual adjustable hospital bed. 880.5120 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5120 Manual adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A manual adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a manual...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  19. Effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Tsai, Wan-Tien; Cooper, Richard; White, Jeffrey

    2011-02-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

  20. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao

    2013-03-01

    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  1. Structure Design of Large-scale Sow House with Fermentation Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LlU; Zhaolong Ll; Jianglin LAN; Qinlou HUANG; Jianyang TANG; Wenquan YU; Huai SHl

    2014-01-01

    ln this research, the whole contact-type large-scale sow house with fer-mentation bed was designed. The planning area of the entire piggery was 5 700 m2 with workplace and green belts. The sow house was 93 m long and 33 m wide, a total of 3 069 m2, including office area of 60 m2 and aisle area of 107 m2. The fer-mentation bed had an area of 2 902 m2 with length of 88.7 m and width of 27.7 m. lts area accounted for 95% of the total area of sow house. The fermentation mattress had a depth of 80 cm, and had a volume of 2 321 m3, equivalent to 733 t of coconut chaff and rice chaff. On a large fermentation bed, the areas for boars, replacement gilts, pregnant sows, obstetric tables, nursery pigs, etc. were designed. The large-scale sow house with fermentation bed was equipped with the automatic feeding system, automatic sprinkler system, automatic positioning column for preg-nant sows, sows’ obstetric table system, fanning wet curtain cooling system, video monitoring system, environmental monitoring (light, temperature, water, humidity, CO2, NH3) and automatic control system. Every farming area was equipped with feeding trough and water trough. The water though was fixed with overflow pipe for removing the extra water. The house could hold 500-head sows. Each sow occu-pied 4.9 m2 of the fermentation bed in average. The designed sow house had a maximum annual output of 10 000 piglets.

  2. The Silurian Reservoir Bed-Differentiated Asphalts in Tarim Basin and Modeling Experiments on Their Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洛夫; 刘宏江; 王洪玉; 曾溅辉

    2002-01-01

    There is a type of asphalt that originated from differentiation from reservoir bed (named reservoir bed-differentiated asphalt) in the Silurian asphaltic sandstones of the Tarim Basin. These asphalts are the result of second-time charging of hydrocarbons into the Silurian reservoir, which were derived from Lower Paleozoic source rocks. Asphalt was differentiated from the reservoir bed in the hydrocarbon gathering area of secondary migration. The differen tiation is caused by changes in reservoir physical properties when pearl or chain hydrocarbons migrating through and gathering in the reservoir bed, and light components are lost and heavy ones are involved in the formation of asphalt or heavy oil. There are two kinds of occurrence of these asphalts in the Silurian system of the Tarim Basin. One is the poor heavy oil layer with lower oil saturation in trap and the other is scattered hydrocarbon distributed along the transport layer and unconformity surface. Reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts have two characteristics: total hydrocarbon content is high in extractable organic matter and the ratio of saturated to aromatic hydrocarbon is usually greater than unity. The physically modeling experiment has confirmed these characteristics and the genesis of the reservoir bed-differentiated asphalts.

  3. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  4. Evaluation of unconstrained monitoring technology used in the smart bed for u-health environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho; Yoo, Sooyoung; Han, Chunghyun; Kim, Seunghee; Shin, Jaehyuk; Choi, Jinwook

    2011-01-01

    Since ubiquitous technology is an emerging paradigm in healthcare, we wanted to evaluate its feasibility in the healthcare area. As a first step, we evaluated the feasibility of the smart bed. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the smart bed. Smart bed is a continuous ballistocardiogram monitoring device developed by Seoul National University. Eleven healthy subjects participated in the study. Each subject slept in the smart bed for two nights. To measure meaningful sleep periods, noisy sections were removed from the original signal. The subject's heart activity was obtained by automatic peak detection, using the AF2 peak detection algorithm. In this study, the feasibility of the smart bed was evaluated in terms of the meaningful sleep periods and the accuracy of automatic peak detection. On an average, 92.8% of sleep duration was meaningful. The accuracy of peak detection algorithm was also evaluated. The algorithm proved to have an accuracy of 95%; thus, we observe that 95% of the peak detection results were correct in comparison with the manual results. Based on the experimental results, we conclude that the smart bed can be a useful device for long-term monitoring in ubiquitous healthcare environments.

  5. Corrasion of a remoulded cohesive bed by saltating littorinid shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, C. L.; Sutherland, T. F.; Cloutier, D.; Patterson, S.

    2000-07-01

    Corrasion of a standard cohesive bed due to saltating gastropod shells of the species Littorina has been examined in a laboratory mini flume. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of shell size and number on bed erosion rate. The movement of shells by flows explain why intertidal, glacial clays in the Bay of Fundy (which are covered in places with Littorinid shells) suffer erosion because bed erosion rate increased up to 20-fold with the introduction of a single shell to the flume (27 m -2). The standard bed was made of potters clay which had an erosion threshold of 0.19 Pa and a fluid-induced erosion rate Eo=0.072( Uy- Ucrit) gm -2 s -1, where Uy is the azimuthal current speed at height y=0.10 m. Shells of seven differing sizes ( ds) were used to define the process of erosion by shell impacts. The threshold for shell motion ( Ugcrit) was linearly related to shell size in the form: Ugcrit=9.17×10 -3 ds-0.22 m s -1. Motion began by intermittent rolling, followed by continuous rolling and then by saltation. The shell speed in saltation was 68% that of Uy, thus 32% of the horizontal shell momentum was transmitted to the bed. The length/height ratio of saltations was 6.3, and was constant for all sizes, and the mean saltation frequency was 1.7 s -1. The shell erosion rate ( Es) increased with shell diameter for both the rolling and saltating phases. During the rolling phase, Es was up to 5 times greater than Eo at the same current speed. During saltation, Es was up to 20 times greater than Eo at the same current speed. The effect of shell number (1-7) was examined for the 7-10 mm size class. During rolling, Es increased linearly with shell number. For the saltating phase, Es increased in an asymptotic fashion, suggesting that groups of saltating shells affect the erosion process differently than single shells. The ballistic momentum flux ( T) of saltating shells is highly dependent on the area of impact ( Ag), which in the case of the littorinids, is

  6. Bed Bugs: Prevalence in Low-Income Communities, Resident's Reactions, and Implementation of a Low-Cost Inspection Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard

    2016-05-01

    We examined bed bug prevalence in 2,372 low-income apartments within 43 buildings in four New Jersey cities using a combination of resident interviews, brief visual inspections, and monitoring with Climbup Insect Interceptors. Infestation rates ranged from 3.8 to 29.5% among the buildings, with an overall infestation rate of 12.3%. Within each apartment, the bed area trapped significantly more bed bugs per trap than the sofa (or upholstered chair) area. African American residents had a proportionally higher number of bed bug infestations than white residents. Women were more likely to report bed bug bite symptoms than men. Only 68% of the residents who experienced bed bug infestations reported symptoms after being bitten (n = 475). Among those with self-reported symptoms (n = 319), the frequency of the reported symptoms was: pain 90%, itchiness 20%, welts 13%, and insomnia 8%. Fifty-nine percent of the residents (n = 539) who experienced bed bug infestations applied insecticides to control bed bugs. Climbup interceptors detected 89 ± 1% and brief visual inspections detected 72 ± 3% of the infestations. Only two out of 291 infestations were not detected by brief visual inspection or interceptors. Assuming US$50 per hour labor rate, the average per apartment cost for the building-wide bed bug monitoring protocol was US$12 per apartment. Forty-nine percent of the infestations detected by the protocol were in apartments whose residents were unaware of the bed bug activity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Experiments on the dryout behavior of stratified debris beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2015-10-15

    In case of a severe accident with loss of coolant and core meltdown a particle bed (debris) can be formed. The removal of decay heat from the debris bed is of prime importance for the bed's long-term coolability to guarantee the integrity of the RPV. In contrast to previous experiments, the focus is on stratified beds. The experiments have pointed out that the bed's coolability is significantly affected.

