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Sample records for preoperative femoral nerve

  1. Femoral nerve damage (image)

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    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  2. Intracorporeal knotting of a femoral nerve catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve catheters are effective and well-established tools to provide postoperative analgesia to patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The performance of these techniques is usually considered safe. However, placement of nerve catheters may be associated with a considerable number of side effects and major complications have repeatedly been published. In this work, we report on a patient who underwent total knee replacement with spinal anesthesia and preoperative insertion of femoral and sciatic nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. During insertion of the femoral catheter, significant resistance was encountered upon retracting the catheter. This occurred due to knotting of the catheter. The catheter had to be removed by operative intervention which has to be considered a major complication. The postoperative course was uneventful. The principles for removal of entrapped peripheral catheters are not well established, may differ from those for neuroaxial catheters, and range from cautious manipulation up to surgical intervention.

  3. The Effect of Intra-articular Cocktail Versus Femoral Nerve Block for Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy.

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    Childs, Sean; Pyne, Sonia; Nandra, Kiritpaul; Bakhsh, Wajeeh; Mustafa, S Atif; Giordano, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    To compare clinical efficacy and complication rate as measured by postoperative falls and development of peripheral neuritis between intra-articular blockade and femoral nerve block in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery. An institutional review board approved retrospective review was conducted on a consecutive series of patients who underwent elective arthroscopic hip surgery by a single surgeon, between November 2013 and April 2015. Subjects were stratified into 2 groups: patients who received a preoperative femoral nerve block for perioperative pain control, and patients who received an intra-articular "cocktail" injection postoperatively. Demographic data, perioperative pain scores, narcotic consumption, incidence of falls, and iatrogenic peripheral neuritis were collected for analysis. Postoperative data were then collected at routine clinical visits. A total of 193 patients were included in this study (65 males, 125 females). Of them, 105 patients received preoperative femoral nerve blocks and 88 patients received an intraoperative intra-articular "cocktail." There were no significant differences in patient demographics, history of chronic pain (P = .35), worker's compensation (P = .24), preoperative pain scores (P = .69), or intraoperative doses of narcotics (P = .40). Patients who received preoperative femoral nerve blocks reported decreased pain during their time in PACU (P = .0001) and on hospital discharge (P = .28); however, there were no statistically significant differences in patient-reported pain scores at postoperative weeks 1 (P = .34), 3 (P = .64), and 6 (P = .70). Administration of an intra-articular block was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative falls (P = .009) and iatrogenic peripheral neuritis (P = .0001). Preoperative femoral nerve blocks are associated with decreased immediate postoperative pain, whereas intraoperative intra-articular anesthetic injections provide effective postoperative

  4. Femoral nerve block in a representative sample of elderly people with hip fracture: A randomised controlled trial.

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    Unneby, Anna; Svensson, Olle; Gustafson, Yngve; Olofsson, Birgitta

    2017-07-01

    The number of elderly people with hip fracture and dementia is increasing, and many of these patients suffer from pain. Opioids are difficult to adjust and side effects are common, especially with increased age and among patients with dementia. Preoperative femoral nerve block is an alternative pain treatment. To investigate whether preoperative femoral nerve block reduced acute pain and opioid use after hip fracture among elderly patients, including those with dementia. In this randomised controlled trial involving patients aged ≥70years with hip fracture (trochanteric and cervical), including those with dementia, we compared femoral nerve block with conventional pain management, with opioid use if required. The primary outcome was preoperative pain, measured at five timepoints using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Preoperative opioid consumption was also registered. The study sample comprised 266 patients admitted consecutively to the Orthopaedic Ward. The mean age was 84.1 (±6.9)years, 64% of participants were women, 44% lived in residential care facilities, and 120 (45.1%) had dementia diagnoses. Patients receiving femoral nerve block had significantly lower self-rated pain scores from baseline to 12h after admission than did controls. Self-rated and proxy VAS pain scores decreased significantly in these patients from baseline to 12h compared with controls (pblock required less opioids than did controls, overall (2.3±4.0 vs. 5.7±5.2mg, pblock had lower pain scores and required less opioids before surgery compared with those receiving conventional pain management. Femoral nerve block seems to be a feasible pain treatment for elderly people, including those with dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer of obturator nerve for femoral nerve injury: an experiment study in rats.

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    Meng, Depeng; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Yaofa; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Huihao; Yu, Ronghua; Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin

    2018-07-01

    Quadriceps palsy is mainly caused by proximal lesions in the femoral nerve. The obturator nerve has been previously used to repair the femoral nerve, although only a few reports have described the procedure, and the outcomes have varied. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of this treatment in a rodent model using the randomized control method. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy and obturator nerve transfer to the femoral nerve motor branch; and the control group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy without nerve transfer. Functional outcomes were measured using the BBB score, muscle mass, and histological assessment. At 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively, the rats in the experimental group exhibited recovery to a stronger stretch force of the knee and higher BBB score, as compared to the control group (p nerve with myelinated and unmyelinated fibers was observed in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed between groups at 8 weeks postoperatively (p > 0.05). Obturator nerve transfer for repairing femoral nerve injury was feasible and effective in a rat model, and can hence be considered as an option for the treatment of femoral nerve injury.

  6. Correlation of ultrasound appearance, gross anatomy, and histology of the femoral nerve at the femoral triangle.

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    Lonchena, Tiffany K; McFadden, Kathryn; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between ultrasound appearance, gross anatomic characteristics, and histologic structure of the femoral nerve (FN) is lacking. Utilizing cadavers, we sought to characterize the anatomy of the FN, and provide a quantitative measure of its branching. We hypothesize that at the femoral crease, the FN exists as a group of nerve branches, rather than a single nerve structure, and secondarily, that this transition into many branches is apparent on ultrasonography. Nineteen preserved cadavers were investigated. Ultrasonography was sufficient to evaluate the femoral nerve in nine specimens; gross dissection was utilized in all 19. Anatomic characteristics were recorded, including distances from the inguinal ligament to femoral crease, first nerve branch, and complete arborization of the nerve. The nerves from nine specimens were excised for histologic analysis. On ultrasound, the nerve became more flattened, widened, and less discrete as it coursed distally. Branching of the nerve was apparent in 12 of 18 images, with mean distance from inguinal ligament of 3.9 (1.0) cm. However, upon dissection, major branching of the femoral nerve occurred at 3.1 (1.0) cm distal to the inguinal ligament, well proximal to the femoral crease. Histologic analysis was consistent with findings at dissection. The femoral nerve arborizes into multiple branches between the inguinal ligament and the femoral crease. Initial branching is often high in the femoral triangle. As hypothesized, the FN exists as a closely associated group of nerve branches at the level of the femoral crease; however, the termination of the nerve into multiple branches is not consistently apparent on ultrasonography.

  7. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

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    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  8. Study of the anatomical position of the femoral nerve by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with fractured neck of femur: relevance to femoral nerve block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehmood, Shehzad

    2012-01-31

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the anatomical location of the femoral nerve in patients who have sustained fracture of the neck of femur, and its relevance to femoral nerve block technique. DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical study. SETTING: Orthopedic and Radiology departments of a regional hospital. SUBJECTS: 10 consecutive adult ASA physical status II and III patients (mean age, 78.5 yrs) and 4 adult healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed of both upper thighs in patients and healthy volunteers successfully. MEASUREMENTS: The distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral artery and the midpoint of the femoral nerve, and the distance of the femoral nerve from the skin was measured at the mid-inguinal ligament, the pubic tubercle, and at the mid-inguinal crease. Data are shown as means (SD). Differences between both sides were compared using paired Student\\'s t-tests. P < 0.05 was significant. MAIN RESULTS: In patients the mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of femoral artery at the mid-inguinal crease on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 10.7 and 11.0, respectively (P = 0.87). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the mid-inguinal ligament on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 9.64 and 12.5, respectively (P = 0.03). The mean distance (mm) between the midpoint of the femoral nerve from the midpoint of the femoral artery at the pubic tubercle on the fractured and non-fractured sides was 8.74 and 10.49, respectively (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of the femoral nerve may be easier to perform at the mid-inguinal crease in patients with fractured neck of femur.

  9. Preoperative virtual reduction reduces femoral malrotation in the treatment of bilateral femoral shaft fractures.

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    Omar, Mohamed; Suero, Eduardo M; Hawi, Nael; Decker, Sebastian; Krettek, Christian; Citak, Musa

    2015-10-01

    In bilateral femoral shaft fractures, significant malrotation (>15°) occurs in about 40 % of cases after intramedullary nailing. Most of the methods that provide rotational control during surgery are based on a comparison to the intact femur and, thus, not applicable for bilateral fractures. In this study, we evaluated if preoperative virtual reduction can help improving rotational alignment in patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Seven patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures were initially treated with external fixation of both femurs. After obtaining a CT scan of both legs, the fractures were reduced virtually using the software program VoXim®, and the amount and direction of rotational correction were calculated. Subsequently, the patients were treated by antegrade femoral nailing and rotation was corrected to the preoperatively calculated amount. After external fixation, the mean rotational difference between both legs was 15.0° ± 10.2°. Four out of seven patients had a significant malrotation over 15°. Following virtual reduction, the mean rotational difference between both legs was 2.1° ± 1.2°. After intramedullary nailing, no case of malrotation occurred and the mean rotational difference was 6.1° ± 2.8°. Preoperative virtual reduction allows determining the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion and provided useful information for the definitive treatment of bilateral femoral shaft fractures. We believe that this procedure is worth being implemented in the clinical workflow to avoid malrotation after intramedullary nailing.

  10. Preoperative sup(99m)Tc-MDP scintimetry of femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, S.; Thorngren, K.-G.

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative sup(99m)Tc-MDP-scintimetry was performed in 117 patients with femoral neck fractures. Scintimetry was shown to be superior to visual evaluation. The ratio was calculated of the uptake in the femoral head of the fractured side over that in the unfractured side, with compensation for the increased trochanteric femoral activity found on the fractured side. A ratio above 0.90 correlated well with uneventful healing in both undisplaced and displaced fractures. Preoperative scintimetry is of great value in the choice of primary treatment of femoral neck fractures. (author)

  11. Nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis.

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    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Adami, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    To describe the nerve stimulator-guided sciatic-femoral nerve block in raptors undergoing surgical treatment of pododermatitis. Prospective clinical trial. Five captive raptors (Falco peregrinus) aged 6.7 ± 1.3 years. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was performed with 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL kg(-1) per nerve) as the sole intra-operative analgesic treatment. Intraoperative physiological variables were recorded every 10 minutes from endotracheal intubation until the end of anaesthesia. Assessment of intraoperative nociception was based on changes in physiological variables above baseline values, while evaluation of postoperative pain relied on species-specific behavioural indicators. The sciatic-femoral nerve block was feasible in raptors and the motor responses following electrical stimulation of both nerves were consistent with those reported in mammalian species. During surgery no rescue analgesia was required. The anaesthesia plane was stable and cardiorespiratory variables did not increase significantly in response to surgical stimulation. Iatrogenic complications, namely nerve damage and local anaesthetic toxicity, did not occur. Recovery was smooth and uneventful. The duration (mean ± SD) of the analgesic effect provided by the nerve block was 130 ± 20 minutes. The sciatic-femoral nerve block as described in dogs and rabbits can be performed in raptors as well. Further clinical trials with a control groups are required to better investigate the analgesic efficacy and the safety of this technique in raptors. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Landgraeber; Thomas Albrecht; Ulrich Reischuck; Marius von Knoch

    2012-01-01

    We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yie...

  13. Arthroscopic treatment of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst.

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    Kanauchi, Taira; Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Uchikawa, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    This report describes a rare case of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst of the hip joint. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of right hip pain and paresthesia along the anterior thigh and radiating down to the anterior aspect of the knee. Radiography showed osteoarthritis with a narrowed joint space in the right hip joint. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cyst with low T1- and high T2-weighted signal intensity arising from a labral tear at the anterior aspect of the acetabulum. The cyst was connected to the joint space and displaced the femoral nerve to the anteromedial side. The lesion was diagnosed as an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral neuropathy. Because the main symptom was femoral nerve paresthesia and the patient desired a less invasive procedure, arthroscopic labral repair was performed to stop synovial fluid flow to the paralabral cyst that was causing the femoral nerve paresthesia. After surgery, the cyst and femoral nerve paresthesia disappeared. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient had no recurrence. There have been several reports of neurovascular compression caused by the cyst around the hip joint. To the authors' knowledge, only 3 cases of acetabular paralabral cysts causing sciatica have been reported. The current patient appears to represent a rare case of an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral nerve paresthesia. The authors suggest that arthroscopic labral repair for an acetabular paralabral cyst causing neuropathy can be an option for patients who desire a less invasive procedure. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Recruitment order of quadriceps motor units: femoral nerve vs. direct quadriceps stimulation.

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    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in the recruitment order of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps femoris when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using femoral nerve stimulation and direct quadriceps stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 20 young, healthy subjects. Recruitment order was investigated by analysing the time-to-peak twitch and the time interval from the stimulus artefact to the M-wave positive peak (M-wave latency) for the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. During femoral nerve stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and M-wave latency decreased consistently (P  0.05). For the VM muscle, M-wave latency decreased with increasing stimulation level for both femoral nerve and direct quadriceps stimulation, whereas, for the VL muscle, the variation of M-wave latency with stimulus intensity was different for the two stimulation geometries (P recruitment order during direct quadriceps stimulation was more complex, depending ultimately on the architecture of the peripheral nerve and its terminal branches below the stimulating electrodes for each muscle. For the VM, MUs were orderly recruited for both stimulation geometries, whereas, for the VL muscle, MUs were orderly recruited for femoral nerve stimulation, but followed no particular order for direct quadriceps stimulation.

  15. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landgraeber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yielded no pathological findings. Overnight the neurological deficits decreased without therapy and were finally no longer detectable. We speculate that during the administration of the local anaesthetic a depot formed, localised in the medial femoral intermuscular septa, which was leaked after first mobilisation. To our knowledge no similar case has been published up to now. We conclude that patients who are treated with a nerve block should be informed and physician should be aware that delayed neurological deficits are possible.

  16. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Albrecht, Thomas; Reischuck, Ulrich; von Knoch, Marius

    2012-01-01

    We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yielded no pathological findings. Overnight the neurological deficits decreased without therapy and were finally no longer detectable. We speculate that during the administration of the local anaesthetic a depot formed, localised in the medial femoral intermuscular septa, which was leaked after first mobilisation. To our knowledge no similar case has been published up to now. We conclude that patients who are treated with a nerve block should be informed and physician should be aware that delayed neurological deficits are possible. PMID:22577509

  17. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head.

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    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  18. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

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    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  19. Matching of motor-sensory modality in the rodent femoral nerve model shows no enhanced effect on peripheral nerve regeneration

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    Kawamura, David H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Moore, Amy M.; Magill, Christina K.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Tung, Thomas HH.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries with nerve gaps largely consists of autologous nerve grafting utilizing sensory nerve donors. Underlying this clinical practice is the assumption that sensory autografts provide a suitable substrate for motoneuron regeneration, thereby facilitating motor endplate reinnervation and functional recovery. This study examined the role of nerve graft modality on axonal regeneration, comparing motor nerve regeneration through motor, sensory, and mixed nerve isografts in the Lewis rat. A total of 100 rats underwent grafting of the motor or sensory branch of the femoral nerve with histomorphometric analysis performed after 5, 6, or 7 weeks. Analysis demonstrated similar nerve regeneration in motor, sensory, and mixed nerve grafts at all three time points. These data indicate that matching of motor-sensory modality in the rat femoral nerve does not confer improved axonal regeneration through nerve isografts. PMID:20122927

  20. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the co...

  1. Ultrasound-guided block of sciatic and femoral nerves: an anatomical study.

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    Waag, Sonja; Stoffel, Michael H; Spadavecchia, Claudia; Eichenberger, Urs; Rohrbach, Helene

    2014-04-01

    The sheep is a popular animal model for human biomechanical research involving invasive surgery on the hind limb. These painful procedures can only be ethically justified with the application of adequate analgesia protocols. Regional anaesthesia as an adjunct to general anaesthesia may markedly improve well-being of these experimental animals during the postoperative period due to a higher analgesic efficacy when compared with systemic drugs, and may therefore reduce stress and consequently the severity of such studies. As a first step 14 sheep cadavers were used to establish a new technique for the peripheral blockade of the sciatic and the femoral nerves under sonographic guidance and to evaluate the success rate by determination of the colorization of both nerves after an injection of 0.5 mL of a 0.1% methylene blue solution. First, both nerves were visualized sonographically. Then, methylene blue solution was injected and subsequently the length of colorization was measured by gross anatomical dissection of the target nerves. Twenty-four sciatic nerves were identified sonographically in 12 out of 13 cadavers. In one animal, the nerve could not be ascertained unequivocally and, consequently, nerve colorization failed. Twenty femoral nerves were located by ultrasound in 10 out of 13 cadavers. In three cadavers, signs of autolysis impeded the scan. This study provides a detailed anatomical description of the localization of the sciatic and the femoral nerves and presents an effective and safe yet simple and rapid technique for performing peripheral nerve blocks with a high success rate.

  2. Development of Phantom Limb Pain after Femoral Nerve Block

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    Sadiah Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, phantom limb pain (PLP develops in 50–80% of amputees and may arise within days following an amputation for reasons presently not well understood. Our case involves a 29-year-old male with previous surgical amputation who develops PLP after the performance of a femoral nerve block. Although there have been documented cases of reactivation of PLP in amputees after neuraxial technique, there have been no reported events associated with femoral nerve blockade. We base our discussion on the theory that symptoms of phantom limb pain are of neuropathic origin and attempt to elaborate the link between regional anesthesia and PLP. Further investigation and understanding of PLP itself will hopefully uncover a relationship between peripheral nerve blocks targeting an affected limb and the subsequent development of this phenomenon, allowing physicians to take appropriate steps in prevention and treatment.

  3. Spread of Injectate Around Hip Articular Sensory Branches of the Femoral Nerve in Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Greher, Manfred; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    of the femoral nerve. Methods: Fifteen cadaver sides were injected with 5 mL dye in the iliopsoas plane guided by ultrasound. Dissection was performed to verify the spread of injectate around the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve. Results: In 10 dissections (67% [95% confidence interval: 38.......2-32%]) adhesions partially obstructed the spread of dye. Conclusion: An injection of 5 mL in the iliopsoas plane spreads around all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve in 10 of 15 cadaver sides. If these findings translate to living humans, injection of local anaesthetic into the iliopsoas plane could...

  4. Comparison of Continuous Femoral Nerve Block with and Without Combined Sciatic Nerve Block after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Study.

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    Nishio, Shoji; Fukunishi, Shigeo; Fukui, Tomokazu; Fujihara, Yuki; Okahisa, Shohei; Takeda, Yu; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2017-06-23

    In association with the growing interests in pain management, several modalities to control postoperative pain have been proposed and examined for the efficacy in the recent studies. Various modes of peripheral nerve block have been proposed and the effectiveness and safety have been examined for each of those techniques. We have described our clinical experiences, showing that continuous femoral nerve block could provide a satisfactory analgesic effect after total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedure. In this study, we compared the effectiveness and safety of continuous femoral nerve block with and without sciatic nerve blockade on pain control after THA. Forty patients scheduled for THA were included in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups. Postoperative analgesic measure was continuous femoral nerve block alone, while the identical regimen of continuous femoral nerve block was combined with sciatic nerve block. The amount of postoperative pain was evaluated in the immediate postoperative period, 6 hours, and 12 hours after surgery. Moreover, postoperative complications as well as requirement of supplemental analgesics during the initial 12 hours after surgery were reviewed in the patient record. The obtained study results showed that the supplemental sciatic nerve blockade provided no significant effect on arrival at the postoperative recovery room, while the NRS pain score was significantly reduced by the combined application of sciatic nerve blockade at 6 and 12 hours after surgery. In the investigation of postoperative analgesiarelated complications, no major complication was encountered without significant difference in complication rate between the groups.

  5. The successful use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Birgitte Louise; Melchiors, J; Børglum, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report of four patients with severe cardiac insufficiency where peripheral nerve blocks guided by either nerve stimulation or ultrasonography were the sole anaesthetic for above-knee amputation. The patients were breathing spontaneously and remained haemodynamically stable during...... surgery. Thus, use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation in high-risk patients seems to be the technique of choice that can lower perioperative risk....

  6. Preoperative percutaneous cranial nerve mapping in head and neck surgery.

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    Park, Jung I

    2003-01-01

    To identify and map the course of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerve preoperatively and percutaneously. Prospective study. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping performed prior to the operation under deep sedation or general anesthesia without muscle paralysis. Private office surgery suite, freestanding surgery center, and regional medical centers. A total of 142 patients undergoing head and neck surgery and facial plastic surgery between August 1994 and July 1999. Monopolar probe was used for nerve stimulation. Electromyographic reading was done through intramuscular bipolar recording electrodes. The equipment used was a nerve monitor. The mandibular divisions were tested in 142 cases, the frontal division in 60 cases, the accessory nerve in 12 cases, and the hypoglossal nerve in 3 cases. Satisfactory mappings were obtained in 115 cases of the mandibular division, 49 cases of the frontal division, 8 cases of the accessory division, and 1 case of the hypoglossal nerve. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping is a new method of identifying the location of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves. Identifying and mapping the course of peripheral branches of the cranial nerves safely assists the head and neck surgeon in the placement of incisions in a favorable location and in the dissection of the area involving the nerves. Mapping alerts the surgeon to an area containing a nerve and allows the surgeon to avoid just the specific area where a nerve is present, preventing large-scale abandonment of unmapped areas for fear of potential nerve damage.

  7. Femoral Nerve Injury Following a Lumbar Plexus Blockade

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    İrfan Güngör

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar plexus blockade (LPB combined with sciatic nerve block (SNB is frequently used for lower extremity surgery. Perioperative nerve injury is a rarely encountered complication of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB. Case Report: Here we report a 44-year-old male patient who developed a partial femoral nerve injury (FNI following a LPB which was performed before the surgery of a patellar fracture. The clinical and electroneuromyographic findings of the patient were recovered almost completely within the following six months. Conclusion: The presented case demonstrated a FNI despite the absence of any pain or paresthesia sensation, with the disappearance of motor response under 0.3 mA of neurostimulation in the experienced hands.

  8. Novel needle guide reduces time to perform ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Alparslan; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Maheshwari, Kamal; Farag, Ehab; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Soliman, Loran Mounir; Sessler, Daniel I

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks have become the standard when performing regional nerve blocks in anaesthesia. Infiniti Plus (CIVCO Medical Solutions, Kalona, Iowa, USA) is a needle guide that has been recently developed to help clinicians in performing ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. We tested the hypothesis that femoral nerve catheter placement carried out with the Infiniti Plus needle guide will be quicker to perform than without the Infiniti Plus. Secondary aims were to assess whether the Infiniti Plus needle guide decreased the number of block attempts and also whether it improved needle visibility. A randomised, controlled trial. Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. We enrolled adult patients having elective total knee arthroplasty with a femoral nerve block and femoral nerve catheter. Patients, who were pregnant or those who had preexisting neuropathy involving the surgical limb, coagulopathy, infection at the block site or allergy to local anaesthetics were excluded. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive the ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement with or without the Infiniti Plus needle guide. The time taken to place the femoral nerve catheter, the number of attempts, the success rate and needle visibility were recorded. We used an overall α of 0.05 for both the primary and secondary analyses; the secondary analyses were Bonferroni corrected to control for multiple comparisons. The median (interquartile range Q1 to Q3) time to perform the femoral nerve catheter placement was 118 (100 to 150) s with Infiniti Plus and 177 (130 to 236) s without Infiniti Plus. Infiniti Plus significantly reduced the time spent performing femoral nerve catheterisation, with estimated ratio of means [(95% confidence interval), P value] of 0.67 [(0.60 to 0.75), P Infiniti Plus compared with no Infiniti Plus. However, Infiniti Plus had no effect on the odds of a successful femoral nerve catheter placement, number of attempts or percentage of perfect

  9. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Complicating “Blind” Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of patients who reported quadriceps femoris weakness and hypoesthesia over the anterior thigh after an inguinal hernia repair under transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Transient femoral nerve palsy is the result of local anesthetic incorrectly injected between transversus abdominis muscle and transversalis fascia and pooling around the femoral nerve. Although it is a minor and self-limiting complication, it requires overnight hospital stay and observation of the patients. Performing the block under ultrasound guidance and injecting the least volume of local anesthetic required are ways of minimizing its incidence.

  10. Femoral nerve block versus intravenous fentanyl in adult patients with hip fractures - a systematic review

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    Flávia Vieira Guimarães Hartmann

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hip fractures configure an important public health issue and are associated with high mortality taxes and lose of functionality. Hip fractures refer to a fracture occurring between the edge of the femoral head and 5 cm below the lesser trochanter. They are common in orthopedic emergencies. The number of proximal femoral fractures is likely to increase as the population ages. The average cost of care during the initial hospitalization for hip fracture can be estimated about US$ 7,000 per patient. Femoral fractures are painful and need immediate adequate analgesia. Treating pain femoral fractures is difficult because there are limited numbers of analgesics available, many of which have side effects that can limit their use. Opiates are the most used drugs, but they can bring some complications. In this context, femoral nerve blocks can be a safe alternative. It is a specific regional anesthetic technique used by doctors in emergency medicine to provide anesthesia and analgesia of the affected leg. Objective: To compare the analgesic efficacy of intravenous fentanyl versus femoral nerve block before positioning to perform spinal anesthesia in patients with femoral fractures assessed by Pain Scales. Methods: A systematic review of scientific literature was conducted. Studies described as randomized controlled trials comparing femoral nerve block and traditional fentanyl are included. Two reviewers (MR and FH independently assessed potentially eligible trials for inclusion. The methodology assessment was based on the tool developed by the Cochrane Collaboration for assessment of bias for randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Medline and Lilacs were searched for all articles published, without restriction of language or time. Results: Two studies were included in this review. Nerve blockade seemed to be more effective than intravenous fentanyl for preventing pain in patients suffering from a femoral fracture

  11. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  12. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Eo, Hong; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So-Young; Jeon, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  13. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  14. Preoperative Identification of Facial Nerve in Vestibular Schwannomas Surgery Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Kwon, Hyeok-Gyu; Jang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Oh-Lyong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Facial nerve palsy is a common complication of treatment for vestibular schwannoma (VS), so preserving facial nerve function is important. The preoperative visualization of the course of facial nerve in relation to VS could help prevent injury to the nerve during the surgery. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for preoperative identification of facial nerve. Methods We prospectively collected data from 11 patients with VS, who underwent pr...

  15. [Postoperative analgesia in knee arthroplasty using an anterior sciatic nerve block and a femoral nerve block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Fresno Cañiaveras, J; Campos, A; Galiana, M; Navarro-Martínez, J A; Company, R

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a nerve block as an alternative technique for analgesia after knee arthroplasty and to indicate the usefulness and advantages of the anterior approach to the sciatic nerve block. Between April 2004 and March 2006, we studied a series of consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty in which a subarachnoid block was used as the anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia was provided by means of a combined peripheral femoral nerve block and an anterior sciatic nerve block. We evaluated the mean length of time free from pain, quality of analgesia, and length of stay in hospital. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The mean (SD) length of time free from pain for the group was 42.1 (3.9) hours. Patients reported mild pain after 34.8 (4.1) hours and moderate to severe pain after 42.4 (3.5) hours. By the third day, 62.8% of patients were able to bend the knee to 90 degrees. There were no complications resulting from the technique and the level of patient satisfaction was high. A combined femoral-sciatic nerve block is effective in knee arthroplasty. It controls postoperative pain and allows for early rehabilitation. The anterior approach to the sciatic nerve is relatively simple to perform without removing the pressure bandaging from the thigh after surgery. This approach also makes it unnecessary to move the patient.

  16. Does using a femoral nerve block for total knee replacement decrease postoperative delirium?

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    Kinjo Sakura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of peripheral nerve blocks on postoperative delirium in older patients has not been studied. Peripheral nerve blocks may reduce the incidence of postoperative opioid use and its side effects such as delirium via opioid-sparing effect. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients who underwent total knee replacement. Baseline cognitive function was assessed using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Postoperative delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method postoperatively. Incidence of postoperative delirium was compared in two postoperative management groups: femoral nerve block ± patient-controlled analgesia and patient-controlled analgesia only. In addition, pain levels (using numeric rating scales and opioid use were compared in two groups. Results 85 patients were studied. The overall incidence of postoperative delirium either on postoperative day one or day two was 48.1%. Incidence of postoperative delirium in the femoral nerve block group was lower than patient controlled analgesia only group (25% vs. 61%, P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to postoperative pain level or the amount of intravenous opioid use. Conclusions Femoral nerve block reduces the incidence of postoperative delirium. These results suggest that a larger randomized control trial is necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Continuous Femoral Nerve Block and Adductor Canal Block after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Suk; Kim, Ok Gul; Seo, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Youn Gu; Park, Beyoung Yun

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of femoral nerve block and adductor canal block on postoperative pain, quadriceps strength, and walking ability after primary total knee arthroplasty. Between November 2014 and February 2015, 60 patients underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Thirty patients received femoral nerve block and the other 30 received adductor canal block for postoperative pain control. Before spinal anesthesia, the patients received nerve block via a catheter (20 mL 0.75% ropivacaine was administered initially, followed by intermittent bolus injection of 10 mL 0.2% ropivacaine every 6 hours for 3 days). The catheters were maintained in the exact location of nerve block in 24 patients in the femoral nerve block group and in 19 patients in the adductor canal block group. Data collection was carried out from these 43 patients. To evaluate postoperative pain control, the numerical rating scale scores at rest and 45° flexion of the knee were recorded. To evaluate quadriceps strength, manual muscle testing was performed. Walking ability was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test. We also evaluated analgesic consumption and complications of peripheral nerve block. No significant intergroup difference was observed in the numerical rating scale scores at rest and 45° flexion of the knee on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 7. The adductor canal block group had significantly greater quadriceps strength than did the femoral nerve block group, as assessed by manual muscle testing on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. The 2 groups showed no difference in walking ability on postoperative day 1, but on postoperative days 2, 3, walking ability was significantly better in the adductor canal block group than in the femoral nerve block group. No significant intergroup difference was observed in analgesic consumption. The groups showed no difference in postoperative pain control. Adductor canal block was superior to femoral nerve block in preserving quadriceps

  18. Long-Term Facial Nerve Outcomes after Microsurgical Resection of Vestibular Schwannomas in Patients with Preoperative Facial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; Hendricks, Benjamin; Sarris, Christina E; Spetzler, Robert F; Almefty, Kaith K; Porter, Randall W

    2018-06-01

    Objectives  This study aimed at evaluating facial nerve outcomes in vestibular schwannoma patients presenting with preoperative facial nerve palsy. Design  A retrospective review. Setting  Single-institution cohort. Participants  Overall, 368 consecutive patients underwent vestibular schwannoma resection. Patients with prior microsurgery or radiosurgery were excluded. Main Outcome Measures  Incidence, House-Brackmann grade. Results  Of 368 patients, 9 had confirmed preoperative facial nerve dysfunction not caused by prior treatment, for an estimated incidence of 2.4%. Seven of these nine patients had Koos grade 4 tumors. Mean tumor diameter was 3.0 cm (range: 2.1-4.4 cm), and seven of nine tumors were subtotally resected. All nine patients were followed up clinically for ≥ 6 months. Of the six patients with a preoperative House-Brackmann grade of II, two improved to grade I, three were stable, and one patient worsened to grade III. Of the three patients with grade III or worse, all remained stable at last follow-up. Conclusions  Preoperative facial nerve palsy is rare in patients with vestibular schwannoma; it tends to occur in patients with relatively large lesions. Detailed long-term outcomes of facial nerve function after microsurgical resection for these patients have not been reported previously. We followed nine patients and found that eight (89%) of the nine patients had either stable or improved facial nerve outcomes after treatment. Management strategies varied for these patients, including rates of subtotal versus gross-total resection and the use of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with residual tumor. These results can be used to help counsel patients preoperatively on expected outcomes of facial nerve function after treatment.

  19. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  20. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...

  1. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  2. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Saim; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur

    2013-01-01

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1–10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  3. MRI-guided cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve for the treatment of neuropathy-mediated sitting pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Dharmdev H.; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Fritz, Jan; Del Grande, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathy of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve may manifest as pain and paresthesia in the skin over the inferior buttocks, posterior thigh, and popliteal region. Current treatment options include physical and oral pain therapy, perineural injections, and surgical neurectomy. Perineural steroid injections may provide short-term pain relief; however, to our knowledge, there is currently no minimally invasive denervation procedure for sustained pain relief that could serve as an alternative to surgical neurectomy. Percutaneous cryoablation of nerves is a minimally invasive technique that induces a sustained nerve conduction block through temporary freezing of the neural layers. It can result in long-lasting pain relief, but has not been described for the treatment of neuropathy-mediated PFCN pain. We report a technique of MR-guided cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve resulting in successful treatment of PFCN-mediated sitting pain. Cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve seems a promising, minimally invasive treatment option that deserves further investigation. (orig.)

  4. MRI-guided cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve for the treatment of neuropathy-mediated sitting pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Dharmdev H.; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Fritz, Jan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Radiologia, Lugano, Ticino (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    Neuropathy of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve may manifest as pain and paresthesia in the skin over the inferior buttocks, posterior thigh, and popliteal region. Current treatment options include physical and oral pain therapy, perineural injections, and surgical neurectomy. Perineural steroid injections may provide short-term pain relief; however, to our knowledge, there is currently no minimally invasive denervation procedure for sustained pain relief that could serve as an alternative to surgical neurectomy. Percutaneous cryoablation of nerves is a minimally invasive technique that induces a sustained nerve conduction block through temporary freezing of the neural layers. It can result in long-lasting pain relief, but has not been described for the treatment of neuropathy-mediated PFCN pain. We report a technique of MR-guided cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve resulting in successful treatment of PFCN-mediated sitting pain. Cryoablation of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve seems a promising, minimally invasive treatment option that deserves further investigation. (orig.)

  5. Outpatient unicompartment knee arthroplasty with indwelling femoral nerve catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Geoffrey F; Madden, Susan M; Crawford-Newton, Barbara A; Lane, Alan T; Evans, Holly C

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary multimodal anesthesia regimens allow the performance of unicompartment knee arthroplasty (UKA) on an outpatient basis. Our initial pilot experience is presented using a continuous femoral nerve block as an adjunct for 24 patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiology class 1 (14 men, 10 women; median age, 56 years; range, 46-72 years). After minimally invasive UKA, patients documented their pain and oral medication use while at home for the first 5 days. Adverse events, medication adverse effects, and the amount of infused ropivacaine were recorded. Median pain scores for the first 3 days were 1, 2, and 2 (at rest) and 4, 5, and 3 (during physical therapy). Eighteen patients (75%) required less than 4 mg oral hydromorphone/d. Of the 18, 10 (42%) did not require supplemental oral opioids. The median catheter use was 3 days. Our results suggest that with careful patient selection and adequate teaching, continuous femoral nerve blocks may be used as part of a multimodal pain regimen to assist the delivery of outpatient UKA with high patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the contents of postoperative serum pain-promoting-related mediators, painsuppressing-related mediators and pain-related signal molecules were detected. Results: Serum CGRP, PS, Hist, 5-HT, AM and BK contents of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group, AEA, β-EP, RvE1, LXA4 and LXB4 contents were significantly higher than those of control group, and P2X2, P2X7, P2X3, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y 13, P2Y14, p38MAPK and PI3K contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement can increase the generation of pain-suppressing mediators, decrease the generation of pain-promoting mediators and achieve more exact analgesic effect.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block to Facilitate the Closed Reduction of a Dislocated Hip Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Carlin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic hip dislocation is a common but unfortunate complication in patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty. Successful closed reduction in the emergency department leads to a reduced length of stay and rate of hospitalization. 1, 2 The use of regional anesthesia by femoral nerve block represents a novel approach for controlling pain in patients with hip pathologies. 3 Ultrasound-guided approaches have been used with great success for controlling pain in patients with hip fractures. 4, 5 Here we report the case of a 90-year-old male who presented with a dislocated hip prosthesis, which was subsequently corrected with closed reduction following delivery of regional anesthesia to the femoral nerve under ultrasound guidance. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported use of an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block to facilitate closed reduction of a dislocated prosthetic hip, and highlights a novel approach that avoids the use of procedural sedation in an elderly patient.

  8. Effect of α-lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery. Methods: A total of 110 patients with femoral fracture who received surgical treatment in the hospital between January 2015 and January 2017 were collected and divided into the control group (n=55 and study group (n=55 by random number table. Control group received postoperative nerve growth factor therapy, and study group received postoperative 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy. The differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After treatment, serum bone metabolism indexes BGP and PⅠNP contents of study group were higher than those of control group while CTX-Ⅰ and TRAP contents were lower than those of control group; serum oxidative stress indexes TAC, CAT and SOD contents of study group were higher than those of control group while MDA content was lower than that of control group; limb nerve conduction velocity SCV and MCV levels of study group were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy after femoral fracture surgery can effectively balance osteoblast/ osteoclast activity, reduce oxidative stress and improve limb nerve conduction velocity.

  9. Influences of continuous femoral nerve block on knee function and quality of life in patients following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Zhou, Yingjie; Sun, Jiajun; Yang, Chunxi

    2015-01-01

    Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB), guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulations, offers advantages for both sides and provides effective postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the medium-term impact of continuous femoral nerve block on knee function and quality of life in patients following TKA. This was a follow-up study. Total 168 adult patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulator (group CFNB, n = 82) or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA, n = 86). Quality of life, knee function, patient satisfaction, pain medication and associated adverse effects were compared at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (MOS SF-36), and clinical results were assessed using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Scoring System. Patient satisfaction scores were divided into four categories. A total of 162 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. The CFNB group patients had significantly improved SF-36 scores and physical function at 1 month postoperatively (P quality of life in patients at one month postoperatively. Continuous femoral nerve block is a good choice for postoperative analgesia after TKA.

  10. Successful Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Blockade and Catheterization in a Patient with Von Willebrand Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youmna E. DiStefano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve blockade (PNB is superior to neuraxial anesthesia and/or opioid therapy for perioperative analgesia in total knee replacement (TKR. Evidence on the safety of PNB in patients with coagulopathy is lacking. We describe the first documented account of continuous femoral PNB for perioperative analgesia in a patient with Von Willebrand Disease (vWD. Given her history of opioid tolerance and after an informative discussion, a continuous femoral PNB was planned for in this 34-year-old female undergoing TKR. A Humate-P intravenous infusion was started and the patient was positioned supinely. Using sterile technique with ultrasound guidance, a Contiplex 18 Gauge Tuohy needle was advanced in plane through the fascia iliaca towards the femoral nerve. A nerve catheter was threaded through the needle and secured without complications. Postoperatively, a levobupivacaine femoral catheter infusion was maintained, and twice daily Humate-P intravenous infusions were administered for 48 hours; enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis was initiated thereafter. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. Given documentation of delayed, unheralded bleeding from PNB in coagulopathic patients, we recommend individualized PNB in vWD patients. Multidisciplinary team involvement is required to guide factor supplementation and thromboprophylaxis, as is close follow-up to elicit signs of bleeding throughout the delayed postoperative period.

  11. Spatial distribution of motor units recruited during electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle versus the femoral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Place, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the spatial recruitment of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using over-the-quadriceps and femoral nerve stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 22 young, healthy subjects. Spatial recruitment was investigated using recruitment curves of M-waves recorded from the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) and of twitches recorded from the quadriceps. At maximal stimulation intensity (Imax), no differences were found between nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation. At submaximal intensities, VL M-wave amplitude was higher for over-the-quadriceps stimulation at 40% Imax, and peak twitch force was greater for nerve stimulation at 60% and 80% Imax. For the VM, MU spatial recruitment during nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation of increasing intensity occurred in a similar manner, whereas significant differences were observed for the VL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Superior perioperative analgesia with combined femoral-obturator-sciatic nerve block in comparison with posterior lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for ACL reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareka, Metaxia; Hantes, Michael; Arnaoutoglou, Eleni; Vretzakis, George

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to compare and evaluate the intraoperative and post-operative outcome of PLPS nerve block and that of femoral, obturator and sciatic (FOS) nerve block as a method of anaesthesia, in performing ACL reconstruction. Patients referred for elective arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft were divided in two groups. The first group received combined femoral-obturator-sciatic nerve block (FOS Group) under dual guidance, whereas the second group received posterior lumbar plexus block under neurostimulation and sciatic nerve block (PLPS Group) under dual guidance. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, BMI and athletic activity. The time needed to perform the nerve blocks was significantly shorter for the FOS group (p block under dual guidance for arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery is a safe and tempting anaesthetic choice. The success rate of this technique is higher in comparison with PLPS and results in less peri- and post-operative pain with less opioid consumption. This study provides support for the use of peripheral nerve blocks as an exclusive method for ACL reconstructive surgery in an ambulatory setting with almost no complications. I.

  13. Early avascular necrosis of the femoral head: relationship of the findings of preoperative MRI and the long-term results of core decompression

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    Park, Dal Soo; Jeong, Gun Young [Taejeon Eulji Hospital, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate potential correlation between the extent and site of avascular necrosis (AVN), as determined by preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the development of femoral head collapse. Using clinical, radiographic and MR imaging criteria, twenty hips in 15 patients were selected for core decompression. Preoperative MR results were classified into three categories: group A, less than 15% involvement of the weight-bearing portion of the femoral head; group B, 15%-30% involvement; group C, more than 30% involvement, according to ARCO staging. We also established three groups according to site of involvement of the femoral head namely medial, middle and lateral. Of 20 cases, three were stage Ia; two, Ib; four, Ic; three, 2a; two, 2b; and 6, 2c. Ten cases of Ia, Ib, 2a or 2b showed no femoral head collapse during follow-up of at least 24 months, while ten cases of Ic or 2c showed femoral head collapse. The prognosis of core decompression in patients with early AVN is related to the area of lesion in the femoral head.

  14. Early avascular necrosis of the femoral head: relationship of the findings of preoperative MRI and the long-term results of core decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dal Soo; Jeong, Gun Young; Kwon, Soon Tae

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate potential correlation between the extent and site of avascular necrosis (AVN), as determined by preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the development of femoral head collapse. Using clinical, radiographic and MR imaging criteria, twenty hips in 15 patients were selected for core decompression. Preoperative MR results were classified into three categories: group A, less than 15% involvement of the weight-bearing portion of the femoral head; group B, 15%-30% involvement; group C, more than 30% involvement, according to ARCO staging. We also established three groups according to site of involvement of the femoral head namely medial, middle and lateral. Of 20 cases, three were stage Ia; two, Ib; four, Ic; three, 2a; two, 2b; and 6, 2c. Ten cases of Ia, Ib, 2a or 2b showed no femoral head collapse during follow-up of at least 24 months, while ten cases of Ic or 2c showed femoral head collapse. The prognosis of core decompression in patients with early AVN is related to the area of lesion in the femoral head

  15. Femoral nerve block versus intravenous fentanyl in adult patients with hip fractures – a systematic review

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    Flávia Vieira Guimarães Hartmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip fractures configure an important public health issue and are associated with high mortality taxes and lose of functionality. Hip fractures refer to a fracture occurring between the edge of the femoral head and 5 cm below the lesser trochanter. They are common in orthopedic emergencies. The number of proximal femoral fractures is likely to increase as the population ages. The average cost of care during the initial hospitalization for hip fracture can be estimated about US$ 7,000 per patient. Femoral fractures are painful and need immediate adequate analgesia. Treating pain femoral fractures is difficult because there are limited numbers of analgesics available, many of which have side effects that can limit their use. Opiates are the most used drugs, but they can bring some complications. In this context, femoral nerve blocks can be a safe alternative. It is a specific regional anesthetic technique used by doctors in emergency medicine to provide anesthesia and analgesia of the affected leg. Objective: To compare the analgesic efficacy of intravenous fentanyl versus femoral nerve block before positioning to perform spinal anesthesia in patients with femoral fractures assessed by Pain Scales. Methods: A systematic review of scientific literature was conducted. Studies described as randomized controlled trials comparing femoral nerve block and traditional fentanyl are included. Two reviewers (MR and FH independently assessed potentially eligible trials for inclusion. The methodology assessment was based on the tool developed by the Cochrane Collaboration for assessment of bias for randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Medline and Lilacs were searched for all articles published, without restriction of language or time. Results: Two studies were included in this review. Nerve blockade seemed to be more effective than intravenous fentanyl for preventing pain in patients suffering from a femoral fracture. It also

  16. Comparative evaluation of femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl for positioning during spinal anaesthesia in surgery of femur fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal anaesthesia is the preferred technique to fix fracture of the femur. Extreme pain does not allow ideal positioning for this procedure. Intravenous fentanyl and femoral nerve block are commonly used techniques to reduce the pain during position for spinal anaesthesia however; results are conflicting regarding superiority of femoral nerve block over intravenous fentanyl. Aims: We conducted this study to compare the analgesic effect provided by femoral nerve block (FNB and intra- venous (IV fentanyl prior to positioning for central neuraxial block in patients undergoing surgery for femur fracture. Patients and Methods: In this randomized prospective study 60 patients scheduled for fracture femur operation under spinal were included. Patients were distributed in two groups through computer generated random numbers table; Femoral nerve block group (FNB and Intravenous fentanyl group (FENT. In FNB group patients received FNB guided by a peripheral nerve stimulator (Stimuplex; B Braun, Melsungen, AG 5 minutes prior to positioning. 20mL, 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000 was injected incrementally after a negative aspiration test. Patients in the fentanyl group received injection fentanyl 1 μg/kg IV 5 mins prior to positioning. Spinal block was performed and pain scores before and during positioning were recorded. Statistical analysis was done with Sigmaplot version-10 computer software. Student t-test was applied to compare the means and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: VAS during positioning in group FNB: 0.57 ± 0.31 versus FENT 2.53 ± 1.61 (P = 0.0020. Time to perform spinal anesthesia in group FNB: 15.33 ± 1.64 min versus FENT 19.56 ± 3.09 min (P = 0.000049. Quality of patient positioning for spinal anesthesia in group FNB 2.67± 0.606 versus FENT 1.967 ± 0.85 (P = 0.000027. Patient acceptance was less in group FENT (P = 0.000031. Conclusion: Femoral nerve block provides better analgesia, patient

  17. Preoperative Visualization of Cranial Nerves in Skull Base Tumor Surgery Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Su, Shaobo; Yue, Shuyuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Yonggang; Chen, Xiaochen; Ma, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To visualize cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with special parameters. This study also involved the evaluation of preoperative estimates and intraoperative confirmation of the relationship between nerves and tumor by verifying the accuracy of visualization. 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans including 3D-FSPGR, FIESTA, and DTI were used to collect information from 18 patients with skull base tumor. DTI data were integrated into the 3D slicer for fiber tracking and overlapped anatomic images to determine course of nerves. 3D reconstruction of tumors was achieved to perform neighboring, encasing, and invading relationship between lesion and nerves. Optic pathway including the optic chiasm could be traced in cases of tuberculum sellae meningioma and hypophysoma (pituitary tumor). The oculomotor nerve, from the interpeduncular fossa out of the brain stem to supraorbital fissure, was clearly visible in parasellar meningioma cases. Meanwhile, cisternal parts of trigeminal nerve and abducens nerve, facial nerve were also imaged well in vestibular schwannomas and petroclival meningioma cases. The 3D-spatial relationship between CNs and skull base tumor estimated preoperatively by tumor modeling and tractography corresponded to the results determined during surgery. Supported by DTI and 3D slicer, preoperative 3D reconstruction of most CNs related to skull base tumor is feasible in pathological circumstances. We consider DTI Technology to be a useful tool for predicting the course and location of most CNs, and syntopy between them and skull base tumor.

  18. Magnesium sulfate in femoral nerve block, does postoperative analgesia differ? A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The current study concluded that the admixture of magnesium to bupivacaine provides a profound prolongation of the femoral nerve block, in addition to a significant decrease in postoperative pain scores and total dose of rescue analgesia, with a longer bearable pain periods in the first postoperative day.