  8. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  9. Bed Stability and Debris Flow Erosion: A Dynamic "Shields Criterion" Associated with Bed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjas, A.; Hill, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are mass movements that play an important role in transporting sediment from steep uplands to rivers at lower slopes. As the debris flow moves downstream, it entrains materials such as loose boulders, gravel, sand and mud deposited locally by shorter flows such as slides and rockfalls. To capture the conditions under which debris flows entrain bed sediment, some models use something akin to the Shields' criterion and an excess shear stress of the flow. However, these models typically neglect granular-scale effects in the bed which can modify the conditions under which a debris flow is erosional or depositional. For example, it is well known that repeated shearing causes denser packing in loose dry soils, which undoubtedly changes their resistance to shear. Here, we present laboratory flume experiments showing that the conditions for entrainment by debris flows is significantly dependent on the aging of an erodible bed even for narrowly distributed spherical particles. We investigate this quantitatively using particle tracking measurements to quantify instantaneous erosion rates and the evolving bed structure or "fabric". With progressive experiments we find a signature that emerges in the bed fabric that is correlated with an increasing apparent "fragility" of the bed. Specifically, a system that is originally depositional may become erosional after repeated debris flow events, and an erodible bed becomes increasingly erodible with repeated flows. We hypothesize that related effects of bed aging at the field scale may be partly responsible for the increasing destructiveness of secondary flows of landslides and debris flows.

  10. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-02-15

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification to control of cell division during vulval organogenesis.

  11. Thermal Analysis of Fluidized Bed and Fixed Bed Latent Heat Thermal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technology is essential because its stores available energy at low cost. Objective of the work is to store the thermal energy in a most efficient method. This work is deal with thermal analysis of fluidized bed and fixed bed latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) system with different encapsulation materials (aluminium, brass and copper). D-Mannitol has been used as phase change material (PCM). Encapsulation material which is in orbicular shape with 4 inch diameter and 2 mm thickness orbicular shaped product is used. Therminol-66 is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). Arrangement of encapsulation material is done in two ways namely fluidized bed and fixed bed thermal storage system. Comparison was made between the performance of fixed bed and fluidized bed with different encapsulation material. It is observed that from the economical point of view aluminium in fluidized bed LHTS System has highest efficiency than copper and brass. The thermal energy storage system can be analyzed with fixed bed by varying mass flow rate of oil paves a way to find effective heat energy transfer.

  12. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  13. Flow Patterns at the Interface Between Free Flow and Sediment Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Zanello, Francesca; Pokrajac, Dubravka; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Bedload transport phenomena in rivers and reservoirs are driven by the flow pattern that develops at the interface between free flow and sediment bed. This is a very difficult area to investigate, due to heterogeneous flow which is often restricted to small length scales and hard to resolve with measuring instruments. Yet its interpretation is of prime interest for the understanding of the mass and momentum exchange between the free flow and the sediment. When dealing with the sediment transport triggering mechanism, most studies focus on the flow that develops above the bed, while the characteristics of the flow inside the bed are usually extrapolated from above or simply neglected. This approach yields an incomplete picture of what happens at the interface. Motivated by this, we propose a study where a free-surface flow tops a permeable bed composed of layers of equally-sized spherical beads. The physics of this configuration, originally analyzed with an experimental setup at the University of Aberdeen, was only partially understood, due to the difficulties in measuring velocity and pressure inside the pores. With a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) we resolve the velocity and pressure fields in both the free flow and inside the porous bed. The no-slip boundary along the beads' surface is imposed using immersed boundaries, which also allows to compute the force exerted by the flow. We observe the development of momentum exchange between free flow and the porous bed, which activates turbulence penetrations that affect the pores closer to the surface of the permeable bed, and has two important consequences. First, the streamwise velocity in these pores is lower than that in the lower layers, a fact that challenges the usual assumption of a monotonically decreasing velocity profile within the bed. Secondly, the turbulence penetration generates an extra fluctuating component in the sphere lift forces whose role for the initiation of their movement is still not clear.

  14. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, E.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  16. Grain Exchange Probabilities Within a Gravel Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the vertical exchange of sediments during floods. These exchanges regulate the virtual velocity of sediment and bed material texture. This study describes general tendencies in the vertical exchange of gravels within the substrate that result from multiple floods. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2000 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1991 and 1992. These tracers have been recovered 10 times over 12 flood seasons to quantify their vertical position in the streambed. For analysis, the bed is divided into layers based on armor layer thickness. Once tracers are well mixed within the streambed, grains in the surface layer are most likely to be mixed into the subsurface, while subsurface grains are most likely to persist within the subsurface. Fractional exchange probabilities approach size independence when the most active depth of the substrate is considered. Overall these results highlight vertical mixing as an important process in the dispersion of gravels.

  17. Nonlinear Mechanism of Bed Load Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haijue; BAI Yuchuan; NG Chiu-On

    2009-01-01

    From the group movement of the bed load within the bottom layer, details of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of bed load movement are discussed in this paper. Whether the sediment is initiated into motion cor-responds to whether the constant term in the equation is equal to zero. If constant term is zero and no dispersive force is considered, the equation represents the traditional Shields initiation curve, and if constant term is zero with-out the dispersive force being considered, then a new Shields curve which is much lower than the traditional one is got, The fixed point of the equation corresponds to the equilibrium sediment transport of bed load. In the mutation analysis, we have found that the inflection point is the demarcation point of breaking. In theory, the breaking point corresponds to the dividing boundary line, across which the bed form changes from flat bed to sand ripple or sand dune. Compared with the experimental data of Chatou Hydraulic Lab in France, the conclusions are verified.

  18. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  19. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  20. The suitability of horse manure and bedding materials for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyni, S.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: sanna.tyni@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    The number of horses has increased in Finland since 1994 approximately by 2000 horse/ year and 2008 there was almost 70000 registered horses and ponies in Finland. This has derived to a considerable number of new stables at city area where the waste management, particularly of the mixture of manure and bedding material, is a challenge. These stables have disposed their residues often by land filling. The present legislation prohibits the dispose of organic material by land filling since the anaerobic decomposition emits for example methane that is a greenhouse gas. The legislation also regulates using of manure as fertilizer in fields. This leads to the situation where stable owners have urge for new ways to dispose of residues. In Finland peat, sawdust, and straw are commonly used as a bedding material for horses in stable boxes. The more important function of the bedding material is to keep the boxes dry and clean by absorbing urine. The selection of bedding material depends on the properties of the materials such as availability, price, absorption capacity, and hygiene properties. Composting of sawdust is slower than peat, therefore mixture of manure and sawdust is not preferred for utilization as fertilizer. Additionally use of the manure residues as fertilizers is limited by impurities such as plant seeds in manure. Combustion would be attractive way to solve disposal problems of the mixture of manure and bedding materials. At the moment legislation in Finland defines manure residues as a waste. Therefore the combustion is only allowed in waste combustion units. If the combustion of the manure residues would be allowed at farms or at small local boilers, it enables farms to have better degree of self-sufficiency of energy. The utilization of these new materials as a fuel demands study of combustion properties of these biomasses. It is also essential to have knowledge of chemical composition and behaviour of ashes, when the final disposing is considered e.g. as

  1. Airflow attenuation and bed net utilization: observations from Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Seidlein Lorenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Methods Qualitative studies suggest that bed nets affect the thermal comfort of users. To understand and reduce this discomfort the effect of bed nets on temperature, humidity, and airflow was measured in rural homes in Asia and Africa, as well as in an experimental wind tunnel. Two investigators with architectural training selected 60 houses in The Gambia, Tanzania, Philippines, and Thailand. Data-loggers were used to measure indoor temperatures in hourly intervals over a 12 months period. In a subgroup of 20 houses airflow, temperature and humidity were measured at five-minute intervals for one night from 21.00 to 6.00 hrs inside and outside of bed nets using sensors and omni-directional thermo-anemometers. An investigator set up a bed net with a mesh size of 220 holes per inch2 in each study household and slept under the bed net to simulate a realistic environment. The attenuation of airflow caused by bed nets of different mesh sizes was also measured in an experimental wind tunnel. Results The highest indoor temperatures (49.0 C were measured in The Gambia. During the hottest months of the year the mean temperature at night (9 pm was between 33.1 C (The Gambia and 26.2 C (Thailand. The bed net attenuated the airflow from a minimum of 27% (Philippines to a maximum of 71% (The Gambia. Overall the bed nets reduced airflow compared to un-attenuated airflow from 9 to 4 cm sec-1 or 52% (p -2 reduced airflow by 55% (mean; range 51 - 73%. A denser net (200 holes inch-2 attenuated airflow by 59% (mean; range 56 - 74%. Discussion Despite concerted efforts to increase the uptake of this intervention in many areas uptake remains poor. Bed nets reduce airflow, but have no influence on temperature and humidity. The discomfort associated with bed nets is likely to be most intolerable during the hottest and most humid period of the year, which frequently coincides with the peak of malaria vector densities and the force

  2. The virtual institution: cross-sectional length of stay in general adult and forensic psychiatry beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Dunn, Warren; O'Toole, Clare; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-01-01