  19. Functional and regenerative effects of local administration of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells combined with silicone conduit on transected femoral nerve of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Anelise Bonilla; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vítor Félix; Gomes, Cristiano; Gianotti, Giordano Cabral; Paz, Ana Helena da Rosa; Terraciano, Paula Barros; Marques, Janete Maria Volpato; Guimarães, Karina Magano; Graça, Dominguita Lühers; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Contesini, Emerson Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The inoculation of cells into injury sites can accelerate and improve the quality of nerve regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the functional and regenerative effects of mononuclear autologous bone marrow cells (MABMC) combined with silicon conduit grafting in rabbit femoral nerves. Twenty-eight animals were allocated to one of two groups: treatment group (TG) or control group (CG), divided according to the time of evaluation, at either 50 or 75 days. After neurotmesis of the femoral nerve, surgical repair was performed with nerve autografts in silicon conduits, leaving a 5mm gap in both groups. The TG received MABMC in silicon conduits, and CG received a sham saline inoculum. Histological, clinical and electrophysiological analyses detected no differences between groups, but analysis of leg diameter showed that TG diameters were larger. This cell therapy did not improve regeneration of the femoral nerve, but there was a tendency for better functional recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in asymptomatic adults

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    Zhu Jiaan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To define the sites where the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN is more easily visualized and to describe the anatomical variations of the LFCN. Methods A total of 240 LFCNs in 120 volunteers were evaluated with 18 MHz ultrasound; the intermuscular space between the tensor fasciae latae muscle and the sartorius was used as an initial sonographic landmark. The time taken to identify the nerve was recorded. The number of nerve branches at the level of the inguinal ligament (IL and the relationship between the LFCN and the IL was assessed. The nerve cross-sectional area (CSA of the LFCN and the distance between the LFCN and the anterior superior iliac spine was measured. Results Each nerve was identified using ultrasound in all participants. The mean time for identifying the nerve was 7s for unilateral LFCNs. The nerve passed under the IL in 198 cases, whereas in 44 cases, it passed through to the IL. The LFCN consisted of 1–4 branches just after its passage under or through the IL. The CSA of the LFCN was 1.04±0.44 mm2, and the mean distance between the LFCN and the anterior superior iliac spine was 15.6 ± 4.2 mm. Conclusions It is easier to identify the LFCN if the intermuscular space between the tensor fasciae latae muscle and the sartorius is used as an initial sonographic landmark. The anatomical variation of the LFCN can be viewed with high-frequency ultrasound.

  1. Urinary retention in unilateral total knee arthroplasty: comparison between continuous epidural analgesia and single-shot femoral nerve block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Khan, R.I.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the frequency of urinary retention and requirement of bladder catheterization in patients undergoing toatal knee arthroplasty while receiving either continuous epidural analgesia or single-shot femoral nerve block. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study:Operating Rooms of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients were randomized in two groups of 30 each, i.e. epidural group (group E) or femoral nerve block group (group F). Baseline parameters were recorded. Postoperatively, patients were followed for upto 24 hours to collect the data regarding urinary retention. Final outcome was taken at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was analyzed to compare the frequency of urinary retention between the two groups. Results:The average age of the patients was 59.58 +-5.85 years. There were 28 (46.7%) male and 32 (53.3%) female patients. Frequency of urinary retention was significantly high in Group E than Group F (46.7% vs. 6.7%; p=0.0005). Conclusion: Single-shot femoral nerve block offers a more favorable profile in terms of postoperative urinary retention when compared to continuous epidural analgesia. (author)

  2. Effect of Preoperative Pain on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Sharma, Vikram; Sharma, Ritu; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Geethapriya, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the amount and severity of preoperative pain will affect the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One-hundred seventy-seven adult volunteer subjects, actively experiencing pain in a mandibular molar, participated in this prospective double-blind study carried out at 2 different centers. The patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of severity of preoperative pain: mild, 1-54 mm on the Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS); moderate, 55-114 mm; and severe, greater than 114 mm. After IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine, endodontic access preparation was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using the HP VAS. The primary outcome measure was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain. The success rates were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression test. There was a significant difference between the mild and severe preoperative pain group (P = .03). There was a positive correlation between the values of preoperative and intraoperative pain (r = .2 and .4 at 2 centers). The amount of preoperative pain can affect the anesthetic success rates of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

  3. Effect of Preoperative Pain on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Sharma, Vikram; Sharma, Ritu; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Geethapriya, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the amount and severity of preoperative pain will affect the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One-hundred seventy-seven adult volunteer subjects, actively experiencing pain in a mandibular molar, participated in this prospective double-blind study carried out at 2 different centers. The patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of severity of preoperative pain: mild, 1–54 mm on the Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS); moderate, 55–114 mm; and severe, greater than 114 mm. After IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine, endodontic access preparation was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using the HP VAS. The primary outcome measure was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain. The success rates were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression test. There was a significant difference between the mild and severe preoperative pain group (P = .03). There was a positive correlation between the values of preoperative and intraoperative pain (r = .2 and .4 at 2 centers). The amount of preoperative pain can affect the anesthetic success rates of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:26650491

  4. Association between Caveolin-1 expression and pathophysiological progression of femoral nerves in diabetic foot amputation patients

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    Ding Min

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pathological changes of femoral nerves and the levels of caveolin-1 in diabetic foot amputation patients with neuropathy, and evaluate the association between caveolin-1 and neuropathy development.

  5. [Treatment of avascular necrosis of femoral head after femoral neck fracture with pedicled iliac bone graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benjie; Zhao, Dewei; Guo, Lin; Yang, Lei; Li, Zhigang; Cui, Daping; Tian, Fengde; Liu, Baoyi

    2011-05-01

    To explore the effectiveness of pedicled iliac bone graft transposition for treatment of avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture. Between June 2002 and December 2006, 22 cases (22 hips, 16 left hips and 6 right hips) of ANFH after femoral neck fracture were treated with iliac bone graft pedicled with ascending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels. There were 18 males and 4 females with an age range from 28 to 48 years (mean, 37.5 years). The time from injury to internal fixation was 2-31 days, and all fractures healed within 12 months after internal fixation. The ANFH was diagnosed at 15-40 months (mean, 22 months) after internal fixation. The ANFH duration was 3-11 months (mean, 8 months). According to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) staging system, 2 hips were classified as stage IIa, 3 hips as stage IIb, 3 hips as stage IIc, 3 hips as stage IIIa, 7 hips as stage IIIb, and 4 hips as stage IIIc. The preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) was 64.10 +/- 5.95. All incisions healed by first intention and the patients had no complication of lung embolism, sciatic nerve injury, lower limb deep venous thrombosis, and numbness and pain of donor site. All patients were followed up 2.5 to 6.3 years (mean, 4.8 years). The fracture healing time was 8-12 months, and no femoral neck fracture recurred. The HHS was 90.20 +/- 5.35 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative value (t = -18.447, P = 0.000). The hip function were excellent in 11 hips, good in 10 hips, fair in 1 hip, and the excellent and good rate was 95.5%. Four hips were radiographically progressed in ARCO staging, 18 hips remained stable with a stable rate of 81.8%. Pedicled iliac bone graft transposition is an ideal option for treatment of ANFH after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture for the advantages of femoral head revascularization, sufficient cancellous bone supply, and relatively simple procedure.

  6. Improving the preoperative care of patients with femoral neck fractures through the development and implementation of a checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz; Edison, Eric; Fowler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of femoral neck fractures (FNFs) is expected to rise with life expectancy. It is important to improve the safety of these patients whilst under the care of orthopaedic teams. This study aimed to increase the performance of vital preoperative tasks in patients admitted for femoral neck fracture operations by producing and implementing a checklist as an aide memoir. The checklist was designed primarily for use by senior house officers (SHOs) admitting patients from the emergency department. A list of 12 preoperative tasks was identified. A baseline audit of 10 random patients showed that the mean proportion of the 12 tasks completed was 53% (range 25% - 83%). A survey of 14 nurses and surgeons found that the majority of respondents agreed that there was a problem with the performance of most of the tasks. The tasks were incorporated into a checklist which was refined in three plan-do-study-act cycles and introduced into the femoral neck fracture pathway. In the week following the introduction of the checklist, 77% of the checklist tasks were completed, 24% more than at the baseline audit (53%). In week 3, the completion of checklist tasks rose to 88% and to 95% in week 4. In conclusion, a simple checklist can markedly improve the performance and recording of preoperative tasks by SHOs. We recommend the wider adoption of the new checklist to be produced as a sticker for patients' medical records. Further study is required to ascertain the effect of the checklist on clinical outcomes.

  7. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Júnior, Lúcio Honório de; Temponi, Eduardo Frois; Paganini, Vinícius Oliveira; Costa, Lincoln Paiva; Soares, Luiz Fernando Machado; Gonçalves, Matheus Braga Jacques

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  8. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Honório de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate the change in length of hospital stay postoperatively for Total Knee Arthroplasty after using femoral and sciatic nerve block. Materials and methods: the medical records of 287 patients were evaluated, taking into account the number of hours of admission, the percentage and the reason for re-hospitalization within 30 days, as well as associated complications. All patients were divided into two groups according or not to whether they were admitted to ICU or not. During the years 2009 and 2010, isolated spinal anesthesia was the method used in the procedure. From 2011 on, femoral and sciatic nerve blocking was introduced. Results: between the years 2009 and 2012, the average length of stay ranged from 74 hours in 2009 to 75.2 hours in 2010. The average length of stay in 2011 was 56.52 hours and 53.72 hours in 2012, all in the group of patients who did not remain in the ICU postoperatively. In the same period, among those in the group that needed ICU admission, the average length of stay was 138.7 hours in 2009, 90.25 hours in 2010, 79.8 hours in 2011, and 52.91 hours in 2012. During 2009 and 2010, the rate of re-hospitalization was 0%, while in 2011 and 2012, were 3.44% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: according to this study, the use of femoral and sciatic nerve blocking after total knee arthroplasty allowed significant reduction in hospital stay.

  9. Intra-articular versus intravenous magnesium-sulfate as adjuvant to femoral nerve block in arthroscopic knee sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdulatif

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The combined use of femoral nerve block with IA or IV MgSO4 is associated with significant reduction of the intensity and duration of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic requirements in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with the IA MgSO4 being superior to IV route of administration.

  10. Femoral nerve compression syndrome with paresis of the quadriceps muscle caused by radiotherapy of malignant tumours. A report of four cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, L E [Orthopaedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, Finland

    1975-01-01

    Four patients showed signs of femoral nerve compression with subsequent paresis of the quadriceps muscle, after radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The compression was caused by scar tissue due to radiation treatment of the inguinal region. The first symptom was radiating pain in the front of the thigh and lower leg which appeared 12-16 months after X-ray treatment. A decrease in the strength of quadriceps muscle occurred some months later. In one case the femoral nerve was decompressed, another patient was treated by an intradural phenolglycerin injection and one patient was treated with cortisone and oxiphenbutanzone. In these cases the pain decreased considerably, but in one case only the paresis of the quadriceps muscle improved after treatment.

  11. Opioid Usage During Admission in Hip Fracture Patients-The Effect of the Continuous Femoral Nerve Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsø, Ida; Jantzen, Christopher; Lauritzen, Jes Bruun

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in opioid usage during admission for hip fracture patients with continuous femoral nerve block (cFNB) when compared to patients nonfemoral nerve block (nFNB). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients were identified from...... the local database on all hip fracture patients admitted to Bispebjerg University Hospital, Denmark. Four hundred fifty-six hip fracture patients were included during the period September 2008 to October 2010. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-six hip fracture patients had cFNB. The mean time with cFNB was 3...

  12. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  13. Comparison of peri- and intraarticular analgesia with femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Karen; Nikolajsen, Lone; Haraldsted, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    to receive continuous femoral nerve block (group F) or peri- and intraarticular infiltration and injection (group I). Group I received a solution of 300 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.5 mg epinephrine by infiltration of the knee at the end of surgery, and 2 postoperative injections...

  14. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (P<0.05. Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB (P<0.001 and P=0.031, resp.. Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia.

  15. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0-31%. Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56-96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy.

  17. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of articular branches of femoral and obturator nerves for chronic hip pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chye CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cien-Leong Chye,1 Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Kang Lu,1 Ya-Wen Chen,2,3 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, 2Department of Nursing, I-Shou University, 3School of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Purpose: Chronic hip pain is a common symptom experienced by many people. Often, surgery is not an option for patients with multiple comorbidities, and conventional drugs either have many side effects or are ineffective. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF is a new method in the treatment of pain. We attempt to compare the efficacy of PRF relative to conservative management for chronic hip pain.Patients and methods: Between August 2011 and July 2013, 29 patients with chronic hip pain were divided into two groups (PRF and conservative treatment according to consent or refusal to undergo PRF procedure. Fifteen patients received PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves, and 14 patients received conservative treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS, Oxford hip scores (OHS, and pain medications were used for outcome measurement before treatment and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment.Results: At 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment initiation, improvements in VAS were significantly greater with PRF. Improvements in OHS were significantly greater in the PRF group at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Patients in the PRF group also used less pain medications. Eight subjects in the conservative treatment group switched to the PRF group after 12 weeks, and six of them had >50% improvement.Conclusion: When compared with conservative treatment, PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves offers greater pain relief for chronic hip pain and can augment physical functioning. Keywords: pulsed radiofrequency, obturator and femoral nerves, hip joint pain, osteoar­thritis

  18. Comparative efficacy of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block with adjuvant magnesium for post-operative analgesia

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    Prakash Khairnar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Patients with burns may require multiple surgeries, but poor general condition and underlying protein energy malnutrition make them unsuitable candidates for general or spinal anaesthesia. This study evaluated the role of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine used in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN blocks in burn patients with relative sparing of thigh portion. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 54 adult patients of 18-65 years age, undergoing split-thickness skin graft harvest from the thigh, allotted to three equal groups of 18 each. Group L patients received femoral nerve (FN block with 15 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 8 mL for LFCN block; Group LM patients received 14 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine along with 1.0 mL of 15% magnesium sulphate for FN block, 7.5 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 0.5 mL of 15% of magnesium sulphate to LFCN block and Group R patients received 15 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for FN block and 8 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for LFCN block. Time to block onset and complete surgical block, duration of analgesia, total analgesic dose and the overall analgesia satisfaction score were measured in the first 24 h post-operatively. Quantitative data were analysed with ANOVA and qualitative data subjected to Chi-square tests. Intergroup comparison was performed with independent t-test. Results: The duration of post-operative analgesia did not differ with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.610. Time to onset of the block was significantly decreased with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.0341, but time to complete surgical block onset was similar across the groups. Conclusion: Both ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have good perioperative analgesic efficacy. Magnesium as an analgesia adjuvant with levobupivacaine does not prolong the duration of post-operative analgesia.

  19. Diagnostic gait pattern of a patient with longstanding left femoral nerve palsy: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2010-12-01

    The gait pattern of a 35-year-old man with longstanding, left femoral nerve palsy was assessed using 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis. Stability of his left knee in stance was achieved by manipulating the external moments of the limb so that the ground reaction force passes in front of the knee joint. This compensatory mechanism of locking the knee in extension is reliant on the posterior capsular structures. The patient was managed conservatively and continued to walk without aids.

  20. Minimum Effective Concentration of Bupivacaine in Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block after Arthroscopic Knee Meniscectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ed Carlos Rey; de Oliveira Honda, Claudio A; Bringel, Roberto Cesar Teixeira; Leal, Plinio da Cunha; Filho, Gasper de Jesus Lopes; Sakata, Rioko Kinmiko

    2016-01-01

    Adequate analgesia is important for early hospital discharge after meniscectomy. A femoral nerve block may reduce the need for systemic analgesics, with fewer side effects; however, motor block can occur. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block may reduce the required local anesthetic concentration, preventing motor block. The primary objective of this study was to determine the lowest effective analgesic concentration of bupivacaine in 50% (EC50) and in 90% (EC90) of patients for a successful ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block in arthroscopic knee meniscectomy. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. This study was conducted at Hospital São Domingos. A total of 52 patients undergoing arthroscopic knee meniscectomy were submitted to ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block using 22 mL bupivacaine. The bupivacaine concentration given to a study patient was determined by the response of the previous patient (a biased-coin design up-down sequential method). If the previous patient had a negative response, the bupivacaine concentration was increased by 0.05% for the next case. If the previous patient had a positive response, the next patient was randomized to receive the same bupivacaine concentration (with a probability of 0.89) or to have a decrease by 0.05% (with a probability of 0.11). A successful block was defined by a numerical pain intensity scale score different evaluations. If the pain intensity score was = 4 (moderate or severe pain) at any time, the block was considered failed. General anesthesia was induced with 30 µg/kg alfentanil and 2 mg/kg propofol, followed by propofol maintanance, plus remifentanil if needed. Postoperative analgesia supplementation was performed with dipyrone; ketoprofen and tramadol were given if needed. The following parameters were evaluated: numerical pain intensity score, duration of analgesia, supplementary analgesic dose in 24 hours, and need for intraoperative remifentanil. The EC50 was 0.160 (95

  1. Effect of Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy on Urinary Continence in Patients With Preoperative Erectile Dysfunction

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    Yong Hyun Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction. Methods: A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors. Results: Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5% within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months. Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022. All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026 and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012 were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence. Conclusions: nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes.

  2. In patients undergoing fast track total knee arthroplasty, addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block has no clinical advantage A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Rienk; Zonneveldt, Harry J.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Steens, Jeroen; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients

  3. Characterization of nerve and microvessel damage and recovery in type 1 diabetic mice after permanent femoral artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Mantsounga, Chris S; Broqueres-You, Dong; Dohan, Anthony; Polivka, Marc; Deroide, Nicolas; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Kubis, Nathalie; Lévy, Bernard I

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathy is the most common complication of the peripheral nervous system during the progression of diabetes. The pathophysiology is unclear but may involve microangiopathy, reduced endoneurial blood flow, and tissue ischemia. We used a mouse model of type 1 diabetes to study parallel alterations of nerves and microvessels following tissue ischemia. We designed an easily reproducible model of ischemic neuropathy induced by irreversible ligation of the femoral artery. We studied the evolution of behavioral function, epineurial and endoneurial vessel impairment, and large nerve myelinated fiber as well as small cutaneous unmyelinated fiber impairment for 1 month following the onset of ischemia. We observed a more severe hindlimb dysfunction and delayed recovery in diabetic animals. This was associated with reduced density of large arteries in the hindlimb and reduced sciatic nerve epineurial blood flow. A reduction in sciatic nerve endoneurial capillary density was also observed, associated with a reduction in small unmyelinated epidermal fiber number and large myelinated sciatic nerve fiber dysfunction. Moreover, vascular recovery was delayed, and nerve dysfunction was still present in diabetic animals at day 28. This easily reproducible model provides clear insight into the evolution over time of the impact of ischemia on nerve and microvessel homeostasis in the setting of diabetes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The comparison of combined femoral-sciatic nerve block with spinal anesthesia at lower extremity surgery

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    Selim Almaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, we aimed to compare the spinal anesthesia technique with combined femoral-sciatic block technique in patients undergoing lower limb surgery. Methods: In this study, after obtaining the approval of the Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee, scheduled for elective lower extremity surgery, the ASA 1-2 groups, between the ages of 18-65, 60 patients were enrolled. Study was planned as a prospective, randomized and controlled. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups as the spinal anesthesia (Group S and combined sciatic-femoral nerve block (Group CSF to be. Results: Demographic data similar between the groups (p> 0.05. The implementation period of the technique was long in the Group CSF compared with in the Group S (p <0.001. Surgery delivery time was shorter in the Group S compared with in the Group CSF (p <0.001. The time of motor block occurrence was longer in the Group CSF compared with in the Group S (p <0.001. The duration of motor block was long in the Group CSF compared with in the Group S (p <0.001. Conclusion: The each of two methods is safe and effective in lower extremity orthopedic surgery, but the application of peripheral nerve block to provide the long-term advantages such as postoperative analgesia and reducing postoperative analgesic consumption. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  5. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of articular branches of femoral and obturator nerves for chronic hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Cien-Leong; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Lu, Kang; Chen, Ya-Wen; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hip pain is a common symptom experienced by many people. Often, surgery is not an option for patients with multiple comorbidities, and conventional drugs either have many side effects or are ineffective. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a new method in the treatment of pain. We attempt to compare the efficacy of PRF relative to conservative management for chronic hip pain. Between August 2011 and July 2013, 29 patients with chronic hip pain were divided into two groups (PRF and conservative treatment) according to consent or refusal to undergo PRF procedure. Fifteen patients received PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves, and 14 patients received conservative treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS), Oxford hip scores (OHS), and pain medications were used for outcome measurement before treatment and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. At 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment initiation, improvements in VAS were significantly greater with PRF. Improvements in OHS were significantly greater in the PRF group at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Patients in the PRF group also used less pain medications. Eight subjects in the conservative treatment group switched to the PRF group after 12 weeks, and six of them had >50% improvement. When compared with conservative treatment, PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves offers greater pain relief for chronic hip pain and can augment physical functioning.

  6. Femoral shaft bowing in the coronal plane has more significant effect on the coronal alignment of TKA than proximal or distal variations of femoral shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine (1) variations in the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur in a series of Korean patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), (2) the preoperative relationship between these three parameters and the distal valgus cutting angle referenced off the femoral intramedullary guide, and (3) whether there was any relationship between femoral bowing and variations in the shape of the proximal or distal femur in the coronal plane. The preoperative long-standing anteroposterior radiographs of 316 consecutive osteoarthritis patients who underwent primary TKA from 2009 to 2011 were examined. The femoral neck shaft angle, the femoral shaft bowing angle, and the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle were measured to assess the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur, respectively. The valgus cutting angle of the femur was defined as the angle between the distal anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. The study population showed large variations in femoral shape. The mean femoral intramedullary guide angle was 6.5° ± 1.3° (range: 4°-13°). The femoral shaft bowing angle was the factor that showed the strongest correlation with this angle (P shaft angle showed no correlation (n.s.). The femoral shaft bowing angle showed a weak correlation with the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (P = 0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the femoral neck shaft angle (n.s.). Apparent femoral bowing (>3° of lateral or medial bowing) was found in 42 (13.3 %) of cases (37 cases of lateral bowing and five of medial bowing). Cases with lateral apparent femoral bowing >3° had a distal cutting angle of 8.6° ± 2.2° relative to the femoral intramedullary guide. The femoral intramedullary guide angle was mainly influenced by femoral shaft bowing among femoral deformities in the coronal plane. Therefore, to increase the accuracy of distal femoral cut during TKA, it is necessary to confirm femoral

  7. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years

  8. Autonomic nerve-sparing surgery with preoperative or intraoperative radiotherapy for advanced lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Norio; Ono, Masato; Sugifuji, Masanori; Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Arai, Tatsuo; Koda, Keishi; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Oda, Kenji; Nakajima, Nobuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Autonomic-nerve-sparing surgery was performed for advanced lower rectal cancer, and the results in patients who had undergone preoperative irradiation plus chemotherapy (RCT group) and intraoperative irradiation (IORT group) were compared. The autonomic nerves of 76 of the 84 patients in the RCT group were conserved. The radiation dose was 42.6 Gy, and surgery was performed 2 weeks after the irradiation. Their curability was A. Urinary function was maintained. The results for sexual function were better in the cases in which the autonomic nerves were completely conserved. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 84.1%. The local recurrence rate was 7.9% and was no higher after treatment by the conventional method. The autonomic nerves of all 61 patients in the IORT group, were conserved. Patients were irradiated with 15 Gy (5 MeV) to the pelvic nerve plexuses and peripheral region with a cone 4 cm in diameter. Irradiation depth was estimated to be approximately 15 mm. The results for urinary function and sexual function were equivalent to those in the RCT group. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 79%. The local recurrence rate was 9.8%. The autonomic nerve conservation rate was increased in both groups but the results in terms of QOL, such as sexual function, were inadequate. Further development and improvement of treatment methods for advanced lower rectal cancer are needed. (K.H.)

  9. Low cost continuous femoral nerve block for relief of acute severe cancer related pain due to pathological fracture femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cherian Koshy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fractures in cancer patient cause severe pain that is difficult to control pharmacologically. Even with good pain relief at rest, breakthrough and incident pain can be unmanageable. Continuous regional nerve blocks have a definite role in controlling such intractable pain. We describe two such cases where severe pain was adequately relieved in the acute phase. Continuous femoral nerve block was used as an efficient, cheap and safe method of pain relief for two of our patients with pathological fracture femur. This method was proved to be quite efficient in decreasing the fracture-related pain and improving the level of well being.

  10. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  11. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  12. An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul D.; Eshleman, Jeffrey S.; Foote, Robert L.; Strome, Scott E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However

  13. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration versus femoral nerve block for pain control in total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianbing; Zhang, Weijie; Yao, Shuxin

    2016-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) usually results in postoperative pain. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) infiltration and femoral nerve block (FNB) for pain control in total knee arthroplasty. We systemically searched electronic databases, including Embase (1980-2016.7), MEDLINE (1966-2016.7), PubMed (1966-2016.7), ScienceDirect (1985-2016.7), Web of Science (1950-2016.7) and Cochrane Library for potentially relevant articles. All calculations were conducted using Stata 11.0. One randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-RCTs involving 1289 participants met the inclusion criteria. The result of the meta-analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain scores at POD 0 (SMD = -0.047, 95% CI: -0.276 to 0.182, P = 0.688), POD1 (SMD = -0.038, 95% CI: -0.273 to 0.197, P = 0.749) or POD 2 (SMD = -0.043, 95% CI: -0.192 to 0.107, P = 0.575). Significant differences were found between groups in morphine equivalent consumption at POD 1 (SMD = 0.625, 95% CI: 0.068 to 1.183, P = 0.028) and POD 2 (SMD = 0.410, 95% CI: 0.024 to 0.796, P = 0.037) between groups. There were no significant differences regarding the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea (RD = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to -0.075, P = 0.914) or vomiting (RD = 0.006, 95% CI: -0.049 to 0.062, P = 0.821). Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration provides similar postoperative pain relief to femoral nerve block following total knee arthroplasty. In addition, liposomal bupivacaine infiltration could significantly reduce the consumption of morphine equivalents compared to femoral nerve block without an increased risk of adverse events. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefit of cup medialization in total hip arthroplasty is associated with femoral anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Levrero Florencio, Francesc; Rüdiger, Hannes A

    2014-10-01

    Medialization of the cup with a respective increase in femoral offset has been proposed in THA to increase abductor moment arms. Insofar as there are potential disadvantages to cup medialization, it is important to ascertain whether the purported biomechanical benefits of cup medialization are large enough to warrant the downsides; to date, studies regarding this question have disagreed. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of cup medialization with a compensatory increase in femoral offset compared with anatomic reconstruction for patients undergoing THA. We tested the hypothesis that there is a (linear) correlation between preoperative anatomic parameters and muscle moment arm increase caused by cup medialization. Fifteen patients undergoing THA were selected, covering a typical range of preoperative femoral offsets. For each patient, a finite element model was built based on a preoperative CT scan. The model included the pelvis, femur, gluteus minimus, medius, and maximus. Two reconstructions were compared: (1) anatomic position of the acetabular center of rotation, and (2) cup medialization compensated by an increase in the femoral offset. Passive abduction-adduction and flexion-extension were simulated in the range of normal gait. Muscle moment arms were evaluated and correlated to preoperative femoral offset, acetabular offset, height of the greater trochanter (relative to femoral center of rotation), and femoral antetorsion angle. The increase of muscle moment arms caused by cup medialization varied among patients. Muscle moment arms increase by 10% to 85% of the amount of cup medialization for abduction-adduction and from -35% (decrease) to 50% for flexion-extension. The change in moment arm was inversely correlated (R(2) = 0.588, p = 0.001) to femoral antetorsion (anteversion), such that patients with less femoral antetorsion gained more in terms of hip muscle moments. No linear correlation was observed between changes in moment arm and

  15. STUDY OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CONTINUOUS FEMORAL NERVE BLOCKADE WITH EPIDURAL ANALGESIA FOR PAIN RELIEF AFTER TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rapolu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Total knee replacement causes moderate-to-severe pain requiring effective analgesia. With use of ultrasound guidance, we may prove a more suitable approach compared with the epidural technique. Aim of this study is the comparison between Continuous Epidural Analgesia (CEA and Continuous Femoral Block (CFB techniques in Total Knee Replacement surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted on 60 adult male and female patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery for a period of 2 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group - 1: Continuous epidural analgesia patients, Group - 2: Continuous femoral blockage patients. All patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and investigated to rule out any systemic disease. RESULTS The mean age of patient in Group - 1 was 66.54 ± 4.98 and in Group - 2 was 66.98 ± 5.02 years. P value was > 0.05, which was not significant. No significant differences in gender is observed between the groups. VAS scores were significantly high (P < 0.05 in the femoral group at 6 h, after which there was a declining trend and scores were essentially similar from 24 h. The use of rescue analgesic was also higher in the femoral group. Analysis of side-effects showed that all the five common sideeffects were twice as common in the epidural group than in the femoral study group. Only one patient in the femoral group had urinary retention when compared with four in the epidural group. The differences were not statistically significant. Muscle power at 48 h, time getting out of the bed and time stay in hospital (days are significant in comparison in 2 groups, range of movement is insignificant in groups. Patient satisfaction score was measured on a scale of 1 - 10. Patients in the Femoral group were slightly more satisfied with a mean ± SD score of 8.1 ± 1.2 when compared with the epidural group 7.3 ± 1.01. CONCLUSION Continuous femoral blockade using US guidance provides equivalent analgesia

  16. Effect of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing total knee replacement arthroplasty: A dose–response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Packiasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of dexmedetomidine at 2 μg/kg dose in femoral nerve block is superior to 1 μg/kg for providing analgesia after TKA, although its role in facilitating early ambulation needs further evaluation.

  17. Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2012-10-01

    This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  18. Femoral nerve block using ropivacaine 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%: effects on the rehabilitation programme following total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paauwe, J J; Thomassen, B J; Weterings, J; van Rossum, E; Ausems, M E

    2008-09-01

    Femoral nerve blockade is recommended for analgesia following total knee arthroplasty. Following implementation of this type of postoperative analgesia in our hospital we found that active mobilization the day after surgery, may be difficult due to insufficient quadriceps muscle strength. We therefore designed a pilot study comparing the effect of ropivacaine 0.1%, 0.05% or 0.025% on the patient's postoperative rehabilitation and analgesia. Three groups of 12 patients received bolus doses of ropivacaine via their femoral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia. The ability to actively mobilize, quadriceps muscle strength, pain VAS-scores and patient's satisfaction were measured during in the first three postoperative days. There were no significant differences in the patient's ability to actively mobilize and the pain VAS-scores. The overall satisfaction of the patients with the pain treatment was significantly better (p = 0.049) in the 0.1% compared with the 0.025% group. This pilot-study demonstrated no advantage associated with the use of a ropivacaine concentration less than 0.1%.

  19. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of manual palpation and pressure algometry of the lower limb nerves in asymptomatic subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fingleton, Caitriona P

    2014-02-01

    Nerve palpation is a method of clinically identifying mechanosensitivity of neural tissue by means of pressure algometry and manual palpation. There are few investigations of the reliability of lower limb nerve palpation, and femoral nerve palpation has never been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of nerve palpation of the femoral, sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves and to report normative values for the femoral nerve.

  20. Post-operative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty: comparison of low-dose intrathecal morphine and single-shot ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block: a randomized, single blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, L; Vergari, A; Zanghi, F; Messina, A; Bitondo, M; Antonelli, M

    2010-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty often results in marked postoperative pain. A recent meta-analysis supports the use of femoral nerve block or alternatively spinal injection of morphine plus local anaesthetic for post-operative analgesia. On the other hand, the use of intrathecal morphine may be associated with a large number of distressing side effects (itching, urinary retention, nausea and vomiting, delayed respiratory depression). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of femoral nerve block and low dose intrathecal morphine in post-operative analgesia after primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Fifty-two consecutive patients scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty were allocated to the intrathecal morphine group (ITM group) or to the femoral nerve block group (FNB group). In ITM group a subarachnoid puncture was performed at the L3-L4 inter-vertebral space with hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg plus 100 mcg of preservative-free morphine. Patients allocated to the FNB group received a single-injection ultrasound-assisted femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.75% 25 ml before the spinal injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg. All patients received postoperative patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) morphine, using a 1-mg bolus and a 5-minute lockout period. Data were analyzed using Student t test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures with time and treatment as the 2 factors. Post hoc comparisons were performed by Bonferroni test. Statistical significance for all test was a p value < 0.05. Patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. We found a statistically significant differences in postoperative pain between the two groups: ITM group had the lower visual analogic pain score (VAS) values. Morphine consumption was lower in the ITM group: average consumption within the first 6 hours was 0.9 mg in IT group compared to 3.1 mg in FNB group; at 12 h 4.2 mg vs 6.3 mg; at 24 h 6.9 mg vs 10.3 mg; at 48 h 9

  1. Femoral venous pressure waveform as indicator of phrenic nerve injury in the setting of second-generation cryoballoon ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Giacomo; de Asmundis, Carlo; Ströker, Erwin; Hünük, Burak; Moran, Darragh; Ruggiero, Diego; De Regibus, Valentina; Coutino-Moreno, Hugo Enrique; Takarada, Ken; Choudhury, Rajin; Poelaert, Jan; Verborgh, Christian; Brugada, Pedro; Chierchia, Gian-Battista

    2017-07-01

    Femoral venous pressure waveform (VPW) analysis has been recently described as a novel method to assess phrenic nerve function during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures by means of the cryoballoon technique. In this study, we sought to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this technique, with respect to the incidence of phrenic nerve injury (PNI), in comparison with the traditional abdominal palpation technique alone. Consecutive patients undergoing second-generation cryoballoon ablation (CB-A) from June 2014 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Diagnosis of PNI was made if any reduced motility or paralysis of the hemidiaphragm was detected on fluoroscopy. During the study period, a total of 350 consecutive patients (man 67%, age 57.2 ± 12.9 years) were enrolled (200 using traditional phrenic nerve assessment and 150 using VPW monitoring). The incidence of PNI in the overall population was 8.0% (28/350); of these, eight were impending PNI (2.3%), 14 transient (4.0%), and six persistent (1.7%). Patients having undergone CB-A with traditional assessment experienced 18 phrenic nerve palsies (9.0%) vs two in 'VPW monitoring' group (1.3%; P = 0.002). Specifically, the former presented 12 transient (6.0%) and six persistent (3.0%) phrenic nerve palsies, and the latter exhibited two transient (1.3%; P = 0.03) and no persistent (0%; P = 0.04) phrenic nerve palsies. In conclusion, this novel method assessing the VPW for predicting PNI is inexpensive, easily available, with reproducible measurements, and appears to be more effective than traditional assessment methods.

  2. Does femoral offset recover and affect the functional outcome of patients with displaced femoral neck fracture following hemiarthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Won, Seok-Hyung; Han, Jun; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2017-06-01

    Restoring preoperative horizontal femoral offset (FO) promised good functional outcome in patients receiving total hip arthroplasty. However, relatively little was known regarding the clinical relevance of restoring the offset in patients with bipolar hemiarthroplasty to treat displaced femoral neck fracture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative FO accurately and verify its relation with functional outcome. One hundred elderly patients who received bipolar hemiarthroplasty to treat displaced femoral neck fracture were identified. Preoperative CT scanning of contralateral hip joint and reconstruction of images led to rotation-free FO. By referencing postoperative implant specification and comparing to measured values in Picture Archive and Communication System, rotation-free postoperative FO and the amount of change were acquired. Postoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) were evaluated to measure functional outcome at 12-month after the surgery. Patients with significant FO change were identified. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine if the FO change might independently affect the outcome regardless of confounding factors. The mean preoperative offset was 37.4±2.5 increased by 12.7±9.6% after the surgery. Only 25.0% of postoperative offset after hemiarthroplasty was changed within ±5% of preoperative offset. A total of 45.0% of postoperative offset changed within ±10% while 77.0% of postoperative offset changed within ±20%. 23% of patients whose FO changed more than 20% showed significantly worse outcome score than the patients whose FO change remained within ±20% of initial value. Mean MBI and HHS were negatively correlated with FO change. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant correlation remained between modification of FO and MBI, but not between FO change and HHS (B=4.576; β=0.235; 95% confidence interval of B: 0.534 to 8.135). FO was not properly restored in 23

  3. Individualised distal femoral cut improves femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement in knees with moderate and severe varus deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Dhanasekararaja; Iyyampillai, Geethan; Shanmugam, Sivaraj; Natesan, Rajkumar; S, Rajasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the variation in valgus correction angle and the influence of individualised distal femoral cut on femoral component placement and limb alignment during total knee replacement (TKR) in knees with varus deformity. The study was done prospectively in two stages. In the first stage, the valgus correction angle (VCA) was calculated in long-limb radiographs of 227 patients and correlated with pre-operative parameters of femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and hip-knee-ankle angle. In the second part comprising of 240 knees with varus deformity, 140 (group 1) had the distal femoral cut individualised according to the calculated VCA, while the remaining 100 knees (group 1) were operated with a fixed distal femoral cut of 5°. The outcome of surgery was studied by grouping the knees as varus 15°. Of the 227 limbs analysed in stage I, 70 knees (31 %) had a VCA angle outside 5-7°. Coronal bowing (p shaft angle (p alignment when VCA was individualised in the groups of knees with varus 10-15° (p 0.002) and varus >15° (p 0.002). Valgus correction angle is highly variable and is influenced by femoral bowing, neck-shaft angle and pre-operative deformity. Individualisation of VCA is preferable in patients with moderate and severe varus deformity. Level 2.

  4. Retrospective comparison of the effects of epidural anesthesia versus peripheral nerve block on postoperative outcomes in elderly Chinese patients with femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin JW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianwen Jin,1 Gang Wang,2 Maowei Gong,3 Hong Zhang,3 Junle Liu21Department of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Health College, Fuzhou, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army 105 Hospital, Hefei, 3Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Geriatric patients with femoral neck fracture (FNF have unacceptably high rates of postoperative complications and mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of epidural anesthesia versus peripheral nerve block (PNB on postoperative outcomes in elderly Chinese patients with FNF.Methods: This retrospective study explored mortality and postoperative complications in geriatric patients with FNF who underwent epidural anesthesia or PNB at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2008 to December 2012. The electronic database at the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital includes discharge records for all patients treated in the hospital. Information on patient demographics, preoperative comorbidity, postoperative complications, type of anesthesia used, and in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality after surgery was obtained from this database.Results: Two hundred and fifty-eight patients were identified for analysis. The mean patient age was 79.7 years, and 71.7% of the patients were women. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year postoperative mortality was 4.3%, 12.4%, and 22.9%, respectively, and no differences in mortality or cardiovascular complications were found between patients who received epidural anesthesia and those who received PNB. More patients with dementia or delirium were given PNB. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for other comorbidities or intraoperative parameters. The most common complications were acute cardiovascular events (23.6%, electrolyte disturbances (20.9%, and hypoxemia (18.2%. Patients

  5. Evaluation of femoral head vascularization in slipped capital femoral epiphysis before and after cannulated screw fixation with use of contrast-enhanced MRI: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staatz, G.; Honnef, D.; Hohl, C.; Schmidt, T.; Guenther, R.W.; Kochs, A.; Roehrig, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the vascularization of the femoral head in children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) before and after cannulated screw fixation. Eleven consecutive children with SCFE, seven boys and four girls, aged 10-15 years were included in the study. There were no preslips; four children had acute, three acute-on-chronic, and four chronic SCFE. The MRI examinations were performed in a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner with use of a coronal STIR sequence, a coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, and a sagittal three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. Morphology, signal intensities, and contrast-enhancement of the femoral head were assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Morphologic distortion of the physis, bone marrow edema within the metaphysis and epiphysis, and joint effusion were the preoperative MRI findings of SCFE in each child. In nine children, the vascularization of the femoral head before and after surgery was normal. In one child, a preoperative avascular zone in the superolateral aspect of the epiphysis revascularized completely after surgery. One child with severe SCFE developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head after open reduction of the slip. We conclude that MRI allows for accurate evaluation of the femoral head vascularization before and after surgery in children with SCFE. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of femoral head vascularization in slipped capital femoral epiphysis before and after cannulated screw fixation with use of contrast-enhanced MRI: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Honnef, D.; Hohl, C.; Schmidt, T.; Guenther, R.W. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Kochs, A.; Roehrig, H. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In this study we used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the vascularization of the femoral head in children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) before and after cannulated screw fixation. Eleven consecutive children with SCFE, seven boys and four girls, aged 10-15 years were included in the study. There were no preslips; four children had acute, three acute-on-chronic, and four chronic SCFE. The MRI examinations were performed in a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner with use of a coronal STIR sequence, a coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, and a sagittal three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. Morphology, signal intensities, and contrast-enhancement of the femoral head were assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Morphologic distortion of the physis, bone marrow edema within the metaphysis and epiphysis, and joint effusion were the preoperative MRI findings of SCFE in each child. In nine children, the vascularization of the femoral head before and after surgery was normal. In one child, a preoperative avascular zone in the superolateral aspect of the epiphysis revascularized completely after surgery. One child with severe SCFE developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head after open reduction of the slip. We conclude that MRI allows for accurate evaluation of the femoral head vascularization before and after surgery in children with SCFE. (orig.)

  7. Short-term observations of the regenerative potential of injured proximal sensory nerves crossed with distal motor nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-xiu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor nerves and sensory nerves conduct signals in different directions and function in different ways. In the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, the best prognosis is obtained by keeping the motor and sensory nerves separated and repairing the nerves using the suture method. However, the clinical consequences of connections between sensory and motor nerves currently remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical structure of the rat femoral nerve, and observed the motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve in the quadriceps femoris. After ligation of the nerves, the proximal end of the sensory nerve was connected with the distal end of the motor nerve, followed by observation of the changes in the newly-formed regenerated nerve fibers. Acetylcholinesterase staining was used to distinguish between the myelinated and unmyelinated motor and sensory nerves. Denervated muscle and newly formed nerves were compared in terms of morphology, electrophysiology and histochemistry. At 8 weeks after connection, no motor nerve fibers were observed on either side of the nerve conduit and the number of nerve fibers increased at the proximal end. The proportion of newly-formed motor and sensory fibers was different on both sides of the conduit. The area occupied by autonomic nerves in the proximal regenerative nerve was limited, but no distinct myelin sheath was visible in the distal nerve. These results confirm that sensory and motor nerves cannot be effectively connected. Moreover, the change of target organ at the distal end affects the type of nerves at the proximal end.

  8. Long-term follow-up of treatment of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy using nerve grafts and end-to-side somatic-autonomic neurorraphy: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Trindade, José Carlos; Viterbo, Fausto; Petean Trindade, André; Fávaro, Wagner José; Trindade-Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2017-06-01

    To study a novel penile reinnervation technique using four sural nerve grafts and end-to-side neurorraphies connecting bilaterally the femoral nerve and the cavernous corpus and the femoral nerve and the dorsal penile nerves. Ten patients (mean [± sd; range] age 60.3 [± 4.8; 54-68] years), who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP) at least 2 years previously, underwent penile reinnervation in the present study. Four patients had undergone radiotherapy after RP. All patients reported satisfactory sexual activity prior to RP. The surgery involved bridging of the femoral nerve to the dorsal nerve of the penis and the inner part of the corpus cavernosum with sural nerve grafts and end-to-side neurorraphies. Patients were evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and pharmaco-penile Doppler ultrasonography (PPDU) preoperatively and at 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively, and using a Clinical Evolution of Erectile Function (CEEF) questionnaire, administered after 36 months. The IIEF scores showed improvements with regard to erectile dysfunction (ED), satisfaction with intercourse and general satisfaction. Evaluation of PPDU velocities did not reveal any difference between the right and left sides or among the different time points. The introduction of nerve grafts neither caused fibrosis of the corpus cavernosum, nor reduced penile vascular flow. CEEF results showed that sexual intercourse began after a mean of 13.7 months with frequency of sexual intercourse varying from once daily to once monthly. Acute complications were minimal. The study was limited by the small number of cases. A total of 60% of patients were able to achieve full penetration, on average, 13 months after reinnervation surgery. Patients previously submitted to radiotherapy had slower return of erectile function. We conclude that penile reinnervation surgery is a viable technique, with effective results, and could offer a new treatment method for ED after

  9. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of preoperative or postoperative carprofen with or without preincisional mepivacaine epidural anesthesia in canine pelvic or femoral fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Hannes M; Nolte, Ingo; Kramer, Sabine

    2007-10-01

    To compare analgesic efficacy of preoperative versus postoperative administration of carprofen and to determine, if preincisional mepivacaine epidural anesthesia improves postoperative analgesia in dogs treated with carprofen. Blind, randomized clinical study. Dogs with femoral (n=18) or pelvic (27) fractures. Dogs were grouped by restricted randomization into 4 groups: group 1 = carprofen (4 mg/kg subcutaneously) immediately before induction of anesthesia, no epidural anesthesia; group 2 = carprofen immediately after extubation, no epidural anesthesia; group 3 = carprofen immediately before induction, mepivacaine epidural block 15 minutes before surgical incision; and group 4 = mepivacaine epidural block 15 minutes before surgical incision, carprofen after extubation. All dogs were administered carprofen (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily) for 4 days after surgery. Physiologic variables, nociceptive threshold, lameness score, pain, and sedation (numerical rating scale [NRS], visual analog scale [VAS]), plasma glucose and cortisol concentration, renal function, and hemostatic variables were measured preoperatively and at various times after surgery. Dogs with VAS pain scores >30 were administered rescue analgesia. Group 3 and 4 dogs had significantly lower pain scores and amount of rescue analgesia compared with groups 1 and 2. VAS and NRS pain scores were not significantly different among groups 1 and 2 or among groups 3 and 4. There was no treatment effect on renal function and hemostatic variables. Preoperative carprofen combined with mepivacaine epidural anesthesia had superior postoperative analgesia compared with preoperative carprofen alone. When preoperative epidural anesthesia was performed, preoperative administration of carprofen did not improve postoperative analgesia compared with postoperative administration of carprofen. Preoperative administration of systemic opioid agonists in combination with regional anesthesia and postoperative administration

  10. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Following Ilioinguinal Nerve Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... a 3‑year period under ilioinguinal nerve block only were assessed for evidence of TFNP. All patients ... loss over the anterior aspect of the thigh, weakness of extension at the knee joint, .... and may result in falls with fractures which carry severe ... recovery of the palsy and subsequently discharged same.

  11. Under X-ray guidance stent implantation through retrograde popliteal artery puncturing for the treatment of superficial femoral artery occlusion: the initial results in nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xu; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the application of retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance in the interventional therapy for superficial femoral artery occlusion. Methods: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance was carried out in nine patients with long-segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery as antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach had failed in them. After retrograde route was successfully established, the balloon dilation and subsequent stent placement for occluded vessel were performed. Results: The technical success was obtained in all patients. The occluded superficial femoral arteries were reopened and the symptoms of intermittent claudication disappeared. No serious complications such as injuries of adjacent nerves or vessels occurred. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased from preoperative (0.38±0.13) to postoperative (0.92±0.11) with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). A follow-up period lasting for 2-16 months was conducted. Eleven months after the treatment, intermittent claudication recurred in one case, and CT angiography showed that the distal part of the stent was narrowed. The symptoms were improved after percutaneous transcatheter angioplasty was performed again. Conclusion: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial femoral artery long-segment occlusion with stent placement, especially for patients in whom antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach fails. (authors)

  12. [Dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve block improved postoperative sleep quality in elderly patients after total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Wang, J; Mu, D L; Wang, D X

    2018-03-13

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine adding to ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve block on the improvement of postoperative sleep quality in elderly patients after total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 60 years or older in Jishuitan Hospital scheduled for single total knee arthroplasty between Nov. 2016 and Jun. 2017 were recruited. All patients received spinal anesthesia and were randomized to receive either combined ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (0.2% ropivacaine 250 ml and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, at a rate of 5 ml/h or 0.1 μg·kg -1 ·h -1 dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine group) or only ropivacaine (0.2% ropivacaine, at a rate of 5 ml/h, controlled group) for continuous femoral nerve block as postoperative analgesia after surgery. The severity of postoperative pain was assessed with numeric rating scale at 4, 24, and 48 hours after surgery both at rest and with movement. Subjective sleep quality and delirium were evaluated daily during the first 3 days postoperatively. Results: The subjective sleep quality scores were 2(1-4), 2(1-4) and 4(2-8), 4(2-7) in dexmedetomidine group and controlled group respectively on the 1st and 2nd days after surgery. The scores of dexmedetomidine group were much better than those of controlled group ( Z =-4.597, -4.183, both P quality, postoperative analgesia, and reduce delirium in the elderly after total knee arthroplasty.

  13. Arterial and venous plasma levels of bupivacaine following peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Mather, L E; Bridenbaugh, L D; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F; Horton, W G

    1976-01-01

    Mean arterial plasma (MAP) and peripheral mean venous plasma (MVP) levels of bupivacaine were ascertained in 3 groups of 10 patients each for: (1) intercostal nerve block, 400 mg; (2) block of the sciatic, femoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves, with or without block of the obturator nerve, 400 mg; and (3) supraclavicular brachial plexus block, 300 mg. MAP levels were consistently higher than simultaneously sampled MVP levels, the highest levels occurring from bilateral intercostal nerve block. No evidence of systemic toxicity was observed. The results suggest that bupivacaine has a much wider margin of safety in humans than is now stated.