    Length of stay in psychiatric hospitals interests health service planners, economists and clinicians. At a systems level it is preferable to study general adult and forensic psychiatric beds together since these are likely to be inter-dependent. We examined whether patients were placed according to specialist need or according to their cross-sectional length of stay. A one night census of all registered mental nursing home (RMNH) beds was carried out for a defined catchment area of 1.2 m population in north London in November 1999. This included all public sector psychiatric hospital beds, independent sector and forensic beds in and outside the catchment area. Cross-sectional length of stay was defined as time since the date of admission from the community. Log rank (Mantel-Cox) Chi squared was used to test for differences between groups and hierarchical logistic regression for statistical modelling. There were 1,085 occupied psychiatric beds. Cross-sectional LOS was greater than 365 days in 43.5%. Forensic beds had longer cross-sectional LOS than general beds. LOS increased with the level of therapeutic security from open through low, medium and high secure. Cross-sectional LOS was shorter for open hospital beds than community RMNH beds, shorter for informal patients than those detained under civil mental health law, and longest for forensic detentions. Longest cross-sectional LOS were for patients placed in RMNHs in the community, 10.7% of whom were 'forensic' as were 25.4% of low secure patients. Designated length of stay (acute, rehab/medium term and long term) was also associated with increasing cross-sectional LOS. In regression analysis only three variables contributed to a model of cross-sectional LOS, commissioning status (general or forensic), designated length of stay and designated level of therapeutic security. Studying cross-sectional LOS for whole systems (all psychiatric beds) is essential for operational health service management. At the time of

  3. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  4. Methane desorption from a coal-bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.P. Feldman; T.A. Vasilenko [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Donetsk Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2007-11-15

    We study the desorption of methane from a coal-bed. A model taking into account both methane diffusion in coal-blocks and its filtration through the system of open pores and cracks is developed. Methane pressure in the coal-bed is found for an arbitrary instant of time. Dependency of the rate of methane release upon the block size, open and closed porosity, viscosity, solubility, bed pressure and temperature is established. We derive the effective coefficient of diffusion of methane in blocks containing closed pores filled with gaseous methane. It is shown that at a hindered diffusion methane is distinctly divided into the 'quick' and the 'slow' one. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Past a Permeable Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venugopal

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates mass flow velocity heat transfer rates and velocity/temperature distributions in the viscous, incompressible and slightly conducting fluid past a permeable bed in three different configurations namely (1 Couette flow (2 Poiseuille flow and (3 free surface flow, under the influence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. To discuss the solution, the flow region is divided into two zones : Zone 1 (from the impermeable upper rigid plate to the permeable bed in which the flow is laminar and governed by Navier-Stokes equations, and Zone 2 (the permeable bed below the nominal surface in which the flow is governed by Darcy law. The paper also investigates the effects of magnetic field, porosity and Biot number on the physical quantities mentioned above.

  6. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  7. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  8. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  9. Community dynamics of intertidal soft-bottom mussel beds over two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttger, Heike; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Buschbaum, Christian; Dittmann, Sabine; Nehls, Georg

    2008-03-01

    Macrozoobenthos communities in the North Sea showed pronounced changes over the past decade in relation to an increasing number of invasive species and climate change. We analysed data sets spanning 22 years on abundance, biomass and species composition of intertidal soft bottom mussel beds near the island of Sylt (German Bight) in the Northern Wadden Sea, based on surveys from 1983/1984, 1990, 1993 and from 1999 to 2005. Mussel bed area and blue mussel biomass decreased, and a change in the dominance structure in the associated community comparing 1984 to mid-1990s with the period from 1999 to 2005 was observed. Coverage of the mussel beds with the algae Fucus vesiculosus decreased since the end of the 1990s. Within the study period biomass and densities of the associated community increased significantly. Dominance structure changed mainly because of increasing abundances of associated epibenthic taxa. Apart from the Pacific oyster C rassostrea gigas all other alien species were already present in the area during the study period. Community changes already started before Pacific oysters became abundant. An attempt is made to evaluate effects on the observed changes of decreasing mussel biomass, ageing of mussel beds, decreasing fucoid coverage and increasing abundances of invader. All four factors are assumed to contribute to changing community structure of intertidal mussel beds.

  10. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  11. Development of a hover test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason Alan

    This research examines the development, validation, and verification of a hover test bed at the Missile Defense Agency's National Hover Test Facility located at the Air Force Research Laboratory on Edwards Air Force Base, California. This work's scope includes the development of a test bed for exoatmospheric kill vehicle testing in an integrated hover test arrangement. The approach involved reactivation of the facility, design of a risk reduction methodology, and vehicle performance verification. Details from a combustion stability issue on the divert engine is investigated, and changing the diameter of the injector reduced a first tangential combustion chamber mode combustion instability from 17.8% to 0.8%.

  12. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  13. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  14. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  15. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  16. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  17. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy G Gillis

    Full Text Available Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand. We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and

  18. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  19. Critical conditions of bed sediment entrainment due to debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes entrainment characteristics of bed material into debris flow, based on flume tests, numerical and dimensional analyses. Flume tests are conducted to investigate influences of bed sediment size on erosion rate by supplying debris flows having unsaturated sediment concentration over erodible beds. Experimental results show that the erosion rate decreases monotonically with increase of sediment size, although erosion rate changes with sediment concentration of debris flow body. In order to evaluate critical condition of bed sediment entrainment, a length scale which measures an effective bed shear stress is introduced. The effective bed shear stress is defined as total shear stress minus yield stress on the bed surface. The results show that critical entrainment conditions can be evaluated well in terms of Shields curve using the effective bed shear stress instead of a usual bed shear stress.

  20. BED-LOAD TRANSPORT IN THE SOUTH CHANNEL OF THE CHANGJIANG ESTUARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cailan GONG; Caixing YUN; Jianjun JIN

    2002-01-01

    The bed-load movement and the evolution of the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary are studied by using the geographic information system and the remote sensing image processing software Analysis on the erosion and siltation of the river mouth is performed for the period 1988-2000. The possible location and thickness of the future deposition areas in the estuarine channels are predicted.

  1. Alternating electric field fluidized bed disinfection performance with different types of granular activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Yntema, D.R.; Kazlauskaite, L.; DuBois, A.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pathogens from effluents is important to promote the reuse of these water resources and safeguarding human health, especially in water scarce areas worldwide. Previously a proof-of-principle of a method for water disinfection consisting of fluidized bed electrodes (FBE) with RX3 EXTRA

  2. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  3. Fluidised bed technology – Applications and R&D in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2007-06-28

    Full Text Available Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98 % burnout to provide hot gases for drying slag. Subsequently also used for organic waste incineration. Project duration : 1988 to 1989 Current...

  4. Epidemiology of grey mould in annual waiting-bed production of strawberry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Kastelein, P.; Kraker, de J.; Gerlagh, M.; Köhl, J.

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of Botrytis cinerea was studied in five annual strawberry crops using waiting-bed transplants, a system widely adopted in the Netherlands. On dead leaves of transplants the incidence of B. cinerea varied from 26.7 o 52.6°but the leaf area with potential sporulation was low (3.5–15.6

  5. Perspectives for Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor Technology using Rotating Fluidized Beds in a Static Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broqueville, Axel De; Wilde, Juray De

    The new concept of a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry opens perspectives for fluidized bed nuclear reactor technology and is experimentally and numerically investigated. With conventional fluidized bed technology, the maximum attainable power is rather limited and maximum at a certain fluidization gas flow rate. Using a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry, the fluidization gas drives both the centrifugal force and the counteracting radial gas-solid drag force in a similar way. This allows operating the reactor at any chosen sufficiently high solids loading over a much wider fluidization gas flow rate range and in particular at much higher fluidization gas flow rates than with conventional fluidized bed reactor technology, offering increased flexibility with respect to cooling via the fluidization gas. Furthermore, the centrifugal force can be a multiple of earth gravity, allowing radial gas-solid slip velocities much higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The latter result in gas-solid heat transfer coefficients one or multiple orders of magnitude higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The combination of dense operation and high fluidization gas flow rates allows process intensification and a more compact reactor design.