  14. Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Jospeh; Kinney, Greg; Slimp, Jefferson; Lee, Gi Soo; Oliaei, Sepehr; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Establish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. Retrospective study in which patients were clinically followed for at least 6 months postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics (i.e., size, stage, location) were recorded. Operative notes revealed surgical techniques, findings, and complications. Preoperative, short-/long-term postoperative facial nerve function was standardized using the House-Brackmann Classification. Mapping was done prior to incision by percutaneously stimulating the facial nerve and its branches and recording the motor responses. Intraoperative monitoring and mapping were accomplished using a four-channel, free-running EMG. Neurophysiologists continuously monitored EMG responses and blindly analyzed intraoperative findings and final EMG interpretations for abnormalities. Seven patients collectively underwent 8 lymphatic malformation surgeries. Median age was 30 months (2-105 months). Lymphatic malformation diagnosis was recorded in 6/8 surgeries. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade I in 8/8 cases preoperatively. Facial nerve was abnormally elongated in 1/8 cases. EMG monitoring recorded abnormal activity in 4/8 cases--two suggesting facial nerve irritation, and two with possible facial nerve damage. Transient or long-term facial nerve paresis occurred in 1/8 cases (House-Brackmann grade II). Preoperative facial nerve mapping combined with continuous intraoperative EMG and mapping is a successful method of identifying the facial nerve course and protecting it from injury during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations involving the facial nerve.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Multiple Peripheral Nerve Blocks in a Superobese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kilicaslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of obese patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Morbid obesity is associated with an increased incidence of medical comorbidities and restricts the application choices in anesthesiology. We report a successfully performed combined ultrasound-guided blockade of the femoral, tibial, and common peroneal nerve in a superobese patient. We present a case report of a 31-year-old, ASA-PS II, super obese man (190 kg, 180 cm, BMI: 58 kg/m2 admitted to the emergency department with a type II segmental tibia shaft fracture and ankle dislocation after a vehicle accident. After two failed spinal anesthesia attempts, we decided to apply a femoral block combined with a sciatic block. Femoral blocks were successfully performed with US guided in-plane technique. Separate blocks of the tibial and common peroneal nerves were planned after the sciatic nerve could not be located due to the thick subcutaneous tissue. We performed a tibial nerve block at 2 cm above the popliteal crease and common peroneal nerve at the level of the fibular head with US guided in-plane technique. The blocks were successful and no block-related complications were noted. Ultrasound guidance allows new approaches for multiple peripheral nerve blocks with low local anesthetic doses in obese patients.

  16. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, S.; Mesko, L.; Stroemqvist, B.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1985-04-01

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence.

  17. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, S.; Mesko, L.; Stroemqvist, B.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in [/sup 99m/Tc]MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence

  18. Effect of Adductor Canal Block Versus Femoral Nerve Block on Quadriceps Strength, Mobilization, and Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Jens Ulrik; Mathiesen, Ole; Valentiner, Laura Risted Staun

    2015-01-01

    strength. METHODS: We included 50 TKA patients with severe movement-related pain; defined as having visual analog scale pain score of greater than 60 mm during active flexion of the knee. The ACB group received an ACB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL and a femoral nerve block (FNB) with 30 mL saline. The FNB...... group received an ACB with 30 mL saline and an FNB with ropivacaine 0.2% 30 mL. We compared the effect of the ACB versus FNB on maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps muscle relative to a postoperative baseline value. Secondary end points were differences between groups in ability...

  19. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  20. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  1. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  2. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  3. Early detection of femoral head avascular necrosis by bone SPECT compared to MRI in renal allograft recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Hee Kyung; Han, Duck Jong; Shin, Myung Jin [Asan Mecical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The prevalence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head in patients who receive immunosuppresive agents after renal transplantation is reported to be 4-29%. Among patients who develop AVN after renal transplantation, 80% become symptomatic within 2 years after transplantation. As the number of renal transplantation has been increased recently, early detection of femoral head AVN is very important because early surgical core decompression of femoral head can prevent collapse of the head. MRI is known to be very sensitive to diagnose femoral head AVN. However in three cases we report here, bone SPECT showed early changes of femoral head AVN, whereas MRI showed no specific abnormality. Case 1. A 53-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in 1994. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She complained of both hip pain on Mar. 18 1997. Bone SPECT showed cold defect in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. After 3 months, bone SPECT and MRI showed AVN of both femoral heads. She underwent bilateral total hip replacement arthroplasty. AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Case 2. A 38-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in Feb. 27 1997. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She ran a fever and creatinine was elevated from 1.2 to 2.8 mg/dL. She took high dose methylprednisolone therapy for acute reanl rejection. After two days, she complained pain in both hip joints and knee joints. Bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. A follow-up bone SPECT and MRI 20 days later revealed AVN of both femoral heads. Case 3. A 50-year-old male received an allograft kidney transplantation on Jul. 12 1995. Preoperative bone scan was normal. He complained of right hip pain on Jul, 26 1995. His bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads while MRI showed only minimal hip joint effusion. He also complained of left hip pain on Oct. 2 1995. He was admitted on Mar 17

  4. Early detection of femoral head avascular necrosis by bone SPECT compared to MRI in renal allograft recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Hee Kyung; Han, Duck Jong; Shin, Myung Jin

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head in patients who receive immunosuppresive agents after renal transplantation is reported to be 4-29%. Among patients who develop AVN after renal transplantation, 80% become symptomatic within 2 years after transplantation. As the number of renal transplantation has been increased recently, early detection of femoral head AVN is very important because early surgical core decompression of femoral head can prevent collapse of the head. MRI is known to be very sensitive to diagnose femoral head AVN. However in three cases we report here, bone SPECT showed early changes of femoral head AVN, whereas MRI showed no specific abnormality. Case 1. A 53-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in 1994. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She complained of both hip pain on Mar. 18 1997. Bone SPECT showed cold defect in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. After 3 months, bone SPECT and MRI showed AVN of both femoral heads. She underwent bilateral total hip replacement arthroplasty. AVN of femoral heads was confirmed by microscopic examination. Case 2. A 38-year-old female received an allograft kidney transplantation in Feb. 27 1997. Preoperative bone scan was normal. She ran a fever and creatinine was elevated from 1.2 to 2.8 mg/dL. She took high dose methylprednisolone therapy for acute reanl rejection. After two days, she complained pain in both hip joints and knee joints. Bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads but MRI showed no abnormality. A follow-up bone SPECT and MRI 20 days later revealed AVN of both femoral heads. Case 3. A 50-year-old male received an allograft kidney transplantation on Jul. 12 1995. Preoperative bone scan was normal. He complained of right hip pain on Jul, 26 1995. His bone SPECT showed cold defects in both femoral heads while MRI showed only minimal hip joint effusion. He also complained of left hip pain on Oct. 2 1995. He was admitted on Mar 17

  5. Clinical study on 44 cases of femoral hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Shinozaki, Hiroharu; Kase, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Sasaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Femoral hernia is a surgical disease that is frequently associated with incarceration and necessitates emergency surgery. However, there are only a few studies referred which have compared emergency and elective surgery for femoral hernias. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as having femoral hernia between 2005 and 2009 in our institution. The clinical features of emergency repairs were compared with those of elective ones, and diagnostic values of preoperative diagnostic modalities were studied. The mean age of the patients was 73±12 years. Females comprised 68% of the cases, and right femoral hernias comprised 70% of the cases. Incarceration was associated with 66% of the cases (29 patients), and emergency surgery was performed in 52% of the patients (23 patients). Bowel resection was performed in 32% of the cases (14 patients). The mean age, body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) count, and LDH value were higher in the emergency repairs than in the elective one, and most of the hernias were repaired with McVay's procedure. CT scans had a high diagnostic value in detecting femoral hernias (44%) and incarceration (88%). It was confirmed that femoral hernias were frequently associated with incarceration and CT scan has a high diagnostic value in femoral hernias. (author)

  6. Computed tomography for preoperative planning in total hip arthroplasty: what radiologists need to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Hospitals Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany); Radmer, Sebastian [Proendo, Orthopedic Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Hospitals Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Roessler, Torsten [Klinikum Ernst von Bergmann, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Potsdam (Germany); Sparmann, Martin [Proendo, Orthopedic Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The number of total hip arthroplasties is continuously rising. Although less invasive surgical techniques, sophisticated component design, and intraoperative navigation techniques have been introduced, the rate of peri- and postoperative complications, including dislocations, fractures, nerve palsies, and infections, is still a major clinical problem. Better patient outcome, faster recovery and rehabilitation, and shorter operation times therefore remain to be accomplished. A promising strategy is to use minimally invasive techniques in conjunction with modular implants, aimed at independently reconstructing femoral offset and leg length on the basis of highly accurate preoperative planning. Plain radiographs have clear limitations for the correct estimation of hip joint geometry and bone quality. Three-dimensional assessment based on computed tomography (CT) allows optimizing the choice and positions of implants and anticipating difficulties to be encountered during surgery. Postoperative CT is used to monitor operative translation and plays a role in arthroplastic quality management. Radiologists should be familiar with the needs of orthopedic surgeons in terms of CT acquisition, post-processing, and data transfer. The CT protocol should be optimized to enhance image quality and reduce radiation exposure. When dedicated orthopedic CT protocols and state-of-the-art scanner hardware are used, radiation exposure can be decreased to a level just marginally higher than that of conventional preoperative radiography. Surgeons and radiologists should use similar terminology to avoid misunderstanding and inaccuracies in the transfer of preoperative planning. (orig.)

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PEDIATRIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION PROCEDURE UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA WITH OR WITHOUT FEMORAL NERVE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigisha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Anesthetic management for interventional cardiac procedures/cardiac catheterization in pediatric patients is challenging. Cardiac anomalies vary from simple to complex congenital cardiac anomalies, shunts may be present at multiple levels and patients may be profoundly cyanotic, may be with ventricular dysfunction. They usually require sedation and analgesia to maintain steady stable state. In adults, such type of procedures can be well managed with local anesthesia. METHODS Fifty patients were included in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups- Group A (n=25 patients received femoral N. block along with IV sedation and analgesia while group B (n=25 patients received only IV sedation and analgesia. Both groups were compared for hemodynamics, pain score and requirement of IV anesthetic agents and any complications if come up. RESULTS Group A patients required IV ketamine 3.24mg/kg (±0.31SD as compared to 5.58mg/kg (±1.6SD in group B, which suggests significantly reduced requirement of IV anesthetic agents in group where femoral nerve block has been given. Hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable (no statistically significant variation Pain score was less in group A patients than group B. CONCLUSION It has been observed that Group A patients required less dosages of IV anesthetic agents, with stable hemodynamics and less pain score and sedation score as compared to group B patients.

  8. Single shot “3-in-1” femoral nerve blockade with 0.25% or 0.375% levobupivacaine provides similar postoperative analgesia for total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    APAN, Alpaslan; SARI, Filiz; EKMEKÇİ, Alp Burak

    2010-01-01

    To compare postoperative analgesia provided by single shot "3-in-1" femoral nerve blockade using 0.25% or 0.375% levobupivacaine in preceding with spinal anesthesia for unilateral total knee replacement surgery. Materials and methods: Forty consenting patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were included in this prospective randomized study. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 15 mg plain bupivacaine at the L3-4 or L4-5 interspace. After resolution of the sp...

  9. Avascular necrosis associated with nailing of femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.; Hansson, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with femoral neck fractures, one displaced and one undisplaced, are presented. Preoperative intravital staining with tetracycline and Tc-MDP scintimetry both showed intact femoral head circulation while Tc-MDP-scintimetry 1 week after operation showed pronounced circulatory deficiency. SR 85 -scintimetry performed at the same time was inconclusive. Segmental collapse was observed radiographically, 8 and 12 months postoperatively. The major vascular injury resulting in avascularity most probably occured during the procedure of osteosynthesis, and Tc-MDP-scintimetry was found suitable for early postoperative recognition of avascular necrosis in both fractures. (author)

  10. Avascular necrosis associated with nailing of femoral neck fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemqvist, B; Hansson, L I [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital in Lund, Sweden

    1983-01-01

    Two patients with femoral neck fractures, one displaced and one undisplaced, are presented. Preoperative intravital staining with tetracycline and Tc-MDP scintimetry both showed intact femoral head circulation while Tc-MDP-scintimetry 1 week after operation showed pronounced circulatory deficiency. Sr/sup 85/-scintimetry performed at the same time was inconclusive. Segmental collapse was observed radiographically, 8 and 12 months postoperatively. The major vascular injury resulting in avascularity most probably occured during the procedure of osteosynthesis, and Tc-MDP-scintimetry was found suitable for early postoperative recognition of avascular necrosis in both fractures.

  11. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, V.L. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Battaglia, D.M. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Division of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  12. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasier, V.L.; Battaglia, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  13. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Zachary; Mehra, Akshay; Olsen, Michael; Donnelly, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil

    2013-11-01

    The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1) and the last 9 (Cohort 2) hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA) from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 (P = 0.01). Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.

  14. Iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein resulting in acute lower leg edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Bae; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Jeong, Yeon Jun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    The clinical manifestations related to iliopsoas bursitis can vary due to compression of the adjacent structure such as the common femoral vein, nerve and bladder. We report here on a rare case of iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein that resulted in acute lower leg edema.

  15. Iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein resulting in acute lower leg edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seung Bae; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Jeong, Yeon Jun

    2006-01-01

    The clinical manifestations related to iliopsoas bursitis can vary due to compression of the adjacent structure such as the common femoral vein, nerve and bladder. We report here on a rare case of iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein that resulted in acute lower leg edema

  16. Preoperative estimation of run off in patients with multiple level arterial obstructions as a guide to partial reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1978-01-01

    Preoperative measurements of direct femoral artery systolic pressure, indirect ankle systolic pressure and direct brachial artery systolic pressure were carried out in nine patients with severe ischemia and arterial occlusions both proximal and distal to the ingvinal ligament. The pressure......-rise at the ankle was estimated preoperatively by assuming that the ankle pressure would rise in proportion to the rise in femoral artery pressure. Thus it was predicted that reconstruction of the iliac obstruction with aorta-femoral pressure gradients from 44 to 96 mm Hg would result in a rise in ankle pressure...... of 16--54 mm Hg. The actual rise in ankle pressure one month after reconstruction of the iliac arteries ranged from 10 to 46 mm Hg and was well correlated to the preoperative estimations. In conclusion, by proper pressure measurements the run-off problem of multiple level arterial occlusions can...

  17. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  18. Femoral nerve palsy caused by ileopectineal bursitis after total hip replacement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bähr Mathias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Infectious ileopectineal bursitis is a rare complication after total hip replacement and is associated mainly with rheumatoid arthritis. The main complications are local swelling and pain, but communication of the inflamed bursa with the joint can occur, leading to subsequent cartilage damage and bone destruction. Case presentation We report a case of a 47-year-old Caucasian woman without rheumatoid arthritis who reported pain and palsy in her left leg almost one year after total hip replacement. She was diagnosed with an ileopectineal bursitis after total hip replacement, leading to femoral nerve palsy. The diagnosis was obtained by thorough clinical examination, the results of focused computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of non-infectious ileopectineal bursitis in a patient without rheumatoid arthritis as a complication of total hip replacement. This rare case underlines the importance of proper neurologic examination of persistent conditions after orthopedic intervention in otherwise healthy individuals. We believe this case should be useful for a broad spectrum of medical specialties, including orthopedics, neurology, radiology, and general practice.

  19. [New anterolateral approach of distal femur for treatment of distal femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Zou, Fan; Luo, Song; Li, Binhua; Qiu, Ping; Nie, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the new anterolateral approach of the distal femur for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. Between July 2007 and December 2009, 58 patients with distal femoral fractures were treated by new anterolateral approach of the distal femur in 28 patients (new approach group) and by conventional approach in 30 patients (conventional approach group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, affected side, type of fracture, disease duration, complication, or preoperative intervention (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, hospitalization days, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score of knee were recorded. Operation was successfully completed in all patients of 2 groups, and healing of incision by first intention was obtained; no vascular and nerves injuries occurred. The operation time and intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency of new approach group were significantly less than those of conventional approach group (P 0.05). All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 19.8 months). Bone union was shown on X-ray films; the fracture healing time was (12.62 +/- 2.34) weeks in the new approach group and was (13.78 +/- 1.94) weeks in the conventional approach group, showing no significant difference (t=2.78, P=0.10). The knee HSS score at last follow-up was 94.4 +/- 4.2 in the new approach group, and was 89.2 +/- 6.0 in the conventional approach group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t=3.85, P=0.00). New anterolateral approach of the distal femur for distal femoral fractures has the advantages of exposure plenitude, minimal tissue trauma, and early function rehabilitation training so as to enhance the function recovery of knee joint.

  20. The preoperative evaluation prevent the postoperative complications of thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Feng Huang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The success of thyroid surgery depends on careful preoperative planning, including a preoperative neck ultrasound to determine the proximity of the nodule to the recurrent laryngeal nerve course, and the consideration of the type of anesthesia, adjuvant devices for intra-op monitoring of the RLN, and surgical modalities. Our results suggest that preoperative evaluation implementations are positively associated with strategy of surgery and postoperative hypocalcemia prevention.

  1. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Morison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Materials and Methods:Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1 and the last 9 (Cohort 2 hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. Results:All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 ( P = 0.01. Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Conclusions: Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.

  2. Prognostic significance of electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, J J S; Van Rompaey, V; Somers, T; Zarowski, A; Offeciers, F E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prognostic significance of pre-operative electrophysiological tests for facial nerve outcome in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Retrospective study design in a tertiary referral neurology unit. We studied a total of 123 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma who underwent microsurgical removal of the lesion. Nine patients were excluded because they had clinically abnormal pre-operative facial function. Pre-operative electrophysiological facial nerve function testing (EPhT) was performed. Short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) post-operative clinical facial nerve function were assessed. When pre-operative facial nerve function, evaluated by EPhT, was normal, the outcome from clinical follow-up at 1-month post-operatively was excellent in 78% (i.e. HB I-II) of patients, moderate in 11% (i.e. HB III-IV), and bad in 11% (i.e. HB V-VI). After 1 year, 86% had excellent outcomes, 13% had moderate outcomes, and 1% had bad outcomes. Of all patients with normal clinical facial nerve function, 22% had an abnormal EPhT result and 78% had a normal result. No statistically significant differences could be observed in short-term and long-term post-operative facial function between the groups. In this study, electrophysiological tests were not able to predict facial nerve outcome after vestibular schwannoma surgery. Tumour size remains the best pre-operative prognostic indicator of facial nerve function outcome, i.e. a better outcome in smaller lesions.

  3. Hip hemiarthroplasty using major lower limb nerve blocks: A preliminary report of a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Muhammad; Ghoneim, Mohammed Abd-Elfttah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major lower limb nerve blocks are relatively safe techniques. However, their efficacy for hip hemiarthroplasty is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerve blocks in providing adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with fracture neck femur; who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty, participated in this observational study. In the induction room, all patients received ultrasound-guided femoral, proximal obturator, LFC and parasacral sciatic nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of the skin incision. Anesthesia was considered to be adequate only if the surgery was completed without any requirement for opioid administration. Results: All patients (100% [95% confidence interval, 86-100%]) had adequate anesthesia. Seventeen patients (85% [95% confidence interval, 63-96%] had mild discomfort during the reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket; however, no supplementary analgesics were required. Conclusion: The combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and LFC nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of skin incision could provide adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Light sedation before reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket is advisable. PMID:25191186

  4. Surgical and Clinical Decision Making in Isolated Long Thoracic Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Shelley S; Krauss, Emily M; Felder, John M; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    Isolated long thoracic nerve palsy results in scapular winging and destabilization. In this study, we review the surgical management of isolated long thoracic nerve palsy and suggest a surgical technique and treatment algorithm to simplify management. In total, 19 patients who required surgery for an isolated long thoracic nerve palsy were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative demographics, electromyography (EMG), and physical examinations were reviewed. Intraoperative nerve stimulation, surgical decision making, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. In total, 19 patients with an average age of 32 were included in the study. All patients had an isolated long thoracic nerve palsy caused by either an injury (58%), Parsonage-Turner syndrome (32%), or shoulder surgery (10%); 18 patients (95%) underwent preoperative EMG; 10 with evidence of denervation (56%); and 13 patients had motor unit potentials in the serratus anterior (72%). The preoperative EMG did not correlate with intraoperative nerve stimulation in 13 patients (72%) and did correlate in 5 patients (28%); 3 patients had a nerve transfer (3 thoracodorsal to long thoracic at lateral chest, 1 pec to long thoracic at supraclavicular incision). In the 3 patients who had a nerve transfer, there was return of full forward flexion of the shoulder at an average of 2.5 months. A treatment algorithm based on intraoperative nerve stimulation will help guide surgeons in their clinical decision making in patients with isolated long thoracic nerve palsy. Intraoperative nerve stimulation is the gold standard in the management of isolated long thoracic nerve palsy.

  5. A new measurement for posterior tilt predicts reoperation in undisplaced femoral neck fractures: 113 consecutive patients treated by internal fixation and followed for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Gosvig, Kasper; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative posterior tilt in undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures is thought to influence rates of reoperation. However, an exact method for its measurement has not yet been presented. We designed a new measurement for posterior tilt on preoperative lateral...... radiographs and investigated its association with later reoperation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 113 patients, > or = 60 years of age with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures treated with two parallel implants, was assessed regarding patient characteristics, radiographs...... and able to predict reoperation in patients with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures....

  6. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial...

  7. Diagnosis and surgical outcomes of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma showing normal facial nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D W; Byeon, H K; Chung, H P; Choi, E C; Kim, S-H; Park, Y M

    2013-07-01

    The findings of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) using preoperative diagnostic tools, including ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were analyzed to determine if there are any useful findings that might suggest the presence of a lesion. Treatment guidelines are suggested. The medical records of 15 patients who were diagnosed with an intraparotid FNS were retrospectively analyzed. US and CT scans provide clinicians with only limited information; gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images from MRI provide more specific findings. Tumors could be removed successfully with surgical exploration, preserving facial nerve function at the same time. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed more characteristic findings for the diagnosis of intraparotid FNS. Intraparotid FNS without facial palsy can be diagnosed with MRI preoperatively, and surgical exploration is a suitable treatment modality which can remove the tumor and preserve facial nerve function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the iatrogenic peripheral nerve injuries in upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabay, Nuri; Toros, Tulgar; Ademoglu, Yalcin; Ada, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the efficiency of the ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury. This study includes nine patients (six radial, one median and two posterior interosseous (PIO) nerves) with peripheral nerve injury diagnosed by clinical and electrophysiological methods in the last 3 years. Preoperatively, an ultrasonographic examination was performed and correlated with physical exam and surgical findings. Five patients, who were diagnosed as peripheral nerve transection by US, underwent surgery. The ultrasonographic findings were concordant with the intraoperative findings. Axonal swelling alone was found in the remaining three patients, who were treated conservatively because of preserved nerve continuity without display of nerve compression. In one patient, we were unable to visualize the nerve due to obesity and soft tissue edema. High-resolution US provide morphological information about the exact location, intensity and extent of the nerve injuries, facilitating the preoperative diagnosis. Thus, US may be a useful method for planning optimal treatment strategy in especially iatrogenic nerve injuries.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the iatrogenic peripheral nerve injuries in upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabay, Nuri [Department of Radiology, Hand and Microsurgery and Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EMOT) Hospital, 1418 Sok. No: 14 Kahramanlar, 35230 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: nurikarabay@gmail.com; Toros, Tulgar [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hand and Microsurgery and Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EMOT) Hospital, 1418 Sok. No: 14 Kahramanlar, 35230 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: tulgartoros@yahoo.com; Ademoglu, Yalcin [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hand and Microsurgery and Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EMOT) Hospital, 1418 Sok. No: 14 Kahramanlar, 35230 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: yalcinademoglu@yahoo.com; Ada, Sait [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hand and Microsurgery and Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EMOT) Hospital, 1418 Sok. No: 14 Kahramanlar, 35230 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sait_ada@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    The aim of our study is to assess the efficiency of the ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury. This study includes nine patients (six radial, one median and two posterior interosseous (PIO) nerves) with peripheral nerve injury diagnosed by clinical and electrophysiological methods in the last 3 years. Preoperatively, an ultrasonographic examination was performed and correlated with physical exam and surgical findings. Five patients, who were diagnosed as peripheral nerve transection by US, underwent surgery. The ultrasonographic findings were concordant with the intraoperative findings. Axonal swelling alone was found in the remaining three patients, who were treated conservatively because of preserved nerve continuity without display of nerve compression. In one patient, we were unable to visualize the nerve due to obesity and soft tissue edema. High-resolution US provide morphological information about the exact location, intensity and extent of the nerve injuries, facilitating the preoperative diagnosis. Thus, US may be a useful method for planning optimal treatment strategy in especially iatrogenic nerve injuries.

  10. Posterior-only surgery with preoperative skeletal traction for management of severe scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Saeedreza; Sorbi, Reza; Rezaei, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The average age of the patients was 12.7 years at the time of surgery. Mean of the Cobb angle improved from 99.9° ± 8.2° preoperatively to 75.3° ± 8° post-traction and 49.5° ± 7.7° postoperatively. Kyphosis angle corrected from 56.4° ± 9.5° to 38.6° ± 5.8°. The preop-FVC% was 41 ± 6.1% and after 1 year follow-up FVC% was 45.7 ± 7.7%. No patients required an anterior release due to amount of their deformity. Despite the benefits of modern instrumentation procedures, the treatment of severe scoliosis can be very competing. We think that by applying preoperative halo femoral traction and halo-gravity traction, managing severe scoliosis will be in safe and easy manner and can lead to better deformity correction and less neurological complications and facilitate to avoid anterior operation for severe scoliosis and its related complications.

  11. Analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block commenced prior to operative fixation of fractured neck of femur

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szucs, Szilard

    2012-06-27

    AbstractBackgroundPeripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in patients with FNF.MethodsFollowing institutional ethical approval and with informed consent, patients awaiting FNF surgery were randomly allocated to receive either standard opiate-based analgesia (Group 1) or a femoral perineural catheter (Group 2). Patients in Group 1 received parenteral morphine as required. Those in Group 2 received a CFNB comprising a bolus of local anaesthetic followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine. For both Groups, rescue analgesia consisted of intramuscular morphine as required and all patients received paracetamol regularly. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at rest and during passive movement (dynamic pain score) at 30 min following first analgesic intervention and six hourly thereafter for 72 hours. Patient satisfaction with the analgesic regimen received was recorded using verbal rating scores (0-10). The primary outcome measured was dynamic pain score from initial analgesic intervention to 72 hours later.ResultsOf 27 recruited, 24 patients successfully completed the study protocol and underwent per protocol analysis. The intervals from recruitment to the study until surgery were similar in both groups [31.4(17.7) vs 27.5(14.2) h, P = 0.57]. The groups were similar in terms of baseline clinical characteristics. For patients in Group 2, pain scores at rest were less than those reported by patients in Group 1 [9.5(9.4) vs 31(28), P = 0.031]. Dynamic pain scores reported by patients in Group 2 were less at each time point from 30 min up to 54 hours [e.g at 6 h 30.7(23.4) vs 67.0(32.0), P = 0

  12. Clinical accuracy of a patient-specific femoral osteotomy guide in minimally-invasive posterior hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adrian K; Pierrepont, Jim W; Hawdon, Gabrielle; McMahon, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    Patient specific guides can be a valuable tool in improving the precision of planned femoral neck osteotomies, especially in minimally invasive hip surgery, where bony landmarks are often inaccessible. The aim of our study was to validate the accuracy of a novel patient specific femoral osteotomy guide for THR through a minimally invasive posterior approach, the direct superior approach (DSA). As part of our routine preoperative planning 30 patients underwent low dose CT scans of their arthritic hip. 3D printed patient specific femoral neck osteotomy guides were then produced. Intraoperatively, having cleared all soft tissue from the postero-lateral neck of the enlocated hip, the guide was placed and pinned onto the posterolateral femoral neck. The osteotomy was performed using an oscillating saw and the uncemented hip components were implanted as per routine. Postoperatively, the achieved level of the osteotomy at the medial calcar was compared with the planned level of resection using a 3D/2D matching analysis (Mimics X-ray module, Materialise, Belgium). A total of 30 patients undergoing uncemented Trinity™ acetabular and TriFit TS™ femoral component arthroplasty (Corin, UK) were included in our analysis. All but one of our analysed osteotomies were found to be within 3 mm from the planned height of osteotomy. In one patient the level of osteotomy deviated 5 mm below the planned level of resection. Preoperative planning and the use of patient specific osteotomy guides provides an accurate method of performing femoral neck osteotomies in minimally invasive hip arthroplasty using the direct superior approach. IV (Case series).

  13. Bloqueio dos nervos femoral e isquiático guiados por ultrassom em paciente anticoagulado: case reports Bloqueo de los nervios femoral e isquiático guiados por ultrasonido en paciente anticoagulado Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in an anticoagulated patient: relato de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Cunha Ferraro

    2010-08-01

    cada vez más en una práctica frecuente. Con la menor probabilidad de promover lesiones vasculares, el ultrasonido se convierte en un instrumento interesante en la realización de bloqueos periféricos, especialmente en los pacientes que usan anticoagulantes o con disturbios de la coagulación. El objetivo de este estudio fue relatar dos casos en que se realizaron los bloqueos isquiático y femoral guiados por ultrasonido en pacientes anticoagulados. RELATO DE LOS CASOS: En el primer caso, la cirugía realizada consistió en la amputación del pie anterior izquierdo en función de una necrosis y de señales de infección. El segundo caso, fue una limpieza quirúrgica de la rodilla izquierda. Los pacientes presentaron disturbios de coagulación con una actividad de protrombina y tiempo de tromboplastina activado por encima de los valores normales. Los dos pacientes se sometieron al bloqueo femoral e isquiático guiado por ultrasonido, evolucionando sin alteración motora o sensitiva en los territorios de esos nervios y sin hematoma en la región local de la punción. CONCLUSIONES: La anticoagulación impone ciertas restricciones a la aplicación de las técnicas anestésicas regionales clásicas. Con el avance de los equipos y métodos de ultrasonido, hoy por hoy se puede identificar con alta precisión las estructuras vasculares y neurales. Eso posibilita que la punción guiada por ultrasonido sea más exacta, tanto para alcanzar el área de interés como para minimizar los riesgos de lesión vascular accidental. Hasta el presente momento, no se recomienda la realización de bloqueo periférico en pacientes anticoagulados o portadores de coagulopatías. Sin embargo, considerando que existen pocos relatos sobre bloqueos regionales con ultrasonido en situaciones de coagulopatías, la seguridad de tal técnica en esas condiciones todavía no se ha establecido.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of the ultrasound to guide the puncture in peripheral nerve blocks has become

  14. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Causing Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Mimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 27-year-old man with pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip joint with coincident osteonecrosis of the femoral head. According to our review of the English-language literature, no detailed report of osteonecrosis of the femoral head complicated with pigmented villonodular synovitis has been published. Preoperative X-ray images showed joint narrowing and severe multiple bone erosions at the acetabulum and femoral neck. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a low-intensity band attributable to osteonecrosis of the femoral head and massive diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis lesions. Comparison of a three-dimensional computed tomographic image of this patient with an angiographic image of a normal individual demonstrated proximity of the pigmented villonodular synovitis-induced bone erosions to the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries and retinacular arteries, suggesting likely the compromise of the latter by the former. We propose that the massive pigmented villonodular synovitis may have contributed to the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in this patient. We performed open synovectomy and total hip arthroplasty. No operative complications occurred, and no recurrence of the pigmented villonodular synovitis was detected for 3 years after the operation.

  15. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  16. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Basir Hashemi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.  

  17. A randomized comparison between neurostimulation and ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Radhakrishna, Mohan; Tamblyn, Isaac; Tran, D Q; Besemann, Markus; Thonnagith, Atikun; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Robitaille, Marie Eve; Finlayson, Roderick J

    2017-01-01

    This prospective, randomized trial compared neurostimulation (NS) and ultrasound (US) guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) block. We hypothesized that US would result in a shorter total anesthesia-related time (sum of performance and onset times). Twenty-one volunteers were enrolled. The right lower limb was randomized to an NS- or US-guided LFCN block. The alternate technique was employed for the left lower limb. With NS, paresthesias were sought in the lateral thigh at a stimulatory threshold of 0.6 mA (pulse width=0.3 ms; frequency=2 Hz) or lower. With US, local anesthetic was deposited under the inguinal ligament, ventral to the iliopsoas muscle. In both groups, 5 mL of lidocaine 2% were used to anesthetize the nerve. During the procedure of the block, the performance time and number of needle passes were recorded. Subsequently, a blinded observer assessed sensory block in the lateral thigh every minute until 20 minutes. Success was defined as loss of pinprick sensation at a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the lateral knee line. The blinded observer also assessed the areas of sensory block in the anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior aspects of the thigh and mapped this distribution onto a corresponding grid. Both modalities provided comparable success rates (76.2%-95.2%), performance times (162.1 to 231.3 seconds), onset times (300.0 to 307.5 seconds) and total anesthesia related-times (480.1 to 554.0 seconds). However US required fewer needle passes (3.2±2.9 vs 9.5±12.2; P=.009). There were no intergroup differences in terms of the distribution of the anesthetized cutaneous areas. However considerable variability was encountered between individuals and between the 2 sides of a same subject. The most common areas of sensory loss included the central lateral two-eighths anteriorly and the central antero-inferior three-eighths laterally. Ultrasound guidance and NS provide similar success rates and total anesthesia

  18. A free vein graft cap influences neuroma formation after nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Mariarosaria; Manasseri, Benedetto; Risitano, Giovanni; Geuna, Stefano; Di Scipio, Federica; La Rosa, Paola; Delia, Gabriele; D'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Colonna, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    : Neuroma formation is a major problem in nerve surgery and consensus about its prevention has not been reached. It has been suggested that vein covering can reduce neuroma formation in transected nerves. In this article, the Authors propose an easy and novel method of covering by nerve stump capping with a free vein graft. : Neuroma-like lesions were created on the rat thigh sectioning the femoral nerve above its division in 16 animals. The proximal nerve stump was invaginated into the lumen of a 1.5 cm long femoral free vein graft on the right side, and the vein was closed on itself by microsurgical sutures to form a cap for the nerve stump. On the left side acting as the control neuroma, the nerve was cut and left uncovered. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment was used to quantify the degree of neuroma formation. : Significant differences were found in both neuroma size and axon-glia organization between the treated and control sides indicating that free vein graft capping reduced neuroma formation in comparison to uncovered nerve stumps. : Our results confirm that vein-covering of a transected nerve stump can be effective in reducing neuroma formation. Moreover, unlike previous works that buried the nerve into an adjacent vein left in place, our experiments showed that also the use of a free vein graft cap can hinder neuroma formation. Although translation of rat experiments to the clinics should be dealt with caution, our data suggest a careful clinical use of the technique. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2009.

  19. Ultrasound-guided Radiofrequency Lesioning of the Articular Branches of the Femoral Nerve for the Treatment of Chronic Post-arthroplasty Hip Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David J; Shen, Shiqian; Hanna, George M

    2017-02-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common surgical treatment for several conditions of the hip. While the majority of patients obtain satisfactory results, many develop chronic post-arthroplasty hip pain that can be difficult to treat. We evaluate the effectiveness of cooled (60°C) radiofrequency lesioning of the articular branches of the femoral nerve (ABFN) as a minimally invasive treatment for patients suffering from chronic post-arthroplasty hip pain. This treatment has never been described previously in this population. Case report. Center for Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. A 59-year-old woman with long-standing osteoarthritis of the right hip who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty and presented with chronic post-arthroplasty hip pain Intervention: Cooled (60°C) radiofrequency lesioning of the ABFN under ultrasound guidance Outcome Measure: Functional ability and numeric rating scale (NRS) scores at rest and with activity. Prior to intervention, the patient reported severe disruption in daily activities, sleep, and relationships; NRS scores at rest and with activity were 4/10 and 10/10, respectively. At 4 weeks following intervention, the patient reported significant improvement in functional ability and NRS scores decreased to 1/10 and 2/10, respectively. At 6 months, the patient's NRS scores at rest and with activity were 0/10 and 1/10, respectively. At 24-month follow-up, the patient continued to endorse significant pain relief with NRS scores at rest and with activity of 0 - 1/10 and 1 - 2/10, respectively. There were no side effects or complications including motor weakness, sensory loss, and neuralgias. Although the patient obtained good results from the intervention, the description of the study is from a single case report. Further study is necessary to investigate the widespread use of this technique and its outcomes. Cooled (60°C) radiofrequency lesioning of the ABFN under ultrasound guidance is both an

  20. The evaluation of the long term survival and functions in the autonomic nerve-sparing operation with pre-operative radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Norio; Sarashina, Hiromi; Nunomura, Masao; Koda, Keiji; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Soda, Hiroaki; Ozaki, Kazuyoshi; Sugaya, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and ninety five patients have been received autonomic nerve-sparing operations for rectal cancer in our department since 1984. These patients were classified into two groups, those with preoperative irradiation (irradiated group) and those with surgery alone. The survival rates and the local recurrence rates for these patients were compared, and post-operative urinary and male sexual functions were discussed. The overall cumulative five-year and nine-year survival rates were 80.3% and 66.5%, whereas those in the irradiated group were 84.0% and 77.7%, and those in the surgery alone group were 74.6% and 62.9%. Local recurrence rates were 9.6% all, 5.6% in the irradiated groups, and 11.9% in the surgery alone group. Maintenance of urinary function was successful in almost all patients with bilateral and unilateral pelvic nerve plexus. But the sexual function in males especially ejaculation was preserved in only 54.5% of the patients with bilateral hypogastric nerve and pelvic plexus, and in only 14.3% of the patients with unilateral saving. There was no significant deference in the outcome of the two group, but there was a tendency to obtain the better survival and to decrease the local recurrence in the irradiated group. It was difficult to preserve the sexual function by the nerve-sparing operation with lymphadevectomy. (author)

  1. Technique and results of femoral bifurcation endarterectomy by eversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufranc, Julie; Palcau, Laura; Heyndrickx, Maxime; Gouicem, Djelloul; Coffin, Olivier; Felisaz, Aurélien; Berger, Ludovic

    2015-03-01

    , with a statistically higher rate for patients with malnutrition (P = .029), preoperative platelet count >450 ×10(9)/L (P = .0071), platelet aggregation inhibitor treatment other than clopidogrel (P = .022), preoperative deep femoral artery occlusion or stenosis >75% (P = .0064), and poor tibial runoff (P = .00042). Eversion femoral bifurcation endarterectomy is a safe, efficient, and reproducible technique for the treatment of atherosclerotic femoral lesions. Advantages are notable, especially the lack of need for prosthetic angioplasty, eliminating the risk of patch infection or pseudoaneurysms and permitting direct puncture if endovascular procedures are needed for assisted patency. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical predictors of facial nerve outcome after translabyrinthine resection of acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Schramm, David R; Benoit, Brien G

    2007-01-01

    The translabyrinthine approach to acoustic neuroma resection offers excellent exposure for facial nerve dissection with 95% preservation of anatomic continuity. Acceptable outcome in facial asymptomatic patients is reported at 64-90%, but transient postoperative deterioration often occurs. The objective of this study was to identify preoperative clinical presentation and intraoperative surgical findings that predispose patients to facial nerve dysfunction after acoustic neuroma surgery. The charts of 128 consecutive translabyrinthine patients were examined retrospectively to identify new clinical and intraoperative predictors of facial nerve outcome. Postoperative evaluation of patients to normal function or mild asymmetry upon close inspection (House-Brackmann grades of I or II) was defined as an acceptable outcome, with obvious asymmetry to no movement (grades III to VI) defined as unacceptable. Intraoperative nerve stimulation was performed in all cases, and clinical grading was performed by a single neurosurgeon in all cases. Among patients with no preoperative facial nerve deficit, 87% had an acceptable result. Small size (P mA (P< 0.01) were reaffirmed as predictive of functional nerve preservation. Additionally, preoperative tinnitus (P = 0.03), short duration of hearing loss (P< 0. 01), and lack of subjective tumour adherence to the facial nerve (P = 0.02) were independently correlated with positive outcome. Our experience with the translabyrinthine approach reveals the previously unestablished associations of facial nerve outcome to include presence of tinnitus and duration of hypoacusis. Independent predictors of tumour size and nerve stimulation thresholds were reaffirmed, and the subjective description of tumour adherence to the facial nerve making dissection more difficult appears to be important.

  3. Preoperative oral use of Ibuprofen or dexamethasone may improve the anesthetic efficacy of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John M

    2013-09-01

    Effect of premedication with ibuprofen and dexamethasone on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial. Shahi S, Moktari H, Rahimi S, Yavari HR, Narimani S, Abdolrahmi M, Nezafati S. J Endod 2013;39(2):160-2. John M. Nusstein, DDS, MS PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine whether preoperative oral administration of ibuprofen (400 mg), dexamethasone (0.5 mg), or placebo (lactose) would improve the anesthetic success rate of an inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis University: Dental and Periodontal Research Center of Tabriz, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Randomized controlled trial Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiological assessment of the femoral bowing in Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaal Ahmed Hamed Kassem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differences in the magnitude of bowing between races are well-known characteristics of the femur. Asian races have an increased magnitude of femoral bowing but most of the orthopedic implants designed for the femur do not match this exaggerated bowing. We calculated the sagittal and coronal femoral bowing in the Japanese population at different levels of the femur and addressed its surgical significance. Material and methods: We calculated the sagittal and coronal bowing of 132 Japanese femora using CT scan of the femur. A mathematical calculation of the radius of curvature at proximal, middle, and distal regions of the femur was used to determine the degree of femoral bowing. Results: Mean sagittal bowing of the femur was 581, 188, and 161 mm for the proximal, middle, and distal thirds of the femur and mean lateral bowing was 528, 5092, and 876 mm, respectively. Mean sagittal and coronal bowing for the whole femur was 175 and 2640 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between age, gender, length of femur, and the degree of bowing. Conclusion: Our study reveals that femoral bowing in the Japanese population is 175 mm in the sagittal plane and 2640 mm in the coronal plane; these values are greater than the femoral bowing in other ethnic groups studied in the literature. This may result in varying degrees of mismatch between the western-manufactured femoral intramedullary implants and the Japanese femur. We recommend that orthopedic surgeons to accurately perform preoperative evaluation of the femoral bowing to avoid potential malalignment, rotation, and abnormal stresses between the femur and implant.

  5. Effect of preoperative alprazolam on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbas Ali; Saatchi, Masoud; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Rostamizadeh, Nasim; Sharafi, Fatemeh

    2012-10-01

    Success of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block decreases in patients with irreversible pulpitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative administration of alprazolam on the success of the IAN block for teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty patients with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular molar were selected for this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The patients received identical capsules of either 0.5 mg of alprazolam or placebo 45 minutes before the administration of a conventional IAN block. Access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after the IAN block injection. Lip numbness was recorded for all the patients. Success was defined as no or mild pain on the basis of visual analogue scale recordings during access cavity preparation and initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed by t test, Mann-Whitney, and χ(2) tests. The success rate was 53% for alprazolam group and 40% for placebo group, with no significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .301). Within the scope of the current study, preoperative oral administration of 0.5 mg of alprazolam did not improve the success of the IAN block in mandibular molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis, and the success rate was not adequate to ensure profound pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distal femoral osteotomy in genovalgum: internal fixation with blade plate versus casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Moradi, Ali; Ganji, Saeid

    2014-10-01

    To compare the results of two different ways of distal femoral osteotomy stabilization in patients suffering from genuvalgum: internal fixation with plate, and casting. In a non-randomized prospective study, after distal femoral osteotomy with the zigzag method, patients were divided into two groups: long leg casting, and internal fixation with blade plate. For all patients, questionnaires were filled to obtain data. Information such as range of motion, tibiofemoral anatomical angle and complications were recorded. 38 knees with valgus deformity underwent distal femoral supracondylar osteotomy. (8 with plaster cast and 30 with internal fixation using a blade plate). Preoperative range of motion was 129±6° and six months later it was 120±14°. The preoperative tibiofemoral angle was 32±6°; postoperative tibiofemoral angles were 3±3°, 6±2°, and 7±3° just after operation, six months, and two years later, respectively. Although this angle was greater among the group stabilized with a cast, this difference was not statistically significant. In postoperative complications, over-correction was found in five, recorvatom deformity in one, knee stiffness in three and superficial wound infection was recorded in three knees. There is no prominent difference in final range of motion and alignment whether fixation is done with casting or internal fixation. However, the complication rate seems higher in the casting method.

  7. [Treatment of bilateral vocal cord paralysis by hemi-phrenic nerve transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Li, M; Zheng, H L; Sun, L; Chen, S C; Chen, D H; Liu, F; Zhu, M H; Zhang, C Y; Wang, W

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To investigate the surgical effect of reinnervation of bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid muscles(PCA) with left hemi-phrenic nerve and endoscopic laser arytenoid resection in bilateral vocal cord fold paralysis(BVFP) and to analyze the pros and cons of the two methods. Methods: One hundred and seventeen BVFP patients who underwent reinnervation of bilateral PCA using the left hemi-phrenic nerve approach (nerve group, n =52) or laser arytenoidectomy(laser group, n =65) were enrolled in this study from Jan.2009 to Dec.2015.Vocal perception evaluation, video stroboscopy, pulmonary function test and laryngeal electromyography were preformed in all patients both preoperatively and postoperative1y.Extubution rate was calculated postoperative1y. Results: Most of the vocal function parameters in nerve group were improved postoperatively compared with preoperative parameters, albeit without a significant difference( P >0.05), while laser group showed a significant deterioration in voice quality postoperative1y( P nerve group was larger than that in laser group ( P nerve group were inhale physiological vocal cord abductions. Postoperative glottal closure showed no significant difference in nerve group ( P >0.05), while showed various increment in laser group( P nerve group and laser group respectively. In both groups, patients presented aspiration symptoms postoperatively, and rdieved soon, except 2 patients in laser group suffered repeated aspiration. Conclusions: Reinnervation of bilateral PCA muscles using left hemi-phrenic nerve can restore inspiratory vocal fold abduction to a satisfactory extent while preserving phonatory function at the preoperative level without evident morbidity, and do not affect swallowing function, greatly improving the quality of life of the patients.

  8. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peripheral nerve sheath tumour (6%).[6] Soft-tissue sarcomas most frequently affect the extremities and include MFH (40%), lipo- sarcoma (25%), synovial sarcoma and fibrosarcoma.[7]. Appropriate management is reliant on an accurate preoperative histology result. Excision biopsy is recommended for tumours. <3 cm in ...

  9. Management of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Samy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is a debilitating disease in orthopedics, frequently progressing to femoral head collapse and osteoarthritis. It is thought to be a multifactorial disease. ONFH ultimately results in femoral head collapse in 75-85% of untreated patients. Total hip arthroplasty (THA yields satisfactory results in the treatment of the end stage of the disease. However, disease typically affects males between the ages of 20 and 40 years and joint replacement is not the ideal option for younger patients. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells and platelet rich plasma (PRP have been used as an adjunct to core decompression to improve clinical success in the treatment of precollapse hips. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 40 hips in 30 patients was done. There were 19 males and 11 females with a mean age 36.7 ± 6.93 years. The indication for the operation was restricted primarily to modified Ficat stages IIb and III. 16 hips (40% had stage IIb and 24 hips (60% had stage III ONFH. The period of follow up ranged between 36-50 months with a mean 41.4 ± 3.53 months. All patients were assessed clinically during pre- and post-operative period according to the Harris Hip Score (HHS, Visual Analog Score (VAS and radiologically by X-rays. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was done preoperatively to confirm the diagnosis and every 6 months postoperatively for assessment of healing. The operative procedure include removal of necrotic area with drilling then the cavity was filled with a composite of bone graft mixed with PRP. Results: The mean HHS improved from 46.0 ± 7.8 preoperatively to 90.28 ± 19 at the end of followup ( P < 0.0001. The mean values of VAS were 78 ± 21 and 35 ± 19 at preoperatively period and final followup, respectively, with an average reduction of 43 points. Conclusion: We found that the use of PRP with collagen sheet can increase the reparable capacity after drilling of necrotic segment in stage

  10. Effects of enviromental temperature and femoral fracture on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, L V; Seifter, E; Kriss, P; Rettura, G; Nakao, K; Levenson, S M

    1977-06-01

    Femoral fracture, unilateral and bilateral, impaired the healing of dorsal skin incisions and formation of reparative granulation tissue in subcutaneously implanted polyvinyl alcohol sponges judged histologically and by breaking strengths and hydroxyproline contents, respectively, 1 week after injury in pair-fed rats kept at 22 degrees C. When rats were transferred to a room at 30 degrees C immediately after skin incision and sponge implants, with or without unilateral fracture, no differences in healing were observed between the two groups. Rats with skin incision, sponge implants, and either femoral fracture or sham-fracture excreted more urinary nitrogen than preoperatively when kept at 22 degrees. Counterpart groups transferred to a 30 degrees room right after operation excreted less urinary nitrogen than preoperatively, but because of lower food intakes postoperatively, the ratio of urinary nitrogen to food intake nitrogen was increased. With equivalent food intakes, pair-fed rats with fracture kept at 22 degrees postoperatively lost more weight and excreted more nitrogen than corresponding rats transfered to a 30 degrees room.