  6. Loading and Unloading Weaned Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of weaned pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps below 20° to load and unload pigs. Three ramp angles (0°, 10° or 20°, five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay, two moistures (dry or wet bedding; >50% moisture over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 6,000 pig observations. “Score” was calculated by the sum of slips, falls, and vocalizations. With the exception of using feed as a bedding, all beddings provided some protection against elevated slips, falls, and vocalizations (P < 0.01. Providing bedding reduced (P < 0.05 scores regardless of whether the bedding was dry or wet. Scores increased as the slope increased (P < 0.01. Provision of bedding, other than feed, at slopes greater than zero, decreased slips, falls and vocalizations. The total time it took to load and unload pigs was

  7. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  8. Dry lake beds as sources of dust in Australia during the Late Quaternary: A volumetric approach based on lake bed and deflated dune volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farebrother, Will; Hesse, Paul P.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Jones, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Dust affects Earth's climate, ecology and economies across a broad range of scales, both temporally and spatially, and is an integral part of the earth's climate system. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of inland lake beds to dust emissions both locally and globally. This study aims to explore the relative volumetric importance of ephemeral lakes that emit dust to the Australian southeastern dust path over the last glacial cycle. SRTM DEMs and GIS analyses of long-term (up to 80 ka) lake-bed deflation volumes and deposition of sand-sized sediment onto downwind source bordering dunes were used to derive estimates of transported dust mass. A strong power relationship was found between lake area and the mass of deflated lake bed sediments. Total dust masses for the largest 53 lakes in southeastern Australia were derived using the relationship between lake area and dust mass and used to determine an upper value for total dust mass deflated from lake beds in southeastern Australia. Ephemeral lake-derived dust was found to represent at most 13% of the dust derived from southeastern Australia deposited in the southern Pacific over the last 80 ka or 22% over the last 40 ka. Lake Eyre (the largest lake) has contributed at most 3% of the Australian southeast dust plume. These results imply that there are significant additional sources of dust in Australia over these timescales, such as floodplains or dunefields, and that modelling must allow for diverse climatic and geomorphic controls on dust production.

  9. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Hossein Omid; Masoud Karbasi; Javad Farhoudi

    2010-12-01

    The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250 mm wide and 12·5 m long with glass-sides of rectangular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass. Steady flow of clear as against sediment-laden water with different flow depths and velocities were studied in the experiments with a fine sand ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm). The results indicate that the transport of fine particles ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 22% and 24% respectively for smooth and rough beds. Increasing the bed-load size ($d_{50} =$ 2·84 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 32% and 39% respectively for smooth and rough beds. The decrease in flow resistance is due to filling up of the troughs of dunes. This separation zone is responsible for increasing the flow resistance. On the upstream side of dunes condition is similar to plane bed. Presence of bed-load causes to increase the shear velocity and hence increasing flow resistance. But decreasing in flow resistance is more and it causes to decrease the total flow resistance. Grains saturated the troughs in the bed topography, effectively helping in smoothening of bed irregularities.

  10. A randomized trial to evaluate a launderable bed protection system for hospital beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Edmond A; Allen, Steven; Gray, Larry; Kaufman, Cynthia

    2012-07-26

    Hospital beds are potential reservoirs of bacteria in hospitals. Preventing contamination of the bed and providing a cleaner surface should help prevent hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Most hospital beds are cleaned between patients (terminal cleaning) using quaternary ammonia compounds (quats). The study had two objectives: identify levels of bacterial contamination on beds (including the mattress and bed deck) and evaluate a new launderable cover. Hospital beds on a bariatric surgery ward were randomized to either receive or not receive a launderable cover (Trinity Guardion, Batesville, IN). Bacterial counts on the surface of the mattress, the bed deck, and the launderable cover were then collected using Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count Plates (Petrifilm™, 3M™, St. Paul, MN, USA) (Petrifilm™) at three time periods (before patient use, after discharge, and after terminal cleaning). Standard hospital linen was used in all rooms. The launderable cover (n = 28) was significantly cleaner prior to patient use than were the cleaned mattresses (n = 38) (1.1 CFU/30 cm2 vs. 7.7 CFU/30 cm2; p = 0.0189). The mattresses without launderable covers became significantly contaminated during use (7.7 CFU/30 cm2 on admission vs. 79.1 CFU/30 cm2 after discharge; p bed deck was more contaminated (6.7 CFU/30 cm2 after discharge compared to 30.9 CFU/30 cm2 after terminal cleaning; p = 0.031). Terminal cleaning fails to eliminate bacteria from the surface of the hospital mattress. The launderable cover provides a cleaner surface than does terminal cleaning with quats, and the cover protects the bed from contamination during use.

  11. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  12. Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor Project: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program FY 2002 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew; Dolan, Thomas James; Miller, Gregory Kent; Moore, Richard Leroy; Terry, William Knox; Ougouag, Abderrafi Mohammed-El-Ami; Oh, Chang H; Gougar, Hans D

    2002-11-01

    This report documents the results of our research in FY-02 on pebble-bed reactor technology under our Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled the Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor. The MPBR is an advanced reactor concept that can meet the energy and environmental needs of future generations under DOE’s Generation IV initiative. Our work is focused in three areas: neutronics, core design and fuel cycle; reactor safety and thermal hydraulics; and fuel performance.

  13. Foraging habits of reef fishes associated with mangroves and seagrass beds in a Caribbean lagoon: A stable isotope approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds represent suitable fish habitats as nurseries or feeding areas. This study was conducted in a Caribbean lagoon to assess the foraging habits of juvenile transient reef fishes in these two habitats. Twelve fish species were sampled in coastal mangroves, an offshore mangrove islet, and a seagrass bed site, and stable isotope analyses were performed on fishes and their prey items. The SIAR mixing model indicated that transient fishes from both mangroves and s...

  14. Hindbrain lactate regulates preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron GnRH-I protein but not AMPK responses to hypoglycemia in the steroid-primed ovariectomized female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-07-09

    Steroid positive-feedback activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) neuroendocrine axis propagates the pre ovulatory LH surge, a crucial component of female reproduction. Our work shows that this key event is restrained by inhibitory metabolic input from hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons. GnRH neurons express the ultra-sensitive energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK); here, we investigated the hypothesis that GnRH nerve cell AMPK and peptide neurotransmitter responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia are controlled by hindbrain lack of the oxidizable glycolytic end-product L-lactate. Data show that hypoglycemic inhibition of LH release in steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats was reversed by coincident caudal hindbrain lactate infusion. Western blot analyses of laser-microdissected A2 neurons demonstrate hypoglycemic augmentation [Fos, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), phosphoAMPK (pAMPK)] and inhibition (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, GLUT3, MCT2) of protein expression in these cells, responses that were normalized by insulin plus lactate treatment. Hypoglycemia diminished rostral preoptic GnRH nerve cell GnRH-I protein and pAMPK content; the former, but not the latter response was reversed by lactate. Results implicate caudal hindbrain lactoprivic signaling in hypoglycemia-induced suppression of the LH surge, demonstrating that lactate repletion of that site reverses decrements in A2 catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme and GnRH neuropeptide precursor protein expression. Lack of effect of lactate on hypoglycemic patterns of GnRH AMPK activity suggests that this sensor is uninvolved in metabolic-inhibition of positive-feedback-stimulated hypophysiotropic signaling to pituitary gonadotropes.

  15. Comparisons of Derived Metrics from Computed Tomography (CT) Scanned Images of Fluvial Sediment from Gravel-Bed Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voepel, Hal; Ahmed, Sharif; Hodge, Rebecca; Leyland, Julian; Sear, David

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in bedload estimates for gravel bed rivers is largely driven by our inability to characterize arrangement, orientation and resultant forces of fluvial sediment in river beds. Water working of grains leads to structural differences between areas of the bed through particle sorting, packing, imbrication, mortaring and degree of bed armoring. In this study, non-destructive, micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging in 3D is used to visualize, quantify and assess the internal geometry of sections of a flume bed that have been extracted keeping their fabric intact. Flume experiments were conducted at 1:1 scaling of our prototype river. From the volume, center of mass, points of contact, and protrusion of individual grains derived from 3D scan data we estimate 3D static force properties at the grain-scale such as pivoting angles, buoyancy and gravity forces, and local grain exposure. Here metrics are derived for images from two flume experiments: one with a bed of coarse grains (>4mm) and the other where sand and clay were incorporated into the coarse flume bed. In addition to deriving force networks, comparison of metrics such as critical shear stress, pivot angles, grain distributions, principle axis orientation, and pore space over depth are made. This is the first time bed stability has been studied in 3D using CT scanned images of sediment from the bed surface to depths well into the subsurface. The derived metrics, inter-granular relationships and characterization of bed structures will lead to improved bedload estimates with reduced uncertainty, as well as improved understanding of relationships between sediment structure, grain size distribution and channel topography.