  11. Streptozocin-induced type-1 diabetes mellitus results in decreased density of CGRP sensory and TH sympathetic nerve fibers that are positively correlated with bone loss at the mouse femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Pérez, Iris A; Galindo-Ordoñez, Karla E; Pantoja-Ortíz, Christian E; Martínez-Martínez, Arisaí; Acosta-González, Rosa I; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan M

    2017-08-10

    Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in loss of innervation in some tissues including epidermis and retina; however, the effect on bone innervation is unknown. Likewise, T1DM results in pathological bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Thus, we quantified the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP + ) sensory and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH + ) sympathetic nerve fibers and determined the association between the innervation density and microarchitecture of trabecular bone at the mouse femoral neck. Ten weeks-old female mice received 5 daily administrations of streptozocin (i.p. 50mg/kg) or citrate (control group). Twenty weeks later, femurs were analyzed by microCT and processed for immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that mice with T1DM had a significant loss of both CGRP + and TH + nerve fibers in the bone marrow at the femoral neck. Likewise, microCT analysis revealed a significant decrease in the trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD), bone volume/total volume ratio (BV/TB), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in mice with T1DM as compared to control mice. Analysis of correlation revealed a positive and significant association between density of CGRP + or TH + nerve fibers with tBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp, but not with trabecular number (there was a positive association only for CGRP + ) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This study suggests an interaction between sensory and sympathetic nervous system and T1DM-induced bone loss. Identification of the factors involved in the loss of CGRP + sensory and TH + sympathetic fibers and how they regulate bone loss may result in new avenues to treat T1DM-related osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Dwek, Jerry R. [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center for Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, TriCity Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  13. Perioperative management of an elderly patient of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy for knee arthroplasty and the role of peripheral nerve blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Rupal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report exemplifies how the anaesthetic technique of general anesthesia with continuous bilateral femoral nerve block for bilateral knee arthroplasty was well chosen for the management of perioperative complications in an elderly patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM. A 69-year-old female patient of HOCM was scheduled for bilateral total knee replacement. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with peak systolic gradient of 56 mmHg. The surgery was conducted under general anaesthesia with invasive monitoring and bilateral continuous femoral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia. Postoperatively, she developed pulmonary oedema due to the liberal administration of fluids. This complication was successfully managed without interrupting the management of pain. Management of patients with HOCM for noncardiac surgery requires knowledge of variable presentation of two forms of disease. Also, this case report highlights the practical advantage of continuous femoral nerve block (CFNBs over epidural anaesthesia.

  14. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy.

  15. Anatomical and ultrasonographic study of the femoral nerve within the iliopsoas muscle in beagle dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, Giovanni; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Mahler, Stephan; Charrouin, Maxime; Boyer, Guillaume; Verwaerde, Patrick; Jourdan, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    An ultrasound (US)-guided ventral suprainguinal approach to block the femoral nerve (FN) within the iliopsoas muscle (IPM) has recently been described in dogs. The goal of the present study was to provide the operator with additional information to locate the FN within the IPM in dogs and cats using US. The study was carried out in three phases: a dissection of the FN (phase 1); an in vivo US-assisted nerve study (phase 2), and an anatomical cross-sectional study (phase 3). Nine healthy adult beagle dogs and nine healthy adult cats. Dissections were performed to investigate the anatomical characteristics of the FN and its related structures in one dog and one cat. Ultrasound scans of the left and right FN were performed in eight dogs and eight cats. The FN diameter and the distance between the FN and the external iliac artery (EIA) in US images and in anatomical cryosections were measured. The median FN diameter did not differ significantly between cats and dogs (1.1 mm versus 1.0 mm) or between the two techniques (US versus anatomical cross-sectional study) (1.1 mm versus 1.1 mm in dogs; 1.0 mm versus 1.1 mm in cats). The US and anatomical measurements of the median distances between the FN and EIA differed significantly between dogs and cats (8.2 mm versus 5.8 mm by US; 5.7 mm versus 4.8 mm in the anatomical study). The distance between the EIA and FN is reproducible in beagle dogs and cats and can be used in locating the FN within the IPM. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  16. Experimental study of vascularized nerve graft: evaluation of nerve regeneration using choline acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Tamai, S; Yajima, H; Kawanishi, K

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of nerve regeneration was performed on vascularized nerve graft (VNG) and free nerve graft (FNG) in Fischer strain rats. A segment of the sciatic nerve with vascular pedicle of the femoral artery and vein was harvested from syngeneic donor rat for the VNG group and the sciatic nerve in the same length without vascular pedicle was harvested for the FNG group. They were transplanted to a nerve defect in the sciatic nerve of syngeneic recipient rats. At 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after operation, the sciatic nerves were biopsied and processed for evaluation of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, histological studies, and measurement of wet weight of the muscle innervated by the sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation of the grafted nerve was also performed before sacrifice. The average CAT activity in the distal to the distal suture site was 383 cpm in VNG and 361 cpm in FNG at 2 weeks; 6,189 cpm in VNG and 2,264 cpm in FNG at 4 weeks; and 11,299 cpm in VNG and 9,424 cpm in FNG at 6 weeks postoperatively. The value of the VNG group was statistically higher than that of the FNG group at 4 weeks postoperatively. Electrophysiological and histological findings also suggested that nerve regeneration in the VNG group was superior to that in the FNG group during the same period. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups after 6 weeks postoperatively in any of the evaluations. The CAT measurement was useful in the experiments, because it was highly sensitive and reproducible. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Effectiveness of multiple small-diameter drilling decompression combined with hip arthroscopy for early osteonecrosis of the femoral head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Li, Zhongli; Su, Xiangzheng; Liu, Chunhui; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ketao

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of multiple small-diameter drilling decompression combined with hip arthroscopy for early oeteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Between March 2010 and December 2013, 91 patients with early ONFH were treated with the operation of multiple small-diameter drilling decompression combined with hip arthroscopy in 39 cases (53 hips, group A) or with drilling decompression alone in 52 cases (74 hips, group B). The patients in 2 groups had obvious hip pain and limited motion before operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, etiology, effected side, stage of osteonecrosis, and preoperative Harris score between 2 groups ( P >0.05). All operations succeeded and all incisions healed by first intention. The operation time was significantly longer in group A [(73.3±10.6) minutes] than in group B [(41.5±7.2) minutes] ( t =8.726, P =0.000). Temporary of sciatic nerve apraxia after operation occurred in 2 patients of group A, and no complication occurred in other patients. Patients were followed up 24-52 months (mean, 39.3 months) in group A and 24-48 months (mean, 34.6 months) in group B. At last follow-up, the Harris scores were 83.34±8.76 in group A and 76.61±9.22 in group B, showing significant differences when compared between 2 groups ( t =-4.247, P =0.029) and when compared with preoperative values in 2 groups ( t =-10.327, P =0.001; t =-8.216, P =0.008). X-ray films showed that the collapse of the femoral head was observed in 6 hips (1 hip at stage Ⅰand 5 hips at stage Ⅱ) in group A, and in 16 hips (4 hips at stageⅠand 12 hips at stage Ⅱ) in group B; and hip arthroplasty was performed. The total effective rates were 88.68% (47/53) in group A and 78.38% (58/74) in group B, respectively; showing significant difference between 2 groups ( χ 2 =5.241, P =0.041). Multiple small-diameter drilling decompression combined with hip arthroscopy is effective in pain relief, improvement of hip function, slowing-down the

  18. Femoral head osteonecrosis: Volumetric MRI assessment and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassounas, Athanasios E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.

    2007-01-01

    Effective treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHON) requires early diagnosis and accurate assessment of the disease severity. The ability to predict in the early stages the risk of collapse is important for selecting a joint salvage procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts in relation to preoperative MR imaging volumetry. We studied 58 patients (87 hips) with FHON. A semi-automated octant-based lesion measurement method, previously described, was performed on the T1-w MR images. The mean time of postoperative follow-up was 7.8 years. Sixty-three hips were successful and 24 failed and converted to total hip arthroplasty within a period of 2-4 years after the initial operation. The rate of failures for hips of male patients was higher than in female patients. The mean lesion size was 28% of the sphere equivalent of the femoral head, 24 ± 12% for the successful hips and 37 ± 9% for the failed (p < 0.001). The most affected octants were antero-supero-medial (58 ± 26%) and postero-supero-medial (54 ± 31%). All but postero-infero-medial and postero-infero-lateral octants, showed statistically significant differences in the lesion size between patients with successful and failed hips. In conclusion, the volumetric analysis of preoperative MRI provides useful information with regard to a successful outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts

  19. Assessment of femoral head vascularity by technetium-99m antimony colloid bone marrow imaging within 24 hours of subcapital fracture: a prospective study of 30 patients followed for 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The rationale of preoperative imaging of bone marrow was based upon the demonstration of histochemical abnormalities secondary to ischaemia which first become apparent in marrow cells of the femoral head following interruption of the blood supply by subcapital fracture. These marrow abnormalities predate changes in bone cells by several days and may explain the absence of abnormality on conventional bone scans performed on avascular femoral heads within 24 hours of subcapital fracture. The use of an endoprosthesis for fresh femoral neck fractures in unselected patients results in high mortality, high infection rate, high incidence of thromboembolic disease and poor long term results. The successful prediction of avascular necrosis in 92% of 28 patients with active bone marrow in the femoral head in this study is sufficiently accurate to allow appropriate selection of patients for internal fixation or primary prosthetic replacement on the basis of preoperative Tc-99m antimony colloid imaging

  20. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The  superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  1. Modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy in neglected femoral neck fractures in children: a report of 10 cases followed for a minimum of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Singh, Roop; Sharma, Ashwini Kumar; Ummat, Vikas

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the role of a modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy (MPIO) in neglected femoral neck fractures in children. Prospective study with retrospective analysis. Tertiary care Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Ten children (8 males, 2 females) with an average age of 10.2 years with neglected femoral neck fractures were seen from 1990 to 1998. A femoral neck fracture was considered neglected when no proper medical treatment was instituted for at least 1 month following the fracture. Nonunion was accompanied by coxa vara and resorption of the femoral neck in 9 patients; a 10th patient had a neglected femoral neck fracture for 1 month without coxa vara. Three patients at time of presentation with Delbet Type II displaced fractures with associated nonunion and coxa vara (2 with Ratliff Type III and 1 with Type I) also had avascular necrosis using plain radiographic criteria of increased density. Modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy. The children were immobilized in a hip spica for 6-10 weeks postoperatively and weightbearing was started after hip spica removal. Fracture healing, neck-shaft angle, avascular necrosis, and functional outcome. Patients were followed for an average of 8.2 years (range 5-12 years). All patients had union of their fracture within an average of 16.6 weeks (12-20 weeks) and of the osteotomy site within 8.2 weeks (7-9 weeks). Radiologic signs of avascular necrosis disappeared completely in the 3 patients who presented with avascular necrosis. In 1 patient with a preoperatively viable femoral head, radiologic signs of Ratliff Type I avascular necrosis appeared between 60 and 98 weeks. This radiologic finding became normal again, indicating viability of the femoral head somewhere between 98 to 205 weeks of follow-up. Postoperatively, an average of 135-degree neck-shaft angle was achieved (range 125-160 degrees). The average preoperative neck-shaft angle was 104.4 degrees (range 92-120 degrees) and on the normal hip

  2. A anatomic evaluation of the lateral femoral circumflex artery system by using Multi detector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Kazunari; Kadota, Satoshi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Flaps that are pedicled by perforators of the lateral femoral circumflex artery (LFCA) system have many advantages, including the transplantation of large and reliable skin with long pedicles and a large diameter, and little invasion of the donor sites. However, preoperative planning has been difficult because the perforators have many anatomic variations. We used multi detector-row CT for anatomical evaluation of the lateral femoral circumflex artery system. The patterns of LFCA from the main vessels were classified into three types and vessels coursing toward the lateral thigh region were classified into three groups. The distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the lateral femoral circumflex artery showed no significant difference between men and women. We were able to evaluate vessels with a 2-mm diameter in the lateral femoral circumflex artery system, indicating that accurate evaluation and low invasive examination of the lateral femoral circumflex artery system, including the perforator area, can be achieved by adjusting the image conditions and the injection rate of the contrast dye. (author)

  3. Effectiveness of the magnetic resonance imaging for the therapy of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Katsuki, Ichirou; Ushijima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Hideki; Sugioka, Youichi

    1990-01-01

    Recently, some reports demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early diagnosis of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANF). In this report we analyzed 64 hips in 40 cases using preoperative plain radiographs, tomography and MRI affected by ANF. And we gained following three conclusions. When rotational osteotomy of the femoral head is to be carried out, two plain views of MRI, parallel and contrary to the axis of the femoral neck, were useful for evaluation of postoperative weight bearing area. In 58 hips with strinct the former two plain views of MRI, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 54 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 32 hips by MRI. In 28 hips performed anterior rotational osteotomy, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 26 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 6 hips by MRI. In such cases careful follow-up should be required. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of the magnetic resonance imaging for the therapy of avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Katsuki, Ichirou; Ushijima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Hideki; Sugioka, Youichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-03-01

    Recently, some reports demonstrate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early diagnosis of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANF). In this report we analyzed 64 hips in 40 cases using preoperative plain radiographs, tomography and MRI affected by ANF. And we gained following three conclusions. When rotational osteotomy of the femoral head is to be carried out, two plain views of MRI, parallel and contrary to the axis of the femoral neck, were useful for evaluation of postoperative weight bearing area. In 58 hips with strinct the former two plain views of MRI, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 54 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 32 hips by MRI. In 28 hips performed anterior rotational osteotomy, atrophy of posterior area of the femoral head was recognized in 26 hips by tomography, and of them abnormal signal in posterior was revealed in 6 hips by MRI. In such cases careful follow-up should be required. (author).

  5. Duloxetine Contributing to a Successful Multimodal Treatment Program for Peripheral Femoral Neuropathy and Comorbid ‘Reactive Depression’ in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Kachko, Ludmyla; Ben Ami, Shiri; Liberman, Alon; Birk, Einat; Kronenberg, Sefi

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, duloxetine has been approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in the adult population. Data regarding the use of duloxetine in the pediatric population, however, are very limited. Femoral nerve injury is a rare complication of cardiac catheterization. In the case described, duloxetine contributed to a successful multimodal treatment program for peripheral neuropathic pain due to femoral neuropathy in an...

  6. Subtotal resection for management of large jugular paragangliomas with functional lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Carlson, Matthew L; Latuska, Richard F; Rivas, Alejandro; Bennett, Marc L; Netterville, James L; Haynes, David S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate tumor control following subtotal resection of advanced jugular paragangliomas in patients with functional lower cranial nerves and to investigate the utility of salvage radiotherapy for residual progressive disease. Case series with planned chart review. Tertiary academic referral center. Patients who presented with advanced jugular paragangliomas and functional lower cranial nerves were analyzed. Primary outcome measures included extent of resection, long-term tumor control, need for additional treatment, and postoperative lower cranial nerve function. Twelve patients (mean age, 46.2 years; 7 women, 58.3%) who met inclusion criteria were evaluated between 1999 and 2013. The mean postoperative residual tumor volume was 27.7% (range, 3.5%-75.0%) of the preoperative volume. When the residual tumor volume was less than 20% of the preoperative volume, no tumor growth occurred over an average of 44.6 months of follow-up (P cranial neuropathy as a result of surgery. Subtotal resection of jugular paragangliomas with preservation of the lower cranial nerves is a viable management strategy. If more than 80% of the preoperative tumor volume is resected, the residual tumor seems less likely to grow. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  7. Periprosthetic femoral fracture within two years after total hip replacement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thien, T. M.; Chatziagorou, G.; Garellick, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We used the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database to evaluate whether age, sex, preoperative diagnosis, fixation, and implant design influence the risk of revision arthroplasty due to periprosthetic fracture within two years from operation of a primary total hip replacement....... METHODS: Included in the study were 325,730 cemented femoral stems and 111,899 uncemented femoral stems inserted from 1995 to 2009. Seven frequently used stems (two cemented stems [Exeter and Lubinus SP II] and five uncemented stems [Bi-Metric, Corail, CLS Spotorno, ABG I, and ABG II]) were specifically...... studied. RESULTS: The incidence of revision at two years was low: 0.47% for uncemented stems and 0.07% for cemented stems. Uncemented stems were much more likely to have this complication (relative risk, 8.72 [95% confidence interval, 7.37 to 10.32]; p

  8. Efficacy of preoperative ibuprofen on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Gonzalez, D; Cerda-Cristerna, B I; Chavarria-Bolaños, D; Flores-Reyes, H; Pozos-Guillen, A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of preoperative oral ibuprofen (IBU) on the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) with mepivacaine containing 1 : 100 000 epinephrine for patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIP). The present study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study included two study groups each consisting of 25 patients who exhibited symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth. The patients presented prolonged moderate or severe pain (>10 s) after cold testing and indicated their pain scores on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale. The patients received identically appearing capsules containing either 600 mg IBU (IBUg) or gelatin (placebo, PLAg) 1 h before administration of IANB with 2% mepivacaine containing 1 : 100 000 epinephrine. After 15 min, the anaesthetic blockade was assessed by a three-step examination (lip numbness, positive/negative response to cold testing and clinical discomfort during endodontic access). IANB success was defined as the absence of pain during any of these evaluations. The data were analysed using the chi-squared test. All of the patients reported moderate or severe pain before the preoperative procedure. Statistically significant differences were observed between the IBUg and PLAg (P < 0.05); the success rates for the IANB were 72% (IBUg) and 36% (PLAg). Preoperative oral administration of IBU significantly improved the efficacy of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subclavian vein pacing and venous pressure waveform measurement for phrenic nerve monitoring during cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Justin; Singarayar, Suresh; Kabunga, Peter; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    The phrenic nerves may be damaged during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Phrenic nerve function is routinely monitored during ablation by stimulating the right phrenic nerve from a site in the superior vena cava (SVC) and manually assessing the strength of diaphragmatic contraction. However the optimal stimulation site, method of assessing diaphragmatic contraction, and techniques for monitoring the left phrenic nerve have not been established. We assessed novel techniques to monitor phrenic nerve function during cryoablation procedures. Pacing threshold and stability of phrenic nerve capture were assessed when pacing from the SVC, left and right subclavian veins. Femoral venous pressure waveforms were used to monitor the strength of diaphragmatic contraction. Stable capture of the left phrenic nerve by stimulation in the left subclavian vein was achieved in 96 of 100 patients, with a median capture threshold of 2.5 mA [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1.4-5.0 mA]. Stimulation of the right phrenic nerve from the subclavian vein was superior to stimulation from the SVC with lower pacing thresholds (1.8 mA IQR 1.4-3.3 vs. 6.0 mA IQR 3.4-8.0, P phrenic nerve palsy. The left phrenic nerve can be stimulated from the left subclavian vein. The subclavian veins are the optimal sites for phrenic nerve stimulation. Monitoring the femoral venous pressure waveform is a novel technique for detecting impending phrenic nerve damage. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evaluation of median nerve T2 signal changes in patients with surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Yavuz; Karagöz, Yeşim; Yaman, Mehmet; Atçı, İbrahim Burak; Emre, Ufuk; Kılıçkesmez, Nuri Özgür; Çelik, Suat Erol

    2016-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of median nerve T2 evaluation and its relation with Boston Questionnaire (BQ) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in pre-operative and post-operative carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-three CTS patients and 24 healthy volunteers underwent NCSs, median nerve T2 evaluation and self-administered BQ. Pre-operative and 1st year post-operative median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were compared both within pre-operative and post-operative CTS groups, and with healthy volunteers. The relationship between MRI findings and BQ and NCSs was analyzed. The ROC curve analysis was used for determining the accuracy. The comparison of pre-operative and post-operative T2 values and CSAs revealed statistically significant improvements in the post-operative patient group (pT2 values at all levels and BQ values, and positive and negative correlations were also found regarding T2 values and NCS findings in CTS patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for defined cut-off levels of median nerve T2 values in hands with severe CTS yielded excellent accuracy at all levels. However, this accuracy could not be demonstrated in hands with mild CTS. This study is the first to analyze T2 values in both pre-operative and post-operative CTS patients. The presence of increased T2 values in CTS patients compared to controls and excellent accuracy in hands with severe CTS indicates T2 signal changes related to CTS pathophysiology and possible utilization of T2 signal evaluation in hands with severe CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of preoperative medications on the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis: A placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Shashirekha, Govind

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the effect of the administration of preoperative ibuprofen, ketorolac, combination of etodolac with paracetamol and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol versus placebo for the potential increased effectiveness of the inferior alveolar nerve block [IANB] anesthesia. A total of 100 endodontic emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, either a drug or placebo 30 minutes before the administration of a conventional IANB. Cold testing was done before administration of anesthesia to determine level of pain using Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Success was defined as no pain or pain (VAS) on access or initial instrumentation. Overall success was 54% for all the groups. Success was highest (70%) for the ketorolac group, 55% for both ibuprofen group and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol group, 50% for combination of etodolac with paracetamol group, and 40% for the placebo group. Under the conditions of this study, the use of preoperative medication did improve the anesthetic efficacy of IANB for the treatment of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis but not significantly.

  12. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar-Fallah Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5. Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg and xylazine (4 mg/kg. Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d. In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD and edema. Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p

  13. Evaluation of subbasal nerve morphology and corneal sensation after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment on keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Celik, Ugur; Bozkurt, Ercument; Demirok, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the evaluation of corneal nerve fiber density and corneal sensation after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking on keratoconus patients. The study was performed on 30 keratoconus eyes (30 participants: 16 M, 14 F; 17-32 years old) treated with accelerated collagen cross-linking for disease stabilization. Mean outcome measures were corneal sensation evaluation by Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry and subbasal nerve fiber density assessment by corneal in vivo confocal microscopy. All corneal measurements were performed using scanning slit confocal microscopy (ConfoScan 4, Nidek Technologies, Padova, Italy). The accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedure was performed on 30 eyes of 30 patients (19 right, 63.3%; 11 left, 27.7%). The mean age was 23.93 ± 4. The preoperative mean keratometry, apex keratometry and pachymetry values were 47.19 ± 2.82 D, 56.79 ± 5.39 and 426.1 ± 25.6 μm, respectively. Preoperative mean corneal sensation was 56.3 ± 5.4 mm (with a range from 40 to 60 mm), it was significantly decreased at 1st and 3rd month visit and increased to preoperative values after 6th month visit. Preoperative mean of subbasal nerve fiber density measurements was 22.8 ± 9.7 nerve fiber/mm(2) (with a range of 5-45 mm), it was not still at the preoperative values at 6th month (p = 0.0001), however reached to the preoperative values at 12th month (p = 0.914). Subbasal nerve fibers could reach the preoperative values at the 12th month after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment although the corneal sensation was improved at 6th month. These findings imply that the subjective healing process is faster than the objective evaluation of the keratoconus patients' cornea treated with accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking.

  14. De Garengeot’s Hernia: Two Case Reports with Correct Preoperative Identification of the Vermiform Appendix in the Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of incarcerated de Garengeot’s hernia. This anatomical phenomenon is thought to occur in as few as 0.5% of femoral hernia cases and is a rare cause of acute appendicitis. Risk factors include a long pelvic appendix, abnormal embryological bowel rotation, and a large mobile caecum. In earlier reports operative treatment invariably involves simultaneous appendicectomy and femoral hernia repair. Both patients were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with computed tomography (CT. Both had open femoral hernia repair, one with appendectomy and one with the appendix left in situ. Both patients recovered without complications. Routine diagnostic imaging modalities such as ultrasonography and standard CT have previously shown little success in identifying de Garengeot’s hernia preoperatively. We believe this to be the first documented case of CT with concurrent oral and intravenous contrast being used to confidently and correctly diagnose de Garengeot’s hernia prior to surgery. We hope that this case report adds to the growing literature on this condition, which will ultimately allow for more detailed case-control studies and systematic reviews in order to establish gold-standard diagnostic studies and optimal surgical management in future.

  15. A Case of Femoral Fracture in Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Nahas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Klippel Trenaunay syndrome (KTS who presented with severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA. Preoperative planning was commenced for a total knee replacement (TKR. Whilst on the waiting list the patient suffered a fall and sustained a complete femoral diaphysis fracture. Conservative management in the form of skin traction was initially chosen as significant extra- and intramedullary vascular malformations posed an increased risk of perioperative bleeding. This failed to progress to union, and so open reduction and internal fixation was performed. This subsequently resulted in on-going delayed union, which was subsequently managed with low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, otherwise known as Exogen (Bioventus. exogen. Secondary exogen, 2012. There are only two previous documented cases of femoral fracture in KTS. This is the first report of a patient with this rare syndrome receiving this treatment. We discuss the management of fracture in this challenging group of patients.

  16. Does flexible tunnel drilling affect the femoral tunnel angle measurement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Hofbauer, Marcus; Atte, Akere; van Dijk, C Niek; Fu, Freddie H

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the mean difference in femoral tunnel angle (FTA) as measured on knee radiographs between rigid and flexible tunnel drilling after anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty consecutive patients that underwent primary anatomic ACL reconstruction with a single femoral tunnel drilled with a flexible reamer were included in this study. The control group was comprised of 50 patients all of who underwent primary anatomic ACL reconstruction with a single femoral tunnel drilled with a rigid reamer. All femoral tunnels were drilled through a medial portal to ensure anatomic tunnel placement. The FTA was determined from post-operative anterior-to-posterior (AP) radiographs by two independent observers. A 5° difference between the two mean FTA was considered clinically significant. The average FTA, when drilled with a rigid reamer, was 42.0° ± 7.2°. Drilling with a flexible reamer resulted in a mean FTA of 44.7° ± 7.0°. The mean difference of 2.7° was not statistically significant. The intraclass correlation coefficient for inter-tester reliability was 0.895. The FTA can be reliably determined from post-operative AP radiographs and provides a useful and reproducible metric for characterizing femoral tunnel position after both rigid and flexible femoral tunnel drilling. This has implications for post-operative evaluation and preoperative treatment planning for ACL revision surgery. IV.

  17. Parotid tumours: clinical and oncologic outcomes after microscope-assisted parotidectomy with intraoperative nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, F; Chuchueva, N; Gerosa, C; Sionis, S; Caria, R A; Puxeddu, R

    2017-10-01

    Temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunctions can be observed after parotidectomy for benign and malignant lesions. Intraoperative nerve monitoring is a recognised tool for the preservation of the nerve, while the efficacy of the operative microscope has been rarely stated. The authors report their experience on 198 consecutive parotidectomies performed on 196 patients with the aid of the operative microscope and intraoperative nerve monitoring. 145 parotidectomies were performed for benign lesions and 53 for malignancies. Thirteen patients treated for benign tumours experienced temporary (11 cases) or permanent facial palsy (2 cases, both of House-Brackmann grade II). Ten patients with malignant tumour presented with preoperative facial nerve weakness that did not improve after treatment. Five and 6 patients with malignant lesion without preoperative facial nerve deficit experienced postoperative temporary and permanent weakness respectively (the sacrifice of a branch of the nerve was decided intraoperatively in 2 cases). Long-term facial nerve weakness after parotidectomy for lesions not directly involving or originating from the facial nerve (n = 185) was 2.7%. Patients treated for benign tumours of the extra facial portion of the gland without inflammatory behaviour (n = 91) had 4.4% facial nerve temporary weakness rate and no permanent palsy. The combined use of the operative microscope and intraoperative nerve monitoring seems to guarantee facial nerve preservation during parotidectomy. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  18. Peripheral nerve blocks as the sole anesthetic technique in a patient with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Seung Uk; Kim, Yee Suk; Kwon, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang Mook; Kim, Soo Hyang

    2016-04-01

    General anesthesia and central neuraxial blockades in patients with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy are associated with high risks of complications, including rhabdomyolysis, malignant hyperthermia, hemodynamic instability, and postoperative mechanical ventilation. Here, we describe peripheral nerve blocks as a safe approach to anesthesia in a patient with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy who was scheduled to undergo surgery. A 22-year-old male patient was scheduled to undergo reduction and internal fixation of a left distal femur fracture. He had been diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy at 5 years of age, and had no locomotive capability except for that of the finger flexors and toe extensors. He had developed symptoms associated with dyspnea 5 years before and required intermittent ventilation. We blocked the femoral nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, and parasacral plexus under ultrasound on the left leg. The patient underwent a successful operation using peripheral nerve blocks with no complications. In conclusion general anesthesia and central neuraxial blockades in patients with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy are unsafe approaches to anesthesia because of hemodynamic instability and respiratory depression. Peripheral nerve blocks are the best way to reduce the risks of critical complications, and are a safe and feasible approach to anesthesia in patients with severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  19. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  20. A Three-arm Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Continuous Femoral Plus Single-injection Sciatic Peripheral Nerve Blocks versus Periarticular Injection with Ropivacaine or Liposomal Bupivacaine for Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Adam W; Johnson, Rebecca L; Abdel, Matthew P; Mantilla, Carlos B; Panchamia, Jason K; Taunton, Michael J; Kralovec, Michael E; Hebl, James R; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pagnano, Mark W; Kopp, Sandra L

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia is standard practice for total knee arthroplasty; however, the role of regional techniques in improved perioperative outcomes remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that peripheral nerve blockade would result in lower pain scores and opioid consumption than two competing periarticular injection solutions. This three-arm, nonblinded trial randomized 165 adults undergoing unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty to receive (1) femoral catheter plus sciatic nerve blocks, (2) ropivacaine-based periarticular injection, or (3) liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection. Primary outcome was maximal pain during postoperative day 1 (0 to 10, numerical pain rating scale) in intention-to-treat analysis. Additional outcomes included pain scores and opioid consumption for postoperative days 0 to 2 and 3 months. One hundred fifty-seven study patients received peripheral nerve block (n = 50), ropivacaine (n = 55), or liposomal bupivacaine (n = 52) and reported median maximal pain scores on postoperative day 1 of 3, 4, and 4.5 and on postoperative day 0 of 1, 4, and 5, respectively (average pain scores for postoperative day 0: 0.6, 1.7, and 2.4 and postoperative day 1: 2.5, 3.5, and 3.7). Postoperative day 1 median maximal pain scores were significantly lower for peripheral nerve blockade compared to liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection (P = 0.016; Hodges-Lehmann median difference [95% CI] = -1 [-2 to 0]). After postanesthesia care unit discharge, postoperative day 0 median maximal and average pain scores were significantly lower for peripheral nerve block compared to both periarticular injections (ropivacaine: maximal -2 [-3 to -1]; P bupivacaine: maximal -3 [-4 to -2]; P bupivacaine over ropivacaine in periarticular injections for total knee arthroplasty.

  1. Duloxetine contributing to a successful multimodal treatment program for peripheral femoral neuropathy and comorbid 'reactive depression' in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachko, Ludmyla; Ben Ami, Shiri; Liberman, Alon; Birk, Einat; Kronenberg, Sefi

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, duloxetine has been approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in the adult population. Data regarding the use of duloxetine in the pediatric population, however, are very limited. Femoral nerve injury is a rare complication of cardiac catheterization. In the case described, duloxetine contributed to a successful multimodal treatment program for peripheral neuropathic pain due to femoral neuropathy in an adolescent with 'reactive depression' and conversion symptoms. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present article is only the third such report on this dual use of duloxetine in children and adolescents, and the first report of such treatment following femoral neuropathy induced by cardiac catheterization.

  2. Nerve Wrapping of the Sciatic Nerve With Acellular Dermal Matrix in Chronic Complete Proximal Hamstring Ruptures and Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Brian M.; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. Purpose: To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. Results: All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45

  3. Enlarging bilateral femoral condylar bone cysts without scintigraphic uptake in a yearling foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, K.R.E.; Fessler, J.F.; Cantwell, H.D.; Widmer, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Bilateral subchondral bone cysts of the femoral condyles were diagnosed by conventional radiography in a 14 month old Appaloosa colt. Surgical debridement was performed, and over the next 18 months the appearance of the cysts was evaluated with radiography and bone scintigraphy. On the preoperative scintigrams, increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was associated with the cysts. Despite continued radiographic enlargement, the cysts did not demonstrate increased radiopharmaceutical uptake post-operatively

  4. Osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures: dynamic hip screw (DHS or mini-invasive Targon FN system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dulaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to investigate the long-term outcomes of femoral neck fractures that were surgically fixed using various types of extramedullary implants in patients aged 65 years and younger. Material and methods: We analyzed the clinical results of surgical treatment of femoral neck fractures by extramedullary osteosynthesis in 94 patients aged 38 to 65 years old (71 women and 23 men. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to AO/ASIF fracture classification. We used different techniques of osteosynthesis: with DHS or with Targon FN. In all patients the mental status rate SPMSQ, osteoporosis degree (Singh index, general somatic status (WHO scale were evaluated in the preoperative period. We also evaluated next intraoperative parameters: duration of surgery, blood loss, quality of reduction, long of incision. In a year after surgery we assessed functional results (Harris Hip Score and analysed postoperative complications. Results: It was found the inverse correlation (r = -0,8 of total preoperative parameters (WHO scale, the Singh index and mental status SPMSQ and postoperative functional results on Harris Hip Score. With the reliability of p<0.05 the average rate of blood loss and length of skin incision were less in patients operated with Targon FN. In 12 months unsatisfactory results rate on Harris Hip Score was 12.7% in all study groups, great - 22,3%, good - 52.1%, and satisfactory - 12,9%. Complications rate in patients operated with DHS was 17,02%, and in patients operated with Targon FN - 18.1%. Conclusion: Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures (type B1 and B2 on AO/ASIF classification allows to achieve the best results in compare with DHS osteosynthesis. Revealed complications such as screw migration, false joint formation and femoral head avascular necrosis were determined by impaired surgical technique and inadequate reduction.

  5. Femoral artery pressure measurement to predict the outcome of arterial surgery in patients with multilevel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Tønnesen, K H; Agerskov, K

    1982-01-01

    Direct measurement of the femoral artery pressure before operation has been used to predict the postoperative change in ankle and toe pressure in 102 limbs (83 patients) that underwent aortoiliac surgery for the treatment of atherosclerotic occlusion or stenosis affecting both the aortoiliac...... and femoral artery segments. Rest pain or gangrene was present in 74 limbs. In 26 other limbs simultaneous aortoiliac and femoral artery reconstructions were performed. The changes in both toe and ankle pressures could be confidently predicted from the preoperative data. A predicted toe pressure of lower than...... 25 mm Hg was associated with a high probability that amputation would be required. The chances of an amputation were less than 3% if a toe pressure higher than 40 mm Hg was predicted. If the predicted ankle pressure index was lower than 0.56, there was a 90% chance that intermittent claudication...

  6. Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis: Functional Outcomes and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Taheriazam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is one of the successful and cost-benefit surgical treatments. One-stage bilateral THA (BTHA offers many benefits. However, there are concerns about the safety of the procedure and higher complications. We aimed to evaluate the complications and outcomes of one-stage BTHA with Hardinge approach for femoral head avascular necrosis patients. A total of 60 patients from April 2009 and May 2013, were underwent one-stage bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA in Milad and Erfan hospitals, Tehran, Iran. A prospective analysis of the functional outcomes and complications of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in patients with femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN performed. We evaluated all patients clinically and radiologically with serial follow-ups. A clinical hip score based upon the modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS was performed preoperatively and again postoperatively. During period of study 44 men (73.3% and 16 women (26.6% with a mean age of 31.40±4.08 years (range 25 to 36 years at the time of presentation were entered. The mean surgical time was 2.6±0.38 hrs. The mean hospital stay was 3 .50±0.72 days. Hemoglobin level decreased significa ntly after operation (P= 0.046. There was no reported patient with perioperative death, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, infection, dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or heterotrophic ossification. The mean preoperative MHHS score was 47.93±7.33 in patients. MHHS score i mproved to 95.06±3.47 in the last follow-up (P=0.0001.Our results recommend the use of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in femoral head avascular necrosis patients.

  7. Combination Therapy with Continuous Three-in-One Femoral Nerve Block and Periarticular Multimodal Drug Infiltration after Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Tetsunaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Various postoperative pain relief modalities, including continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB, local infiltration analgesia (LIA, and combination therapy, have been reported for total knee arthroplasty. However, no studies have compared CFNB with LIA for total hip arthroplasty (THA. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of CFNB versus LIA after THA. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the postoperative outcomes of 93 THA patients (20 men, 73 women; mean age 69.2 years. Patients were divided into three groups according to postoperative analgesic technique: CFNB, LIA, or combined CFNB+LIA. We measured the following postoperative outcome parameters: visual analog scale (VAS for pain at rest, supplemental analgesia, side effects, mobilization, length of hospital stay, and Harris Hip Score (HHS. Results. The CFNB+LIA group had significantly lower VAS pain scores than the CFNB and LIA groups on postoperative day 1. There were no significant differences among the three groups in use of supplemental analgesia, side effects, mobilization, length of hospital stay, or HHS at 3 months after THA. Conclusions. Although there were no clinically significant differences in outcomes among the three groups, combination therapy with CFNB and LIA provided better pain relief after THA than CFNB or LIA alone, with few side effects.

  8. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  9. A comparison of functional outcomes in patients undergoing revision arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears with and without arthroscopic suprascapular nerve release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoie III FH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Felix H Savoie III,1 Mark Zunkiewicz,2 Larry D Field,2 William H Replogle,3 Michael J O’Brien1 1Tulane Institute of Sports Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Mississippi Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Family Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Purpose: This study was designed to compare functional outcomes in patients undergoing revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears (retracted medial to the glenoid with Goutallier Grade 4 atrophy and concomitant release of the suprascapular nerve to a similar group of patients with Grade 3 atrophy undergoing revision rotator cuff repair (RTCR without nerve release. We hypothesized that patients undergoing nerve release would have more favorable functional outcomes as measured by the Modified University of California at Los Angeles shoulder rating scale (UCLA. Patients and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent revision repair of massive rotator cuff tears with release of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch. We compared total preoperative, postoperative, and change in UCLA score in these patients to a similar group of 22 patients undergoing revision RTCR without suprascapular nerve release. Additionally, UCLA subscores between the two groups were compared preoperatively and at final follow-up. Results: The average preoperative UCLA score in the nerve-release group was 7.91, and final follow-up average was 27.86; average 3.05 grades of strength were recovered. In the comparison group, average preoperative UCLA score was 11.77, and final follow-up average was 29.09; average 1.32 grades of strength were recovered. The average preoperative UCLA score was significantly worse in the nerve-release group (P=0.007. The average postoperative UCLA score was not significantly different (P=0.590 between the groups, indicating a better improvement in the nerve-release group with significantly

  10. Clitoral Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Resection With Intraoperative Sensory Nerve Mapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cindy; Damitz, Lynn; Karrat, Kimberly M; Mintz, Alice; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ever increasing popularity of labial and clitoral surgeries, the best practices and long-term effects of reconstructive procedures in these regions remain unknown. This is particularly noteworthy because the presentation of nerve-related symptoms may be delayed up to a year. Despite the convention that these surgical procedures are low risk, little is known about the best practices that may reduce the postoperative complications as a result of these reconstructive surgeries. We describe a preoperative sensory mapping technique in the context of a symptomatic inclusion cyst in the clitoral region. This technique delineates anatomical and functional regions innervated by the dorsal clitoral nerve while minimizing the vascular watershed area in the midline. A prototypical case of a patient with a clitoral mass is discussed with clinical history and surgical approach. Prior to surgical excision, the dorsal clitoral nerve distribution was mapped in order to avoid a surgical incision in this sensual zone. In our practice, preoperative sensory mapping is a clinically useful planning tool that requires minimal instrumentation and no additional operating time. Sensory mapping allows identification of the functional zone innervated by the dorsal clitoral nerve, which can aid in minimizing damage to the area.

  11. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead topostoperative acute anemia and some other complications.Tranexamic acid (TA is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusionrequirements during some elective surgeries (1-3.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA on intraoperative blood loss and asubsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting.Methods:Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullarynailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. GroupI, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA via intravenous infusion before surgical incision.Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline.Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobinchange as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups.Results:Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups,respectively (P=0.570. Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group(5.6% compared to the placebo group (30% (P=0.06. No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during thesurgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion duringtraumatic femoral fracture operation.

  12. Patellofemoral dysbalance and genua valga: outcome after femoral varisation osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschas, Jörg; Ferner, Felix; Lutter, Christoph; Gelse, Kolja; Harrer, Jörg; Strecker, Wolf

    2018-01-01

    Patellofemoral dysbalance may be caused by trochlear dysplasia, an elevated TTTG distance, femoral or tibial torsional deformities, patella alta, or a genu valgum. The surgical procedure for the treatment of a genu valgum is varisation osteotomy, usually in the femoral aspect. Several authors believe that a genu valgum is one cause of patellofemoral dysbalance, but studies about the outcome of the treatment with a varisation osteotomy are rare. Nineteen knees in 18 patients, aged on average 28 (16-52) years were investigated in a retrospective study. The patients had symptoms of patellofemoral instability or anterior knee pain due to a genu valgum, without symptoms of a lateral femorotibial compartment. All patients underwent a femoral varisation osteotomy. The diagnostic investigation prior to surgery included full-leg radiographs and torsional angle CT scans. The pre-surgery and follow-up investigation included the visual analog scale (VAS), the Kujala score, the Japanese Knee Society score, the Lysholm score. The mean duration of follow-up was 44(10-132) months. The mean preoperative mechanical valgus was 5.6° (range 4-10°). Twelve patients mentioned patellar instability as the main symptom while 14 mentioned anterior knee pain. No redislocation occurred in the follow-up period. Anterior knee pain on the VAS (p value patellofemoral dysbalance, treatment of this condition is femoral varisation osteotomy. In this study, patellofemoral stability was achieved and anterior knee pain was significantly reduced. Significant improvements in clinical scores proved the success of the treatment. IV, case series.

  13. Femoral nerve blockade using various concentrations of local anesthetic for knee arthroscopy in the pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Veneziano,1,2 Jennifer Tripi,1 Dmitry Tumin,1 Mumin Hakim,1 David Martin,1,2 Ralph Beltran,1,2 Kevin Klingele,3,4 Tarun Bhalla,1,2 Joseph D Tobias1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA Background: Femoral nerve blockade (FNB provides effective postoperative analgesia in children undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery as evidenced by their opioid-sparing effects and decreased postoperative pain scores. Increasing the local anesthetic concentration in peripheral nerve blockade for adults undergoing orthopedic surgery has been shown to be beneficial, increasing block success rate, and providing a longer duration of analgesia. The effect of increasing the concentration of local anesthetic in extremity blocks in children remains largely unexplored.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of FNB using three concentrations of local anesthetic (ropivacaine 0.2%, bupivacaine 0.25%, and ropivacaine 0.5% in children and adolescents undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery. The primary outcome evaluated was postoperative opioid consumption before discharge. Secondary outcomes included post-anesthesia care unit (PACU and hospital discharge times, first pain score in PACU, and the incidence of adverse events.Results: Two hundred and sixty-nine children and adolescents who received a FNB for arthroscopic knee surgery from January 2010 to December 2013 were included for analysis. Local anesthetic used in FNB was ropivacaine 0.2% in 116 (43% cases, ropivacaine 0.5% in 75 (28% cases, and bupivacaine 0.25% in 78 (29% cases. Median postoperative opioid consumption (mg/kg intravenous morphine equivalents in the ropivacaine 0.5% group was 0

  14. Radiographic femoral varus measurement is affected unpredictably by femoral rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    Radiographic measurements of femoral varus are used to determine if intervention to correct femoral deformity is required, and to calculate the required correction. The varus angle is defined as the angle between the proximal femoral long axis (PFLA) and an axis tangential to the distal femoral...... and externally by 5° and 10° using plastic wedges. Accuracy of rotation was within +1°. Digital radiographs were obtained at each position. Varus angles were measured using ImageJ, employing two definitions of PFLA. Mean varus angles increased with 10° of either internal or external rotation with both PFLA...... rotation angles. The effect of rotation on varus angle measurements in these femoral specimens contradicts a previous report using CT. The most probable explanation is the difference in femoral positioning: the CT study used a slightly elevated position compared to that in this study, resulting in better...

  15. Difficult acetabular revision. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, M L; Stuchin, S A; Frankel, V H; Zuckerman, J

    1986-01-01

    Thirteen patients (14 hips) underwent revision from conventional cemented total hip arthroplasty to uncemented acetabular threaded screw-in components and cementless femoral press-fit stems by means of the Autophor, Biofit, and Ti-Thread designs. The patients suffered from all forms of primary hip disease except rheumatoid arthritis; their average age was 34 years. The average preoperative Harris hip score was 39.4; the average postoperative score was 71.2 at six months, 90.6 at one year, and 91.6 at two years. Complications included two femoral shaft fractures, one femoral nerve palsy, and one dislocation. No signs have been observed of loosening or migration as of an early (6-24 months) follow-up.

  16. Useful surgical techniques for facial nerve preservation in tumorous intra-temporal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Jong Dae; Shim, Dae Bo; Lee, Won-Sang

    2010-02-01

    The management of the facial nerve in tumorous temporal lesions is particularly challenging due to its complex anatomic location and potential postoperative complications, including permanent facial paralysis. The most important concern regarding surgical treatment of a tumorous temporal lesion is the inevitable facial paralysis caused by nerve injury during the tumor removal, especially in patients with minimal to no preoperative facial nerve dysfunction. We describe successful four cases in which various surgical techniques were developed for the preservation of the facial nerve in treatment of intratemporal tumorous lesions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contact area between femoral tunnel and interference screw in anatomic rectangular tunnel ACL reconstruction: a comparison of outside-in and trans-portal inside-out techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Mae, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Yuta; Nakagawa, Shigeto; Shino, Konsei

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the femoral tunnel length, the femoral graft bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture, and the contact area between the femoral tunnel wall and an interference screw used for fixation in anatomic rectangular tunnel anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ART ACLR). The study included 149 patients with primary ACL injury who underwent ART ACLR. Preoperatively, flexion angle of the index knee was checked under general anaesthesia. Those of less than 130° of passive flexion were assigned to the outside-in (OI) technique (78 patients), while the others to the trans-portal inside-out (TP) technique (71 patients). The patients underwent computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction at 3-5 weeks post-operatively. Femoral tunnel length, graft bending angle, and contact ratio between the IFS and femoral tunnel were assessed. P contact ratio in the OI technique was significantly larger than that in the TP technique at every point in the femoral tunnel (P contact ratio than the TP technique after ART ACLR. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  18. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Sponseller, P.D.; Griffin, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  19. Duloxetine Contributing to a Successful Multimodal Treatment Program for Peripheral Femoral Neuropathy and Comorbid ‘Reactive Depression’ in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmyla Kachko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, duloxetine has been approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in the adult population. Data regarding the use of duloxetine in the pediatric population, however, are very limited. Femoral nerve injury is a rare complication of cardiac catheterization. In the case described, duloxetine contributed to a successful multimodal treatment program for peripheral neuropathic pain due to femoral neuropathy in an adolescent with ‘reactive depression’ and conversion symptoms. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present article is only the third such report on this dual use of duloxetine in children and adolescents, and the first report of such treatment following femoral neuropathy induced by cardiac catheterization.

  20. Bone mineral density after implantation of a femoral neck hip prosthesis--a prospective 5 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steens, Wolfram; Boettner, Friedrich; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf; Schneeberger, Alberto

    2015-08-12

    Bone resorption in the proximal femur due to stress shielding has been observed in a number of conventional cementless implants used in total hip arthroplasty. Short femoral-neck implants are claiming less interference with the biomechanics of the proximal femur. The goal of this study was to prospectively investigate the in vivo changes of bone-mineral density as a parameter of bone remodeling around a short, femoral neck prosthesis over the first 5 years following implantation. The secondary goal was to report on its clinical outcome. We are reporting on the changes of bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the clinical outcome up to five years after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, performed 10 days, three, 12 and 60 months after surgery. 20 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 17 to 65) were clinically assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The WOMAC was used as a patient-relevant outcome-measure. In contrast to conventional implants DEXA-scans overall revealed a slight increase of bone mineral density in the proximal femur in the 12 months following the implantation. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average preoperative score of 46 to a postoperative score at 12 months of 91 points and 95 points at 60 months, the global WOMAC index from 5.3 preoperatively to 0.8 at 12 months and 0.6 at 60 months postoperatively. At 60 months after implantation of a short femoral neck prosthesis, all regions except one (region of interest #5) showed no significant changes in BMD compared to baseline measurements at 10 days which is less to the changes in bone mineral density seen in conventional implants.

  1. Postoperative stroke after hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a report of 2 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, David Yi; Christoforou, Dimitrios; Turner, Garth; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly comprise a significant number of orthopedic surgical cases at a major trauma center. These patients are immediately incapacitated, and surgical fixation can help increase mobility, restore independence, and reduce morbidity and mortality. However, operative treatment carries its own inherent risks including infections, deep vein thromboses, and intraoperative cardiovascular collapse. Cerebrovascular stroke is a relatively uncommon occurrence after hip fractures. We present 2 cases with unusual postoperative medical complication after cemented hip hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture that will serve to illustrate an infrequent but very serious complication. Case 1 was a 73-year-old man with a Garden IV femoral neck fracture who underwent a right hip unipolar cemented hemiarthroplasty under general anesthesia. After uneventful surgery, he developed neurological deficits, and a postoperative noncontrast head computed tomography showed a right medial thalamic infarct. Case 2 was an 82-year-old man with a Garden IV femoral neck fracture who underwent a right hip unipolar cemented hemiarthroplasty under general anesthesia. After uneventful surgery, the patient became hemodynamically unstable. A postoperative noncontrast head computed tomography showed a large evolving left middle cerebral artery stroke. General anesthesia in the setting of decreased cardiac function (decreased ejection fraction and output) carries the risk for ischemic injury to the brain from decreased cerebral perfusion. Risk factors including advanced age, history of coronary artery disease, atherosclerotic disease, and atrial fibrillation increase the risk for perioperative stroke. Furthermore, it is known that during the cementing of implants, microemboli can be released, which must be considered in patients with preoperative heart disease. As a result, consideration of using a noncemented implant or cementing without pressurizing in this clinical scenario

  2. Comparing return to sport activities after short metaphyseal femoral arthroplasty with resurfacing and big femoral head arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampinas, Panagiotis K; Papadelis, Eustratios G; Vlamis, John A; Basiliadis, Hlias; Pneumaticos, Spiros G

    2017-07-01

    Young patients feel that maintaining sport activities after total hip arthroplasty constitutes an important part of their quality of life. The majority of hip surgeons allow patients to return to low-impact activities, but significant caution is advised to taking part in high-impact activities. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the post-operative return to daily living habits and sport activities following short-metaphyseal hip and high functional total hip arthroplasties (resurfacing and big femoral head arthroplasties). In a study design, 48 patients (55 hips) were enrolled in three different comparative groups, one with the short-metaphyseal arthroplasties, a second with high functional resurfacing arthroplasties and a third of big femoral head arthroplasties. Each patient experienced a clinical examination and evaluated with Harris Hip Score, WOMAC, Sf-36, UCLA activity score, satisfaction VAS, anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the hip and were followed in an outpatient setting for 2 years. Statistical analysis revealed no notable differences between the three groups regarding their demographic data however significant differences have been found between preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of each group. Also, we fail to reveal any significant differences when comparing data of all three groups at the final 2 years postoperative control regarding their clinical scores. The overall outcome of all three groups was similar, all the patients were satisfied and returned to previous level of sport activities. Short metaphyseal hip arthroplasties in young patients intending to return to previous and even high impact sport activities, similar to high functional resurfacing, big femoral head arthroplasties. Short stems with hard on hard bearing surfaces might become an alternative to standard stems and hip resurfacing.

  3. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  4. A STUDY OF UNSTABLE INTERTROCHANTERIC FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED BY TROCHANTERIC FEMORAL NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa Neikar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fracture of the hip especially in the elderly. The incidence of intertrochanteric fracture is rising because of the increase in number of elderly population along with superadded osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study included cases of unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO and OTA Classification 31-A2 and 31-A3 fracture patterns that were operated with the short trochanteric femoral nail, which fitted into the inclusion criteria done in medical college hospital, Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, from February 2015 to September 2016. RESULTS The age distribution was from 40 to 80 years. The largest group of patients were from 61 to 70 years. The average age was 60.5 years. The number of male patients in our series was 20 (66.7% and female was 10 (33.3%. Right side was affected in 11 cases (36.7% and left side in 19 cases (63.3%. Good reduction was achieved in 23 patients (76.7%. Acceptable reduction was achieved in 7 (23.3% patients due to severe comminution. In our study, 25 patients (83.33% had no complications. We encountered one intraoperative complication in the form of greater trochanter splintering, while inserting the nail. In our study, we encountered following postoperative complications. We noticed one case of delayed union, one case of Z effect and 2 cases of varus malunion. CONCLUSION We conclude that short trochanteric femoral nail provides good fixation for unstable intertrochanteric fractures if proper preoperative planning, good reduction and surgical technique are followed leading to high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage especially for Asian patients with relatively small femora.

  5. Sciatic nerve block causing heel ulcer after total knee replacement in 36 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todkar, Manoj

    2005-12-01

    Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks are often used for postoperative analgesia following total knee replacement surgery. In this report, we focus on cases of heel ulcers which occurred following the implementation of peripheral nerve block in concert with knee replacement surgery. In some instances, heel ulcers have resulted in delayed rehabilitation and prolonged hospital stays in this group of patients, which makes this phenomenon a potential burden on the healthcare system. Pressure points in the foot should be protected after the implementation of nerve blocks to prevent pressure sores. An awareness of this unusual complication related to knee replacement surgery is necessary to prevent its occurrence and avoid delays in patient rehabilitation and recovery.

  6. Sciatic and femoral nerve blockade using bupivacaine alone, or in combination with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, M C; Doodnaught, G M; Fantoni, D T; Steagall, P V M

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study was to determine the onset and offset of antinociception after sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks. Six healthy adult cats (4.8±1.3years; 4.3±0.4 kg) were included in a randomised, crossover, blinded and controlled study. Following sedation with dexmedetomidine (25 µg/kg, intramuscular), each ScN and FN injection was performed using 0.1 ml/kg of saline (CONTROL), bupivacaine (0.46 per cent, 0.46 mg/kg; BUPI), bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg; BUPI-DEX) or bupivacaine and buprenorphine (2.5 µg/kg; BUPI-BUPRE). Atipamezole (250 µg/kg) was administered after injections. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) and motor blockade were evaluated before sedation and up to 24 hours. The PWT were significantly increased at half an hour in CONTROL, from two to four hours in BUPI and BUPI-DEX when compared with baseline. Motor blockade was observed between one and three hours in treatments using bupivacaine. Ability to walk was significantly impaired in BUPI at half an hour to two hours, BUPI-DEX at one to two hours and BUPI-BUPRE at two hours. Antinociception was observed in BUPI between one and eight hours, and in BUPI-DEX and BUPI-BUPRE between one and four hours. This study could not demonstrate a benefit of administering bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine or buprenorphine in cats. Results in BUPI-DEX may have been biased by the administration of atipamezole. British Veterinary Association.

  7. The anatomic basis of lingual nerve trauma associated with inferior alveolar block injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher D; Rasmussen, Jared; Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Finn, Richard

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the anatomic variability in the position of the lingual nerve in the pterygomandibular space, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve block injection. Simulated standard landmark-based inferior alveolar nerve blocks were administered to 44 fixed sagitally bisected cadaver heads. Measurements were made of the diameter of the nerves and distances between the needle and selected anatomic landmarks and the nerves. Of 44 simulated injections, 42 (95.5%) passed lateral to the lingual nerve, 7 (16%) passed within 0.1 mm of the nerve, and 2 (4.5%) penetrated the nerve. The position of the lingual nerve relative to bony landmarks within the interpterygoid fascia was highly variable. Variation in the position of the lingual nerve is an important contributor to lingual nerve trauma during inferior alveolar block injections. This factor should be an important part of preoperative informed consent. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging of Pericardiophrenic Bundles Using Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography for Phrenic Nerve Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Jing; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Meng-Chao; Sun, Huan; Zeng, Hong; Yang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Phrenic nerve injury and diaphragmatic stimulation are common complications following arrhythmia ablation and pacing therapies. Preoperative comprehension of phrenic nerve anatomy via non-invasive CT imaging may help to minimize the electrophysiological procedure-related complications. Coronary CT angiography data of 121 consecutive patients were collected. Imaging of left and right pericardiophrenic bundles was performed with volume rendering and multi-planar reformation techniques. The shortest spatial distances between phrenic nerves and key electrophysiology-related structures were determined. The frequencies of the shortest distances ≤5 mm, >5 mm and direct contact between phrenic nerves and adjacent structures were calculated. Left and right pericardiophrenic bundles were identified in 86.8% and 51.2% of the patients, respectively. The right phrenic nerve was phrenic nerve, phrenic nerve was phrenic nerve had a distance phrenic nerve showed a distance phrenic nerve anatomy, which might facilitate avoidance of the phrenic nerve-related complications in interventional electrophysiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Preoperative assessment of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm using constructive interference in steady state-three-dimensional fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Hirai, Shinji; Yamaura, Akira [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    Results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) may be improved by accurate preoperative assessment of neurovascular relationships at the root entry/exit zone (REZ). Constructive interference in steady state (CISS)-three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was evaluated for visualizing the neurovascular relationships at the REZ. Fourteen patients with TN and eight patients with HFS underwent MR imaging using CISS-3DFT and 3D fast inflow with steady-state precession (FISP) sequences. Axial images of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) obtained by the two sequences were reviewed to assess the neurovascular relationships at the REZ of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Eleven patients subsequently underwent MVD. Preoperative MR imaging findings were related to surgical observations and results. CISS MR imaging provided excellent contrast between the cranial nerves, small vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the CPA. CISS was significantly better than FISP for delineating anatomic detail in the CPA (trigeminal and facial nerves, petrosal vein) and abnormal neurovascular relationships responsible for TN and HFS (vascular contact and deformity at the REZ). Preoperative CISS MR imaging demonstrated precisely the neurovascular relationships at the REZ and identified the offending artery in all seven patients with TN undergoing MVD. CISS MR imaging has high resolution and excellent contrast between cranial nerves, small vessels, and CSF, so can precisely and accurately delineate normal and abnormal neurovascular relationships at the REZ in the CPA, and is a valuable preoperative examination for MVD. (author)

  10. Preoperative assessment of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm using constructive interference in steady state-three-dimensional fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Hirai, Shinji; Yamaura, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) may be improved by accurate preoperative assessment of neurovascular relationships at the root entry/exit zone (REZ). Constructive interference in steady state (CISS)-three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was evaluated for visualizing the neurovascular relationships at the REZ. Fourteen patients with TN and eight patients with HFS underwent MR imaging using CISS-3DFT and 3D fast inflow with steady-state precession (FISP) sequences. Axial images of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) obtained by the two sequences were reviewed to assess the neurovascular relationships at the REZ of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Eleven patients subsequently underwent MVD. Preoperative MR imaging findings were related to surgical observations and results. CISS MR imaging provided excellent contrast between the cranial nerves, small vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the CPA. CISS was significantly better than FISP for delineating anatomic detail in the CPA (trigeminal and facial nerves, petrosal vein) and abnormal neurovascular relationships responsible for TN and HFS (vascular contact and deformity at the REZ). Preoperative CISS MR imaging demonstrated precisely the neurovascular relationships at the REZ and identified the offending artery in all seven patients with TN undergoing MVD. CISS MR imaging has high resolution and excellent contrast between cranial nerves, small vessels, and CSF, so can precisely and accurately delineate normal and abnormal neurovascular relationships at the REZ in the CPA, and is a valuable preoperative examination for MVD. (author)

  11. The cisternal segment of the abducens nerve in man: three-dimensional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Alpay E-mail: aalkan@inonu.edu.tr; Sigirci, Ahmet; Ozveren, M. Faik; Kutlu, Ramazan; Altinok, Tayfun; Onal, Cagatay; Sarac, Kaya

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the abducens nerve in its cisternal segment by using three-dimensional turbo spin echo T2-weighted image (3DT2-TSE). The abducens nerve may arise from the medullopontine sulcus by one singular or two separated rootlets. Material and methods: We studied 285 patients (150 males, 135 females, age range: 9-72 years, mean age: 33.3{+-}14.4) referred to MR imaging of the inner ear, internal auditory canal and brainstem. All 3D T2-TSE studies were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. Imaging parameters used for 3DT2-TSE sequence were TR:4000, TE:150, and 0.70 mm slice thickness. A field of view of 160 mm and 256x256 matrix were used. The double rootlets of the abducens nerve and contralateral abducens nerves and their relationships with anatomical structures were searched in the subarachnoid space. Results: We identified 540 of 570 abducens nerves (94.7%) in its complete cisternal course with certainty. Seventy-two cases (25.2%) in the present study had double rootlets of the abducens nerve. In 59 of these cases (34 on the right side and 25 on the left) presented with unilateral double rootlets of the abducens. Thirteen cases presented with bilateral double rootlets of the abducens (4.5%). Conclusion: An abducens nerve arising by two separate rootlets is not a rare variation. The detection of this anatomical variation by preoperative MR imaging is important to avoid partial damage of the nerve during surgical procedures. The 3DT2-TSE as a noninvasive technique makes it possible to obtain extremely high-quality images of microstructures as cranial nerves and surrounding vessels in the cerebellopontine cistern. Therefore, preoperative MR imaging should be performed to detect anatomical variations of abducens nerve and to reduce the chance of operative injuries.

  12. Intraparotid Neurofibroma of the Facial Nerve: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, Ahmed-Abdel-Fattah; El-Anwar, Mohammad-Waheed

    2016-07-01

    Intraparotid neurofibromas of the facial nerve are extremely rare and mostly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). This is a case of a healthy 40-year-old man, which underwent surgery for a preoperatively diagnosed benign parotid gland lesion. After identification of the facial nerve main trunk, a single large mass (6 x 3 cm) incorporating the upper nerve division was observed. The nerve portion involved in the mass could not be dissected and was inevitably sacrificed with immediate neuroraphy of the upper division of the facial nerve with 6/0 prolene. The final histopathology revealed the presence of a neurofibroma. Complete left side facial nerve paralysis was observed immediately postoperatively but the function of the lower half was returned within 4 months and the upper half was returned after 1 year. Currently, after 3 years of follow up, there are no signs of recurrence and normal facial nerve function is observed. Neurofibroma should be considered as the diagnosis in a patient demonstrating a parotid mass. In cases where it is diagnosed intraoperatively, excision of part of the nerve with the mass will be inevitable though it can be successfully repaired by end to end anastomosis.

  13. [Effect factors analysis of knee function recovery after distal femoral fracture operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Chaoyong; Wang, Ruiying; Tang, Jicun; Li, Qiang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect factors of knee function recovery after operation in distal femoral fractures. From January 2001 to May 2007, 92 cases of distal femoral fracture were treated. There were 50 males and 42 females, aged 20-77 years old (average 46.7 years old). Fracture was caused by traffic accident in 48 cases, by falling from height in 26 cases, by bruise in 12 cases and by tumble in 6 cases. According to Müller's Fracture classification, there were 29 cases of type A, 12 cases of type B and 51 cases of type C. According to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, there were 21 cases of grade I, 39 cases of grade II, 24 cases of grade III, and 8 cases of grade IV. The time from injury to operation was 4 hours to 24 days with an average of 7 days. Anatomical plate was used in 43 cases, retrograde interlocking intramedullary nail in 37 cases, and bone screws, bolts and internal fixation with Kirschner pins in 12 cases. After operation, the HSS knee function score was used to evaluate efficacy. Ten related factors were applied for statistical analysis, to knee function recovery after operation in distal femoral fractures, such as age, sex, preoperative ASA classification, injury to surgery time, fracture type, treatment, reduction quality, functional exercise after operation, whether or not CPM functional training and postoperative complications. Wound healed by first intention in 88 cases, infection occurred in 4 cases. All patients followed up 16-32 months with an average of 23.1 months. Clinical union of fracture was achieved within 3-7 months after operation. Extensor device adhesions and the scope of activities of fracture displacement in 6 cases, mild knee varus or valgus in 7 cases and implant loosening in 6 cases. According to HSS knee function score, the results were excellent in 52 cases, good in 15 cases, fair in 10 cases and poor in 15 cases with an excellent and good rate of 72.83%. Single factor analysis showed that age

  14. Intraoperative cochlear nerve mapping with the mobile cochlear nerve compound action potential tracer in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Takuya; Fujitsu, Kazuhiko; Kaku, Shogo; Ichikawa, Teruo; Miyahara, Kosuke; Okada, Tomu; Tanino, Shin; Uriu, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Yuichi

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE The authors describe the usefulness and limitations of the cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) mobile tracer (MCT) that they developed to aid in cochlear nerve mapping during vestibular schwannoma surgery (VSS) for hearing preservation. METHODS This MCT device requires no more than 2 seconds for stable placement on the nerve to obtain the CNAP and thus is able to trace the cochlear nerve instantaneously. Simultaneous bipolar and monopolar recording is possible. The authors present the outcomes of 18 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative useful hearing (defined as class I or II of the Gardner-Robertson classification system) and underwent hearing-preservation VSS with the use of the MCT. Mapping was considered successful when it was possible to detect and trace the cochlear nerve. RESULTS Mapping of the cochlear nerve was successful in 13 of 18 patients (72.2%), and useful hearing was preserved in 11 patients (61.1%). Among 8 patients with large tumors (Koos grade 3 or 4), the rate of successful mapping was 62.5% (5 patients). The rate of hearing preservation in patients with large tumors was 50% (4 patients). CONCLUSIONS In addition to microsurgical presumption of the arrangement of each nerve, frequent probing on and around an unidentified nerve and comparison of each waveform are advisable with the use of both more sensitive monopolar and more location-specific bipolar MCT. MCT proved to be useful in cochlear nerve mapping and may consequently be helpful in hearing preservation. The authors discuss some limitations and problems with this device.

  15. Posterior Femoral Single Limb Osteotomy for the Removal of Well-Fixed Modular Femoral Neck Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Fehring

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modular neck femoral components were introduced to optimize femoral neck anteversion, leg length, offset, and stability in total hip arthroplasty. However, concerns have been raised in recent years regarding early failure of these implants due to corrosion, pseudotumor, as well as fracture of the modular neck. Removing modular neck femoral implants is challenging as removal of the modular femoral neck leaves a proximally coated femoral stem level with the proximal bone of the femoral neck. We describe a posterior femoral single limb osteotomy  (posterior cut of an extended trochanteric osteotomy for the removal of a modular neck femoral component.

  16. Pre-operative Screening and Manual Drilling Strategies to Reduce the Risk of Thermal Injury During Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Kesler, Kyle; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Mitchell, Jason E; Webster, Robert J; Labadie, Robert F

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the development and experimental validation of a methodology to reduce the risk of thermal injury to the facial nerve during minimally invasive cochlear implantation surgery. The first step in this methodology is a pre-operative screening process, in which medical imaging is used to identify those patients that present a significant risk of developing high temperatures at the facial nerve during the drilling phase of the procedure. Such a risk is calculated based on the density of the bone along the drilling path and the thermal conductance between the drilling path and the nerve, and provides a criterion to exclude high-risk patients from receiving the minimally invasive procedure. The second component of the methodology is a drilling strategy for manually-guided drilling near the facial nerve. The strategy utilizes interval drilling and mechanical constraints to enable better control over the procedure and the resulting generation of heat. The approach is tested in fresh cadaver temporal bones using a thermal camera to monitor temperature near the facial nerve. Results indicate that pre-operative screening may successfully exclude high-risk patients and that the proposed drilling strategy enables safe drilling for low-to-moderate risk patients.

  17. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of 3 commonly used neurodynamic tests (slump test, straight-leg raise [SLR] test, femoral neurodynamic test) and 2 clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (radiculopathy I, 1 neurologic sign; radiculopathy II, 2 neurologic signs corresponding to 1 specific nerve root) in detecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression, and foraminal nerve root compression). Validity study. Secondary care. We included subjects (N=99; mean age, 58y; 54% women) referred for epidural steroid injection because of lumbar radicular symptoms who had positive clinical and MRI findings. Positive clinical findings included the slump test (n=67), SLR test (n=50), femoral neurodynamic test (n=7), radiculopathy I (n=70), and radiculopathy II (n=33). Positive MRI findings included extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (n=14), and foraminal nerve compression (n=25). Not applicable. Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics analysis with area under the curve (AUC). The slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (.78) and subarticular nerve compression (1.00), but the respective specificity was low (.36 and .38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting foraminal nerve compression (.80) but with low specificity (.34). Only 1 assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity (ie, radiculopathy II) in detecting subarticular nerve compression (.71 and .73, respectively). The AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, subarticular nerve compression, and foraminal nerve compression showed ranges of .48 to .60, .63 to .82, and .33 to .57, respectively. In general, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was the most sensitive test, while radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no

  19. Importance of preoperative imaging in acetabular revision surgery - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Hc; Egidy, Cc; Al-Khateeb, H; Cárdenas, G; Gehrke, T; Kendoff, D

    2012-01-01

    Acetabular defects, particularly as a result of protrusion of acetabular components into the hemipelvis, may cause serious complications during revision procedures as a result of iatrogenic injury to surrounding anatomical structures. In these challenging cases, we advocate the utilisation of preoperative three dimensional imaging. MRI and CT- imaging offer superior understanding of the three-dimensional quality of bony defects and the relationship of implants to important anatomical structures. Appropriate preoperative planning may also prevent major complications during the removal of the pre-existing hardware, prior to re-implantation of implants. Potential complications include injury of nerves, blood vessels and other intrapelvic structures.In our case, a major bony defect of the acetabulum was a result of the protrusion of an implanted reinforcement ring. A preoperative, contrast-enhanced CT scan showed that the urethra was in close proximity to the hook of the reinforcement ring.The preoperative imaging aided in identifying and understanding the potential complications that could occur intraoperatively. Additionally, it delineated the intact anatomic structures prior to surgery, which could have medico-legal implications.The importance of preoperative imaging and the existing literature is discussed within this case description.

  20. Integrity of the lateral femoral wall in intertrochanteric hip fractures: an important predictor of a reoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reoperations after intertrochanteric fractures are often necessitated by fracture displacement following mobilization of the patient. The biomechanical complexity of the fracture, the position of the implant, and the patient's characteristics are known to influence postoperative outcome....... We investigated the importance of an intact lateral femoral wall as a factor in postoperative fracture displacement after fixation with a sliding compression hip screw. METHODS: Two hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with an intertrochanteric fracture were treated with a 135 degrees sliding...... compression hip screw with a four-hole side-plate between 2002 and 2004. The fractures were classified on preoperative radiographs according to the AO/OTA classification system. The status of the greater and lesser trochanters, the integrity of the lateral femoral wall, and the position of the implant were...

  1. Pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction femoral neck lengthening for treatment of proximal hip ischemic deformities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplenky, Mikhail; Mekki, Waleed

    2016-02-01

    Proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population is a challenging pathological situation. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to treat this problem, with variable reported results. We believe that a C-shaped pertrochanteric osteotomy plus neck lengthening utilizing distraction osteogenesis principles would restore the femoral anatomical ratios between neck, shaft, and the head, and redress the biomechanics of the proximal femur with resultant sufficient containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum. We reviewed the results of 19 patients divided into two groups with proximal femoral ischemic deformities. Between 2002 and 2009, preoperative and postoperative clinical examination and radiographs were assessed measuring the neck-shaft angle (NSA), neck-epiphyseal angle (NEA), articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), lateralization of the greater trochanter (LT), the angle of Wiberg (CEA), index of lateral head displacement by Reimers (IM), and lateral angle of displacement (LDA). All patients were followed prospectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using Colton's criteria, which showed average good improvement in function (58.9 %). Radiological indicators were assessed using Kruczynski's criteria. For group I, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). For group II, the postoperative NSA, NEA, and CEA showed significant change (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The midterm functional results are favorable for the implementation of pertrochanteric osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis to treat proximal femoral ischemic deformities in the pediatric population.

  2. Intraparotid Neurofibroma of the Facial Nerve: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nofal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraparotid neurofibromas of the facial nerve are extremely rare and mostly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Case Report: This is a case of a healthy 40-year-old man, which underwent surgery for a preoperatively diagnosed benign parotid gland lesion. After identification of the facial nerve main trunk, a single large mass (6 x 3 cm incorporating the upper nerve division was observed. The nerve portion involved in the mass could not be dissected and was inevitably sacrificed with immediate neuroraphy of the upper division of the facial nerve with 6/0 prolene. The final histopathology revealed the presence of a neurofibroma. Complete left side facial nerve paralysis was observed immediately postoperatively but the function of the lower half was returned within 4 months and the upper half was returned after 1 year. Currently, after 3 years of follow up, there are no signs of recurrence and normal facial nerve function is observed. Conclusion:  Neurofibroma should be considered as the diagnosis in a patient demonstrating a parotid mass. In cases where it is diagnosed intraoperatively, excision of part of the nerve with the mass will be inevitable though it can be successfully repaired by end to end anastomosis.

  3. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...... femora at five degree intervals from 10° external rotation to 10° internal rotation. Using freely available software, a-LDFA measurements were made using two different a-PFA by a single observer on one occasion. Results: Mean a-LDFA was significantly greater at 10° external rotation than at any other...... rotation. The response of individual femora to rotation was unpredictable, although fairly stable within ±5° of zero rotation. Mean a-LDFA for the two a-PFA methods differed by 1.5°, but were otherwise similarly affected by femoral rotation. Clinical significance: If zero femoral elevation can be achieved...

  4. Patient-specific instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty does not match the pre-operative plan as assessed by intra-operative computer-assisted navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Corey; Sahni, Varun; Lustig, Sebastien; Parker, David A; Coolican, Myles R J

    2014-03-01

    The introduction of patient-specific instruments (PSI) for guiding bone cuts could increase the incidence of malalignment in primary total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between one type of patient-specific instrumentation (Zimmer PSI) and the pre-operative plan with respect to bone cuts and component alignment during TKR using imageless computer navigation. A consecutive series of 30 femoral and tibial guides were assessed in-theatre by the same surgeon using computer navigation. Following surgical exposure, the PSI cutting guides were placed on the joint surface and alignment assessed using the navigation tracker. The difference between in-theatre data and the pre-operative plan was recorded and analysed. The error between in-theatre measurements and pre-operative plan for the femoral and tibial components exceeded 3° for 3 and 17% of the sample, respectively, while the error for total coronal alignment exceeded 3° for 27% of the sample. The present results indicate that alignment with Zimmer PSI cutting blocks, assessed by imageless navigation, does not match the pre-operative plan in a proportion of cases. To prevent unnecessary increases in the incidence of malalignment in primary TKR, it is recommended that these devices should not be used without objective verification of alignment, either in real-time or with post-operative imaging. Further work is required to identify the source of discrepancies and validate these devices prior to routine use. II.

  5. Comparative evaluation of effect of preoperative oral medication of ibuprofen and ketorolac on anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block with lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Kabi, Debipada

    2010-03-01

    Anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block decreases in patients with irreversible pulpitis. It was hypothesized that premedication with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might improve the success rates in patients with inflamed pulps. Sixty-nine adult volunteers who were actively experiencing pain participated in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The patients were divided into 3 groups on a random basis and were randomly given 1 of the 3 drugs including ibuprofen, ketorolac, and placebo 1 hour before anesthesia. All patients received standard inferior alveolar nerve block of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Endodontic access preparation was initiated after 15 minutes of initial inferior alveolar nerve block. Pain during treatment was recorded by using a Heft Parker visual analog scale. Success was recorded as none or mild pain. Statistical analysis with nonparametric chi2 tests showed that placebo gave 29% success rate. Premedication with ibuprofen gave 27%, and premedication with ketorolac gave 39% success rate. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups. Preoperative administration of ibuprofen or ketorolac has no significant effect on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcome of Tendon Transfers for Radial Nerve Palsy in a Malaysian Tertiary Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richford J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tendon transfers for radial nerve palsy is a common operation with good results. We did a retrospective study on twenty patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent tendon transfer surgery and recovered between January 2008 and December 2012. Outcomes measured were motor power of wrist extension, finger extension, grip strength and DASH scores. There was significant improvement of motor power of wrist and finger extension between the preoperative period and three months post-operatively, between the pre operative period and six months post operatively and between three and six months postoperatively (p = 0.0005. Grip strength improved significantly as well between preoperative, three and six months postoperatively (p = 0.0005. DASH scores reflecting patient satisfaction at six months postoperatively showed only mild or moderate difficulty of function.

  7. The cisternal segment of the abducens nerve in man: three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkan, Alpay; Sigirci, Ahmet; Ozveren, M. Faik; Kutlu, Ramazan; Altinok, Tayfun; Onal, Cagatay; Sarac, Kaya

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the abducens nerve in its cisternal segment by using three-dimensional turbo spin echo T2-weighted image (3DT2-TSE). The abducens nerve may arise from the medullopontine sulcus by one singular or two separated rootlets. Material and methods: We studied 285 patients (150 males, 135 females, age range: 9-72 years, mean age: 33.3±14.4) referred to MR imaging of the inner ear, internal auditory canal and brainstem. All 3D T2-TSE studies were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. Imaging parameters used for 3DT2-TSE sequence were TR:4000, TE:150, and 0.70 mm slice thickness. A field of view of 160 mm and 256x256 matrix were used. The double rootlets of the abducens nerve and contralateral abducens nerves and their relationships with anatomical structures were searched in the subarachnoid space. Results: We identified 540 of 570 abducens nerves (94.7%) in its complete cisternal course with certainty. Seventy-two cases (25.2%) in the present study had double rootlets of the abducens nerve. In 59 of these cases (34 on the right side and 25 on the left) presented with unilateral double rootlets of the abducens. Thirteen cases presented with bilateral double rootlets of the abducens (4.5%). Conclusion: An abducens nerve arising by two separate rootlets is not a rare variation. The detection of this anatomical variation by preoperative MR imaging is important to avoid partial damage of the nerve during surgical procedures. The 3DT2-TSE as a noninvasive technique makes it possible to obtain extremely high-quality images of microstructures as cranial nerves and surrounding vessels in the cerebellopontine cistern. Therefore, preoperative MR imaging should be performed to detect anatomical variations of abducens nerve and to reduce the chance of operative injuries

  8. [PERSONALIZED DISTAL FEMORAL VALGUS RESECTION ANGLE IN PRIMARY TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Shang, Xifu; Ll, Guoyuan; He, Rui; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a personalized distal femoral valgus resection angle for improving postoperative coronal alignment of lower limb in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 50 patients who received primary TKA between January 2013 and February 2013. There were 11 male and 39 female patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis. The patients were divided into 2 groups. In test group (n=25), the resection angle was adjusted to the femoral mechanical anatomical angle (FMA); in control group (n=25), a fixed distal valgus resection angle of 5° was used. There was no significant difference in gender, age, body mass index, disease duration, sides, grade, preoperative FMA, mechanical femorotibial angle (MFT), and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Whole long X-ray film was taken to measure FMA and MFT at 3 days after operation, postoperative KSS was used to evaluate the knee function after 6 and 15 months. MFT was (-0.20 ± 1.87)° in test group and was (1.71 ± 3.67)° in control group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t = 2.32, P = 0.02). The ideal MFT angle (0 ± 3)° was achieved in 22 patients (88%) of test group and in 16 patients (64%) of control group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 2.32, P = 0.02). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients of 2 groups. No deep venous thrombosis occurred. The patients of 2 groups were followed up 15 months after operation. There was significant difference in KSS between test and control groups at 6 months (88.23 ± 2.57 vs. 82.92 ± 2.59) (t = 7.26, P = 0.00) and at 15 months (90.76 ± 2.77 vs. 88.65 ± 1.77) (t = 3.20, P = 0.02). No sign of prosthesis loosening was observed by X-ray examination. Compared with using of a fixed distal femoral resection angle, an individual FMA can significantly improve the postoperative MFT and promote early recovery of the knee

  9. Predictors of unsuccessful outcome in cemented femoral revisions using bone impaction grafting; Cox regression analysis of 208 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Stroet, Martijn A J; Rijnen, Wim H C; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Schreurs, B Willem; Hannink, Gerjon

    2016-09-29

    Despite improvements in the technique of femoral impaction bone grafting, reconstruction failures still can occur. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine risk factors for the endpoint re-revision for any reason. We used prospectively collected demographic, clinical and surgical data of all 202 patients who underwent 208 femoral revisions using the X-change Femoral Revision System (Stryker-Howmedica), fresh-frozen morcellised allograft and a cemented polished Exeter stem in our department from 1991 to 2007. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors associated with re-revision. The mean follow-up was 10.6 (5-21) years. The cumulative re-revision rate was 6.3% (13/208). After univariable selection, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), American Association of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, type of removed femoral component, and mesh used for reconstruction were included in multivariable regression analysis.In the multivariable analysis, BMI was the only factor that was significantly associated with the risk of re-revision after bone impaction grafting (BMI ≥30 vs. BMI <30, HR = 6.54 [95% CI 1.89-22.65]; p = 0.003). BMI was the only factor associated with the risk of re-revision for any reason. Besides BMI also other factors, such as Endoklinik score and the type of removed femoral component, can provide guidance in the process of preclinical decision making. With the knowledge obtained from this study, preoperative patient selection, informed consent, and treatment protocols can be better adjusted to the individual patient who needs to undergo a femoral revision with impaction bone grafting.

  10. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Soon Yong

    1985-01-01

    Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head

  11. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using distal femoral locking plates in three Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Sina; Fürst, Anton E; Sacks, Murielle; Bischofberger, Andrea S

    2016-05-18

    Three horses that were presented with supraglenoid tubercle fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using distal femoral locking plates (DFLP). Placing the DFLP caudal to the scapular spine in order to preserve the suprascapular nerve led to a stable fixation, however, it resulted in infraspinatus muscle atrophy and mild scapulohumeral joint instability (case 1). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and under the suprascapular nerve resulted in a stable fixation, however, it resulted in severe atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and scapulohumeral joint instability (case 2). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage site resulted in the best outcome (case 3). Only a mild degree of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle atrophy was apparent, which resolved quickly and with no effect on scapulohumeral joint stability. In all cases, fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using DFLP in slightly different techniques led to stable fixations with good long-term outcome. One case suffered from a mild incisional infection and plates were removed in two horses. Placement of the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage prevented major nerve damage. Further cases investigating the degree of muscle atrophy following the use of the DFLP placed in the above-described technique are justified to improve patient outcome.

  13. Femoral neuropathy due to retroperitoneal bleeding. A red herring in medicine complicates anticoagulant therapy and influences the Russian Communist Revolution (Crown Prince Alexis, Rasputin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbanks, O L; Willbanks, S E

    1983-02-01

    Femoral neuropathy occurs when occult retroperitoneal bleeding impinges on the appropriate nerve roots. The syndrome involves the acute onset of groin and thigh pain with characteristic flexion and external rotation of the hip. It may mimic other conditions such as acute arterial occlusion. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the femoral nerve explains the clinical features and leads the clinician to suspect the occurrence of this syndrome. Three cases have been reviewed that exhibited this condition as a result of retroperitoneal bleeding, a complication of systemic heparin therapy. The hemophilia that afflicted Alexis, the Crown Prince of Russia and son of Tsar Nicholas and Tsarina Alexandra, resulted in this clinical syndrome. The consequences enabled the sinister starets, Gregory Rasputin, to become intimately involved with the royal family, influencing the response of the Tsar to the political events in Russia, thereby playing an important role in setting the stage for the 1917 Russian communist revolution.

  14. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

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    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  15. Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

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    Yuzo Nakano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP; however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF. This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6% of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0% was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%. Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP.

  16. CASE SERIES: Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in the Course of the Mandibular Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika, Probst; Steffen, Koerdt; Maximilian, Ritschl Lucas; Oliver, Bissinger; Friederike, Liesche; Jens, Gempt; Bernhard, Meyer; Egon, Burian; Nina, Lummel; Andreas, Kolk

    2018-06-05

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are infiltrating, aggressive tumors belonging to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. This report refers to three patients with a tumorous swelling in the entire inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) with similar disease courses suspect for a MPNST, which is particularly rare in the trigeminal nerve. Diagnostic tools, surgical proceedings and reconstructive procedures were highlighted. Three male patients (58-68 years), who suffered from numbness, pain and mild swelling in the sensation area served by the mental nerve presented at the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery and underwent diagnostic workup including CT, MRI, F18-PET-CT, as well as a biopsy of the clinical visible tumor mass with histopathological and molecular pathological analysis. MR imaging revealed the full extent of the tumor comprising the course of the entire mandibular nerve (one case bilateral) starting in the trigeminal ganglion through the IAN and ending in the mental foramen. Hence, both a neurosurgical and maxillofacial intervention with jaw replacement were necessary. Adjuvant radiation of the intracranial closed resection margins, and in one case of parts of the mandible was required. In order to reveal the full extent of tumor spread of MPNSTs sufficient preoperative imaging is crucial as it is an important step in therapy planning. MRI and PET-CT are the imaging modalities with the best prospect of success in depicting the whole extent of the disease. Radical surgical management is the treatment of choice whereas radiochemotherapy shows an ancillary part. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Block in a Pediatric Patient with High-Risk Cardiopulmonary

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Þahin

    2013-01-01

    There is high potential for complications in cardiopulmonary high-risk patients with valvular heart disease at perioperative period. The operation was planned due to pathological fracture of the femoral shaft of a nine year old male patient weighing 26 kilograms. He had 3o tricuspid insufficiency, 3o mitral insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension in preoperative evaluation. Sciatic nerve block and psoas compartment block was performed to patient for anesthesia and analgesia. In conclusion we...

  18. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishido, Yasuhiro [Saiseikai Sendai Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Okano, Toshihiro [Ibusuki National Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Komiya, Setsuro [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  19. Evaluation of perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Ishido, Yasuhiro; Okano, Toshihiro; Komiya, Setsuro

    2002-01-01

    We treated 13 patients for femoral neck fracture. They consisted of 2 males and 11 females, and were classified according to Garden stage classification; Stage I, 3 cases; Stage II, 2 cases; Stage III, 2 cases; Stage IV, 4 cases. Two trochanteric fracture cases were used by control. We evaluated perfusion of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture using bone scintigraphy, which is considered useful for evaluation of perfusion of the femoral neck before operation. (author)

  20. Satisfactory Results of the Exeter Revision Femoral Stem Used for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy, Nicholas M; Johnson, Joshua D; Sierra, Rafael J

    2017-02-01

    The Exeter cemented femoral stem has demonstrated excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes as well as long-term survivorship free from aseptic loosening. A shorter revision stem (125 mm) with a 44 offset became available for the purpose of cement-in-cement revision situations. In certain cases, this shorter revision stem may be used for various primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) where the standard length stem would require distally reaming the femoral canal. We sought to report on the early to midterm results of this specific stem when used for primary THA regarding (1) clinical and radiographic outcomes, (2) complications, and (3) survivorship. Twenty-nine patients (33 hips) underwent a hybrid THA using the smaller revision Exeter cemented femoral stem. Twenty-five patients (28 hips) had at least 2 years of follow-up and were assessed for clinical and radiographic outcomes. All 33 hips were included in the analysis of complications and survivorship. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship was performed using revision for all causes and for aseptic loosening as the end points. The average clinical follow-up was 4 years (range, 2-7). Harris Hip Scores improved from a mean preoperative value of 56 (range, 23-96) to 90 (range, 51-100) at the latest follow-up. All patients demonstrated superior cement mantles with no signs of loosening. One patient suffered a B2 periprosthetic fracture and 1 patient experienced 2 episodes of instability. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 96.7% for all causes of revision and was 100% using aseptic loosening as the end point. The shorter Exeter revision cemented femoral stem has favorable early to midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes when used for primary THA with a low complication rate and is a viable option in patients with narrow femoral canals where uncemented stem fixation is not desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A pilot study to evaluate the clinical relevance of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in peritoneal endometriotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechsner, Sylvia; Kaiser, Andrea; Kopf, Andreas; Gericke, Christine; Ebert, Andreas; Bartley, Julia

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the clinical relevance of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in the development of endometriosis-associated symptoms. Prospective nonrandomized study. University hospital endometriosis center. Fifty-one premenopausal patients underwent surgical laparoscopy because of chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, or for ovarian cysts. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 44 patients. The preoperative and postoperative pain scores were determined using a standardized questionnaire with a visual analogue scale from 1-10. Patients with peritoneal endometriosis were divided into two groups depending on their preoperative pain score: group A with a pain score of at least 3 or more and group B with a pain score of 2 or less. Patients without peritoneal endometriosis were classified as group C and patients without endometriosis were classified as group D. Immunohistochemical analysis of neurofilament and protein gene product 9.5 were used for nerve fiber detection. Occurrence of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers was correlated with the severity of pelvic pain and/or dysmenorrhea. Peritoneal endometriosis-associated nerve fibers were found significantly more frequently in group A than in group B (82.6% vs. 33.3%). The present study suggests that the presence of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in the peritoneum is important for the development of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea.

  2. Preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking for facial nerve identification in vestibular schwannoma: a systematic review on its evolution and current status with a pooled data analysis of surgical concordance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savardekar, Amey R; Patra, Devi P; Thakur, Jai D; Narayan, Vinayak; Mohammed, Nasser; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Total tumor excision with the preservation of neurological function and quality of life is the goal of modern-day vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. Postoperative facial nerve (FN) paralysis is a devastating complication of VS surgery. Determining the course of the FN in relation to a VS preoperatively is invaluable to the neurosurgeon and is likely to enhance surgical safety with respect to FN function. Diffusion tensor imaging-fiber tracking (DTI-FT) technology is slowly gaining traction as a viable tool for preoperative FN visualization in patients with VS. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and those studies that preoperatively localized the FN in relation to a VS using the DTI-FT technique and verified those preoperative FN tracking results by using microscopic observation and electrophysiological monitoring during microsurgery were included. A pooled analysis of studies was performed to calculate the surgical concordance rate (accuracy) of DTI-FT technology for FN localization. RESULTS Fourteen studies included 234 VS patients (male/female ratio 1:1.4, age range 17-75 years) who had undergone preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification. The mean tumor size among the studies ranged from 29 to 41.3 mm. Preoperative DTI-FT could not visualize the FN tract in 8 patients (3.4%) and its findings could not be verified in 3 patients (1.2%), were verified but discordant in 18 patients (7.6%), and were verified and concordant in 205 patients (87.1%). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative DTI-FT for FN identification is a useful adjunct in the surgical planning for large VSs (> 2.5 cm). A pooled analysis showed that DTI-FT successfully identifies the complete FN course in 96.6% of VSs (226 of 234 cases) and that FN identification by DTI-FT is accurate in 90.6% of cases (205 of 226

  3. Comparison of femoral morphology and bone mineral density between femoral neck fractures and trochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yuki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Many studies that analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal factors of hip fractures were based on uncalibrated radiographs or dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA). Spatial accuracy in measuring BMD and morphologic features of the femur with DXA is limited. This study investigated differences in BMD and morphologic features of the femur between two types of hip fractures using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Forty patients with hip fractures with normal contralateral hips were selected for this study between 2003 and 2007 (trochanteric fracture, n=18; femoral neck fracture, n=22). Each patient underwent QCT of the bilateral femora using a calibration phantom. Using images of the intact contralateral femur, BMD measurements were made at the point of minimum femoral-neck cross-sectional area, middle of the intertrochanteric region, and center of the femoral head. QCT images also were used to measure morphologic features of the hip, including hip axis length, femoral neck axis length, neck-shaft angle, neck width, head offset, anteversion of the femoral neck, and cortical index at the femoral isthmus. No significant differences were found in trabecular BMD between groups in those three regions. Patients with trochanteric fractures showed a smaller neck shaft angle and smaller cortical index at the femoral canal isthmus compared with patients with femoral neck fractures. We conclude that severe osteoporosis with thinner cortical bone of the femoral diaphysis is seen more often in patients with trochanteric fracture than in patients with femoral neck fracture. Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. An additional reference axis improves femoral rotation alignment in image-free computer navigation assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae; Nakagawa, Takumi

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have demonstrated improvement in accuracy of rotational alignment using image-free navigation systems mainly due to the inconsistent registration of anatomical landmarks. We have used an image-free navigation for total knee arthroplasty, which adopts the average algorithm between two reference axes (transepicondylar axis and axis perpendicular to the Whiteside axis) for femoral component rotation control. We hypothesized that addition of another axis (condylar twisting axis measured on a preoperative radiograph) would improve the accuracy. One group using the average algorithm (double-axis group) was compared with the other group using another axis to confirm the accuracy of the average algorithm (triple-axis group). Femoral components were more accurately implanted for rotational alignment in the triple-axis group (ideal: triple-axis group 100%, double-axis group 82%, P<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture

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    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Jun Hyung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head.

  6. Lower extremity revascularization without preoperative contrast arteriography: experience with duplex ultrasound arterial mapping in 485 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Enrico; Hingorani, Anil; Markevich, Natalia; Costa, Tatiana; Kallakuri, Shreedhar; Khanimoy, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This study reviews our experience with duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) for preoperative evaluation in 466 patients (262 men) who underwent 485 lower extremity revascularization procedures from January 1, 1998 to May 30, 2001. Preoperative imaging consisted of DUAM alone in 449 procedures and DUAM and contrast angiography (CA) in 36. An attempt to image from the distal aorta to the pedal arteries was made in all the patients. The selection of optimal inflow and outflow bypasses anastomotic sites was based on a schematic drawing following DUAM examination. Inflow disease was also assessed by intraoperative pressure gradient (IPG) between the distal anastomosis and radial arteries, and completion arteriography of the runoff vessels was obtained, which was correlated with the preoperative findings. Indications for surgery were severe claudication in 91 (19%) limbs, tissue loss in 197 (40%), rest pain in 113 (23%), acute ischemia in 46 (10%), popliteal aneurysm in 18 (4%), superficial femoral artery aneurysm in 1, abdominal aortic aneurysm with claudication in 1, and failing graft in 18 (4%). Age ranged from 30 to 97 years (mean 72 +/- 12 (SD) years) and risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, use of tobacco, coronary artery disease, and end-stage renal disease were present in 45%, 45%, 44%, 44%, and 13% of the patients, respectively. One hundred twenty-one (25%) limbs had at least 1 previous ipsilateral revascularization. The mean DUAM time was 66 +/- 20 (SD) min (30-150 min). Additional preoperative imaging was deemed necessary in 36 cases due to extensive ulcers, edema, severe arterial wall calcification, and very poor runoff. The distal anastomosis was to the popliteal artery in 173 cases and to the tibial and pedal arteries in 255. Inflow procedures to the femoral arteries, embolectomy, thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and patch angioplasty accounted for the remaining 57 cases. Overall, 6-, 12-, and -24- month secondary patency rates were 86%, 80

  7. Trans-eyebrow supraorbital approach in large suprasellar craniopharyngioma surgery in adults: analysis of optic nerve length and extent of tumor resection. Original article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inma; Evangelista, Rocío; Pancucci, Giovanni; Guarín, Juliana; Ayuso, Angel; Misra, Mukesh

    2017-05-01

    One of the main drawbacks in the surgery of large craniopharyngiomas is the presence of a prefixed optic chiasm. Our main objective in this study is to compare the predictive value of the optic nerve length and optic chiasm location on large craniopharyngiomas' extent of resection. We retrospectively studied 21 consecutive patients with large craniopharyngiomas who underwent tumor resection through the trans-eyebrow supraorbital approach. Clinical and radiological findings on preoperative MRI were recorded, including the optic chiasm location classified as prefixed, postfixed or normal. We registered the optic nerve length measured intraoperatively prior to tumor removal and confirmed the measurements on preoperative MRI. Using a linear regression model, we calculated a prediction formula of the percentage of the extent of resection as a function of optic nerve length. On preoperative MRI, 15 patients were considered to have an optic chiasm in a normal location, 3 cases had a prefixed chiasm, and the remaining 3 had a postfixed chiasm. In the group with normal optic chiasm location, a wide range of percentage of extent of resection was observed (75-100%). The percentage of extent of resection of large craniopharyngiomas was observed to be dependent on the optic nerve length in a linear regression model (p < 0.0001). According to this model in the normal optic chiasm location group, we obtained an 87% resection in 9-mm optic nerve length patients, a 90.5% resection in 10-mm optic nerve length patients and 100% resection in 11-mm optic nerve length patients. Optic chiasm location provides useful information to predict the percentage of resection in both prefixed and postfixed chiasm patients but not in the normal optic chiasm location group. Optic nerve length was proven to provide a more accurate way to predict the percentage of resection than the optic chiasm location in the normal optic chiasm location group.

  8. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: Does Independent Femoral Tunnel Drilling Place the Physis at Greater Risk Compared With Transtibial Drilling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2016-06-01

    Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm(2); P drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel, surgeons should be aware that if an independent femoral tunnel technique is utilized during transphyseal ACL reconstruction, more physeal tissue is at risk and tunnels are more eccentrically placed across the physis when drilling at more horizontal angles. Prior studies have shown that greater physeal involvement and eccentric tunnels may increase the risk of growth disturbance.

  9. Combined Psoas Compartment-Sciatic Block in a Pediatric Patient with High-Risk Cardiopulmonary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Þahin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is high potential for complications in cardiopulmonary high-risk patients with valvular heart disease at perioperative period. The operation was planned due to pathological fracture of the femoral shaft of a nine year old male patient weighing 26 kilograms. He had 3o tricuspid insufficiency, 3o mitral insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension in preoperative evaluation. Sciatic nerve block and psoas compartment block was performed to patient for anesthesia and analgesia. In conclusion we think that combined psoas compartment-sciatic nerve block may be a good alternative to other methods of anesthesia in high-risk pediatric patients with cardiopulmonary perspective in lower-extremity surgery.

  10. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  11. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.

  12. Preoperative surgical planning and simulation of complex cranial base tumors in virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zhi-qiang; LI Liang; MO Da-peng; ZHANG Jia-yong; ZHANG Yang; BAO Sheng-de

    2008-01-01

    @@ The extremely complex anatomic relationships among bone,tumor,blood vessels and cranial nerves remains a big challenge for cranial base tumor surgery.Therefore.a good understanding of the patient specific anatomy and a preoperative planning are helpful and crocial for the neurosurgeons.Three dimensional (3-D) visualization of various imaging techniques have been widely explored to enhance the comprehension of volumetric data for surgical planning.1 We used the Destroscope Virtual Reality (VR) System (Singapore,Volume Interaction Pte Ltd,software:RadioDexterTM 1.0) to optimize preoperative plan in the complex cranial base tumors.This system uses patient-specific,coregistered,fused radiology data sets that may be viewed stereoscopically and can be manipulated in a virtual reality environment.This article describes our experience with the Destroscope VR system in preoperative surgical planning and simulation for 5 patients with complex cranial base tumors and evaluates the clinical usefulness of this system.