  16. 腹外侧视前区5-羟色胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的作用%The role of serotonin in ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakefulness cycle of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章功良; 何延龙; 王烈成; 赵乐章; 张瑾; 钟明奎; 张景行

    2003-01-01

    目的通过腹外侧视前区(VLPO)微量注射5-羟色胺酸(5-HTP)、非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS)和5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀观察5-HT在VLPO对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响.方法采用脑立体定位、核团微量注射和多导睡眠描记技术.结果 VLPO双侧分别微量注射小剂量5-HTP(0.5 μg,0.1 μl)对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期无明显影响;而双侧注射大剂量5-HTP(1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠减少,觉醒增加;VLPO双侧注射5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀(6.0 μg,0.1 μl)可产生与大剂量5-HTP类似的作用;而VLPO双侧微量注射非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS,1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠增加,觉醒减少.大剂量5-HTP和MS对觉醒,睡眠成分改变具有明显的时间相关性.结论 5-HT在VLPO参与睡眠-觉醒周期调节且有促觉醒作用,其促觉醒作用可能与突触后物质表达有关.

  17. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  18. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  19. Agglomeration in fluidized beds: detection and counteraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels. M.

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized beds comprise a quantity of solid particles that is suspended by an upward flowing gas. They are used for a variety of processes in the chemical industry, such as catalytic reactions, drying, coating and energy conversion. A major problem in industrial practice is the occurrence of unwante

  20. Multiscale modeling of gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoef, Martin Anton; van Sint Annaland, M.; Ye, M.; Andrews, A.T.; Sundaresan, S.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models of gas-fluidized beds have become an important tool in the design and scale up of gas-solid chemical reactors. However, a single numerical model which includes the solid-solid and solid-fluid interaction in full detail is not feasible for industrial-scale equipment, and for this

  1. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...

  2. Wound bed preparation from a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ′TIME′ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, i nfection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and its clinical management components along with the principles of advanced wound care management at the present time. Management of tissue necrosis can be tailored according to the wound and local expertise. It ranges from simple to modern techniques like wet to dry dressing, enzymatic, biological and surgical debridement. Restoration of the bacterial balance is also an important element in managing chronic wounds that are critically colonized. Achieving a balance moist wound will hasten healing and correct biochemical imbalance by removing the excessive enzymes and growth factors. This can be achieved will multitude of dressing materials. The negative pressure wound therapy being one of the great breakthroughs. The progress and understanding on scientific basis of the wound bed preparation over the last two decades are discussed further in this article in the clinical perspectives.

  3. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  4. Multiscale modeling of gas-fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoef, van der M.A.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Andrews, A.T.; Sundaresan, S.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models of gas-fluidized beds have become an important tool in the design and scale up of gas-solid chemical reactors. However, a single numerical model which includes the solid-solid and solid-fluid interaction in full detail is not feasible for industrial-scale equipment, and for this rea

  5. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  6. Bed roughness experiments in supply limited conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Parsons, D.R.; Garlan, T.; Best, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable roughness models are of great importance, for example, when predicting water levels in rivers. The currently available roughness models are based on fully mobile bed conditions. However, in rivers where widely graded sediments are present more or less permanent armour layers can develop

  7. A curved flume bed-load experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; Marsman, E.R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the results of a bed-load experiment in a curved flume are presented. The experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics (L.F.M.) at the Delft University of Technology. The main object of the experiments is to develop and to test data-acquisition procedures for

  8. Modelling of Devolatilization in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseng, Mette; Lin, Weigang; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the devolatilization process in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The model is a combination of two submodels: single particle devolatilization and fluid dynamics. The single particle model includes the influence of both chemical kinetics and hea...

  9. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  10. Cardiac atrophy in women following bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Todd A; Levine, Benjamin D; Tillery, Tommy; Peshock, Ronald M; Hastings, Jeff L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Macias, Brandon R; Biolo, Gianni; Hargens, Alan R

    2007-07-01

    Both chronic microgravity exposure and long-duration bed rest induce cardiac atrophy, which leads to reduced standing stroke volume and orthostatic intolerance. However, despite the fact that women appear to be more susceptible to postspaceflight presyncope and orthostatic hypotension than male astronauts, most previous high-resolution studies of cardiac morphology following microgravity have been performed only in men. Because female athletes have less physiological hypertrophy than male athletes, we reasoned that they also might have altered physiological cardiac atrophy after bed rest. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 healthy young women (32.1 +/- 4 yr) to measure left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) mass, volumes, and morphology accurately before and after 60 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. Subjects were matched and then randomly assigned to sedentary bed rest (controls, n = 8) or two treatment groups consisting of 1) exercise training using supine treadmill running within lower body negative pressure plus resistive training (n = 8), or 2) protein (0.45 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) increase) plus branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) (7.2 g/day) supplementation (n = 8). After sedentary bed rest without nutritional supplementation, there were significant reductions in LV (96 +/- 26 to 77 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.03) and RV volumes (104 +/- 33 to 86 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.02), LV (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 2.0 +/- 0.2 g/kg; P = 0.003) and RV masses (0.8 +/- 0.1 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 g/kg; P men (8.0%; Perhonen MA, Franco F, Lane LD, Buckey JC, Blomqvist Zerwekh JE, Peshock RM, Weatherall PT, Levine BD. J Appl Physiol 91: 645-653, 2001). In contrast, there were no significant reductions in LV or RV volumes in the exercise-trained group, and the length of the major axis was preserved. Moreover, there were significant increases in LV (1.9 +/- 0.4 to 2.3 +/- 0.3 g/kg; P women similar to men following sedentary 60 days HDT bed rest. However, exercise training and, to a

  11. Acute psychiatric beds: distribution and staffing in NSW and ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the availability and staffing of acute psychiatry beds in NSW and ACT. "Gazetted" acute psychiatry hospitals (which take compulsory admissions under mental health law) were polled directly for bed numbers, occupancy and staffing for the year 1990-1991. The NSW Department of Health provided beds numbers for non-gazetted and private hospitals. Four analyses sequentially reallocated beds according to the origin of patients to estimate acute bed availability and use by regional populations. Socio-demographic determinants of acute admission rates were measured. Acute "gazetted" beds averaged 13.2 per 100,000 population but ranged from 6.9 to 49.1 per 100,000 when cross-regional flows were considered. "Non-gazetted" beds raised the provision to 15.5 per 100,000 and private beds raised provision further to 24.5 per 100,000. Inner metropolitan provision was higher than rural or provincial provision. The only determinant of the admission rate to gazetted beds was the number of available beds. Bed availability did not affect either bed occupancy or referral of patients to remote hospitals. Nursing staffing of gazetted units was reasonably uniform, although smaller units had significantly more nurses per bed. Medical staffing was highly variable and appears determined by staff availability. The average provision of acute psychiatric beds approximates lowest levels seen in international models for psychiatric services. Average occupancy rates suggest that there is not an overall shortfall of acute psychiatric beds, but uneven bed distribution creates barriers to access. Referral of patients to remote hospitals is not related to actual bed provision in the regions, but appears to reflect attitudes to ensuring local care. Recommendations about current de facto standards are made. Current average nursing and medical staffing standards are reported.

  12. Multi-bed patient room architectural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Sklavou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leveraging the physical environment’s merits is crucial in healthcare settings towards fostering sustainable healing conditions. In the future, the need to retrofit hospitals already appears more probable than to build new facilities. In Greece, holistic healthcare architecture has significant potential and room to develop. Aim: The architectural research of multi-bed patient room environment. Method: A sample of multi-bed patient rooms of a Greek hospital was studied per architectural documentation and user evaluation survey. Beyond recording the existing situation and user experience, user group differences and the influence of window proximity were studied. The survey sample was based on convenience and comprised 160 patients and 136 visitors. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 20, using chi-square exact tests of independence. The chosen level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: Architectural documentation showed that the building morphology had a positive impact in patient rooms, with regard to sunlight penetration and view. Further solar daylight control was deemed necessary, to facilitate overall environmental comfort conditions. High spatial density and considerable disadvantages of the middle patient bed, compared to the one bedside the window and the one further in the back of the room, were also ascertained. User groups did not evaluate their surroundings significantly different, with the exception of ease of access to the view. Window proximity influenced both patients and visitors in evaluating ease of access to the view and visual discomfort. Patients were further affected on window size evaluation and visitors on view related aspects. Conclusions: Synergy between building form and function contributes in creating holistic sustainable healing environments. User evaluation can deviate from objective documentation. Patients and visitors experienced the patient room in a similar manner. The middle bed was

  13. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  14. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF CYLINDER-TO-BED HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cylinder-to-bed heat transfer in agitated fluidized beds was studied experimentally.In the experiments, the aluminum particles were used as bed material, the diameter of which ranges from 0.5mm to 2mm.The effects of gas velocity, particles size, and agitator rotary speed on heat transfer were studied.From the experimental results, we have come to the following conclusions: (1) There are optimal ranges for airflow velocity and rotary speed to get optimal heat transfer coefficient; (2) The cylinder-to-bed heat transfer is greatly affected by gas velocity, rotary speed and particles sizes and the effect of rotary speed on heat transfer is similar to that of gas velocity; (3) Higher heat transfer coefficient is obtained with smaller particles.