  13. Liposomal bupivacaine as a single-injection peripheral nerve block: a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, Brian M; Malhotra, Nisha; Furnish, Timothy J; Donohue, Michael C; Madison, Sarah J

    2013-11-01

    Currently available local anesthetics approved for single-injection peripheral nerve blocks have a maximum duration of fashion. The end points included the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and tolerance to cutaneous electrical current in the femoral nerve distribution. Measurements were performed from baseline until quadriceps MVIC returned to 80% of baseline bilaterally. There were statistically significant dose responses in MVIC (0.09%/mg, SE = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.14, P = 0.002) and tolerance to cutaneous current (-0.03 mA/mg, SE = 0.01, 95% CI, -0.04 to -0.02, P 40 mg, tolerance to cutaneous current did not return to within 20% above baseline until after 24 hours in 100% of subjects (95% CI, 56%-100%). MVIC did not consistently return to within 20% of baseline until after 24 hours in 90% of subjects (95% CI, 54%-100%). Motor block duration was not correlated with bupivacaine dose (0.06 hour/mg, SE = 0.14, 95% CI, -0.27 to 0.39, P = 0.707). The results of this investigation suggest that deposition of a liposomal bupivacaine formulation adjacent to the femoral nerve results in a partial sensory and motor block of >24 hours for the highest doses examined. However, the high variability of block magnitude among subjects and inverse relationship of dose and response magnitude attests to the need for a phase 3 study with a far larger sample size, and that these results should be viewed as suggestive, requiring confirmation in a future trial.

  14. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the "Pubmed" search with the keywords "NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture." A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG, (b closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective, classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu′s staging neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90

  15. Subtrochanteric femoral fracture during trochanteric nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-09-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications.

  16. Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy after Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Takahoko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an exceptionally rare complication. We present the first case of unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after use of the LMA Supreme. Clinical Features. A healthy 67-year-old female was scheduled for a hallux valgus correction under general anesthesia combined with femoral and sciatic nerve blocks. A size 4 LMA Supreme was inserted successfully at the first attempt and the cuff was inflated with air at an intracuff pressure of 60 cmH2O using cuff pressure gauge. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide (67%, and sevoflurane under spontaneous breathing. The surgery was uneventful and the duration of anesthesia was two hours. The LMA was removed as the patient woke and there were no immediate postoperative complications. The next morning, the patient complained of dysarthria and dysphasia. These symptoms were considered to be caused by the LMA compressing the nerve against the hyoid bone. Conservative treatment was chosen and the paralysis recovered completely after 5 months. Conclusion. Hypoglossal nerve injury may occur despite correct positioning of the LMA under the appropriate intracuff pressure. A follow-up period of at least 6 months should be taken into account for the recovery.

  17. Comparative study of phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after global brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhou; Lao, Jie; Gao, Kaiming; Gu, Yudong; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Nerve transfer is a valuable surgical technique in peripheral nerve reconstruction, especially in brachial plexus injuries. Phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion was proved to be one of the optimal procedures in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries in the study of Gu et al. The aim of this study was to compare phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury. A retrospective review of 33 patients treated with phrenic nerve transfer for elbow flexion in posttraumatic global root avulsion brachial plexus injury was carried out. All the 33 patients were confirmed to have global root avulsion brachial plexus injury by preoperative and intraoperative electromyography (EMG), physical examination and especially by intraoperative exploration. There were two types of phrenic nerve transfers: type1 - the phrenic nerve to anterolateral bundle of anterior division of upper trunk (14 patients); type 2 - the phrenic nerve via nerve graft to anterolateral bundle of musculocutaneous nerve (19 patients). Motor function and EMG evaluation were performed at least 3 years after surgery. The efficiency of motor function in type 1 was 86%, while it was 84% in type 2. The two groups were not statistically different in terms of Medical Research Council (MRC) grade (p=1.000) and EMG results (p=1.000). There were seven patients with more than 4 month's delay of surgery, among whom only three patients regained biceps power to M3 strength or above (43%). A total of 26 patients had reconstruction done within 4 months, among whom 25 patients recovered to M3 strength or above (96%). There was a statistically significant difference of motor function between the delay of surgery within 4 months and more than 4 months (p=0.008). Phrenic nerve transfers with and without nerve graft for elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury had no significant difference for biceps reinnervation according to MRC grading and EMG. A delay of the surgery

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Aviv, Richard I; Chen, Joseph M; Nedzelski, Julian M; Yuen, Heng-Wai; Fox, Allan J; Bharatha, Aditya; Bartlett, Eric S; Symons, Sean P

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes the magnetic resonance (MR) appearances of facial nerve schwannoma (FNS). We hypothesize that the extent of FNS demonstrated on MR will be greater compared to prior computed tomography studies, that geniculate involvement will be most common, and that cerebellar pontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) involvement will more frequently result in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Retrospective study. Clinical, pathologic, and enhanced MR imaging records of 30 patients with FNS were analyzed. Morphologic characteristics and extent of segmental facial nerve involvement were documented. Median age at initial imaging was 51 years (range, 28-76 years). Pathologic confirmation was obtained in 14 patients (47%), and the diagnosis reached in the remainder by identification of a mass, thickening, and enhancement along the course of the facial nerve. All 30 lesions involved two or more contiguous segments of the facial nerve, with 28 (93%) involving three or more segments. The median segments involved per lesion was 4, mean of 3.83. Geniculate involvement was most common, in 29 patients (97%). CPA (P = .001) and IAC (P = .02) involvement was significantly related to SNHL. Seventeen patients (57%) presented with facial nerve dysfunction, manifesting in 12 patients as facial nerve weakness or paralysis, and/or in eight with involuntary movements of the facial musculature. This study highlights the morphologic heterogeneity and typical multisegment involvement of FNS. Enhanced MR is the imaging modality of choice for FNS. The neuroradiologist must accurately diagnose and characterize this lesion, and thus facilitate optimal preoperative planning and counseling.

  19. The usefulness of 3D quantitative analysis with using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Park, Youn Soo

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of MRI 3D quantitative analysis for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head in comparison with MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen. For 3 months at our hospital, 14 femoral head specimens with osteonecrosis were obtained after total hip arthroplasty. The patients preoperative MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for quantitative analysis of the size of the necrosis. Each necrotic fraction of the femoral head was measured by 2D quantitative analysis with using mid-coronal and mid-sagittal MRIs, and by 3D quantitative analysis with using serial continuous coronal MRIs and 3D reconstruction software. The necrotic fraction of the specimen was physically measured by the fluid displacement method. The necrotic fraction according to MRI 2D or 3D quantitative analysis was compared with that of the specimen by using Spearman's correlation test. On the correlative analysis, the necrotic fraction by MRI 2D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen showed moderate correlation (r = 0.657); on the other hand, the necrotic fraction by MRI 3D quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the specimen demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.952) (ρ < 0.05). MRI 3D quantitative analysis was more accurate than 2D quantitative analysis using MRI for measuring osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, it may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome and deciding the proper treatment option

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Catheter Complicated by Persistent Phrenic Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Koogler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old male presented for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA in the beach chair position. A preoperative interscalene nerve catheter was placed under direct ultrasound-guidance utilizing a posterior in-plane approach. On POD 2, the catheter was removed. Three weeks postoperatively, the patient reported worsening dyspnea with a subsequent chest X-ray demonstrating an elevated right hemidiaphragm. Pulmonary function testing revealed worsening deficit from presurgical values consistent with phrenic nerve palsy. The patient decided to continue conservative management and declined further invasive testing or treatment. He was followed for one year postoperatively with moderate improvement of his exertional dyspnea over that period of time. The close proximity of the phrenic nerve to the brachial plexus in combination with its frequent anatomical variation can lead to unintentional mechanical trauma, intraneural injection, or chemical injury during performance of ISB. The only previously identified risk factor for PPNP is cervical degenerative disc disease. Although PPNP has been reported following TSA in the beach chair position without the presence of a nerve block, it is typically presumed as a complication of the interscalene block. Previously published case reports and case series of PPNP complicating ISBs all describe nerve blocks performed with either paresthesia technique or localization with nerve stimulation. We report a case of a patient experiencing PPNP following an ultrasound-guided placement of an interscalene nerve catheter.

  1. Self-designed femoral neck guide pin locator for femoral neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengli; Wang, Ziping; Wang, Minghui; Wu, Zuming; Wang, Xiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Closed reduction and fixation with 3 cannulated screws is a widely accepted surgery for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, how to obtain optimal screw placement remains unclear. In the current study, the authors designed a guide pin positioning system for femoral neck fracture cannulated screw fixation and examined its application value by comparing it with freehand guide needle positioning and with general guide pin locator positioning provided by equipment manufacturers. The screw reset rate, screw parallelism, triangle area formed by the link line of the entry point of 3 guide pins, and maximum vertical load bearing of the femoral neck after internal fixation were recorded. As expected, the triangle area was largest in the self-designed positioning group, followed by the general positioning group and the freehand positioning group. The difference among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P.05). The authors’ self-designed guide pin positioning system has the potential to accurately insert cannulated screws in femoral neck fractures and may reduce bone loss and unnecessary radiation.

  2. Preoperative depiction of cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary macroadenomas using three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance axonography on a 3-tesla system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether the cavernous invasion of pituitary macroadenomas can be preoperatively depicted by 3DAC MR images, by comparison of surgical and imaging findings. The depiction is desirable to make the surgical injury of cranial nerves minimal. Subjects are 33 patients (15 males, 18 females; mean age 52.8 y) with macroadenomas who underwent its extraction by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in author's hospital and 25 normal healthy volunteers (12 males, 13 females). Signa-3.0T equipment (General Electric) was used for PROPELLER MR 3DAC and T2 reverse images of coronary cross sections to identify cranial nerves (oculomotor, trochlear, abducent, ophthalmic and maxillary) in the cavernous sinus. Localization of the imaged tumor/nerves in the sinus was statistically analyzed with the endoscopic surgical findings for the invasion. The former obtained here by the high magnetic field imaging was found quite useful for preoperative depiction of the sinus invasion with high sensitivity and specificity. (T.I.)

  3. The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of proximal femoral fracture classifications using 3DCT was evaluated, and a comprehensive “area classification” was developed. Eleven orthopedists (5–26 years from graduation classified 27 proximal femoral fractures at one hospital from June 2013 to July 2014 based on preoperative images. Various classifications were compared to “area classification.” In “area classification,” the proximal femur is divided into 4 areas with 3 boundary lines: Line-1 is the center of the neck, Line-2 is the border between the neck and the trochanteric zone, and Line-3 links the inferior borders of the greater and lesser trochanters. A fracture only in the first area was classified as a pure first area fracture; one in the first and second area was classified as a 1-2 type fracture. In the same way, fractures were classified as pure 2, 3-4, 1-2-3, and so on. “Area classification” reliability was highest when orthopedists with varying experience classified proximal femoral fractures using 3DCT. Other classifications cannot classify proximal femoral fractures if they exceed each classification’s particular zones. However, fractures that exceed the target zones are “dangerous” fractures. “Area classification” can classify such fractures, and it is therefore useful for selecting osteosynthesis methods.

  4. Jarak antara Saraf Femoralis dan Arteri Femoralis pada Daerah Lipat Inguinal Orang Dewasa dengan Menggunakan Pencitraan Ultrasonografi untuk Panduan Letak Penyuntikan Blokade Saraf Femoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Intan Nasution

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The femoral nerve block is one the peripheral nerve block methods that are used to falicitate lower extremity surgical procedures. The advantages of femoral nerve block include an effective perioperative analgesia with minimum systemic side effects, lower dosage of opioids, early mobilization and cost effective. This study aimed to measure the distance from the mid point of the femoral nerve to the mid point of the femoral artery at the level of inguinal crease of adults with ultrasound guidance that will determine the success rate of femoral nerve block. A descriptive analytic study involving 43 volunteer subjects aged 18–60 years was performed at the Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran and Central Operating Theatre (COT of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung between September and October 2014. Statistical analysis are using Mann-Whitney test and independent t-test. Results showed that the average distance from the mid point of the femoral nerve to the mid point of the femoral artery in male was 1.075±0.13 cm and in female was 1.069±0.13 cm. This study conclude that the average distance of femoral artery to the femoral nerve is 1.07 cm lateral to the femoral artery.

  5. Comparison of Radial Access, Guided Femoral Access, and Non-Guided Femoral Access Among Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Linda M; Aberle, Laura H; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Hess, Connie N; Mazzaferri, Ernest; Jolly, Sanjit S; Jacobs, Alice; Gibson, C Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Gilchrist, Ian C; Rao, Sunil V

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association between radial access, guided femoral access, and non-guided femoral access on postprocedural bleeding and vascular complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bleeding events and major vascular complications after PCI are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. While the radial approach has been shown to be superior to the femoral approach in reducing bleeding and vascular complications, whether the use of micropuncture, fluoroscopy, or ultrasound mitigates these differences is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of women in the SAFE-PCI for Women trial who underwent PCI and had the access method identified (n = 643). The primary endpoint of postprocedure bleeding or vascular complications occurring within 72 hours or at discharge was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee and was compared based on three categories of access technique: radial, guided femoral (fluoroscopy, micropuncture, ultrasound), or non-guided femoral (none of the aforementioned). Differences between the groups were determined using multivariate logistic regression using radial access as the reference. Of the PCI population, 330 underwent radial access, 228 underwent guided femoral access, and 85 underwent non-guided femoral access. There was a statistically significant lower incidence of the primary endpoint with radial access vs non-guided femoral access; however, there was no significant difference between radial approach and femoral access guided by fluoroscopy, micropuncture, or ultrasound. This post hoc analysis demonstrates that while radial access is safer than non-guided femoral access, guided femoral access appears to be associated with similar bleeding events or vascular complications as radial access.

  6. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  7. Phrenic nerve decompression for the management of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis - preoperative evaluation and operative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Reid; Brown, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (UDP) can be a very disabling, typically causing shortness of breath and reduced exercise tolerance. We present a case of a surgical decompression of the phrenic nerve of a patient who presented with UDP, which occurred following cervical spine surgery. The workup for the etiology of UDP demonstrated paradoxical movement on "sniff test" and notably impaired pulmonary function tests. Seven months following the onset of the UDP, he underwent a surgical decompression of the phrenic nerve at the level of the anterior scalene. He noted rapid symptomatic improvement following surgery and reversal of the above noted objective findings was documented. At his 4-year follow-up, he had complete resolution of his clinical symptoms. Repeated physiologic testing of his respiratory function had shown a complete reversal of his UDP. Anatomical compression of the phrenic nerve by redundant neck vasculature should be considered in the differential diagnosis of UDP. Here we demonstrated the techniques in workup and surgical management, with both subjective and objective evidence of success.

  8. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve

  9. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots compromised by disk herniation: sagittal shoulder sign for the preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Ryu, Jeong Ah [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Choon-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangwon (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to determine the importance of the ''sagittal shoulder sign'' on magnetic resonance (MR) images for the diagnosis of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots (CLNR) that are compromised by herniated disks. Magnetic resonance images of 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; age range, 25-71 years; average age, 48.7 years) with surgically proven CLNR, which was compromised by herniated disks, were retrospectively evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. MR images were evaluated for the presence or absence of the sagittal shoulder sign - a vertical structure connecting two consecutive nerve roots and overlying disk on the sagittal MR images. The radiologists noted the type of accompanying disk herniation and bony spinal canal changes, as well as other characteristic MR features of CLNR, the common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images. The sagittal shoulder sign was identified with a mean frequency of 90.9% by the two observers (in 10 of 11 patients). The common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images was identified with a mean frequency of 59.1% (in 7 and 6 out of 11 patients, by observers 1 and 2, respectively). Good interobserver agreement for the sagittal shoulder sign was present (k = 0.621, p < 0.05). Observation of the sagittal shoulder sign may prove helpful for diagnosing CLNR in patients with disk herniation. In particular, this sign appears to be useful when there is no evidence of CLNR on axial MR images. (orig.)

  10. Intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, A J; Thomas, M

    1994-01-01

    We present a method allowing intra-operative monitoring of the common peroneal nerve during total knee arthroplasty using a magnetic stimulator. Previous reports have shown no pre-operative method successful in selecting those patients prone to develop a post-operative palsy. The device, placed beneath the lumbar spine, stimulates the cauda equina; common peroneal nerve function is assessed via the response in extensor digitorum brevis. There is a loss of signal from the nerve with the use of a tourniquet 25 min following its application. The protocol therefore requires that a tourniquet is used at least only for fixation of the prosthetic components. The method is quick, safe, non-invasive and reproducible, and is of use both in at-risk patients and in research work. Images Figure 6. PMID:7837197

  11. Different Recipient Vessels for Free Microsurgical Fibula Flaps in the Treatment of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Chen, Zenggan; Lineaweaver, William Charles; Zhang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Several recipient vessels can be used in free microsurgical fibula flaps (MFFs) for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Few articles investigate the influence of different recipient vessels on outcomes of MFF for ANFH. A comprehensive literature search of databases including PubMed-Medline, Ovid-Embase, and Cochrane Library was performed to collect the related studies. The Medical Subject Headings used were "femur head necrosis" and "bone transplantation." The relevant words in title or abstract included but not limited to "fibula flap," "fibular flap," "vascularized fibula," "vascularized fibular," "free fibula," "free fibular," "femoral head necrosis," "avascular necrosis of femoral head," and "ischemic necrosis of femoral head." The methodological index for nonrandomized studies was adopted for assessing the studies included in this review. Finally, 15 studies encompassing a total of 1267 patients (1603 hips) with ANFH were pooled in the overall analysis. Recipient vessels for MFF included the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein in 8 studies, descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein in 2 studies, second perforating branch of the deep femoral artery and vein in 4 studies, and inferior gluteal artery and vein in 1 study. Preoperative and postoperative average Harris hip score and pooled analyses of the rate of conversion, radiographic progression, and hip surgery-related complications showed no significant difference on the outcomes of MFF on ANFH between using different recipient vessels. Different recipient vessels did not affect outcomes in MFF procedures for ANFH. High-quality randomized controlled trials and prospective studies would be necessary to clarify reliable advantages and disadvantages between different recipient vessels. Until then, surgeons are justified in using ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and vein, descending branch of the lateral

  12. SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE: CASE REPORT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.

  13. SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE: CASE REPORT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2011-01-25

    SOLITARY PARAGANGLIOMA OF THE HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE:: Case Report BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE:: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumour are discussed with literature review. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left sided tongue wasting. On examination there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2cm x 2cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral sub occipital craniotomy was carried out in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumour was not attempted due to its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed and neuropathology confirmed a low grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient is scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION:: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focussed on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted in the MRI scan, a pre-operative angiogram should be performed with a view for embolisation.We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved a good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumours and regular follow up with MRI scans.

  14. Late results after intertrochanteric varus angulation in aseptic femoral head necrosis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.; Ahrendt, J.; Niethard, F.U.; Blaesius, K.

    1989-01-01

    25 patients suffering from femoral head necrosis in 30 hip joints were radiologically studied for an average of 11.6 years following intertrochanteric varus angulation osteotomy. Preoperatively only stages 2 and 3 according to Meyers were seen. The follow-up results could be distributed into 4 groups. At best the osteonecrosis was reconstructed within 6 to 9 years while the trabeculae started to become rearranged within 2 to 4 years. At worst, rapid destruction in absence of bony reaction was observed. The ability of the bone outside the osteonecrosis to react to changed circumstances following angulation osteotomy correlates with long-term results. This may indicate a general osteopathy even outside the necrotic area. (orig.) [de

  15. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by RehabCare, Cavan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fingleton, Caitriona P

    2014-02-01

    Nerve palpation is a method of clinically identifying mechanosensitivity of neural tissue by means of pressure algometry and manual palpation. There are few investigations of the reliability of lower limb nerve palpation, and femoral nerve palpation has never been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of nerve palpation of the femoral, sciatic, tibial, and common peroneal nerves and to report normative values for the femoral nerve.

  16. Varus femoral osteotomy improves sphericity of the femoral head in older children with severe form of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein

    2012-09-01

    In the Norwegian prospective study on Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), we found varus femoral osteotomy gave better femoral head sphericity at a mean of 5 years postoperative than physiotherapy in children older than 6.0 years at diagnosis with femoral head necrosis of more than 50%. That study did not include separate analyses for hips with 100% necrosis and those with a percentage of necrosis between 50% and 100%. We asked whether (1) femoral osteotomy improves femoral head sphericity at followup in all patients with more than 50% femoral head necrosis or in selected groups only and (2) there is a critical age between 6.0 and 10.0 years over which femoral osteotomy does not improve the prognosis. We treated 70 patients with unilateral LCPD, age at diagnosis of more than 6.0 years, and femoral head necrosis of more than 50% with varus femoral osteotomy between 1996 and 2000. We classified necrosis using the Catterall classification. We established a control group of 51 similar children who received physiotherapy. At the 5-year followup visit, the hips were graded according to femoral head shape: spherical, ovoid, or flat. At 5-year followup, there was no difference between the treatment groups in radiographic outcome in Catterall Group 3 hips. In Catterall Group 4 hips, femoral head sphericity was better in the osteotomy group, with flat femoral heads in 14% compared to 75% after physiotherapy. The same trend toward better head sphericity occurred when the lateral pillar classification was used. In children aged 6.0 to 10.0 years, in whom the whole femoral head is affected, femoral head sphericity 5 years after femoral osteotomy was better than that after physiotherapy.

  17. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (pfractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (pfractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (pTrochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (pfractures were treated with a proximal femoral nail; a short nail was used in 1260 and a long nail in 134 of them. A dynamic hip screw (DHS) was employed to treat 947 fractures. Distinguishing between pertrochanteric (21-A1

  18. Surgical hip dislocation in treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarghany Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most surgeons advocate in situ fixation of the slipped epiphysis with acceptance of any persistent deformity in the proximal femur [Aronsson DD, Loder RT, Breur GJ, Weinstein SL (2006 Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: current concepts. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 14, 666–679]. This residual deformity can lead to osteoarthritis due to femoroacetabular cam impingement (FAI [Leunig M, Slongo T, Ganz R (2008 Subcapital realignment in slipped capital femoral epiphysis: surgical hip dislocation and trimming of the stable trochanter to protect the perfusion of the epiphysis. Instr Course Lect 57, 499–507]. Objective: The primary aim of our study was to report the results of the technique of capital realignment with Ganz surgical hip dislocation and its reproducibility to restore hip anatomy and function. Patients and methods: This prospective case series study included 30 patients (32 hips, 13 left (Lt hips, 19 right (Rt hips with stable chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE after surgical correction with a modified Dunn procedure. This study included 22 males and eight females. The mean age of our patients was 14 years (10–18 years. The mean follow-up period was 14.5 months (6–36 months. Results: Thirty hips had excellent and good clinical and radiographic outcomes with respect to hip function and radiographic parameters. Two patients had fair to poor clinical outcome including three patients who developed Avascular Necrosis (AVN. The difference between those who developed AVN and those who did not develop AVN was statistically significant in postoperative clinical scores (p = 0.0000. The mean slip angle of the femoral head was 52.5° ± 14.6 preoperatively and was corrected to a mean value of 5.6° ± 8.2° with mean correction of 46.85° ± 14.9° (p = 0.0000. The mean postoperative alpha angle was 51.15° ± 4.2° with mean correction of 46.70 ± 14.20 (p = 0.0000. In our series, the mean postoperative

  19. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  20. Pulsed radiofrequency of the composite nerve supply to the knee joint as a new technique for relieving osteoarthritic pain: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Lakshmi; Pai, Renuka; Khandagale, Nishigandha; Pattnaik, Manorama

    2014-01-01

    We report a new technique for pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) of the entire nerve supply of the knee as an option in treating osteoarthritis (OA) of knee. We targeted both sensory and motor nerves supplying all the structures around the knee: joint, muscles, and skin to address the entire nociception and stiffness leading to peripheral and central sensitization in osteoarthritis. Ten patients with pain, stiffness, and loss of function in both knees were treated with ultrasonography (USG) guided PRF of saphenous, tibial, and common peroneal nerves along with subsartorial, peripatellar, and popliteal plexuses. USG guided PRF of the femoral nerve was also done to address the innervation of the quadriceps muscle. Assessment of pain (Numerical Rating Scale [NRS], pain DETECT, knee function [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index- WOMAC]) were documented pre and post PRF at 3 and 6 months. Knee radiographs (Kellgren-Lawrence [K-L] grading) were done before PRF and one week later. All the patients showed a sustained improvement of NRS, pain DETECT, and WOMAC at 3 and 6 months. The significant improvement of patellar position and tibio-femoral joint space was concordant with the patient's reporting of improvement in stiffness and pain. The sustained pain relief and muscle relaxation enabled the patients to optimize physiotherapy thereby improving endurance training to include the daily activities of life. We conclude that OA knee pain is a product of neuromyopathy and that PRF of the sensory and motor nerves appeared to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive technique. The reduction of pain and stiffness improved the knee function and probably reduced the peripheral and central sensitization.

  1. [Use of laser- and extremely high frequency magnetic therapy in the preoperative period before diskectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriotova, N F; Levitskiĭ, E F; Stupak, I N; Serebrennikov, A N

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic therapy and tractions contributed to reduction of neurovascular structures compression evident not only from regression of clinical symptoms but also from improvement of regional hemodynamics, functional condition of the affected nerves and muscles of the limbs. This prediscectomy preparation appeared an effective conservative treatment for 69% patients. The rest patients benefited from such preoperative preparation which provided stabilization of the patients' condition before and after dyscectomy.

  2. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek, E-mail: abhiortho27@gmail.co [Department of Orthopedics, 513, Thermal Colony, Sector-22, Faridabad 121005, Haryana (India); Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew [Department of Orthopedics, St Stephen' s Hospital, Tis hazari, Delhi, New Delhi 110054 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  3. To study the role of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the femoral head vascularity in intracapsular femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    Intracapsular femoral neck fractures remain unsolved fractures even after improvement in techniques of diagnosis and internal fixation. Individuals who sustain displaced femoral neck fractures are at high risk of developing avascular necrosis and non-union. Although several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, they are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications and technical difficulties. Dynamic MRI was introduced in the recent past as a simple, non-invasive technique to predict the femoral head viability after the femoral neck fractures. In this study role of dynamic MRI was studied in 30 patients with 31 intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Fractures were divided in to three types according to dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation and were followed up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome. Sensitivity, Specificity and the Accuracy of dynamic MRI in predicting vascularity after femoral neck fracture are 87%, 88% and 87%, respectively. Type A or Type B curve pattern is a positive factor to successful osteosynthesis with p value <0.0001 (Chi-square test). This is a statistically significant value. From this finding it can be suggested that the reliability of dynamic curves A and B in predicting maintained vascularity of femoral head is high. This investigation can be used to predict the vascularity of femoral head after intracapsular femoral neck fractures. There was a good correlation between the outcomes of fractures and dynamic MRI curves done within 48 h of injury. This signifies the role of dynamic MRI in predicting the vascularity of femoral head as early as 48 h. A treatment algorithm can be suggested on the basis of dynamic MRI curves. The fractures with Type C dynamic curve should be considered as fractures with poor vascularity of femoral head and measures to enhance the vascularity of femoral head along with rigid internal fixation should be undertaken to promote

  4. Navigation-aided visualization of lumbosacral nerves for anterior sacroiliac plate fixation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Masaki; Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Anterior sacroiliac joint plate fixation for unstable pelvic ring fractures avoids soft tissue problems in the buttocks; however, the lumbosacral nerves lie in close proximity to the sacroiliac joint and may be injured during the procedure. A 49 year-old woman with a type C pelvic ring fracture was treated with an anterior sacroiliac plate using a computed tomography (CT)-three-dimensional (3D)-fluoroscopy matching navigation system, which visualized the lumbosacral nerves as well as the iliac and sacral bones. We used a flat panel detector 3D C-arm, which made it possible to superimpose our preoperative CT-based plan on the intra-operative 3D-fluoroscopic images. No postoperative complications were noted. Intra-operative lumbosacral nerve visualization using computer navigation was useful to recognize the 'at-risk' area for nerve injury during anterior sacroiliac plate fixation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Accelerating axon growth to overcome limitations in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Chan, K Ming; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Udina, Esther; Amirjani, Nasim; Brushart, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Injured peripheral nerves regenerate at very slow rates. Therefore, proximal injury sites such as the brachial plexus still present major challenges, and the outcomes of conventional treatments remain poor. This is in part attributable to a progressive decline in the Schwann cells' ability to provide a supportive milieu for the growth cone to extend and to find the appropriate target. These challenges are compounded by the often considerable delay of regeneration across the site of nerve laceration. Recently, low-frequency electrical stimulation (as brief as an hour) has shown promise, as it significantly accelerated regeneration in animal models through speeding of axon growth across the injury site. To test whether this might be a useful clinical tool, we carried out a randomized controlled trial in patients who had experienced substantial axonal loss in the median nerve owing to severe compression in the carpal tunnel. To further elucidate the potential mechanisms, we applied rolipram, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonist, to rats after axotomy of the femoral nerve. We demonstrated that effects similar to those observed in animal studies could also be attained in humans. The mechanisms of action of electrical stimulation likely operate through up-regulation of neurotrophic factors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Indeed, the application of rolipram significantly accelerated nerve regeneration. With new mechanistic insights into the influencing factors of peripheral nerve regeneration, the novel treatments described above could form part of an armament of synergistic therapies that could make a meaningful difference to patients with peripheral nerve injuries.

  6. Technical note: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the presence of an intramedullary femoral nail using anteromedial drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Matthew; Lamplot, Joseph; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-18

    To describe an approach to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring by drilling via the anteromedial portal in the presence of an intramedullary (IM) femoral nail. Once preoperative imagining has characterized the proposed location of the femoral tunnel preparations are made to remove all of the hardware (locking bolts and IM nail). A diagnostic arthroscopy is performed in the usual fashion addressing all intra-articular pathology. The ACL remnant and lateral wall soft tissues are removed from the intercondylar, to provide adequate visualization of the ACL footprint. Femoral tunnel placement is performed using a transportal ACL guide with desired offset and the knee flexed to 2.09 rad. The Beath pin is placed through the guide starting at the ACL's anatomic footprint using arthroscopic visualization and/or fluoroscopic guidance. If resistance is met while placing the Beath pin, the arthroscopy should be discontinued and the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. When the Beath pin is successfully placed through the lateral femur, it is overdrilled with a 4.5 mm Endobutton drill. If the Endobutton drill is obstructed, the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. In this case, the obstruction is more likely during Endobutton drilling due to its larger diameter and increased rigidity compared to the Beath pin. The femoral tunnel is then drilled using a best approximation of the graft's outer diameter. We recommend at least 7 mm diameter to minimize the risk of graft failure. Autologous hamstring grafts are generally between 6.8 and 8.6 mm in diameter. After reaming, the knee is flexed to 1.57 rad, the arthroscope placed through the anteromedial portal to confirm the femoral tunnel position, referencing the posterior wall and lateral cortex. For a quadrupled hamstring graft, the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons are then harvested in the standard fashion. The tendons are whip

  7. Multimodal navigated skull base tumor resection using image-based vascular and cranial nerve segmentation: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Parviz; Gokoglu, Abdulkerim; Eichberg, Daniel; Zamani, Amir; Golby, Alexandra; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-01-01

    Skull base tumors frequently encase or invade adjacent normal neurovascular structures. For this reason, optimal tumor resection with incomplete knowledge of patient anatomy remains a challenge. To determine the accuracy and utility of image-based preoperative segmentation in skull base tumor resections, we performed a prospective study. Ten patients with skull base tumors underwent preoperative 3T magnetic resonance imaging, which included thin section three-dimensional (3D) space T2, 3D time of flight, and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences. Imaging sequences were loaded in the neuronavigation system for segmentation and preoperative planning. Five different neurovascular landmarks were identified in each case and measured for accuracy using the neuronavigation system. Each segmented neurovascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe, and errors of localization were measured. Strong correspondence between image-based segmentation and microscopic view was found at the surface of the tumor and tumor-normal brain interfaces in all cases. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.45 ± 0.21 mm (mean ± standard deviation). This information reassured the surgeon and prevented vascular injury intraoperatively. Preoperative segmentation of the related cranial nerves was possible in 80% of cases and helped the surgeon localize involved cranial nerves in all cases. Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation with 3D reconstruction is highly informative preoperatively and could increase the vigilance of neurosurgeons for preventing neurovascular injury during skull base surgeries. Additionally, the accuracy found in this study is superior to previously reported measurements. This novel preliminary study is encouraging for future validation with larger numbers of patients.

  8. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  9. Comparison of Outcomes of Total Hip Arthroplasty between Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Gun-Woo; Seol, Young-Jun; Park, Kyung-Soon; Yoon, Taek-Rim

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) of the hip joint and avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Thirty patients (30 hips) underwent cementless THA for AS between 2003 and 2012. They were compared to 30 patients (30 hips) who underwent the same procedure for AVN of the femoral head. Each group was matched for age and gender, and both groups had similar preoperative demographic characteristics. All cases were followed for minimum 4 postoperative years. Clinical evaluation was based on operation time, intraoperative blood loss, quantity of postoperative drainage, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and range of motion (ROM). Radiological results were evaluated by acetabular cup anteversion and inclination, femoral stem orientation, pre- and postoperative leg length discrepancy, and postoperative complications. The operation time was significantly longer in the AS group (120.2 ± 26.2 min) than in the AVN group (79.5 ± 11.1 min). The volume of postoperative drainage was significantly greater in the AS group (764.5 ± 355.4 mL vs. 510.5 ± 195.6 mL). Preoperative HHS was lower in the AS group (55.6 ± 13.8 vs. 59.2 ± 2.8). Similarly, postoperative HHS was significantly lower in the AS group (92.8 ± 2.7 vs. 97.4 ± 2.6). The arc of ROM was improved from 146.5° ± 13.2° preoperatively to 254.7° ± 17.2° postoperatively in the AS group and from 182.6° ± 15.5° to 260.4° ± 13.7° in the AVN group. Implant position and postoperative leg length discrepancy were not different between the groups. However, three cases of heterotopic ossification was observed in the AS group, whereas only 1 case was found in the AVN group. One deep infection and one aseptic stem loosening were found in the AS group, whereas none was observed in the AVN group. Cementless THA showed satisfactory clinical and radiological results in both groups, despite the longer operation time

  10. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction.

  11. Femoral revision with impaction allografting and an uncemented femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, T N; Erenbjerg, M; Retpen, J B

    2008-01-01

    A technique for uncemented revision of the femoral component which combines impaction allografting and the use of a long-stemmed proximally coated titanium prostheses (Bimetric, Biomet Inc.) is described. The results after a mean follow-up of 112 months are reported. From 1991 to 1995 femoral...... implants 88% had no pain, 10% had slight pain and only 2% had severe pain. Thirty-eight patients had radiographic signs of remodelling of the graft and/or cortical repair. In cases with a successful outcome, the results have been encouraging in relation to clinical performance, regeneration of bone...

  12. BONE GRAFTING ENHANCED BY PLATELET-RICH PLASMA IN TREATMENT OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korytkin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an issue of current interest while it affects young and employable people. So far there is no well-defined strategy of management which would help to postpone hip arthroplasty and further revision procedure. Hip sparing surgical treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by bone grafting prior to head collapse proved to be a viable option not only during early stages of disease but also at advanced stages. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP addition to treatment plan potentially helps improving bone regeneration in situ.In this article the authors present a case of a 37 years old patient with avascular necrosis of the femoral head at a fragmentation stage (type 4B by ARCO. The authors centrifuged 15 ml of autologous whole blood (1500 RPM obtained by a special double-contoured syringe. During the surgical stage of treatment PRP and morselized bone graft were mixed to introduce and impact into the debrided zone of avascular necrosis. The authors also introduced 0.3–0.4 ml of PRP into the debrided zone of avascular necrosis after bone grafting. At 6 months follow-up CT images of the studied patient demonstrated signs of bone reorganization and no loss of femoral head sphericity. Preoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Harris Hip Score (HHS and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS prior to treatment were 60, 45 and 33 points respectively. Postoperative VAS, HHS and HOOS scores were 10, 78 and 78 respectively. In the authors’ opinion, impaction bone grafting enhanced by PRP helps obtaining good and excellent outcomes not only at early but also at advanced stages of avascular necrosis.

  13. Improving Pre-Operative Flexion in Primary TKA: A Surgical Technique Emphasizing Knee Flexion with 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward McPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study prospectively reviews a consecutive series of 228 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA procedures utilizing a technique to optimize knee flexion. The main features include: (1the use of a “patellar friendly” femoral component and reduced thickness patellar components, (2 patient individualized adjustment of the femoral component rotation set strictly to the anterior-posterior femoral axis, (3a rigorous flexion compartment debridement to remove non-essential posterior femoral bone with a Z-osteotome, and (4incorporation of a rapid recovery protocol with features to promote knee flexion. Results were categorized into three groups: low pre-op flexion (90 degrees and below, regular pre-op flexion (91-125 degrees, and high pre-op flexion (126 degrees and above. Average flexion in the low flexion group improved by 20 degrees at 6 weeks, 28 degrees at 3 months, 31 degrees at 1 year, and 30 degrees at 5 years. In the regular flexion group, average flexion improved by 2 degrees at 6 weeks, 10 degrees at 3 months, 12 degrees at 1 year, and 13 degrees at 5 years. Finally, in the high flexion group, average flexion decreased by 7 degrees at 6 weeks, regained preoperative levels at 3 months, and increased by 3 degrees at 1 year and 4 degrees at 5 years. In summary, a technique that emphasizes patellofemoral kinematics can consistently improve flexion in TKA in short and long-term follow-up.

  14. Phrenic nerve decompression for the management of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis – preoperative evaluation and operative technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Reid; Brown, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (UDP) can be a very disabling, typically causing shortness of breath and reduced exercise tolerance. We present a case of a surgical decompression of the phrenic nerve of a patient who presented with UDP, which occurred following cervical spine surgery. Methods: The workup for the etiology of UDP demonstrated paradoxical movement on “sniff test” and notably impaired pulmonary function tests. Seven months following the onset of the UDP, he underwent a surgical decompression of the phrenic nerve at the level of the anterior scalene. Results: He noted rapid symptomatic improvement following surgery and reversal of the above noted objective findings was documented. At his 4-year follow-up, he had complete resolution of his clinical symptoms. Repeated physiologic testing of his respiratory function had shown a complete reversal of his UDP. Conclusions: Anatomical compression of the phrenic nerve by redundant neck vasculature should be considered in the differential diagnosis of UDP. Here we demonstrated the techniques in workup and surgical management, with both subjective and objective evidence of success. PMID:29184705

  15. [Ex vivo microCT analysis of possible microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of a cementless hip resurfacing femoral component].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, M; Olender, G; von der Höh, N; Thorey, F; von Lewinski, G; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Windhagen, H; Hurschler, C

    2009-01-01

    Microfractures of the femoral head during implantation of the femoral components are suspected to be a cause of fractures at the implant/neck junction which represent a common failure mode in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Callus formation observed in femoral head retrievals suggests the occurrence of microfractures inside the femoral head, which might be inadvertently caused by the surgeon during implantation. The aim of this biomechanical study was to analyse whether or not the implantation of a cementless femoral component hip resurfacing system causes microfractures in the femoral head. After the preparation of 20 paired human cadaveric femoral heads, the cementless femoral component ESKA Typ BS (ESKA Implants GmbH & Co., Lübeck) was implanted on 9 specimens with an impaction device that generates 4.5 kN impaction force. On 9 specimens the femoral component was implanted by hand. One head was used as a fracture model, 1 specimen served as control without manipulation. The femoral component used for impaction was equipped with hinges to enable its removal without further interfering with the bone stock. Specimens were scanned with a microCT device before and after impaction and the microCT datasets before and after impaction were compared to identify possible microfractures. Twenty strikes per hand or with the impaction device provided sufficient implant seating. Neither the macroscopic examination nor the 2-dimensional microCT analysis revealed any fractures of the femoral heads after impaction. At least macroscopically and in the 2-dimensional microCT analysis, implantation of the cementless hip resurfacing femoral component ESKA Typ BS with 4.5 kN or by hand does not seem to cause fractures of the femoral head. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  16. A Morphological Insight of the Femoral Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira AH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 cadavers (12 men and 1 women of different age group were used for the study with the purpose to determine the prevalence of femoral vein duplication. Lower limb regions (26 sides were carefully dissected as per the standard dissection procedure. Femoral vein (unitruncular was found in 96.15% of specimen. Bitruncular configurations (total bifidity was found in a male cadaver of 75 years of age (3.85%. In the right lower limb, 6.5 cms below the inguinal ligament the femoral vein - lateral ramus received the lateral circumflex femoral vein, and the medial circumflex femoral vein, and the lateral and medial ramii formed a common venous trunk. Knowledge of the truncular venous variations is important to recognize and avoid potential errors in diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the femoral vein, in the case of an occluded duplicated trunk.

  17. Comparisons of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes after macular hole surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Chamma Capelanes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare postoperative changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with macular holes treated with vitrectomy with Brilliant Blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 20 patients with macular holes were studied. Each eye was selected to undergo Brilliant Blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. The circumferential retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was determined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography preoperatively and 2 months postoperatively. Mean overall and sectoral retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses were obtained for each patient. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (p≥0.05 between the pre- and post-treatment measurements in relation to each CFN variable, i.e., on average, pre-treatment measures were the same as post-treatment measures. Furthermore, despite the differences between the pre- and post-treatment measures always being positive (pre-post >0, they are not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed no significant decrease in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements after macular holes surgery, regardless of age or sex.

  18. Protocol for CT in the position of discomfort: preoperative assessment of femoroacetabular impingement - how we do it and what the surgeon wants to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabinski, Rafal; Ou, Daniel; Saunder, Kate; Rotstein, Andrew; Singh, Parminder; Pritchard, Michael; O'Donnell, John

    2014-01-01

    The use of computed tomography of the hip in a position of discomfort (CT-POD) in combination with 2D and 3D surface rendering is a technique increasingly used to aid in the assessment and confirmation of femoral and acetabular bony abnormalities related to femoroacetabular impingement. The purpose of this article is to describe this dynamic method of assessment. Patients referred by orthopaedic surgeons for assessment of femoroacetabular impingement as part of preoperative planning and patients who required postoperative assessment of residual bony abnormalities were selected. This article describes the CT-POD technique and the information required by the referring surgeon. CT-POD is a new technique that provides valuable preoperative and postoperative information to the surgeon.

  19. Nerve growth factor concentration and implications in photorefractive keratectomy vs laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Keun; Lee, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether tear nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration correlates with corneal sensation and ocular surface dryness after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Prospective, nonrandomized comparative clinical trial. Seventy eyes of 35 patients and 76 eyes of 38 patients underwent PRK and LASIK procedures to correct myopia and myopic astigmatism, respectively. Total tear protein level, tear NGF concentration, tear film breakup time (BUT) and Schirmer values were measured before and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The postoperative mean tear NGF/total tear protein (NGF/tP) ratio increased in both PRK and LASIK patients compared with preoperative levels (P PRK than in LASIK subjects (P LASIK in the ablated zone was lower than the preoperative sensation (P PRK subjects. Mean BUT and Schirmer values were significantly lower in LASIK-treated eyes compared with PRK-treated eyes up to 6 months postoperatively (P PRK-treated and LASIK-treated eyes might be related to the difference in the early postoperative levels of NGF, which is a potent nerve growth stimulator.

  20. [Three-dimensional gait analysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head before and after treatments with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daping; Zhao, Dewei

    2011-03-01

    To provide the objective basis for the evaluation of the operative results of vascularized greater trochanter bone flap in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) by three-dimensional gait analysis. Between March 2006 and March 2007, 35 patients with ONFH were treated with vascularized greater trochanter bone flap, and gait analysis was made by using three-dimensional gait analysis system before operation and at 1, 2 years after operation. There were 23 males and 12 females, aged 21-52 years (mean, 35.2 years), including 8 cases of steroid-induced, 7 cases of traumatic, 6 cases of alcoholic, and 14 cases of idiopathic ONFH. The left side was involved in 15 cases, and right side in 20 cases. According to Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification, all patients were diagnosed as having femoral-head necrosis at stage III. Preoperative Harris hip functional score (HHS) was 56.2 +/- 5.6. The disease duration was 1.5-18.6 years (mean, 5.2 years). All incisions healed at stage I without early postoperative complications of deep vein thrombosis and infections of incision. Thirty-five patients were followed up 2-3 years with an average of 2.5 years. At 2 years after operation, the HHS score was 85.8 +/- 4.1, showing significant difference when compared with the preoperative score (t = 23.200, P = 0.000). Before operation, patients showed a hip muscles gait, short gait, reduce pain gait, and the pathological gaits significantly improved at 1 year after operation. At 1 year and 2 years after operation, step frequency, pace, step length and hip flexion, hip extension, knee flexion, ankle flexion were significantly improved (P petronas wave appeared at swing phase; the preoperative situation was three normal phase waves. These results suggest that three-dimensional gait analysis before and after vascularized greater trochanter for ONFH can evaluate precisely hip vitodynamics variation.

  1. Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture during Trochanteric Nailing for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-01-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nai...

  2. Effects of Interscalene Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Management in Patients after Shoulder Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Shen, Shih-Jyun; Tsai, Hsin-I; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder surgery can produce severe postoperative pain and movement limitations. Evidence has shown that regional nerve block is an effective management for postoperative shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postoperative analgesic effect of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) combined with interscalene nerve block in comparison to PCA alone after shoulder surgery. In this study, 103 patients receiving PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) and 48 patients receiving PCA alone after shoulder surgery were included. Patients' characteristics, preoperative shoulder score and range of motion, surgical and anesthetic condition in addition to visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, postoperative PCA consumption, and adverse outcomes were evaluated. The results showed that PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) group required less volume of analgesics than PCA alone group in 24 hours (57.76 ± 23.29 mL versus 87.29 ± 33.73 mL, p shoulder surgery.

  3. [Clinical experience in facial nerve tumors: a review of 27 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yucheng; Dai, Chunfu; Chi, Fanglu; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Bing; Li, Huawei

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the clinical manifestations and the diagnosis of the facial nerve tumor according to the clinical information, and evaluate the different surgical approaches depending on tumor location. Twenty-seven cases of facial nerve tumors with general clinical informations available from 1999.9 to 2006.12 in the Shanghai EENT Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty (74.1%) schwannomas, 4 (14.8%) neurofibromas ,and 3 (11.1%) hemangiomas were identified with histopathology postoperatively. During the course of the disease, 23 patients (85.2%) suffered facial paralysis, both hearing loss and tinnitus affected 11 (40.7%) cases, 5 (18.5%) manifested infra-auricular mass and the others showed some of otalgia or vertigo or ear fullness or facial numbness/twitches. CT or/and MRI results in 24 cases indicated that the tumors originated from the facial nerve. Intra-operative findings showed that 24 (88.9%) cases involved no less than 2 segments of the facial nerve, of these 24 cases 87.5% (21/24) involved the mastoid portion, 70.8% (17/24) involved the tympanic portion, 62.5% (15/24) involved the geniculate ganglion, only 4.2% (1/24) involved the internal acoustic canal (IAC), and 3 cases (11.1%) had only one segments involved. In all of these 27 cases, the tumors were completely excised, of which 13 were resected followed by an immediate facial nerve reconstruction, including 11 sural nerve cable graft, 1 facial nerve end-to-end anastomosis and 1 hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end anastomosis. Tumors were removed with preservation of facial nerve continuity in 2 cases. Facial nerve tumor is a rare and benign lesion, and has numerous clinical manifestations. CT and MRI can help surgeons to make a right diagnosis preoperatively. When and how to give the patients an operation depends on the patients individually.

  4. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2011-04-01

    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 × 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  5. Solitary paraganglioma of the hypoglossal nerve: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raza, Kazim

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: We report the case history of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma in a 64-year-old woman. The surgical difficulties encountered in the removal of this challenging tumor are discussed and as a literature review provided. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman presented with a short history of dysphonia, occasional dysphagia, tinnitus, altered taste, and unilateral left-sided tongue wasting. On examination, there was left lower motor hypoglossal paralysis. Imaging showed a discrete enhancing lobulated mass, measuring 2 x 2 cm, in the region of the hypoglossal nerve extending into the hypoglossal canal suggestive of hypoglossal paraganglioma. A left dorsolateral suboccipital craniotomy was performed with the patient in the sitting position. The hypoglossal nerve appeared to be enlarged, and the jugular foramen was normal. Complete surgical debulking of the tumor was not attempted because of its vascular nature. The nerve was decompressed, and neuropathology confirmed a low-grade paraganglioma arising from the hypoglossal nerve. The patient was scheduled to receive stereotactic radiation for further management. CONCLUSION: When a case of solitary hypoglossal paraganglioma is encountered in clinical practice, the aim of management should be mainly focused on achieving a diagnosis and preserving the hypoglossal nerve function. If there is evidence of vascularity in the lesion noted on magnetic resonance imaging, a preoperative angiogram should be obtained with a view for embolization. We decompressed the hypoglossal canal and achieved good improvement in the patient\\'s symptoms. We recommend stereotactic radiosurgery for remnant and small hypoglossal tumors and regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  6. Medium-term outcome in patients treated with total hip arthroplasty using a modular femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Augusto; Grappiolo, Guido; Benazzo, Franco M; Learmonth, Ian D; Spotorno, Lorenzo; Portinaro, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic and quality of life results of total hip arthroplasty using the MODULUS cementless modular femoral stem were reviewed. 48 patients who had a total hip arthroplasty using the MODULUS femoral stem were identified. Six had bilateral procedures, resulting in 60 hips with complete clinical and radiographic data. Mean age at implantation was 50 years (range 33 to 82). Mean follow-up was 59 months (range 50 months to 73). There were two early post-operative dislocations (within 2 days). One patient required further surgery to remove heterotopic bone. Mean Harris Hip Score increased from 37 points preoperatively (range, 7 to 66) to 89 points at final review (range, 65 to 100 points). Radiographic evaluation revealed that all implants were stable without evidence of osteolysis but three patients (5%) exhibited heterotopic ossification. Quality of life was evaluated with the SF36. The physical component increased from 29.2 points (range, 18.5 to 46.0) to 51.7 points (range 42.9 to 60.6) and the mental component from 375 points (range, 19.5 to 50.0) to 50 points (range 32,8 to 62.0).

  7. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C. II

    1985-01-01

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  8. Bipolar hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of femoral head in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudani, Baldev; Shyam, Ashok K; Arora, Pankush; Veigus, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bipolar hip arthroplasty (BHA) is one of the options for treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Acetabular erosion and groin pain are the most allowing for gross motion between the common complications. We propose that these complications are secondary to improper acetabular preparation allowing for motion between the BHA head and the acetabulum. Materials and Methods: The current study retrospectively evaluated patients’records from case files and also called them for clinical and radiological followup. 96 hips with AVN of the femoral head treated with BHA were included in the study. All patients were males with a mean age of 42 years (range 30-59 years). In all cases, the acetabulum was gently reamed till it became uniformly concentric to achieve tight fitting trial cup. Clinical followup using Harris hip score (HHS) and radiological study for cup migration were done at followup. Results: The mean followup was 7.52 years (range 4-16 years). The HHS significantly improved from a preoperative value of 39.3 (range, 54-30) to a postoperative value of 89.12 (range 74-96). According to HHS grades, the final outcome was excellent in 52 hips, good in 28 and fair in 16 hips. Hip and groin pain was reported in four hips (5%), but did not limit activity. Subsidence (less than 5 mm) of the femoral component was seen in 8 cases. Subgroup analysis showed patients with Ficat Stage 3 having better range of motion, but similar HHS as compared to Ficat Stage 4 patients. Conclusion: Bipolar hip arthroplasty (BHA) using tight fitting cup and acetabular reaming in AVN hip has a low incidence of groin pain, acetabular erosion and revision in midterm followup. Good outcome and mid term survival can be achieved irrespective of the Ficat Stage. PMID:26015634

  9. Examining the Role of Perioperative Nerve Blocks in Hip Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeffrey; de Sa, Darren; Memon, Muzammil; Simunovic, Nicole; Paul, James; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review examined the efficacy of perioperative nerve blocks for pain control after hip arthroscopy. The databases Embase, PubMed, and Medline were searched on June 2, 2015, for English-language studies that reported on the use of perioperative nerve blocks for hip arthroscopy. The studies were systematically screened and data abstracted in duplicate. Nine eligible studies were included in this review (2 case reports, 2 case series, 3 non-randomized comparative studies, and 2 randomized controlled trials). In total, 534 patients (534 hips), with a mean age of 37.2 years, who underwent hip arthroscopy procedures were administered nerve blocks for pain management. Specifically, femoral (2 studies), fascia iliaca (2 studies), lumbar plexus (3 studies), and L1 and L2 paravertebral (2 studies) nerve blocks were used. All studies reported acceptable pain scores after the use of nerve blocks, and 4 studies showed significantly lower postoperative pain scores acutely with the use of nerve blocks over general anesthesia alone. The use of nerve blocks also resulted in a decrease in opioid consumption in 4 studies and provided a higher level of patient satisfaction in 2 studies. No serious acute complications were reported in any study, and long-term complications from lumbar plexus blocks, such as local anesthetic system toxicity (0.9%) and long-term neuropathy (2.8%), were low in incidence. The use of perioperative nerve blocks provides effective pain management after hip arthroscopy and may be more effective in decreasing acute postoperative pain and supplemental opioid consumption than other analgesic techniques. Level IV, systematic review of Level I to Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion only explain 25% of variance in regression analysis of foot progression angle in children with diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between torsional bony deformities and rotational gait parameters has not been sufficiently investigated. This study was to investigate the degree of contribution of torsional bony deformities to rotational gait parameters in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Thirty three legs from 33 consecutive ambulatory patients (average age 9.5 years, SD 6.9 years; 20 males and 13 females) with diplegic CP who underwent preoperative three dimensional gait analysis, foot radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) were included. Adjusted foot progression angle (FPA) was retrieved from gait analysis by correcting pelvic rotation from conventional FPA, which represented the rotational gait deviation of the lower extremity from the tip of the femoral head to the foot. Correlations between rotational gait parameters (FPA, adjusted FPA, average pelvic rotation, average hip rotation, and average knee rotation) and radiologic measurements (acetabular version, femoral anteversion, knee torsion, tibial torsion, and anteroposteriortalo-first metatarsal angle) were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify significant contributing radiographic measurements to adjusted FPA. Results Adjusted FPA was significantly correlated with FPA (r=0.837, pregression analysis, femoral anteversion (p=0.026) and tibial torsion (p=0.034) were found to be the significant contributing structural deformities to the adjusted FPA (R2=0.247). Conclusions Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion were found to be the significant structural deformities that could affect adjusted FPA in patients with diplegic CP. Femoral anteversion and tibial torsion could explain only 24.7% of adjusted FPA. PMID:23767833

  11. [Neurophysiological identification of the cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarubo, A N; Ogurtsova, A A; Moshchev, D A; Lubnin, A Yu; Andreev, D N; Koval', K V; Chernov, I V

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative identification of the cranial nerves is a useful technique in removal of skull base tumors through the endoscopic endonasal approach. Searching through the scientific literature found one pilot study on the use of triggered electromyography (t-EMG) for identification of the VIth nerve in endonasal endoscopic surgery of skull base tumors (D. San-Juan, et al, 2014). The study objective was to prevent iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves without reducing the completeness of tumor tissue resection. In 2014, 5 patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach. Surgeries were performed for large skull base chordomas (2 cases) and trigeminal nerve neurinomas located in the cavernous sinus (3). Intraoperatively, identification of the cranial nerves was performed by triggered electromyography using a bipolar electrode (except 1 case of chordoma where a monopolar electrode was used). Evaluation of the functional activity of the cranial nerves was carried out both preoperatively and postoperatively. Tumor resection was total in 4 out of 5 cases and subtotal (chordoma) in 1 case. Intraoperatively, the IIIrd (2 patients), Vth (2), and VIth (4) cranial nerves were identified. No deterioration in the function of the intraoperatively identified nerves was observed in the postoperative period. In one case, no responses from the VIth nerve on the right (in the cavernous sinus region) were intraoperatively obtained, and deep paresis (up to plegia) of the nerve-innervated muscles developed in the postoperative period. The nerve function was not impaired before surgery. The t-EMG technique is promising and requires further research.

  12. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Darby, A.J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  13. Combined Sciatic and Lumbar Plexus Nerve Blocks for the Analgesic Management of Hip Arthroscopy Procedures: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J Douglas; Morgan, Theodore Ross; Russell, Gregory B

    2017-06-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive alternative to open hip surgery. Despite its minimally invasive nature, there can still be significant reported pain following these procedures. The impact of combined sciatic and lumbar plexus nerve blocks on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy was investigated. A retrospective analysis of 176 patients revealed that compared with patients with no preoperative peripheral nerve block, significant reductions in pain scores to 24 hours were reported and decreased opioid consumption during the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay was recorded; no significant differences in opioid consumption out to 24 hours were discovered. A subgroup analysis comparing two approaches to the sciatic nerve block in patients receiving the additional lumbar plexus nerve block failed to reveal a significant difference for this patient population. We conclude that peripheral nerve blockade can be a useful analgesic modality for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy.

  14. Management of the Facial Nerve in Lateral Skull Base Surgery Analytic Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El Shazly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Surgical approaches to the jugular foramen are often complex and lengthy procedures associated with significant morbidity based on the anatomic and tumor characteristics. In addition to the risk of intra-operative hemorrhage from vascular tumors, lower cranial nerves deficits are frequently increased after intra-operative manipulation. Accordingly, modifications in the surgical techniques have been developed to minimize these risks. Preoperative embolization and intra-operative ligation of the external carotid artery have decreased the intraoperative blood loss. Accurate identification and exposure of the cranial nerves extracranially allows for their preservation during tumor resection. The modification of facial nerve mobilization provides widened infratemporal exposure with less postoperative facial weakness. The ideal approach should enable complete, one stage tumor resection with excellent infratemporal and posterior fossa exposure and would not aggravate or cause neurologic deficit. The aim of this study is to present our experience in handling jugular foramen lesions (mainly glomus jugulare without the need for anterior facial nerve transposition. Methods In this series we present our experience in Kasr ElEini University hospital (Cairo–-Egypt in handling 36 patients with jugular foramen lesions over a period of 20 years where the previously mentioned preoperative and operative rules were followed. The clinical status, operative technique and postoperative care and outcome are detailed and analyzed in relation to the outcome. Results Complete cure without complications was achieved in four cases of congenital cholesteatoma and four cases with class B glomus. In advanced cases of glomus jugulare (28 patients (C and D stages complete cure was achieved in 21 of them (75%. The operative complications were also related to this group of 28 patients, in the form of facial paralysis in 20 of them (55.6% and symptomatic vagal

  15. Management of the facial nerve in lateral skull base surgery analytic retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, Mohamed A; Mokbel, Mahmoud A M; Elbadry, Amr A; Badran, Hatem S

    2011-01-01

    Surgical approaches to the jugular foramen are often complex and lengthy procedures associated with significant morbidity based on the anatomic and tumor characteristics. In addition to the risk of intra-operative hemorrhage from vascular tumors, lower cranial nerves deficits are frequently increased after intra-operative manipulation. Accordingly, modifications in the surgical techniques have been developed to minimize these risks. Preoperative embolization and intra-operative ligation of the external carotid artery have decreased the intraoperative blood loss. Accurate identification and exposure of the cranial nerves extracranially allows for their preservation during tumor resection. The modification of facial nerve mobilization provides widened infratemporal exposure with less postoperative facial weakness. The ideal approach should enable complete, one stage tumor resection with excellent infratemporal and posterior fossa exposure and would not aggravate or cause neurologic deficit. The aim of this study is to present our experience in handling jugular foramen lesions (mainly glomus jugulare) without the need for anterior facial nerve transposition. In this series we present our experience in Kasr ElEini University hospital (Cairo-Egypt) in handling 36 patients with jugular foramen lesions over a period of 20 years where the previously mentioned preoperative and operative rules were followed. The clinical status, operative technique and postoperative care and outcome are detailed and analyzed in relation to the outcome. Complete cure without complications was achieved in four cases of congenital cholesteatoma and four cases with class B glomus. In advanced cases of glomus jugulare (28 patients) (C and D stages) complete cure was achieved in 21 of them (75%). The operative complications were also related to this group of 28 patients, in the form of facial paralysis in 20 of them (55.6%) and symptomatic vagal paralysis in 18 of them (50%). Total anterior

  16. Osteosynthesis of ununited femoral neck fracture by internal fixation combined with iliac crest bone chips and muscle pedicle bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Baksi

    2016-01-01

    , cannulated hip screw fixation, iliac crest bone chips and quadratus femoris MPBG. Results: The mean followup is 12.5 years (range 3-35. The union of fractures occurred in 202 (82.8%, delayed union in 18 (7.3%, and established nonunion in 24 (9.8% patients. Full weight bearing was permitted at 16-22 weeks after union of fractures. Mean Harris hip score at the longest followup was 85.5. Among the complications, superficial wound infection occurred in 20 (8.2%, deep infection in seven (2.9%, and coxa vara in 39 (16% patients. Preoperative radiodensity of femoral head disappeared mostly after the union of fracture whereas fresh radiodensity of femoral head appeared in 20 (8% patients; nine (45% of them developed segmental collapse. Conclusion: Ununited femoral neck fractureis characterized by absorption of femoral neck, posterior cortical defect, smoothening and overriding of fracture surfaces with intervening fibrous tissues associated with or without AVN of femoral head. The above method of osteosynthesis rectified the above pathology and provided satisfactory results with union of fractures in 90.1% patients at long term followup.

  17. Case report: AVN of the femoral head five year follow-up of the combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Feng; Dong, Hanqing; Xu, Yaozeng

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge, the type of combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture is rare. And the long term follow-up is seldom been reported. A 60 year old woman suffered from a traffic accident. We gave her the intramedullary nail treatment for the combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture, and the fracture indeed cured after one year and there is no clue of necrosis of the femoral head, but after 5 years, there is an evidence of necrosis of the femoral head. Combination of ipsilateral femoral neck and sub-trochanteric fracture should be kept in mind. Patients with this unusual fracture should be kept under surveillance for longer than might be thought currently to be necessary for there is a possibility of necrosis of the femoral head, even a nondisplaced femoral neck fracture.

  18. CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE SENSORY NERVE FIBERS CONTRIBUTE TO THE GENERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF SKELETAL FRACTURE PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Bloom, Aaron P.; Mantyh, William G.; Koewler, Nathan J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Delong, David; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Although skeletal pain can have a marked impact on a patient’s functional status and quality of life, relatively little is known about the specific populations of peripheral nerve fibers that drive non-malignant bone pain. In the present report, neonatal male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with capsaicin or vehicle and femoral fracture was produced when the animals were young adults (15–16 weeks old). Capsaicin treatment, but not vehicle, resulted in a significant (>70%) depletion in the de...

  19. Role of routine pre-operative screening venous duplex ultrasound in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Praveen Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that obesity is a strongly associated risk factor for post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Physical effects and pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory and hypofibrinolytic effects of severe obesity may predispose to idiopathic DVT (pre-operatively because of which bariatric patients are routinely screened before surgery. The aim of this study was to audit the use of routine screening venous duplex ultrasound in morbidly obese patients before undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 180 patients who underwent bariatric surgery from August 2013 to August 2014 who had undergone pre-operative screening bilateral lower-extremity venous duplex ultrasound for DVT. Data were collected on patient's demographics, history of venous thromboembolism, prior surgeries and duplex ultrasound details of the status of the deep veins and superficial veins of the lower limbs. Results: No patients had symptoms or signs of DVT pre-operatively. No patient gave history of DVT. No patient was found to have iliac, femoral or popliteal vein thrombosis. Superficial venous disease was found in 17 (8%. One patient had a right lower limb venous ulcer. Conclusion: Thromboembolic problems in the morbidly obese before bariatric surgery are infrequent, and screening venous duplex ultrasound can be done in high-risk patients only.

  20. Fracturing of revision of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after fracturing of a ceramic femoral head, with diffuse metallosis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We presente a case of a fracture of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after revision of a hip total prosthesis with ceramic femoral head fracture. During surgery we found the cobalt-chrome femoral head fracture, wear of the polyethylene and massive metallosis in muscular and cartilaginous tissue. Both femoral stem and acetabular cup were stable and without apparent wearing. After surgical debridement, we promoted the substitution of the femoral head and the acetabular polyethylene by similar ones. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient has no pain complaints, function limit or systemic signs associated with malign metallosis

  1. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoni, Atoni Dogood; Oyinbo, Charles Aidemise

    2017-03-01

    Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  2. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoni Atoni Dogood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  3. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: A modern treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of a patient with slipped capital femoral epiphysis begins with an early diagnosis and accurate classification. On the basis of symptom duration, clinical findings and radiographs, slipped capital femoral epiphysis is classified as pre-slip, acute, acute-on-chronic and chronic. The long-term outcome of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is directly related to severity and the presence or absence of avascular necrosis and/or chondrolysis. Therefore, the first priority in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is to avoid complications while securing the epiphysis from further slippage. Medical treatment of patients with acute and acute-on-chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis, as well as those presented in pre-slip stage, is the safest, although time-consuming. Manipulations, especially forced and repeated, are not recommended due to higher avascular necrosis risk. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy to assist in the placement of internal fixation devices has markedly increased the success of surgical treatment. Controversy remains as to whether the proximal femoral epiphysis in severe, chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis should be realigned by extracapsular osteotomies or just fixed in situ. The management protocol for slipped capital femoral epiphysis depends on the experience of the surgeon, motivation of the patient and technical facilities.

  4. A ferromagnetic surgical system reduces phrenic nerve injury in redo congenital cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkawa, Takeshi; Holloway, Jessica; Tang, Xinyu; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Imamura, Michiaki

    2017-05-01

    A ferromagnetic surgical system (FMwand®) is a new type of dissection device expected to reduce the risk of adjacent tissue damage. We reviewed 426 congenital cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass through redo sternotomy to assess if this device prevented phrenic nerve injury. The ferromagnetic surgical system was used in 203 operations (47.7%) with regular electrocautery and scissors. The preoperative and operative details were similar between the operations with or without the ferromagnetic surgical system. The incidence of phrenic nerve injury was significantly lower with the ferromagnetic surgical system (0% vs 2.7%, P = 0.031). A logistic regression model showed that the use of the ferromagnetic surgical system was significantly associated with reduced odds of phrenic nerve injury (P < 0.001). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ipsilateral associated femoral neck and shaft fractures are reported to occur in 2.5-6% of all femoral shaft fractures. Objective: To establish the frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures amongst all patients presenting with femoral shaft fractures in Mulago Hospital. Methodology: This was a descriptive ...

  6. Evaluation of Distal Femoral Rotational Alignment with Spiral CT Scan before Total Knee Arthroplasty (A Study in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Jabalameli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating the landmarks for rotation of the distal femur is a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Although the posterior femoral condyle axis is a good landmark for surgeons, the surgical transepicondylar axis may be a better option with the help of preoperative CT scanning. The purpose of this study was to ascertain relationships among the axes’ guiding distal femur rotational alignment in preoperative CT scans of Iranian patients who were candidates for total knee arthroplasty and the effects of age, gender, and knee alignment on these relationships. Methods: One hundred and eight cases who were admitted to two university hospitals for total knee arthroplasty were included in this study. The rotation of the distal femur was evaluated using single axial CT images through the femoral epicondyle. Four lines were drawn digitally in this view: anatomical and surgical transepicondylar axes, posterior condylar axis and the Whiteside anteroposterior line. The alignment of the extremity was evaluated in the standing alignment view. Then the angles were measured along these lines and their relationship was evaluated. Results: The mean angle between the anatomical transepicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis and between the surgical transepicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis were 5.9 ± 1.6 degrees and 1.6±1.7 degrees respectively. The mean angle between the Whiteside’s anteroposterior line and the line perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis was 3.7±2.1 degrees. Significant differences existed between the two genders in these relationships. No significant correlation between the age of patients and angles of the distal femur was detected. The anatomical surgical transepicondylar axis was in 4.3 degrees external rotation in relation to the surgical transepicondylar axis. Conclusion: Preoperative CT scanning can help accurately determine rotational landmarks of the distal femur. If one of the reference axes cannot be

  7. A new angle and its relationship with early fixation failure of femoral neck fractures treated with three cannulated compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Zhang, W; Zhang, C Q

    2017-04-01

    The Pauwels angle has been used widely, however an accurate evaluation of this angle is difficult because of deformity of the affected lower extremity. Therefore we designed a new measurement of the orientation of femoral neck fracture and applied this in a retrospective study to assess: (1) its reproducibility, (2) its advantages compared with the Pauwels angle, (3) its relationship with the short-term prognosis treated with three cannulated compression screws. This new measurement is reproducible and has some reference meaning for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with femoral neck fractures treated with three cannulated compression screws were retrospectively analyzed. The VN angle, which was the angle between the fracture line and the vertical of the neck axis, and the Pauwels angle were measured respectively. The method of ICC was performed to assess the reproducibility of the two angles, and the absolute value of difference in pre-operative and post-operative radiographs was used to evaluate the uniformity of the two angles. These fractures were divided into four groups according to VN angle (VN50°) were respectively 0%, 1.46% (95% CI: 1.42-1.50) and 36.24% (95% CI: 34.93-37.54). The VN angle has a good inter-rater reproducibility, a higher reliability than the Pauwels angle and is closely related to the short-term prognosis of femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated compression screws. Level IV, retrospective diagnostic study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical aspects of the nerves of the leg and foot of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Linnaeus, 1758

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    V.S. Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although distal stifle joint nerve distribution has been well established in domestic animals, this approach is scarcely reported in wild animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the nerves of the leg and foot of Myrmecophaga tridactyla with emphasis on their ramification, distribution, topography and territory of innervation. For this purpose, six adult cadavers fixed and preserved in 10% formalin solution were used. The nerves of the leg and foot of the M. tridactyla were the saphenous nerve (femoral nerve branch, fibular and tibial nerves and lateral sural cutaneous nerve (branches of the sciatic nerve and caudal sural cutaneous nerve (tibial nerve branch. The saphenous nerve branches to the skin, the craniomedial surface of the leg, the medial surface of the tarsal and metatarsal regions and the dorsomedial surface of the digits I and II (100% of cases, III (50% of cases and IV (25% of cases. The lateral sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the craniolateral region of the knee and leg. The fibular nerve innervates the flexor and extensor muscles of the tarsal region of the digits and skin of the craniolateral surface of the leg and dorsolateral surface of the foot. The tibial nerve innervates the extensor muscles of the tarsal joint and flexor, adductor and abductor muscles of the digits and the skin of the plantar surface. The caudal sural cutaneous nerve innervates the skin of the caudal surface of the leg. The nerves responsible for the leg and foot innervation were the same as reported in domestic and wild animals, but with some differences, such as the more distal division of the common fibular nerve, the absence of dorsal metatarsal branches of the deep fibular nerve and a greater involvement of the saphenous nerve in the digital innervation with branches to the digits III and IV, in addition to digits I and II.

  9. Our experience with facial nerve monitoring in vestibular schwannoma surgery under partial neuromuscular blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Céliz, Jorge; Amilibia-Cabeza, Emili; Prades-Martí, José; Miró-Castillo, Nuria; Pérez-Grau, Marta; Pintanel Rius, Teresa; Roca-Ribas Serdà, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve monitoring is fundamental in the preservation of the facial nerve in vestibular schwannoma surgery. Our objective was to analyse the usefulness of facial nerve monitoring under partial neuromuscular blockade. This was a retrospective analysis of 69 patients operated in a tertiary hospital. We monitored 100% of the cases. In 75% of the cases, we could measure an electromyographic response after tumour resection. In 17 cases, there was an absence of electromyographic response. Fifteen of them had an anatomic lesion with loss of continuity of the facial nerve and, in 2 cases, there was a lesion with preservation of the nerve. Preoperative facial palsy (29% 7%; P=.0349), large tumour size (88 vs. 38%; P=.0276), and a non-functional audition (88 vs. 51%; P=.0276) were significantly related with an absence of electromyographic response. Facial nerve monitoring under neuromuscular blockade is possible and safe in patients without previous facial palsy. If the patient had an electromyographic response after tumour excision, they developed better facial function in the postoperative period and after a year of follow up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  10. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

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    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  11. The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Yukio; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was

  12. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a 'check area' for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a ‘check area’ for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI.

  14. Femoral neck-shaft angle in extra-capsular proximal femoral fracture fixation; does it make a TAD of difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N P; Wynn-Jones, H; Ward, M S; Wimhurst, J A

    2005-11-01

    The effect of femoral neck-shaft angle and implant type on the accuracy of lag screw placement in extra-capsular proximal femoral fracture fixation was investigated. Radiographs of all extra-capsular proximal femoral fractures seen in one unit over 18 months were reviewed. Of 399 cases, 307 (237 female, 70 male) were included in the study as they had no contra-lateral proximal femoral metal work. Femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) of the uninjured hip and magnification adjusted tip-apex distance (TAD) of femoral head lag screw were measured. Type of fixation implant was 135 degrees classic hip screw (CHS) (n=144) or 130 degrees intra-medullary hip screw (IMHS) (n=163). Mean contra-lateral NSA was 130.2 degrees (112.9--148 degrees ) and 64 patients (58 female, 6 male) had a NSA TAD was 18.7 mm (5.8--43.8mm) and 88.9% of cases had a TAD of less than 25 mm. TAD values were significantly greater using an IMHS if NSA was 125 degrees (p=0.028). This was not the case with the CHS. The use of the 130 degrees -IMHS in patients with a NSA 125 degrees and caution is advocated when using this device in such cases.

  15. Superior Oblique Anterior Transposition with Horizontal Recti Recession-Resection for Total Third-Nerve Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Eraslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To report the results of lateral rectus muscle recession, medial rectus muscle resection, and superior oblique muscle transposition in the restoration and maintenance of ocular alignment in primary position for patients with total third-nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent surgery between March 2007 and September 2011 for total third-nerve palsy were reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative assessment, including a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Results. A total of 6 patients (age range, 14–45 years were included. The median preoperative horizontal deviation was 67.5 Prism Diopter (PD (interquartile range [IQR] 57.5–70 and vertical deviation was 13.5 PD (IQR 10–20. The median postoperative horizontal residual exodeviation was 8.0 PD (IQR 1–16, and the vertical deviation was 0 PD (IQR 0–4. The median correction of hypotropia following superior oblique transposition was 13.5 ± 2.9 PD (range, 10–16. All cases were vertically aligned within 5 PD. Four of the six cases were aligned within 10 PD of the horizontal deviation. Adduction and head posture were improved in all patients. All patients gained new area of binocular single vision in the primary position after the operation. Conclusion. Lateral rectus recession, medial rectus resection, and superior oblique transposition may be used to achieve satisfactory cosmetic and functional results in total third-nerve palsy.

  16. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Okamoto, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Kawana, M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours

  17. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan) and Department of Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata (Japan)]. E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp; Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Ohkubo, M. [Department of Radiotechnology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Kawana, M. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours.

  18. Incidence of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head After Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Wan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Shon, Hyun Chul; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Jung Jae; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures and to identify risk factors for developing AVNFH. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing at 10 institutions. Among the 703 patients enrolled, 161 patients were excluded leaving 542 patients in the study. Average age was 42.1 years with average follow-up of 26.3 months. Patient characteristics and fracture patterns as well as entry point of femoral nails were identified and the incidence of AVNFH was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to open versus closed physis, open versus closed fractures, and age (<20 versus ≥20 years). Overall incidence of AVNFH was 0.2% (1 of 542): the patient was 15-year-old boy. Of 25 patients with open physis, the incidence of AVNFH was 4%, whereas none of 517 patients with closed physis developed AVNFH (P < 0.001). The incidence of AVNFH in patients aged < 20 versus ≥20 years was 1.1% (1 of 93) and 0.0% (0 of 449), respectively (P = 0.172), which meant that the incidence of AVNFH was 0% in adult with femur shaft fracture. Of 61 patients with open fractures, the incidence of AVNFH was 0%. The number of cases with entry point at the trochanteric fossa or tip of the greater trochanter (GT) was 324 and 218, respectively, and the incidence of AVNFH was 0.3% and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.412). In patients aged ≥20 years with isolated femoral shaft fracture, there was no case of AVNFH following antegrade intramedullary nailing regardless of the entry point. Therefore, our findings suggest that the risk of AVNFH following antegrade femoral nailing is extremely low in adult patients. PMID:26844518

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-05-18

    The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. We evaluated the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with the use of contemporary techniques for femoral neck fracture fixation. We then sought to determine what potential risk factors influenced the development of avascular necrosis.Between 1990 and 2005, one hundred sixty-three intracapsular femoral neck fractures in 163 patients were treated with internal fixation at our level-I trauma center. All patients were monitored until conversion to total hip arthroplasty or for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Ten patients (10 hips) died and 7 patients (7 hips) were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 hips) had a mean 5.2 years of follow-up (range, 3 months to 17 years). The incidence of avascular necrosis was 25.3% (37 hips). The average time to diagnosis of avascular necrosis was 18.8 months (range, 3-47 months). Patient sex, age, interval from injury to surgery, and mechanism of injury were statistically not associated with the development of avascular necrosis. The quality of fracture reduction, adequacy of fixation, degree of displacement, and comminution of the posterior cortex were significantly associated. After we controlled for patient and radiographic characteristics, multivariate analyses indicated that the important predictors for avascular necrosis are poor reduction (odds ratio=13.889) and initial displacement of the fracture (odds ratio=4.693). Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Influence of neural monitoring during thyroid surgery on nerve integrity and postoperative vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, A F; Warhurst, S; Fraser, S; Novakovic, D; Sidhu, S B

    2018-06-01

    Integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) can be checked by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) after visualization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of voice dysfunction following thyroid surgery with routine IONM. Thyroidectomies were performed with routine division of strap muscles and nerve monitoring to confirm integrity of the RLN and EBSLN following dissection. Patients were assessed for vocal function before surgery and at 1 and 3 months after operation. Assessment included use of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) 10, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, pitch range, harmonic to noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence and smoothed cepstral peak prominence. A total of 172 nerves at risk were analysed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery. In 23·3 per cent of EBSLNs and 0·6 per cent of RLNs nerve identification required the assistance of IONM in addition to visualization. Nerve integrity was confirmed during surgery for 98·8 per cent of EBSLNs and 98·3 per cent of RLNs. There were no differences between preoperative and postoperative VHI-10 scores. Acoustic voice assessment showed small changes in maximum phonation time at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Where there is routine division of strap muscles, thyroidectomy using nerve monitoring confirmation of RLN and EBSLN function following dissection results in no clinically significant voice change.

  1. The usefulness of postoperative pinhole bone scintigraphy in the assessment of prognosis after multiple drilling or vascularized bone graft in patients with avascular necrosis of femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Cheon, Kyung Ah; Park, Young Ha; Jeong, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song Moon Kab [Eulji Medical Center, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    It is important to evaluate the healing process of avascular necrosis (AVN) involving femoral head after treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of pinhole bone scintigraphy in the AVN of femoral head after surgery. We analyzed the changing pattern of pinhole bone scintigram in 21 femoral heads of 16 patients (14 lesions/11 male, 7 lesions/5 female, mean age : 39.4 yrs) before and after multiple drilling or vascularized bone grafting for AVN of the femoral head. In all patients, pre-operative scintigrams were obtained at 1 to 3 months before treatment and the first post-operative scintigrams were obtained at 1 to 3 months after treatment. All patients were followed for 2 to 4 years after operation. The findings of the pinhole scintigrams were divided into three patterns: 1) curvilinear, 2) scattered spotty and 3) underdetermined. The 10 of 11 lesions with curvilinear pattern had good postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up findings. However, all 6 lesions with scattered spotty pattern showed poor postoperative findings, which necessitated total hip joint replacement. Of the 4 lesions with undetermined pattern, 2 required total hip joint replacement. There was significant difference in postoperative prognosis between the curvilinear and scattered spotty patterns (p<0.05). We conclude that the pattern of pinhole bone scintigram obtained within 1 to 3 months after multiple drilling or vascularized bone graft operation is a useful prognostic indicator in the AVN of femoral head.

  2. The usefulness of postoperative pinhole bone scintigraphy in the assessment of prognosis after multiple drilling or vascularized bone graft in patients with avascular necrosis of femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Cheon, Kyung Ah; Park, Young Ha; Jeong, Soo Kyo; Song Moon Kab

    1999-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the healing process of avascular necrosis (AVN) involving femoral head after treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of pinhole bone scintigraphy in the AVN of femoral head after surgery. We analyzed the changing pattern of pinhole bone scintigram in 21 femoral heads of 16 patients (14 lesions/11 male, 7 lesions/5 female, mean age : 39.4 yrs) before and after multiple drilling or vascularized bone grafting for AVN of the femoral head. In all patients, pre-operative scintigrams were obtained at 1 to 3 months before treatment and the first post-operative scintigrams were obtained at 1 to 3 months after treatment. All patients were followed for 2 to 4 years after operation. The findings of the pinhole scintigrams were divided into three patterns: 1) curvilinear, 2) scattered spotty and 3) underdetermined. The 10 of 11 lesions with curvilinear pattern had good postoperative clinical and radiological follow-up findings. However, all 6 lesions with scattered spotty pattern showed poor postoperative findings, which necessitated total hip joint replacement. Of the 4 lesions with undetermined pattern, 2 required total hip joint replacement. There was significant difference in postoperative prognosis between the curvilinear and scattered spotty patterns (p<0.05). We conclude that the pattern of pinhole bone scintigram obtained within 1 to 3 months after multiple drilling or vascularized bone graft operation is a useful prognostic indicator in the AVN of femoral head

  3. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve improves neurological function in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several surgical procedures exist for treating cubital tunnel syndrome, the best surgical option remains controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve in patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome and to analyze prognostic factors, we retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (65 elbows diagnosed with cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent anterior subcutaneous transposition. Preoperatively, the initial severity of the disease was evaluated using the McGowan scale as modified by Goldberg: 18 patients (28% had grade IIA neuropathy, 20 (31% had grade IIB, and 27 (42% had grade III. Postoperatively, according to the Wilson & Krout criteria, treatment outcomes were excellent in 38 patients (58%, good in 16 (25%, fair in 7 (11%, and poor in 4 (6%, with an excellent and good rate of 83%. A negative correlation was found between the preoperative McGowan grade and the postoperative Wilson & Krout score. The patients having fair and poor treatment outcomes had more advanced age, lower nerve conduction velocity, and lower action potential amplitude compared with those having excellent and good treatment outcomes. These results suggest that anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome, and initial severity, advancing age, and electrophysiological parameters can affect treatment outcome.

  4. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P.; Graham, A.; Krupinski, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  5. Angiographic analysis of avascular necrosis of a femoral head -selective angiography of medial femoral circumflex artery-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    The degree of anatomical revascularization of a necrotic femoral head and traumatic hip would provide information about treatment and prognosis. The authors analyzed the vascular changes of femoral head among unilateral avascular necrosis, bilateral avascular necrosis, and traumatic hips. Forty - four patients with avascular necrosis and 19 patients with traumatic hips were examined by selective angiography of the medial femoral circumflex artery. In the traumatic hip cases, 12 (63%) showed occlusion, 2 (11%) hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 5 ( 26 % ) were normal . In the avascular necrosis cases, 15 (25%) showed occlusion, 39 (67%) had hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 4 (7%) had normal findings. Hypertrophy of the superior capsular branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery is more frequently observed in avascular necrosis than in traumatic hip. Bilateral avascular necrosis reveals more frequent incidences than unilateral cases. Selective angiography could help in the therapy plan and also provide information about the contralateral side.

  6. Angiographic analysis of avascular necrosis of a femoral head -selective angiography of medial femoral circumflex artery-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    The degree of anatomical revascularization of a necrotic femoral head and traumatic hip would provide information about treatment and prognosis. The authors analyzed the vascular changes of femoral head among unilateral avascular necrosis, bilateral avascular necrosis, and traumatic hips. Forty - four patients with avascular necrosis and 19 patients with traumatic hips were examined by selective angiography of the medial femoral circumflex artery. In the traumatic hip cases, 12 (63%) showed occlusion, 2 (11%) hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 5 ( 26 % ) were normal . In the avascular necrosis cases, 15 (25%) showed occlusion, 39 (67%) had hypertrophy of the capsular branches, and 4 (7%) had normal findings. Hypertrophy of the superior capsular branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery is more frequently observed in avascular necrosis than in traumatic hip. Bilateral avascular necrosis reveals more frequent incidences than unilateral cases. Selective angiography could help in the therapy plan and also provide information about the contralateral side

  7. "Hidden" Preoperative Blood Loss With Extracapsular Versus Intracapsular Hip Fractures: What Is the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Katharine D; Navo, Paul; Ramsey, Frederick; Jallow, Sainabou; Rehman, Saqib

    2017-12-01

    Excessive blood loss with hip fracture management has been shown to result in increased rates of complications. Our goal is to compare blood loss and transfusion rates between patients with intracapsular and extracapsular (both intertrochanteric (IT) and subtrochanteric (ST)) hip fractures. 472 patients were evaluated over a five-year period. Those who presented to the hospital with a proximal femur fracture (femoral neck, IT or ST) were considered for the study. Exclusion criteria included polytrauma, gunshot injuries, periprosthetic fractures, and non-operative management. Primary endpoint was hemoglobin (Hgb) drop from admission to day of surgery (DOS); secondary endpoint was need for pre-op transfusion and discharge location. 304 patients were analyzed who sustained a proximal femur fracture. Median IC Hgb drop was 0.6g/dL; median EC Hgb drop was 1.1g/dL from admission to DOS ( p = 0.0272). Rate of pre-operative transfusions was higher in EC (36/194 = 18.6%) than IC fractures (5/105 = 4.5%) ( p = 0.0006), and overall transfusion rates remained higher throughout hospital stay (55.7% EC vs. 32.7% IC; p = 0.0001). Breakdown of bleeding rate and tranfusion rates between IT and ST fractures were not significant ( p = 0.07; p = 0.4483). Extracapsular hip fractures were more likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) (84.4% EC vs. 73.8% IC; p = 0.027). Intracapsular hip fractures have significantly less pre-operative blood loss and fewer pre-operative transfusions than their extracapsular counterparts. These findings can be used to establish appropriate pre-operative resuscitative efforts, ensuring that hip fracture protocols account for the increased likelihood of blood loss in extracapsular fractures.

  8. Risk stratification for avascular necrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures by post-operative SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Won; Oh, Min Young; Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Jin Soo; Chang, Jae Suk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Wan [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a major complication after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and determines the functional prognosis. We investigated postoperative bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for assessing the risk of femoral head AVN. We retrospectively reviewed 53 consecutive patients who underwent bone SPECT/CT within 2 weeks of internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and follow-up serial hip radiographs over at least 12 months. Nine patients developed femoral head AVN. In 15 patients who showed normal uptake on immediate postoperative SPECT/CT, no AVN occurred, whereas 9 of 38 patients who showed cold defects of the femoral head later developed AVN. The negative predictive value of immediate postoperative SPECT/CT for AVN was 100 %, whereas the positive predictive value was 24 %. Among 38 patients with cold defects, 1 developed AVN 3 months postoperatively. A follow-up bone SPECT/CT was performed in the other 37 patients at 2–10 months postoperatively. The follow-up bone SPECT/CT revealed completely normalized femoral head uptake in 27, partially normalized uptake in 8, and persistent cold defects in 2 patients. AVN developed in 3.7 % (1/27), 62.5 % (5/8), and 100 % (2/2) of each group, respectively. According to the time point of imaging, radiotracer uptake patterns of the femoral head on postoperative bone SPECT/CT indicate the risk of AVN after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures differently. Postoperative bone SPECT/CT may help orthopedic surgeons determine the appropriate follow-up of these patients.

  9. Risk stratification for avascular necrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures by post-operative SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Won; Oh, Min Young; Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Jin Soo; Chang, Jae Suk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Wan

    2017-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a major complication after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and determines the functional prognosis. We investigated postoperative bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for assessing the risk of femoral head AVN. We retrospectively reviewed 53 consecutive patients who underwent bone SPECT/CT within 2 weeks of internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture and follow-up serial hip radiographs over at least 12 months. Nine patients developed femoral head AVN. In 15 patients who showed normal uptake on immediate postoperative SPECT/CT, no AVN occurred, whereas 9 of 38 patients who showed cold defects of the femoral head later developed AVN. The negative predictive value of immediate postoperative SPECT/CT for AVN was 100 %, whereas the positive predictive value was 24 %. Among 38 patients with cold defects, 1 developed AVN 3 months postoperatively. A follow-up bone SPECT/CT was performed in the other 37 patients at 2–10 months postoperatively. The follow-up bone SPECT/CT revealed completely normalized femoral head uptake in 27, partially normalized uptake in 8, and persistent cold defects in 2 patients. AVN developed in 3.7 % (1/27), 62.5 % (5/8), and 100 % (2/2) of each group, respectively. According to the time point of imaging, radiotracer uptake patterns of the femoral head on postoperative bone SPECT/CT indicate the risk of AVN after internal fixation of femoral neck fractures differently. Postoperative bone SPECT/CT may help orthopedic surgeons determine the appropriate follow-up of these patients

  10. Press-fit Femoral Fixation in ACL Reconstruction using Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaseb Mohammad Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone-patellar tendon auto graft is probably the most widely used graft for ACL reconstruction. Several methods for graft fixation have been described. To avoid intra-articular hardware we adopt biological fixation with a femoral trapezoidal press-fit fixation. A prospective study was performed on 30 consecutive active people who underwent ACL reconstruction with this technique by two surgeons between september2004 and march2007 (mean follow-up 15.2 months. Results were evaluated by an independent examiner using radiography, subjective and objective evaluation. Assessment using the IKDC knee scoring revealed 92% of the patients with a normal or nearly normal knee joint. Lysholm's score was 63.6(40- 86 preoperatively and 91.88(73-100 at the latest follow up (P < 0.005. No patient complained of instability at latest follow up. The quadriceps muscle showed mild atrophy at 3 and 6 months and at final follow-up. Five Patients complained of anterior knee pain and had a positive kneeling test. We found no graft displacement on follow up radiographs. All cases showed radiological evidence of graft osteointegration at last follow up. Our results show that press-fit fixation of trapezoidal bone graft in femoral tunnel is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective alternative for ACL recon-struction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft.

  11. Outcomes of total knee arthroplasty in relation to preoperative patient-reported and radiographic measures: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Timothy L; Soheili, Aydin; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2013-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the preferred surgical treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis. However, substantial numbers of patients still experience poor outcomes. Consequently, it is important to identify which patient characteristics are predictive of outcomes in order to guide clinical decisions. Our hypothesis is that preoperative patient-reported outcome measures and radiographic measures may help to predict TKA outcomes. Using cohort data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, we studied 172 patients who underwent TKA. For each patient, we compiled pre- and postoperative Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. Radiographs were measured for knee joint angles, femorotibial angles, anatomical lateral distal femoral angles, and anatomical medial proximal tibial angles; Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grades were assigned to each compartment of the knee. All studied measurements were compared to WOMAC outcomes. Preoperative WOMAC disability, pain, and total scores were positively associated with postoperative WOMAC total scores (P = .010, P = .010, and P = .009, respectively) and were associated with improvement in WOMAC total scores (P < .001, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). For radiographic measurements, preoperative joint angles were positively associated with improvements in postoperative WOMAC total scores (P = .044). Combined KL grades (medial and lateral compartments) were negatively correlated with postoperative WOMAC disability and pain scores (P = .045 and P = .044) and were positively correlated with improvements in WOMAC total scores (P = .001). All preoperative WOMAC scores demonstrated positive associations with postoperative WOMAC scores, while among the preoperative radiographic measurements only combined KL grades and joint angles showed any correlation with postoperative WOMAC scores. Higher preoperative KL grades and joint angles were associated with better (lower) postoperative WOMAC scores, demonstrating an

  12. The effect of aging on efferent nerve fibers regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, E; Butí, M; Navarro, X

    1995-10-23

    This study evaluates the influence of aging on nerve regeneration and reinnervation of target organs in mice aged 2, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. In animals of each age group the sciatic nerve was subjected to crush, section or section and suture. Reinnervation of plantar muscles and sweat glands (SG) was evaluated over three months after operation by functional methods. Reappearance of SG secretion and motor responses occurred slightly earlier in young than older mice. The degree of motor and sudomotor reinnervation, with respect to preoperative control values, was also significantly higher in young than old animals. The differences were more pronounced after 12 months of age. The degree of recovery progressively decreased with the severity of the lesion, differences being more marked in older mice. Neurorraphy improved recovery, comparatively more in older than in young mice. These results indicate that, after injuries of peripheral nerves, axonal regeneration and reinnervation are maintained throughout life, but tend to be more delayed and slightly less effective with aging.

  13. The role of the donor liaison officer at PlusLife (Perth Bone and Tissue Bank Inc.), Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Claire; White, Nicola; Winter, Joyleen; Cowie, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Femoral head donation at the time of hip replacement surgery provides a much needed resource of bone allograft to orthopaedic surgeons. Prior to 2005, potential femoral head donors were identified and consented in the hospital setting on the day of surgery. This resulted in over 40 % of donations failing post operatively suggesting that more effort could be given to pre-operative screening resulting in substantial savings in the cost associated with collection and testing of donors who were subsequently failed. The Donor Liaison role was implemented in 2005 to coordinate a Femoral Head Donation program maximising the number of successful donations through pre-operative screening. This study reviews the effectiveness of pre-operative screening of potential femoral head donors at PlusLife from 2002-2012. A retrospective audit of the database was undertaken 2002-2012 and medical/social reasons for pre-operative and postoperative failures were collated into 4 main categories to enable comparison: malignancy, autoimmune conditions, variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease risk and general medical/social reasons. The number of femoral heads failed post operatively has decreased significantly from 26 % in 2003 to 6 % in 2012. A cost of $121,000 was expended on femoral heads failed post operatively in 2004, as compared to $20,350 in 2012. Donors excluded due to the 4 main categories (medical/social history) were identified pre-operatively in over 80 % of all cases. Preoperative screening of femoral head donors through a coordinated Femoral Head Donation Program is a safe and cost effective method.

  14. Patient-specific positioning guides for total knee arthroplasty: no significant difference between final component alignment and pre-operative digital plan except for tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kerens, Bart; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Kort, Nanne P

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference between the alignment of the individual femoral and tibial components (in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes) as calculated pre-operatively (digital plan) and the actually achieved alignment in vivo obtained with the use of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs) for TKA. It was hypothesised that there would be no difference between post-op implant position and pre-op digital plan. Twenty-six patients were included in this non-inferiority trial. Software permitted matching of the pre-operative MRI scan (and therefore calculated prosthesis position) to a pre-operative CT scan and then to a post-operative full-leg CT scan to determine deviations from pre-op planning in all three anatomical planes. For the femoral component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.8° (SD 1.3), 2.5° (SD 1.6) and 1.6° (SD 1.4) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. For the tibial component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.7° (SD 1.2), 1.7° (SD 1.5) and 3.2° (SD 3.6) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. Absolute mean deviation from planned mechanical axis was 1.9°. The a priori specified null hypothesis for equivalence testing: the difference from planning is >3 or plan in all planes, except for the tibial rotation in the transverse plane. Possible explanations for outliers are discussed and highlight the importance for adequate training surgeons before they start using PSPG in their day-by-day practise. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  15. Transverse versus Longitudinal Incisions for Femoral Artery Exposure in Treating Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Patel, Kunal; Gupta, Kapil; Jones, Keith; Rey, Jorge; Robinson, Handel

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates differences in wound complication rate when transverse versus longitudinal incision is utilized to expose femoral vessels in managing patients with peripheral vascular disease. A retrospective review from 2013 to 2015 was conducted of 150 patients undergoing 156 lower extremity revascularizations with femoral artery exposure through a groin incision. Patients were stratified into 2 groups, transverse versus longitudinal groin incision. Data were reviewed for 3 surgeons that utilize either transverse or longitudinal groin incision in patients undergoing common or iliofemoral endarterectomies, or where femoral artery was used as inflow and/or outflow vessel for limb revascularization. Each group had a comparative outcomes analysis based on incision type. The primary outcome was wound complication, defined as any wound infection, lymphocele, hematoma, dehiscence, pseudoaneurysm, or necrosis. Other outcomes studied included unplanned return to operating room for wound complication, wound vacuum therapy, and soft-tissue flap closure. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed chi-squared test and Student's t-test. Patients in the transverse (n = 85 cases) versus longitudinal (n = 71 cases) cohorts were similar in relation to demographics and comorbidities. Overall mean follow-up was 220 days. Patients with a transverse as compared to longitudinal incision had a significantly lower overall wound complication rate, 7% vs. 42%, respectively (P transverse incisions were associated with lower incidence of unplanned return to the operating room to manage wound complications than patients with a longitudinal incision (5% vs. 23%, respectively; P Transverse versus longitudinal incisions were also associated with significantly lower need for wound vacuum therapy (6% vs. 15%, respectively; P Transverse groin incisions for femoral artery exposure may offer a lower risk of wound complications for open procedures as compared to a longitudinal incision

  16. Preoperative sclerotherapy of facial venous malformations: impact on surgical parameters and long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Charles A; Braswell, Leah E; Wright, Lonnie B; Roberson, Paula K; Moore, Mary B; Waner, Milton; Buckmiller, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    To analyze the operative benefit of preoperative sclerotherapy of facial venous malformations and assess long-term patient outcome. Preoperative sclerotherapy was performed in 24 consecutive patients referred before resection of facial venous malformation. Pretreatment imaging was reviewed for malformation dimensions (length, width, and height), and volumes were estimated. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3% sodium tetradecyl in the first 15 patients and 98% dehydrated alcohol in the remaining 9 patients. Operative blood loss, operative time, transfusion requirement, and hospital stay were recorded. Operative time per lesion volume and operative blood loss per lesion volume were calculated. Results were compared with 15 historical control patients who underwent resection of facial venous malformations without preoperative sclerotherapy. Long-term follow-up of study and control patients was performed. Compared with controls, patients undergoing preoperative venous sclerotherapy were significantly older (P = .0206) and had larger lesions in all three dimensions (height, P = .0002; length, P = .0010; width, P = .0004). Patients receiving sclerotherapy had shorter operative time per lesion volume (P lesion volume (P nerve paresis occurred in 8.3% of cases. Long-term follow-up revealed retreatment was required in 2 of 24 patients (8.3%). Preoperative sclerotherapy of venous malformations was associated with less operative time per lesion volume and less operative blood loss per lesion volume. Long-term follow-up revealed a low need for retreatment. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative CT analysis of the mandible and maxilla for permanent dental prosthetic implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Rhodes, M.L.; Schwarz, M.; Chafetz, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    The Branemark technique for permanently implanting dental prostheses is becoming universally accepted. The surgeon requires detailed knowledge of the cross-sectional anatomy of the alveolar ridges and inferior alveolar nerve for safe placement of the titanium fixtures. Axial CT scans of the mandible and maxilla, with oblique and panoramic CT reformations, were obtained in more than 100 patients. This report describes the anatomic variations in the maxilla and mandible as they relate to dental implantation surgery. The authors demonstrate the utility of this technique in preoperative surgical planning and postoperative evaluation

  18. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  19. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Riemer, B.L.; Butterfield, S.L. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA) Medical Coll. of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG).