  16. Centerline Bed Elevation Profile of Sand Bed Channel due to Bar Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholibon, D. A.; Ariffin, J.; Abdullah, J.; Muhamad, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous data on bar formation have been accumulated yet the methods to predict bar geometry especially bar height are still insufficient. Objectives of this study to determine the trend in term of a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. This can be investigate by carried out an experimental work in an erodible sand bed channel using a large-scale physical river model. The study included the various hydraulic characteristics with steady flow rates and sediment supply. An experimental work consists of four matrices of flow rate and channel width with other variables namely grains size and bed slope were kept constant. Analysis have included the discussion on a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. As a conclusion the higher velocity in the smaller channel width have induced erosion of the banks that resulted in elevation increase while the larger flow rates have contributed to higher elevation.

  17. Fluctuations and time scales for bed-load sediment motion over a smooth bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ballio n; Alessio Radice

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented for experiments of bed-load sediment transport over a plane, smooth bed. The smooth-bed configuration, though not adequate for mimicking natural streams, enables the effects of bed roughness to be filtered out, thus, highlighting the role of flow turbulence for particle dynamics. Sediments were individually tracked along their paths, measuring position and velocity of the individual grains. A number of analyses were then applied to the data: probability density function, auto-correla-tion, and spectra of the grain velocity. Several Lagrangian time scales of particle motion were obtained and compared to available data for the turbulent flow field to determine a phenomenological inter-pretation of the process.

  18. High resolution ice thickness, bed topography, and roughness of a land terminating section of the western Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindback, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.

    the spectral roughness. We see a strong correlation of low roughness values with the ice flow direction; this makes it important to assess the direction of the radar profiles in relation to the flow direction when calculating effective subglacial roughness for an area. Low roughness values and high surface......We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with high spatial resolution (250-500 m) of a large land terminating section of the western Greenland Ice Sheet. The maps cover the Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, and Leverett outlet glaciers and their catchment areas up to an elevation of ~1,700 m...... above sea level. The bed topography shows an intricate subglacial trough system, resembling the landscape in the proglacial area. We also calculate the hydraulic potential to get a proxy of the subglacial routing of water in the area. To analyse the geomorphological conditions of the bed, we calculated...

  19. Measuring bed shear stress along vegetated river beds using FST-hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann-Evans, B N; Davies, R; Falconer, R A

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of the bed shear stress along vegetated river beds is essential for accurately predicting the water level, velocity and solute and sediment transport fluxes in computational hydroenvironmental models. Details are given herein of an experimental and theoretical study to determine the bed boundary shear stress along vegetated river beds introducing a novel field measuring method, namely the FliessWasserStammtisch (FST)-hemispheres. Although investigations have been conducted previously for sedimentary channels using the FST-hemispheres, this preliminary study is thought to be the first time that such hemispheres have been used to investigate the bed shear stresses in vegetated channels. FST-hemispheres were first developed by Statzner and Müller [1989. Standard hemispheres as indicators of flow characteristics in lotic benthos research. Freshwater Biology 21, 445-459] to act as an integrated indicator of the gross hydrodynamic stresses present near the bed. Test and validation data were found to be at least of the same order of magnitude for the stresses predicted from literature for sedimentary channels, with this study establishing the commencement of a database of calibrated FST-hemisphere laboratory data for vegetated channel beds. In a series of experiments, depths ranging from 0.1 to 0.28 m were considered, equating directly to comparable conditions in small rivers or streams. The results of this study provide a basis for enabling the FST-hemispheres to be used to evaluate the boundary shear stress for a wider range of applications in the future, including vegetated river beds.

  20. Application of Spectral Decomposition to Detection of Fracture-Cavity Carbonate Reservoir Beds in the Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoping; YANG Xiaolan; ZHANG Yazhong; HAN Long

    2008-01-01

    Ordovician fracture-cavity carbonate reservoir beds are the major type of producing formations in the Tahe oilfieid, Tarim Basin. The seismic responses of these beds clearly changes depending on the different distance of the fracture-cavity reservoir bed from the top of the section. The seismic reflection becomes weak or is absent when the fracture-cavity reservoir beds are less than 20 ms below the top Ordovician. The effect on top Ordovician reflection became weaker with deeper burial of fracture-cavity reservoir beds but the developed deep fracture-cavity reservoir beds caused stronger reflection in the interior of the Ordovician. This interior reflection can be divided into strong long-axis, irregular and bead string reflections, and was present 80 ms below the top Ordovician. Aimed at understanding reflection characteristics, the spectral decomposition technique, which uses frequency to "tune-in" bed thickness, was used to predict Ordovician fracture-cavity carbonate formations in the Tahe oilfield. Through finely adjusting the processing parameters of spectral decomposition, it was found that the slice at 30 Hz of the tuned data cube can best represent reservoir bed development. Two large N-S-trending strong reflection belts in the mid-western part of the study area along wells TK440- TK427-TK417B and in the eastern part along wells TK404-TK409 were observed distinctly on the 30 Hz slice and 4-D time-frequency data cube carving. A small N-S trending reflection belt in the southern part along wells T403-TK446B was also clearly identified. The predicted reservoir bed development area coincides with the fracture-cavities connection area confirmed by drilling pressure testing results. Deep karst cavities occur basically in three reservoir bed-development belts identified by the Ordovician interior strong reflection. Spectral decomposition proved to be a useful technique in identifying fracture-cavity reservoir beds.

  1. Effects of Fucus vesiculosus covering intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Reise, K.

    1994-06-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (Nienburg) Nienhuis covered about 70% of mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis) surface area in the lower intertidal zone of Königshafen, a sheltered sandy bay near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Mean biomass in dense patches was 584 g ash-free dry weight m-2 in summer. On experimental mussel beds, fucoid cover enhanced mud accumulation and decreased mussel density. The position of mussels underneath algal canopy was mainly endobenthic (87% of mussels with >1/3 of shell sunk into mud). In the absence of fucoids, mussels generated epibenthic garlands (81% of mussels with Fucus vesiculosus on mussel beds in the intertidal Wadden Sea affects mussels and their epibionts negatively, but supports various herbivores and increases overall benthic diversity.

  2. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Publication ... Line For Your Information The Impact of Bed Rest and Inactivity Some people can’t perform weight- ...

  3. Experimental investigation on the changes in bed properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pressure measurements, physical observation, sampling of bed particles, bed ... air and producer gas flow rates, etc. were observed and analyzed during the ... The experimental system consists of centrifugal blower, downdraft gasifier, flare ...

  4. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease.

  5. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  6. Could You Spot Bed Bugs in A Hotel Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166585.html Could You Spot Bed Bugs in a Hotel Room? Survey finds they're ... HealthDay News) -- While many travelers think that finding bed bugs in their hotel room would be the stuff ...

  7. Developing Swing-Bed Programs in Rural Arizona Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of six swing-bed programs in rural hospitals located in Arizona. Programs described illustrate the diversity across swing-bed sites and the need for an individualized hospital and community orientation. (Author)

  8. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  9. Deleterious Thermal Effects Due To Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature associated with Pebble Bed and Particle Bed reactor core research has revealed a systemic problem inherent to reactor core concepts which utilize randomized rather than structured coolant channel flow paths. For both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor designs; case studies reveal that for indeterminate reasons, regions within the core would suffer from excessive heating leading to thermal runaway and localized fuel melting. A thermal Computational Fluid Dynamics model was utilized to verify that In both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor concepts randomized coolant channel pathways combined with localized high temperature regions would work together to resist the flow of coolant diverting it away from where it is needed the most to cooler less resistive pathways where it is needed the least. In other words given the choice via randomized coolant pathways the reactor coolant will take the path of least resistance, and hot zones offer the highest resistance. Having identified the relationship between randomized coolant channel pathways and localized fuel melting it is now safe to assume that other reactor concepts that utilize randomized coolant pathways such as the foam core reactor are also susceptible to this phenomenon.

  10. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  11. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  12. Bed load transport in a proglacial river (Fagge, Gepatschferner, Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, David; Baewert, Henning; Bryk, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Large amounts of solid load are transported in proglacial streams. This material originates mainly from bedrock eroding glaciers (supra-, en- and subglacial stores). While suspended sediment dynamics in glacier-fed streams are quite well investigated, data on the bed load component of the total load are still rare. Due to the ongoing glacier melt down in high mountain areas it is highly debated whether more solid load (higher sediment availability) or less solid load (trapping effect of proglacial lakes) is transported in the near future. We present measurements of fine to medium sized bed load and discharge recordings from a proglacial river responding to the dramatic glacier retreat in the last years. The measurements have been carried out in cross sections close to the glacier snout of the Gepatschferner in Tyrol (Austria). First results show the more or less continuous transport of coarse sand and fine to medium sized gravel even during low flows in the ablation period. The investigations are part of the DFG/FWF joint project "PROSA" (http://www.ku.de/mgf/geographie/prosa).

  13. Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized-Bed Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviz Famouri

    2005-07-01

    In a variety of industrial applications, the use of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) provides various advantages, such as reducing environmental pollution and increasing process efficiency. The application of circulating fluidized bed technology contributes to the improvement of gas-solid contact, reduction of the cross-sectional area with the use of higher superficial velocities, the use of the solids circulation rate as an additional control variable, and superior radial mixing, Grace et al. [1]. In order to improve raw material usage and utility consumption, optimization and control of CFB is very important, and an accurate, real time model is required to describe and quantify the process. Currently there is no accepted way to construct a reliable model for such a complex CFB system using traditional methods, especially at the pilot or industrial scale. Three major obstacles in characterizing the system are: 1) chaotic nature of the system; 2) non-linearity of the system, and 3) number of immeasurable unknowns internal to the system,[2]. Advanced control theories and methods have the ability to characterize the system, and can overcome all three of these obstacles. These methods will be discussed in this report.

  14. Lower Jurassic beds with bivalves in south Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Debeljak

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Jurassic beds of south Slovenia outcrop on a surface of several hundred km^ with their thickness in places exceeding 300 meters. They were deposited on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. In them rich accumulations of characteristic bivalves occur that in Pliensbachian and Toarcian inhabited the wide interconnected shallow water regions of the western and southern margins of Tethysand the eastern Pacific. The most interesting are three large bivalve species:Lithiotis problematica, Cochlearites loppianus and Lithiopedalion scutatus.In addition, numerous other genera can be found: Gervilleiopema, Mytilus, Opisoma and Pachyrisma (with subgenera Pachymegalodon and Durga.The bivalves formed in the region of south Slovenia, in the prevailingly quiet environment of the restricted shelf, sea-bottom mats or biostromes. Their shells can be only rarely found in their growth position. The horizon with bivalves ("lithiotid horizon" in south Slovenia is attributed to Pliensbachian (Domerian. It isup to 75 metres thick and it almost does not pinch out. Within it individual lumachelles of bivalves occur which are from several centimetres to ten metres thick.They are almost exclusively associated with dark, micritic, in places marly limestone and bituminous dolomite. The biodiversity in lumachelles is very low. The intermediate beds that do not contain bivalves mostly consist of oolitic and biospariticlimestone. In this article some localities from various areas of the carbonate platform are described. Considered are paleogeographical and paleoecological conditions that permitted the existence of this typical bivalve fauna.

  15. The prevalence and characteristics associated with mother-infant bed-sharing in Klang district, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K L; Ghani, S N; Moy, F M

    2009-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of mother-infant bed-sharing practice in Klang district, Malaysia. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire for a four month period in 2006. A total of 682 mother-infant pairs attending government health clinics were included in the study. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, information on the infants, bed-sharing and breastfeeding practices were collected. The mean maternal age was 28.4 +/- 5.1 years while the mean infant gestational age was 38.8 +/- 1.8 weeks. The study showed the prevalence of bed-sharing was 73.5% (95% CI: 70.0, 76.7). In multivariate analysis; area of interview, maternal occupation, family income, breastfeeding and infant birth weight were associated with bed-sharing after adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, marital status, educational level, parity, infant gender and infant gestational age. In conclusion, bed-sharing is a common practice in Klang district, Malaysia, not specific to ethnicity, but strongly associated with low family income and breastfeeding.

  16. Performance evaluation of existing wedgewater and vacuum-assisted bed dewatering systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.J.; Cardenas, R.R.; Gee, C.S.; Bandy, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Many Army wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) use conventional sand drying beds to dewater sludge. However, sand-drying is slow, and requires a large land area commitment and manual sludge removal. Outdoor sand-drying beds are vulnerable to weather conditions and operational problems associated with sand-media and underdrain clogging. Successful new technologies for sludge treatment in small-scale WWTPs include wedgewater beds (WBs), vacuum-assisted beds (VABs) and reed-bed systems. As operator of over 100 small WWTPs, the Army has an interest in such cost effective and technically efficient sludge-dewatering systems. This study compiled operational data from commercial WWTPs with existing WBs and VABs to evaluate their potential for Army use. Generally. WBs were found to be easier to operate and maintain than VABs. WBs also showed fewer media-and underdrain-clogging problems when high-pressure hoses were used to clean the media, and when tiles were kept free from damage. VABs were preferred by smaller plants that required a lower target solids rate. Most problems with both systems were associated with poor media cleaning, front-end loader damage, and engineering errors.

  17. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon in fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-04-01

    Carbonization of Phoenix dactylifera L stones followed by microwave K2CO3 activation was adopted for preparation of granular activated carbon (KAC). High yield and favorable pore characteristics in terms of surface area and pore volume were reported for KAC as follows: 44%, 852m(2)/g, and 0.671cm(3)/g, respectively. The application of KAC as adsorbent for attraction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) was investigated using fixed bed systems. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial drug concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Inlet drug concentration was of greatest effect on breakthrough data compared to other fixed bed variables. Experimental and calculated breakthrough data were obtained for CIP and NOR adsorption on KAC, thus being important for design of fixed bed column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of growth characteristics of tidal sand ridges and long bed waves to formulations of bed shear stress, sand transport and tidal forcing: A numerical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles

    2016-09-01

    Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal currents are above 0.5 m s-1, while long bed waves occur in regions where the maximum tidal current velocity is slightly above the critical velocity for sand erosion and the current is elliptical. An idealized nonlinear numerical model was developed to improve the understanding of the initial formation of these bedforms. The model governs the feedbacks between tidally forced depth-averaged currents and the sandy bed on the outer shelf. The effects of different formulations of bed shear stress and sand transport, tidal ellipticity and different tidal constituents on the characteristics of these bedforms (growth rate, wavelength, orientation of the preferred bedforms) during their initial formation were examined systematically. The results show that the formulations for bed shear stress and slope-induced sand transport are not critical for the initial formation of these bedforms. For tidal sand ridges, under rectilinear tidal currents, increasing the critical bed shear stress for sand erosion decreases the growth rate and the wavelength of the preferred bedforms significantly, while the orientation angle slightly decreases. The dependence of the growth rate, wavelength and the orientation of the preferred bedforms on the tidal ellipticity is non-monotonic. A decrease in tidal frequency results in preferred bedforms with larger wavelength and smaller orientation angle, while their growth rate hardly changes. In the case of joint diurnal and semidiurnal tides, or spring-neap tides, the characteristics of the bedforms are determined by the dominant tidal constituent. For long bed waves, the number of anticyclonically/cyclonically oriented bedforms with respect to the principal

  19. Mathematical modelling of particle mixing effect on the combustion of municipal solid wastes in a packed-bed furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Bin; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Packed bed combustion is still the most common way to burn municipal solid wastes. In this paper, a dispersion model for particle mixing, mainly caused by the movement of the grate in a moving-burning bed, has been proposed and transport equations for the continuity, momentum, species, and energy conservation are described. Particle-mixing coefficients obtained from model tests range from 2.0x10(-6) to 3.0x10(-5)m2/s. A numerical solution is sought to simulate the combustion behaviour of a full-scale 12-tonne-per-h waste incineration furnace at different levels of bed mixing. It is found that an increase in mixing causes a slight delay in the bed ignition but greatly enhances the combustion processes during the main combustion period in the bed. A medium-level mixing produces a combustion profile that is positioned more at the central part of the combustion chamber, and any leftover combustible gases (mainly CO) enter directly into the most intensive turbulence area created by the opposing secondary-air jets and thus are consumed quickly. Generally, the specific arrangement of the impinging secondary-air jets dumps most of the non-uniformity in temperature and CO into the gas flow coming from the bed-top, while medium-level mixing results in the lowest CO emission at the furnace exit and the highest combustion efficiency in the bed.

  20. Flow Pattern Identification of Fluidized Beds Using ECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Liu; W.Q. Yang; H. Wang; G. Yan; Z. Pan

    2001-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) was applied in measuring solids distribution in square circulating fluidized beds. The fluidization conditions varied from bubbling fluidized bed to circulating fluidized bed. In the whole range of fluidization conditions, ECT was able to instantaneously provide the solids concentration and voids distributions in the fluidized beds. According to the acquired data from ECT and reconstructed image,different fluidization regimes can also be identified.

  1. Collecting aerosol in airflow with a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSB) is a highly efficient filter that takes the advantage of both fluidized beds and fixed beds. This paper presents the research to collect aerosol in airflow with a MSB. The filtering model of MSB is established with its parameters including magnetic field intensity,gas superficial velocity, average grain-size, and bed height on thecollection efficiency of MSB. The model is verified by experiments.

  2. Higher Inpatient Medical Surgical Bed Occupancy Extends Admitted Patients’ Stay

    OpenAIRE

    Krall, Scott P.; O'Connor, Robert E.; Maercks, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effect that increased medical surgical (med/surg) bed occupancy has on the time interval from admission order to arrival in the bed for the patients admitted from the emergency department (ED). Methods: This retrospective observational study compares the total hospital bed occupancy rate and the medical surgical inpatient bed occupancy rate to daily averages for the time interval from admission order (patient posting for admission) to the patient’s arrival in...

  3. Clean coal technologies handbook: fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The term fluidisation is used to describe a type or mode of contact between fluids and granular solids, in such a way that solid particles appear as suspended in the moving fluid. The fluid moves vertically upwards through the bed formed by the particles. The reason to use the word fluidisation is that, when a solid particles bed is treated in the above mentioned way, it acquires an aspect very similar to that of a boiling liquid, and it has properties similar to those of a liquid. Thus, a bed in such conditions is called fluidised bed; the name fluidisation is reserved to the operation required to reach such state. This contacting method shows a number of fetaures which make it very useful to carry on many important processes in the fields of Chemical Engineering and Extractive Metallurgy; for that reason it has been studied very deeply in the last year, on the theoretical aspect and on its practical applications as well. Going back in time to the origin of the fluidisation, as it is known at present, we find that is started to develop at the beginning of the 1940's. The first application of fluidisation is described by Agricola in his famous book De re metallica, which must have been written in XVI the century. In this book there is the mention of the concentration of metallic ores by means of an expansion of the bed produced by a vertical upwards water flow which passes through the layer of rough mineral. From the beginning of its development, fluidisation has had many applications, such as water clarification, pulverised coal gasification, catalytic cracking chemical processes, drying of pulverulent materials and incineration of solid residues, among others. Until the end of 1950 the application was not used to coal combustion; it has strongly development after the energy crisis. Starting in the 1970's a great effort at world level is being made to develop the technology of Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC), pushed on by two main reasons.: 1) Reduction

  4. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  5. Model for the Evolving Bed Surface around an Offshore Monopile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the bed surface around an offshore monopile. The model has been designed from measured laboratory bed surfaces and is shown to reproduce these satisfactorily for both scouring and backfilling. The local rate of the bed elevation is assumed to satisfy a certain gene...

  6. Scale-up of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Geerdink, P.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Fixed-bed chemical looping combustion is currently being studied experimentally with the optimization of systems up to 1 kW. One of the key advantages for using the fixed-bed configuration over fluidized-beds is the flexibility in operating parameters that allows for application of CLC not only to

  7. A heterogeneous model for heat transfer in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    If transient heat transfer occurs in a packed bed or a reaction is carried out on the pellets, the heterogeneity of the bed is essential because of the heat flow between pellets and gas. Global heat parameters for the packed bed, such as λeff and αw, are usually derived from homogeneous models. Ther

  8. Udder health in a Danish compost bedded pack barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennesen, Line; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    Besides welfare advantages of the compost bedded pack system (CBP) there could be a negative effect of the organic bedding on udder health. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of a CBP on udder health compared to a free stall system (FS) with sand bedded cubicles. Within the same Danish...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5180 - Manual patient rotation bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual patient rotation bed. 890.5180 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5180 Manual patient rotation bed. (a) Identification. A manual patient rotation bed is a device that turns a patient who...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5140 - Pediatric hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pediatric hospital bed. 880.5140 Section 880.5140...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5140 Pediatric hospital bed. (a) Identification. A pediatric hospital bed is a device...

  11. Core Physics of Pebble Bed High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auwerda, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    To more accurately predict the temperature distribution inside the reactor core of pebble bed type high temperature reactors, in this thesis we investigated the stochastic properties of randomly stacked beds and the effects of the non-homogeneity of these beds on the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic

  12. Fluidization of potato starch in a stirred vibrating fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Stamhuis, Eize; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A novel gas-solid reactor for cohesive C-powders such as potato starch is introduced, designed and characterized, the so-called stirred vibrating fluidized bed. The effects of a sinusoidal vibration of the gas distributor and/or stirring of the bed are investigated. The fluidization index, bed expan

  13. 21 CFR 890.5160 - Air-fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air-fluidized bed. 890.5160 Section 890.5160 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5160 Air-fluidized bed. (a) Identification. An air-fluidized bed is a device employing the circulation of filtered air through...

  14. 21 CFR 890.5225 - Powered patient rotation bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered patient rotation bed. 890.5225 Section 890.5225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... rotation bed. (a) Identification. A powered patient rotation bed is a device that turns a patient who...

  15. Fluidization of potato starch in a stirred vibrating fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Stamhuis, Eize; Beenackers, A.A C M

    A novel gas-solid reactor for cohesive C-powders such as potato starch is introduced, designed and characterized, the so-called stirred vibrating fluidized bed. The effects of a sinusoidal vibration of the gas distributor and/or stirring of the bed are investigated. The fluidization index, bed

  16. 21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed-patient monitor. 880.2400 Section 880.2400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered...

  17. Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. In southern coastal Kenya, bed net use was negligible in 1997-1998 when Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.s. were the primary malaria vectors, with An. arabiensis and Anopheles merus playing a secondary role. Since 2001, bed net use has increased progressively and reached high levels by 2009-2010 with corresponding decline in malaria transmission. Methods To evaluate the impact of the substantial increase in household bed net use within this area on vector density, vector composition, and human-vector contact, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were collected in the same region during 2009-2010 using pyrethrum spray catches and clay pots for indoor and outdoor collections respectively. Information on bed net use per sleeping spaces and factors influencing mosquito density were determined in the same houses using Poisson regression analysis. Species distribution was determined, and number of mosquitoes per house, human-biting rates (HBR, and entomological inoculation rate (EIR were compared to those reported for the same area during 1997-1998, when bed net coverage had been minimal. Results Compared to 1997-1998, a significant decline in the relative proportion of An. gambiae s.s. among collected mosquitoes was noted, coupled with a proportionate increase of An. arabiensis. Following > 5 years of 60-86% coverage with bed nets, the density, human biting rate and EIR of indoor resting mosquitoes were reduced by more than 92% for An. funestus and by 75% for An. gambiae s.l. In addition, the host feeding choice of both vectors shifted more toward non

  18. Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku, Francis M; King, Charles H; Mungai, Peter; Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Muchiri, Eric M; Walker, Edward D; Kitron, Uriel

    2011-12-13

    Besides significantly reducing malaria vector densities, prolonged usage of bed nets has been linked to decline of Anopheles gambiae s.s. relative to Anopheles arabiensis, changes in host feeding preference of malaria vectors, and behavioural shifts to exophagy (outdoor biting) for the two important malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus. In southern coastal Kenya, bed net use was negligible in 1997-1998 when Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae s.s. were the primary malaria vectors, with An. arabiensis and Anopheles merus playing a secondary role. Since 2001, bed net use has increased progressively and reached high levels by 2009-2010 with corresponding decline in malaria transmission. To evaluate the impact of the substantial increase in household bed net use within this area on vector density, vector composition, and human-vector contact, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were collected in the same region during 2009-2010 using pyrethrum spray catches and clay pots for indoor and outdoor collections respectively. Information on bed net use per sleeping spaces and factors influencing mosquito density were determined in the same houses using Poisson regression analysis. Species distribution was determined, and number of mosquitoes per house, human-biting rates (HBR), and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) were compared to those reported for the same area during 1997-1998, when bed net coverage had been minimal. Compared to 1997-1998, a significant decline in the relative proportion of An. gambiae s.s. among collected mosquitoes was noted, coupled with a proportionate increase of An. arabiensis. Following > 5 years of 60-86% coverage with bed nets, the density, human biting rate and EIR of indoor resting mosquitoes were reduced by more than 92% for An. funestus and by 75% for An. gambiae s.l. In addition, the host feeding choice of both vectors shifted more toward non-human vertebrates. Besides bed net use, malaria vector abundance

  19. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  20. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.