  20. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dysejaculation following groin hernia repair can occur in about 1-2% of patients, resulting in impairment of sexual function. We report a case of chronic postherniotomy dysejaculation treated with transection of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves and decompression of vas deferens...... that was embedded and twisted in shrunken mesh and scar tissue. At three months follow-up, there was reduced overall pain and no dysejaculation, and quantitative sensory testing showed reversal of sensory abnormalities, except for sensory loss, compared with preoperative values Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  1. The use of allograft bone during the course of femoral reconstruction in hip revision arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.; Morgan, F.; Imran Ilyas

    1999-01-01

    We have studied 61 patients who underwent femoral revision surgery requiring allograft reconstruction of the skeleton between 1987 and 1995. The group had a mean age of 68 years with a mean follow-up of 5.1 years. The preoperative Harris hip score was increased from 30 points to a postoperative score of 69 points. A rerevision rate of 20% was noted. Segmental anomalies were classified according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons system. Subgroups were analysed according to the classification and relative indications for the use of impaction allografting, corticocancellous strut grafting, anatomic specific allografts and calcar allografts were devised. This paper details the results of those subgroups and outlines pitfalls and problems associated with complex surgery of this type

  2. Femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W; Westerbeek, Robin E

    2018-06-01

    Clinical outcomes in patellofemoral joint replacement may be related to femoral component rotation. Assessment of rotational alignment is however difficult as patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis often have trochlear dysplasia. The use of the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation has been suggested. The purpose of our study was to evaluate this technique with regard to femoral component rotation, and to correlate rotation with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty-one knees in 39 patients had patellofemoral joint replacement using the Zimmer Gender-Solutions patellofemoral prosthesis. Intraoperatively, we determined femoral component rotational alignment using an extramedullary rod aimed at the inferior tip of the medial malleolus. Postoperatively, we measured the angle between the femoral component and the anatomical transepicondylar axis using CT. The amount of rotation was correlated with clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Forty knees in 38 patients were available for one-year follow-up. Mean femoral component rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis was 1.4° external rotation (range, -3.8 to 5.7°). We found no statistically significant correlation between femoral component rotation and change from baseline KOOS subscales at one-year follow-up. Our findings show that when using the medial malleolus as a landmark to guide rotation, the femoral component of the patellofemoral prosthesis was oriented in external rotation relative to the anatomical transepicondylar axis in 80% of knees. Our study did not show a relation between the amount of external rotation and clinical outcomes. Level III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  4. MR evaluation of femoral neck version and tibial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, James Karl; Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California, San Diego, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pring, Maya E. [Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Abnormalities of femoral neck version have been associated with a number of hip abnormalities in children, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis, proximal femoral focal deficiency, coxa vara, a deep acetabulum and, rarely, developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedic surgeons also are interested in quantifying the femoral neck anteversion or retroversion in children especially to plan derotational osteotomies. Historically, the angle of femoral version and tibial torsion has been measured with the use of radiography and later by CT. Both methods carry with them the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Techniques that utilize MR are used less often because of the associated lengthy imaging times. This article describes a technique using MRI to determine femoral neck version and tibial torsion with total scan times of approximately 10 min. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging for anatomical localization of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei in pontine lesions: initial experiences with 3T-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nils H; Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Woernle, Christoph M; Alzarhani, Yahea A; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Kollias, Spyros S

    2014-11-01

    With continuous refinement of neurosurgical techniques and higher resolution in neuroimaging, the management of pontine lesions is constantly improving. Among pontine structures with vital functions that are at risk of being damaged by surgical manipulation, cranial nerves (CN) and cranial nerve nuclei (CNN) such as CN V, VI, and VII are critical. Pre-operative localization of the intrapontine course of CN and CNN should be beneficial for surgical outcomes. Our objective was to accurately localize CN and CNN in patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and estimate its input in surgical planning for avoiding unintended loss of their function during surgery. DTI of the pons obtained pre-operatively on a 3Tesla MR scanner was analyzed prospectively for the accurate localization of CN and CNN V, VI and VII in seven patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons. Anatomical sections in the pons were used to estimate abnormalities on color-coded fractional anisotropy maps. Imaging abnormalities were correlated with CN symptoms before and after surgery. The course of CN and the area of CNN were identified using DTI pre- and post-operatively. Clinical associations between post-operative improvements and the corresponding CN area of the pons were demonstrated. Our results suggest that pre- and post-operative DTI allows identification of key anatomical structures in the pons and enables estimation of their involvement by pathology. It may predict clinical outcome and help us to better understand the involvement of the intrinsic anatomy by pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between baseline femoral neck marrow status and the development of femoral head osteonecrosis in corticosteroid-treated patients: A longitudinal study by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Gilon, Raphael; Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frederic; Depresseux, Genevieve; Houssiau, Frederic A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the development of corticosteroid (CS)-associated femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) is influenced by baseline femoral neck marrow status. Patients and methods: The population consisted of 20 untreated patients with a newly diagnosed rheumatic disease in whom a standardized CS regimen was planned. Before CS treatment, baseline femoral neck marrow status was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on T1-weighted images (proportion of surface area of femoral neck and intertrochanteric area occupied by fatty marrow; index of marrow conversion [IMC]) and on a quantitative MR sequence (bulk T1 values of femoral head and neck). The presence of ON was assessed by coronal T1-weighted MR images of the hips at 6 and 12 months. Results: None of the patients suffered from ON at baseline. Four patients (20%) developed bilateral femoral head ON at 6 months. The mean percentage of fat marrow in the femoral neck before treatment was significantly higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0025). The mean baseline femoral neck IMC value, which parallels the degree of red to yellow marrow conversion, was higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.089). The mean baseline bulk T1 value of the femoral neck (but not of the femoral head), which inversely correlates with the amount of fat marrow, was significantly shorter in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0298). Conclusion: The development of CS-associated femoral head ON is correlated with a high fat content in the proximal femur before CS therapy

  7. Herniography off femoral, obturator and perineal hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Nordblom, I.; Fork, F.T.; Gullmo, A.

    1985-01-01

    Positive contrast herniography was used in the workup of 550 patients with unclear groin pain. The majority of these patients had rather characteristic hernias of indirect, direct or femoral type. However, now and then diagnostic problems arose. A femoral hernia may look like a direct or even obturator hernia. There is also a variety of multilocular femoral hernias and other types. A femoral hernia may be present together with other hernias in the ipsilateral or contralateral groin. Obturator hernias are usually small but are always confined to the obturator canal laterally in the obturator foramen. Abnormalities in the pouch of Douglas may include a deep rectogenital pouch, diverticula and true herniations. These uncommon herniographic findings are described and discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Postoperative Pain Management After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: The Value of Liposomal Bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Scott M; Rogers, Thea

    2016-11-01

    Multimodal pain protocols have been proposed to achieve improved long-acting postoperative analgesia. Controlling postoperative pain after joint arthroplasty is especially important as it relates to patient satisfaction and outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative pain, time to ambulation, and overall narcotic usage between patients who received either a femoral nerve block with a periarticular bupivacaine injection or a periarticular bupivacaine and extended-release liposomal bupivacaine injection after primary total knee arthroplasty. A total of 597 consecutive primary total knee arthroplasties performed between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2014 received preoperative celecoxib, oxycodone, and transdermal scopolamine. Intraoperatively, patients either received a single-dose bupivacaine femoral nerve block along with 30-mL 0.25% bupivacaine periarticular injection (group A) or a 60-mL periarticular injection alone (20-mL liposomal bupivacaine, 30-mL 0.25% bupivacaine, and 10-mL saline; group B). The postoperative pain scores, narcotic usage, and time to ambulation were retrospectively collected from the electronic medical record. These outcomes were compared between treatment groups. There were 325 patients in group A compared with 272 in group B during the time frame. There was no difference among age, gender, race, and body mass index between the groups. Group B demonstrated a decreased need for breakthrough pain medication (16.9% vs 36.3% P bupivacaine resulted in a decrease need for breakthrough pain medication, improved pain scores at 12 hours, and an earlier time to ambulation compared to a combined femoral nerve block and periarticular bupivacaine injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trochanteric entry femoral nails yield better femoral version and lower revision rates-A large cohort multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard S; Gage, Mark J; Galos, David K; Donegan, Derek J; Liporace, Frank A

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing (IMN) has become the standard of care for the treatment of most femoral shaft fractures. Different IMN options include trochanteric and piriformis entry as well as retrograde nails, which may result in varying degrees of femoral rotation. The objective of this study was to analyze postoperative femoral version between three types of nails and to delineate any significant differences in femoral version (DFV) and revision rates. Over a 10-year period, 417 patients underwent IMN of a diaphyseal femur fracture (AO/OTA 32A-C). Of these patients, 316 met inclusion criteria and obtained postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanograms to calculate femoral version and were thus included in the study. In this study, our main outcome measure was the difference in femoral version (DFV) between the uninjured limb and the injured limb. The effect of the following variables on DFV and revision rates were determined via univariate, multivariate, and ordinal regression analyses: gender, age, BMI, ethnicity, mechanism of injury, operative side, open fracture, and table type/position. Statistical significance was set at pregression analysis revealed that a lower BMI was significantly associated with a lower DFV (p=0.006). Controlling for possible covariables, multivariate analysis yielded a significantly lower DFV for trochanteric entry nails than piriformis or retrograde nails (7.9±6.10 vs. 9.5±7.4 vs. 9.4±7.8°, pregression analysis. However, this is not to state that the other nail types exhibited abnormal DFV. Translation to the clinical impact of a few degrees of DFV is also unknown. Future studies to more in-depth study the intricacies of femoral version may lead to improved technology in addition to potentially improved clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the muscle morphology of the obturator externus and piriformis as the predictors of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in acetabular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, Lalit; Kumar, Santosh; Batra, Sahil; Gupta, Rajat; Arora, Sumit

    2016-08-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head is a recognised complication of fracture dislocation of the hip joint but is not studied frequently in relation to acetabulum fractures. The aim was to establish the relationship between obturator externus and piriformis muscle morphology in acetabulum fractures and potenital development of AVN of the femoral head. Twenty-five fractures were included in this prospective study and were subjected to radiological assessment and computed tomography of the pelvis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip was performed to assess the morphology of obturator externus and piriformis, and findings were compared intraoperatively (in 15 cases). Serial radiographs were taken at monthly intervals to assess the development of avascular necrosis. The patients with no evidence of AVN on radiographs at 6 months had additional MRI scans to look for such changes. Three patients developed AVN of femoral head and two had complete tears of piriformis and/or obturator externus muscles on the pre-operative MRI with the findings confirmed intraoperatively (p = 0.013). None of the patients without changes of AVN at 6-month follow-up had complete tears of either or both muscles. Of these patients, there was one case each of T-type fracture, isolated posterior wall fracture with hip dislocation, and posterior wall with transverse fracture of the acetabulum. Complete tears of obturator externus and/or piriformis muscles are a strong predictor of future development of AVN of the femoral head.

  11. Application of finite element analysis in pre-operative planning for deformity correction of abnormal hip joints--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, K H; Kim, Y H; Park, W M; Kim, K; Cho, T-J; Choi, I H

    2011-09-01

    In experimental and clinical research, it is difficult to directly measure responses in the human body, such as contact pressure and stress in a joint, but finite element analysis (FEA) enables the examination of in vivo responses by contact analysis. Hence, FEA is useful for pre-operative planning prior to orthopaedic surgeries, in order to gain insight into which surgical options will result in the best outcome. The present study develops a numerical simulation technique based on FEA to predict the surgical outcomes of osteotomy methods for the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphyses. The correlation of biomechanical parameters including contact pressure and stress, for moderate and severe cases, is investigated. For severe slips, a base-of-neck osteotomy is thought to be the most reliable and effective surgical treatment, while any osteotomy may produce dramatic improvement for moderate slips. This technology of pre-operative planning using FEA can provide information regarding biomechanical parameters that might facilitate the selection of optimal osteotomy methods and corresponding surgical options.

  12. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Kenji; Nishi, Hosei; Oba, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. A New Approach: Regional Nerve Blockade for Angioplasty of the Lower Limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.J.; Lotzof, K.; Kamath, B.S.K.; Shanthakumar, R.E.; Munir, N.; Loh, A.; Bird, R.; Howard, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. An audit study investigated the pilot use of regional nerve block analgesia (as an alternative to sedative/opiate, general or central neuraxial anesthesia) performed by radiologists with the assistance of imaging techniques during complex prolonged angiography. Methods. Radiologists were trained by anesthetic consultants to administer and use lower limb peripheral nerve block for difficult prolonged angioplasty procedures for patients with severe lower limb rest pain who were unable to lie in the supine position. In a pilot study 25 patients with limb-threatening ischemia received sciatic and femoral nerve blockade for angioplasty. The technique was developed and perfected in 12 patients and in a subsequent 13 patients the details of the angiography procedures, peripheral anesthesia, supplementary analgesia, complications, and pain assessment scores were recorded. Pain scores were also recorded in 11 patients prior to epidural/spinal anesthesia for critical ischemic leg angioplasty. Results. All patients with peripheral nerve blockade experienced a reduction in their ischemic rest pain to a level that permitted angioplasty techniques to be performed without spinal, epidural or general analgesia. In patients undergoing complex angioplasty intervention, the mean pain score by visual analogue scale was 3.7, out of a maximum score of 10. Conclusions. The successful use of peripheral nerve blocks was safe and effective as an alternative to sedative/opiate, epidural or general anesthesia in patients undergoing complex angiography and has optimized the use of radiological and anesthetic department resources. This has permitted the frequent radiological treatment of patients with limb-threatening ischemia and reduced delays caused by the difficulty in enlisting the help of anesthetists, often at short notice, from the busy operating lists

  14. Hip Arthroscopy for Femoral-Acetabular Impingement: Do Active Claims Affect Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigi, Roy; Rath, Ehud; Sharfman, Zachary T; Shimonovich, Shachar; Ronen, Itai; Amar, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To compare outcomes of 3 patient groups undergoing hip arthroscopy. This study included 138 consecutive hip arthroscopies (106 analyzed) for femoral-acetabular impingement (FAI) with or without labral tear in patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria included patients older than 18 with clinical or radiologic manifestation of FAI with or without labral tear. Exclusion criteria included previous hip surgery and various hip pathologies. Patients were classified into 3 study groups. Group 1 included work-related injuries with active claims ACs (n = 33); mean age, 32 (range, 19 to 63); group 2 included sports injuries with no ACs (n = 35); mean age, 32 (range, 18 to 69); and group 3 included non-sports-related injuries without pending ACs (NAS; n = 38); mean age, 45 (range, 20 to 68). Outcomes were assessed using modified Harris hip scores (mHHS) and hip outcome scores (HOS) preoperatively and during the final evaluation. Baseline score for all groups did not significantly differ (P = .210 for mHHS, P = .176 for HOS). All groups significantly improved from preoperative to final evaluation (group 1: mHHS P = .42, HOS P = .001; group 2: mHHS P arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy as an intervention in patients with ACs provided positive outcomes, corroborating that an AC is not a contraindication for this procedure. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral head necrosis

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    Narita, Shinya; Asada, Kanji; Yoshida, Kenjiro and others

    1986-06-01

    Ten patients with avascular femoral head necrosis and four normal adults were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the relationship between MRI and pathophysiology of three operated-on avascular femoral heads was evaluated. The medullary cavities of the normal femoral heads had a strong signal intensity on the saturation recovery (SR) image due to fat marrow, and the T/sub 1/ relaxation time was 160 +- 11 msec. In avascular femoral head necrosis, the necrotic area had a low signal intensity on the SR image and a prolonged T/sub 1/ relaxation time, while the reactive fibrous area had more prolonged T/sub 1/ relaxation time. For these reasons, MRI was found to show the pathological changes of avascular femoral head necrosis and can be expected to be useful for making early diagnoses and operation planning.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral head necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Shinya; Asada, Kanji; Yoshida, Kenjiro

    1986-01-01

    Ten patients with avascular femoral head necrosis and four normal adults were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the relationship between MRI and pathophysiology of three operated-on avascular femoral heads was evaluated. The medullary cavities of the normal femoral heads had a strong signal intensity on the saturation recovery (SR) image due to fat marrow, and the T 1 relaxation time was 160 ± 11 msec. In avascular femoral head necrosis, the necrotic area had a low signal intensity on the SR image and a prolonged T 1 relaxation time, while the reactive fibrous area had more prolonged T 1 relaxation time. For these reasons, MRI was found to show the pathological changes of avascular femoral head necrosis and can be expected to be useful for making early diagnoses and operation planning. (author)

  17. Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided nerve block for management of limb injuries by emergency care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients require procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA for the treatment of acute traumatic injuries. PSA has complications. Ultrasound (US guided peripheral nerve block is a safe alternative. Aim: Ultrasound guided nerve blocks for management of traumatic limb emergencies in Emergency Department (ED. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study conducted in ED. Materials and Methods: Patients above five years requiring analgesia for management of limb emergencies were recruited. Emergency Physicians trained in US guided nerve blocks performed the procedure. Statistical analysis: Effectiveness of pain control, using visual analogue scale was assessed at baseline and at 15 and 60 minutes after the procedure. Paired t test was used for comparison. Results: Fifty US guided nerve blocks were sciatic- 4 (8%, femoral-7 (14%, brachial- 29 (58%, median -6 (12%, and radial 2 (4% nerves. No patients required rescue PSA. Initial median VAS score was 9 (Inter Quartile Range [IQR] 7-10 and at 1 hour was 2(IQR 0-4. Median reduction in VAS score was 7.44 (IQR 8-10(75%, 1-2(25% (P=0.0001. Median procedure time was 9 minutes (IQR 3, 12 minutes and median time to reduction of pain was 5 minutes (IQR 1,15 minutes. No immediate or late complications noticed at 3 months. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks can be safely and effectively performed for upper and lower limb emergencies by emergency physicians with adequate training.

  18. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido; Hahn, Michael; Morlock, Michael M.; Ruether, Wolfgang; Amling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral

  19. Iatrogenic facial nerve injuries during chronic otitis media surgery: a multicentre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, T; Mulazimoglu, S; El Hadi, T; Darrouzet, V; Ayache, D; Somers, T; Schmerber, S; Vincent, C; Mondain, M; Lescanne, E; Bonnard, D

    2017-06-01

    To give an insight into why, when and where iatrogenic facial nerve (FN) injuries may occur and to explain how to deal with them in an emergency setting. Multicentre retrospective study in eight tertiary referral hospitals over 17 years. Twenty patients with partial or total FN injury during surgery for chronic otitis media (COM) were revised. Indication and type of surgery, experience of the surgeon, intra- and postoperative findings, value of CT scanning, patient management and final FN outcome were recorded. In 12 cases, the nerve was completely transected, but the surgeon was unaware in 11 cases. A minority of cases occurred in academic teaching hospitals. Tympanic segment, second genu and proximal mastoid segments were the sites involved during injury. The FN was not deliberately identified in 18 patients at the time of injury, and nerve monitoring was only applied in one patient. Before revision surgery, CT scanning correctly identified the lesion site in 11 of 12 cases and depicted additional lesions such as damage to the lateral semicircular canal. A greater auricular nerve graft was interposed in 10 cases of total transection and in one partially lesioned nerve: seven of them resulted in an HB III functional outcome. In two of the transected nerves, rerouting and direct end-to-end anastomosis was applied. A simple FN decompression was used in four cases of superficially traumatised nerves. We suggest checklists for preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative management to prevent and treat iatrogenic FN injury during COM surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Takeshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro; Mitamura, Tadayuki

    1990-01-01

    T1-weighted MR images of thirty-six hips in 25 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were obtained two to five times during the course of 2 to 26 months. We investigated these MR images in the light of the chronological change and compared them with plain radiographs. MR images changes in 16 femoral head; in general, the abnormal low intensity area in the femoral head reduced in extent and the internal high intensity area became smaller of disappeared. Thirteen femoral heads among them became more flattened on plain radiographs in the same period. It is noted that four different zones are defined in the femoral head after bone necrosis takes place: the dead bone marrow, the dead marrow which still contains fat, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow. In T1-weighted MR images, the dead bone marrow, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow are demonstrated as low intensity area, while the dead marrow containing fat may remain high in intensity. On the basis of this knowledge of histopathology and MR images of this disease, we suggest that reduction of the abnormal low intensity area and disappearance of the internal high intensity area on MR images can be regarded as diminution of hyperemia in the living bone marrow and loss of fat in the dead bone marrow, respectively. (author)

  1. CT study of avascular necrosis of femoral head in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Du Yuqing; Xu Aide

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the early and new CT signs of avascular necrosis of femoral head in adults. Methods: The CT scans of 127 cases with this condition were analyzed. Results: There were 90 hip joints with femoral head normal in shape, including 67 femoral heads with only high-density sclerosis and 23 ones with high-density and low-density areas. In 111 hip joints, the femoral head was depressed and manifested purely high-density sclerosis in 25 and mixed-density areas in 86. Air-filled cysts appeared in 43 femoral heads. In follow-up cases, the changes in shape and density of femoral head followed some rules. Conclusion: Purely high-density sclerosis is an early sign and is of great diagnostic value combined with its special shape. Air in femoral heads is also a sign of the disease

  2. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, Michaela; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas

  3. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, Michaela E-mail: michaela.riedl@akh-wien.ac.at; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas.

  4. The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesur, M.; Erdem, Ali F.; Alici, Haci A.; Yuksek, Mustafa S.; Yapanoglu, T.; Aksoy, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibition. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 57 patients, while the remaining 32 patients underwent general anesthesia via mask; and succinylcholine was administered prior to resection. Of the 57 patients received epidural anesthesia, 18 were diagnosed as inferolateral bladder tumors during endoscopy and had to undergo general anesthesia. Obturator nerve block was attempted preoperatively in 39 patients. However, a nerve identification failure, hematoma and 4 obturator nerve reflex events, despite the block, were observed and these patients were subjected to general anesthesia with succinylcholine. Fifty-six patients (32 patients initially had general anesthesia and 24 converted from epidural to general anesthesia) were all given succinylcholine prior to resection. Due to its mechanisms of action, succinylcholine is completely effective and represents a simple alternative to obturator nerve block. No contraction was observed in any patient given succinylcholine. (author)

  5. Morphometric analysis of rat femoral vessels under a video magnification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available Abstract The right femoral vessels of 80 rats were identified and dissected. External lengths and diameters of femoral arteries and femoral veins were measured using either a microscope or a video magnification system. Findings were correlated to animals’ weights. Mean length was 14.33 mm for both femoral arteries and femoral veins, mean diameter of arteries was 0.65 mm and diameter of veins was 0.81 mm. In our sample, rats’ body weights were only correlated with the diameter of their femoral veins.

  6. Multimodal Navigation in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Pituitary Tumors Using Image-Based Vascular and Cranial Nerve Segmentation: A Prospective Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Parviz; Eichberg, Daniel; Golby, Alexandra; Zamani, Amir; Laws, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the most common approach for the treatment of pituitary tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and optic nerve injuries are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less-experienced hands. This prospective study was conducted to validate the accuracy of image-based segmentation coupled with neuronavigation in localizing neurovascular structures during TSS. Twenty-five patients with a pituitary tumor underwent preoperative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI images loaded into the navigation platform were used for segmentation and preoperative planning. After patient registration and subsequent surgical exposure, each segmented neural or vascular element was validated by manual placement of the navigation probe or Doppler probe on or as close as possible to the target. Preoperative segmentation of the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus matched with the intraoperative endoscopic and micro-Doppler findings in all cases. Excellent correspondence between image-based segmentation and the endoscopic view was also evident at the surface of the tumor and at the tumor-normal gland interfaces. Image guidance assisted the surgeons in localizing the optic nerve and chiasm in 64% of cases. The mean accuracy of the measurements was 1.20 ± 0.21 mm. Image-based preoperative vascular and neural element segmentation, especially with 3-dimensional reconstruction, is highly informative preoperatively and potentially could assist less-experienced neurosurgeons in preventing vascular and neural injury during TSS. In addition, the accuracy found in this study is comparable to previously reported neuronavigation measurements. This preliminary study is encouraging for future prospective intraoperative validation with larger numbers of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: a report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzkowski, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an inherited disorder of collagen production that results in multiorgan dysfunction. Patients with hypermobility type display skin hyperextensibility and joint laxity, which can result in chronic joint instability, dislocation, peripheral neuropathy, and severe musculoskeletal pain. A bleeding diathesis can be found in all subtypes of varying severity despite a normal coagulation profile. There have also been reports of resistance to local anesthetics in these patients. Several sources advise against the use of regional anesthesia in these patients citing the 2 previous features. There have been reports of successful neuraxial anesthesia, but few concerning peripheral nerve blocks, none of which describe nerves of the lower extremity. This report describes 2 cases of successful peripheral regional anesthesia in the lower extremity. In case 1, a 16-year-old adolescent girl with hypermobility type presented for osteochondral grafting of tibiotalar joint lesions. She underwent a popliteal sciatic (with continuous catheter) and femoral nerve block under ultrasound guidance. She proceeded to surgery and tolerated the procedure under regional block and intravenous sedation. She did not require any analgesics for the following 15 hours. In case 2, an 18-year-old woman with hypermobility type presented for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for chronic patella instability. She underwent a saphenous nerve block above the knee with analgesia in the distribution of the saphenous nerve lasting for approximately 18 hours. There were no complications in either case. Prohibitions against peripheral nerve blocks in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, appear unwarranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Tibial and Femoral Tunnel Changes After ACL Reconstruction: A Prospective 2-Year Longitudinal MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E; Delos, Demetris; Oltean, Hanna N; Vadasdi, Katherine; Cavanaugh, John; Potter, Hollis G; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-05-01

    Tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is a well-accepted and frequent phenomenon, yet little is known regarding its origin or natural history. To prospectively evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) changes in tibial and femoral bone tunnels after ACL-R with serial MRI. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients underwent arthroscopic ACL-R with the same surgeon, surgical technique, and rehabilitation protocol. Each patient underwent preoperative dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and clinical evaluation, as well as postoperative time zero MRI followed by subsequent MRI and clinical examination, including functional and subjective outcome tests, at 6, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks. Tibial and femoral tunnel CSA was measured on each MRI at tunnel aperture (ttA and ftA), midsection (ttM and ftM), and exit (ttE and ftE). Logistic regression modeling was used to examine the predictive value of demographic data and preoperative bone quality (as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) on functional outcome scores, manual and instrumented laxity measurements, and changes in tunnel area over time. Eighteen patients (including 12 men), mean age 35.5±8.7 years, underwent ACL-R. There was significant tunnel expansion at ttA and ftA sites 6 weeks postoperatively (P=.024 and .0045, respectively). Expansion continued for 24 weeks, with progressive tunnel narrowing thereafter. Average ttA CSA was significantly larger than ftA CSA at all times. The ttM significantly expanded after 6 weeks (P=.06); continued expansion to week 12 was followed by 21 months of reduction in tunnel diameter. The ftM and both ttE and ftE sites decreased in CSA over the 2 years. Median Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores significantly improved at final follow-up (P=.0083 and 1 year from time of injury) predicted increased tunnel widening and accelerated expansion in CSA (Pclinical outcome. Younger age, male sex, and delay from injury to ACL

  9. Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery; Osteonecrose aseptique du condyle femoral apres meniscectomie par voie arthroscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaar, M.; Garcia, J. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Fritschy, D.; Bonvin, J.C. [Policlinique de Chirurgie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-04-01

    Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery. Retrospective review of 10 patients who presented with avascular necrosis of the ipsilateral femoral condyle following arthroscopic meniscectomy (9 medial, 1 lateral). The bone lesions were evaluated by radiography and MRI, which were repeated for few patients. MRI allows earlier diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral condyle and offers an evaluation of extent of the lesions whose evolution is variable: 3 patients required a knee prosthesis, the other 7 patients were treated medically. (authors). 21 refs.

  10. Cam-type femoral-acetabular impingement: is the alpha angle the best MR arthrography has to offer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohan, Derek G.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Motamedi, Kambiz; Sayre, James; Hame, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In our institutional experience, determination of the alpha (α) angle at MR arthrography as an indicator of the likelihood of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is fraught with inconsistency. The aims of this study were to quantify the degree of variability in and calculate the diagnostic accuracy of the α angle in suggesting a diagnosis of cam impingement, to determine the accuracy of a positive clinical impingement test, and to suggest alternative MR arthrographic measures of femoral head-neck overgrowth and determine their diagnostic utilities. We carried out a retrospective analysis of MR arthrographic studies performed during a 4-year period, combined with chart analysis, which allowed identification of 78 patients in whom surgical correlation was also available. The status of a preoperative clinical impingement test was also noted. Patients were designated as having cam-type FAI (Group A, n = 39) if intra-operative femoral head-neck junction bony osteochondroplasty/arthoscopic femoral debridement was performed. Group B (n = 39) acted as controls. Three radiologists independently and blindly performed a series of measurements (α angle and two newly proposed measurements) in each patient on two separate occasions. An α angle of greater than 55 was considered indicative of the presence of cam-type FAI. Performance values for α angle measurement were poor for each observer. There was considerable (up to 30% of the mean value) intra-observer variability between the first and second α angle measurements for each subject. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the α angle is of no value in predicting the presence or absence of cam-FAI. A statistically significant difference existed between Groups A and B with regard to the newly proposed anterior femoral distance (AFD; p = 0.004). Using an AFD value of 3.60 mm or greater as being indicative of the presence of cam-FAI yields a 0.67 performance measure (95% confidence interval 0

  11. Ptosis as partial oculomotor nerve palsy due to compression by infundibular dilatation of posterior communicating artery, visualized with three-dimensional computer graphics: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yuta; Imai, Hideaki; Yoshino, Masanori; Kin, Taichi; Takasago, Megumi; Saito, Kuniaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2014-01-01

    Oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) due to internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysm generally manifests as partial nerve palsy including pupillary dysfunction. In contrast, infundibular dilatation (ID) of the PcomA has no pathogenic significance, and mechanical compression of the cranial nerve is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with progressive ptosis due to mechanical compression of the oculomotor nerve by an ID of the PcomA. Three-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) accurately visualized the mechanical compression by the ID, and her ptosis was improved after clipping of the ID. ID of the PcomA may cause ONP by mechanical compression and is treatable surgically. 3DCG are effective for the diagnosis and preoperative simulation.

  12. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. External fixation for closed pediatric femoral shaft fractures: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heather; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in external fixation technique and pin design have sought to minimize complications such as pin site infection and premature removal of the external fixator. Although newer forms of internal fixation have gained popularity, external fixation may still have a role in managing pediatric femoral shaft fractures. We sought to assess the time to healing, limb alignment, and complications observed in a cohort of pediatric patients with closed femoral shaft fractures who were treated with external fixation. Over a 15-year period, one surgeon treated 289 pediatric patients with femur fractures, 31 (11%) of whom received an external fixator. The general indications for use of an external fixator during the period in question included length-unstable fractures, metadiaphyseal location, refracture, and pathologic fracture. Six patients (19%) had inadequate followup data and four patients (13%) were treated with a combination of flexible intramedullary nails and external fixation, leaving 21 patients for analysis. Mean age at injury was 10 years (range, 6-15 years) and followup averaged 22 months (range, 5-45 months) after removal of the fixator. Radiographs were examined for alignment and limb length discrepancy. Complications were recorded from a chart review. Mean time in the fixator was 17 weeks (range, 9-24 weeks). One patient sustained a refracture and one patient with an isolated femur fracture had a leg length discrepancy > 2 cm. There were no pin site infections requiring intravenous antibiotics or additional surgery. One patient with Blount disease and previous tibial osteotomy developed transient peroneal nerve palsy. Despite improvements in pin design and predictable fracture healing, complications such as refracture and leg length discrepancy after external fixation of pediatric femoral shaft fractures can occur. However, external fixation remains a viable alternative for certain fractures such as length-unstable fractures, metadiaphyseal

  14. Endovascular repair of posttraumatic multiple femoral-femoral and popliteal-popliteal arteriovenous fistula with Viabahn and excluder stent graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Momir

    2011-01-01

    . Also, numerous metallic balls - grains of shotgun were present. After the preoperative preparation under local infiltrative anesthesia, transfemoral endovascular reconstruction was done of the surface femoral and popliteal artery by the use of stent grafts Viabahn 6 × 50 mm and excluder PXL 161 007. Within the immediate postoperative course a significant reduction of the leg edema and disappearance of thrill occurred, and, latter, healing of ulceration, and disappearance of signs of the foot ischemia. Also, patient's both cardiac and breathing functions became normal. Conclusion. In patients with chronic traumatic AV fistulas in the femoropopliteal region, especially with multiple fistulas, the gold standard is their endovascular reconstruction which, although being minimally traumatic and invasive, offers a complete reconstruction besides keeping integrity of both distal and proximal circulation in the leg.

  15. [APPLICATION OF PHOTOSHOP CS16.0 SOFTWARE IN PREOPERATIVE OSTEOTOMY DESIGN OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS KYPHOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Tao, Huiren; Liu, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianhua; Han, Fangmin

    2015-02-01

    To introduce the application of Photoshop CS16.0 (PS) software in preoperative osteotomy design of ankylosing spondylitis kyphosis (ASK), and to investigate applied values of the preoperative design. Between March 2009 and March 2013, 21 cases of ASK were treated through preoperative osteotomy design by using PS software. There were 16 males and 5 females, aged from 23 to 50 years (mean, 34.2 years). The deformity included thoracolumbar kyphosis in 14 cases, thoracic kyphosis in 2 cases, and lumbar kyphosis in 5 cases. The ultimate osteotomy angle of preoperative plans and the location and extent of osteotomy were determined by the osteotomy design, which guided operation procedures of the surgeon. The actual osteotomy angle was obtained by measuring Cobb angle of osteotomy segment before and after operation. The sagittal parameters of spine and pelvis including global kyphosis (GK), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), and chin brow-vertical angle (CBVA) were measured at preoperation, at 1 week after operation, and last follow-up. The clinical outcomes were assessed by simplified Chinese Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire and Oswestry disability index (ODI). No complications occurred in the other cases except 1 case of dural tear during operation and 1 case of nerve injury after operation, and primary healing of incision was obtained. All patients were followed up 14 to 45 months (mean, 26.3 months). The SRS-22 and ODI scores at 1 week after operation and last follow-up were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (P 0.05). The preoperative planned osteotomy angle and the postoperative actual osteotomy angle were (34.2 ± 10.5) degrees and (33.7 ± 9.7) degrees respectively, showing no significant difference (t = 0.84, P = 0.42). The CBVA, GK, SVA, PT, and LL were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative values (P 0.05). At last follow-up, no failures

  16. Marrow pattern in the proximal femoral metaphysis of patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head and normal subjects: comparison on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ho Jong; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young; Lim, Gye Yeon; Yang, Po Song; Kim, Euy Neyong; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To predict early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head by comparison of the bone marrow pattern of the proximal femoral metaphysis(PFM) in normal subjects and patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head on T1-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) images. The authors retrospectively reviewed T1(TR 525/TE 25 msec) weighted coronal MR images of 67 hips with osteonecrosis and 65 normal hips in 39 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and in 27 normal subjects. On the basis of bright signal intensity of fat, the proportion of remaining hematopoietic marrow in PFM was subdivided into 4 grades (0 to 3) by two radiologists. No evidence of remaining hematopoietic marrow was assigned grade 0, and grades 1, 2 and 3 represented scanty, moderate, and prominent hematopoietic marrow, respectively. Grades 0 and 1 were collectively defined as 'predominantly fatty', grades 2 and 3 as 'predominantly hematopoietic'. The frequency of the predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was analyzed in relation to three age groups (<25, 25-50, 50<) and both sexes. The overall frequency of predominantly fatty marrow in PFM was higher in hips with osteonecrosis than in normal hips (p<0.001). Especially in the male population under the age of 50, the frequency was apparently higher in hips with osteonecrosis, compared with normal hips (p<0.0001). However, the male population aged over 50 or female population showed no statistically significant difference in our series. In proximal femoral metaphysis with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, fatty marrow conversion occurs apparently earlier than in normal subject. T1-weighted MR imaging could therefore be useful in predicting early risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head because of early fatty marrow conversion of the proximal femoral metaphysis

  17. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Pankaj, Pankaj; Patton, James T; Howie, Colin R; Goffin, Jérôme M; Merwe, Andrew van der; Wallace, Robert J; Porter, Daniel E; Simpson, A Hamish

    2013-10-01

    The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing.

  18. Surgery for pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding femoral head and neck fractures: resection vs. stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Glehr, Mathias; Ofner-Kopeinig, Petra; Radl, Roman; Greitbauer, Manfred; Vecsei, Vilmos; Windhager, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Pathological femoral head and neck fractures are commonly treated by arthroplasty. Treatment options for the trochanteric region or below are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective, comparative, double-centre study was to analyse survival and influences on outcome according to the surgical technique used to treat pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding fractures of the femoral head and neck. Fifty-nine patients with 64 fractures were operated up on between 1998 and 2004 in two tertiary referral centres and divided into two groups. One group (S, n = 33) consisted of patients who underwent intramedullary nailing alone, and the other group (R, n = 31) consisted of patients treated by metastatic tissue resection and reconstruction by means of different implants. Median survival was 12.6 months with no difference between groups. Surgical complications were higher in the R group (n = 7) vs. the S group (n = 3), with no statistically significant difference. Patients with surgery-related complications had a higher survival rate (p = 0.049), as did patients with mechanical implant failure (p = 0.01). Survival scoring systems did not correlate with actual survival. Resection of metastases in patients with pathological fractures of the proximal femur, excluding femoral head and neck fractures, has no influence on survival. Patients with long postoperative survival prognosis are at risk of implant-related complications.

  19. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.

    1983-01-01

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  20. Active patient decision making regarding nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Hugh J; Prall, David N; Abaza, Ronney

    2011-08-01

    The motivation to preserve sexual function can vary widely among patients before prostatectomy. Increasing patient involvement may allow a more personalized experience and may improve satisfaction. We assessed a strategy of surgeon deference to patient choice in regard to nerve sparing to determine to what degree patients are rational actors and capable of active decision making. A total of 150 patients treated with prostatectomy participated in a standardized preoperative discussion regarding the concept of nerve sparing, extracapsular extension and the potential need for adjuvant radiation in the event of local recurrence. Each patient was given his nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension and then elected nerve sparing or nonnerve sparing. The corresponding procedure was performed unless grossly invasive disease was encountered. Of the 150 patients 109 chose nerve sparing (73%) and 41 chose nonnerve sparing (27%). In patients with a nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension less than 20%, 20% to 50% and greater than 50%, nerve sparing was elected by 88%, 41% and 25%, respectively. Patients with lower risks of extracapsular extension electing nonnerve sparing were older and had higher rates of erectile dysfunction. Empowering patients to decide on their nerve sparing status is a reasonable strategy that did not lead to a high rate of patients with a high risk of extracapsular extension electing nerve sparing. With proper counseling informed patients made reasonable decisions, and appeared to be conservative, prioritizing cancer control in the majority of instances where extracapsular extension risk was high. In addition, they may have been overly conservative in electing nonnerve sparing when the risk was low. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early detection by sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following medial femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiff, J.; Lanng, S.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.; Karle, A.K.; Uhrenholdt, A.

    1980-01-01

    A selected series of 24 patients with displaced medial femoral neck fracture, treated with closed reduction and osteosynthesis with cancellous bone screws (ASIF), were investigated. During an observation period of 6 to 26 months, serial hip joint scintigraphies were performed and compared with serial X-ray examinations. At the first scintigraphic examination performed on average 5-6 weeks after the fracture, two separate investigators found a decreased amount of activity or no activity in the femoral head of 10 and 8 patients, respectively. At the second scintigraphic examination performed on average 11.1 weeks after the fracture both investigators found no activity or a decreased amount of activity in 8 patients. This figure declined to 7 during the following period, because one patient with decreased activity was recorded as having normal activity 15 months after the fracture. These 7 patients all developed radiological signs of femoral head collapse on average 16.3 months after the fracture (range 5-26 months), whereas their scintigrams displayed decreased or absent tracer uptake on average 1.2 months after the fracture (P<0.01). None of the patients with initially normal or increased uptake later showed decreased or absent uptake during the study and none developed radiological collapse. It may be concluded that absent or decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate in the femoral head following medial femoral neck fracture indicates femoral head necrosis and a high risk of late segmental collapse, whereas normal or increased uptake implying preserved blood supply means that late segmental collapse will probably never develop. (author)

  2. Recovery of supraspinal control of leg movement in a chronic complete flaccid paraplegic man after continuous low-frequency pelvic nerve stimulation and FES-assisted training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Possover, Marc; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: More than 30 years ago, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for rehabilitation for SCI patients. In the present case report, FES-assisted training was combined with continuous low-frequency stimulation of the pelvic somatic nerves...... in a SCI patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on unexpected findings in a 41-year-old man with chronic complete flaccid paraplegia, since he was 18 years old, who underwent spinal stem cell therapy and a laparoscopic implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) in the pelvic lumbosacral nerves....... The patient had complete flaccid sensomotoric paraplegia T12 as a result of a motor vehicle accident in 1998. In June 2011, he underwent a laparoscopic implantation of stimulation electrodes to the sciatic and femoral nerves for continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation and functional electrical...

  3. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  4. Endoscopic resection of acetabular screw tip to decompress sciatic nerve following total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Jung; Park, Myung-Sik; Matsuda, Dean K; Choi, Yun Ho

    2018-06-04

    Sciatic nerve injuries following total hip arthroplasty are disabling complications. Although degrees of injury are variable from neuropraxia to neurotmesis, mechanical irritation of sciatic nerve might be occurred by protruding hardware. This case shows endoscopic decompression for protruded acetabular screw irritating sciatic nerve, the techniques described herein may permit broader arthroscopic/endoscopic applications for management of complications after reconstructive hip surgery. An 80-year-old man complained of severe pain and paresthesias following acetabular component revision surgery. Physical findings included right buttock pain with radiating pain to lower extremity. Radiographs and computed tomography imaging showed that the sharp end of protruded screw invaded greater sciatic foramen anterior to posterior and distal to proximal direction at sciatic notch level. A protruding tip of the acetabular screw at the sciatic notch was decompressed by use of techniques gained from experience performing endoscopic sciatic nerve decompression. The pre-operative pain and paresthesias resolved post-operatively after recovering from anesthesia. This case report describes the first documented endoscopic resection of the tip of the acetabular screw irritating sciatic nerve after total hip arthroplasty. If endoscopic resection of an offending acetabular screw can be performed in a safe and minimally invasive manner, one can envision a future expansion of the role of hip arthroscopic surgery in several complications management after total hip arthroplasty.

  5. Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Is Not Caused by Arthroscopic Posterolateral Femoroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Robert E; Rupp, Sasha N

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head after arthroscopic femoroplasty extending to the posterolateral femoral neck, the source of the primary blood supply to the femoral head. Cam lesions of femoroacetabular impingement are typically anterior along the junction of the femoral head and neck. However, anatomic variations can involve the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head and neck. Femoroplasty involving this vascular region can lead to injury to the blood supply to the femoral head, with subsequent avascular necrosis. If the posterolateral portion of the cam lesion is preserved, persistent femoroacetabular impingement may occur. A retrospective review identified 112 patients who underwent arthroscopic femoroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement over a 2-year period. Of these patients, 14 had femoroplasty that extended to the posterolateral femoral head. Of this group, 5 had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after femoroplasty and the other 9 were contacted to undergo MRI of the hip to evaluate for avascular necrosis. A radiologist and the senior author evaluated all MRI scans specifically for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All procedures were performed by the senior author. Mean age of the 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with femoroplasty that extended into the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head was 44 years (range, 23-69 years). All 14 patients underwent MRI evaluation of the affected hip a mean of 25 months (range, 7-44 months) after femoroplasty. No MRI scans showed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Femoroplasty of the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head is not associated with avascular necrosis. Patients with femoroacetabular impingement and a cam lesion extending to the posterolateral femoral head can undergo femoroplasty of this region without the development of avascular necrosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):177-180.]. Copyright

  6. Selective arteriography in femoral head fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannella, P; Galeotti, R; Borrelli, M; Benea, G; Massari, L; Chiarelli, G M

    1986-01-01

    The choice between conservative and radical operation in case of femoral neck fractures is very important because it is the determining factor for a successfull therapy. In case of epiphysial necrosis, an endoprosthesis as well as an osteosynthesis will be carried out. Selective arteriography of the medical circumflex artery represents the most reliable study to establish, immediately after the fractures, the possible presence of a post-traumatic ischemic necrosis. Angiography, as a reliable diagnostic tool, has to be carried out in the most selective way and needs the image subtraction technique. The authors report their preliminary results on the reliability of angiography in the femoral epiphyseal ischemic necrosis diagnosed by comparing the results of angiography with the wood light test carried out on the surgically removed femoral head. 18 refs.

  7. [Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms encountered in orthopedics and traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raherinantenaina, F; Rajaonanahary, T M A; Rakoto Ratsimba, H N

    2015-12-01

    Most published articles regarding orthopedic- and trauma-related femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (FAPs) are case reports in English. Reported cases are often associated with a literature review but actually provide little robust data. We wanted to summarize the current knowledge on diagnostic and therapeutic features of these FAPs. A new case of superficial FAP is described followed by a review of the literature. A bibliographic search was performed online (PubMed, ScinceDirect) from 1964 to 2015 using the descriptors "traumatic femoral pseudoaneurysm, orthopedic surgery, osteochondroma". A total of 64 cases of FAPs was analyzed. There were 50 men with an average age of 40.72±26.45 years old. The most common clinical presentation was painful swelling (34%). Arteriography was the commonest radiological investigation used (63%). The main etiologies were orthopedic injuries (47%), surgery of the upper thigh (30%) and femoral osteochondromas (23%). Arterial injuries included superficial femoral (47%) and profunda femoris artery (50%). The treatment was open surgery (56%) or endovascular repair (36%). Deep femoral artery and its branches were embolized (47%) or ligated (38%). Endovascular stenting was performed in 30% of posttraumatic FAPs. All FAPs relating to osteochondromas were repaired surgically. Postoperative courses were uneventful in 95% of patients. Endovascular embolization is preferred in management of postsurgical FAPs which have usually involved the deep femoral artery. Endovascular stenting graft may be proposed for posttraumatic FAPs, for which the superficial femoral trunk is the most often involved vessel. Surgical repair should be performed when endovascular stenting graft is not feasible. Surgical repair is mandatory for all FAPs secondary to traumatic exostoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative monitoring of lower cranial nerves in skull base surgery: technical report and review of 123 monitored cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Cahide; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Bulsara, Ketan R; Williford, Veronica S

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental goal of skull base surgery is tumor removal with preservation of neurological function. Injury to the lower cranial nerves (LCN; CN 9-12) profoundly affects a patient's quality of life. Although intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring (IOM) is widely practiced for other cranial nerves, literature addressing the LCN is scant. We examined the utility of IOM of the LCN in a large patient series. One hundred twelve patients underwent 123 skull base operations with IOM between January 1994 to December 1999. The vagus nerve (n=37), spinal accessory nerve (n=118), and the hypoglossal nerve (n=83) were monitored intraoperatively. Electromyography (EMG) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were recorded from the relevant muscles after electrical stimulation. This data was evaluated retrospectively. Patients who underwent IOM tended to have larger tumors with more intricate involvement of the lower cranial nerves. Worsening of preoperative lower cranial nerve function was seen in the monitored and unmonitored groups. With the use of IOM in the high risk group, LCN injury was reduced to a rate equivalent to that of the lower risk group (p>0.05). The immediate feedback obtained with IOM may prevent injury to the LCN due to surgical manipulation. It can also help identify the course of a nerve in patients with severely distorted anatomy. These factors may facilitate gross total tumor resection with cranial nerve preservation. The incidence of high false positive and negative CMAP and the variability in CMAP amplitude and threshold can vary depending on individual and technical factors.

  9. [Midterm follow-up results on Asian femoral intramedullary nail for the treatment of segmental and comminuted femoral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang; Gao, Feng; Huang, Qi; Li, Qiang; Xie, Lin; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To investigate midterm follow-up results on Asian femoral intramedullary nail in treating segmental and comminuted femoral fractures. Between June 2011 and October 2012,16 patients with segmental and comminuted femoral fractures were treated with minimally invasive reset and Asian femoral intramedullary nail under extension table. Among them, there were 10 males and 6 females aged from 21 to 49 years old with an average of 34.5 years old; the time from injury to operation ranged from 3 to 24 d with an average of 9.1 d. There were 6 cases were type C1,2 cases were type C2 and 8 cases were type C3 according to AO classification. X-ray of femoral segment at 3,6 and 12 months after operation were applied for evaluating fracture healing. Harris score of hip joint and HSS score of knee joint were used to evaluate postoperative function. All patients were followed up from 24 to 36 months with an average of 28.4 months. Operative time was from 88 to 112 min with an average of 90.7 min; blood loss ranged from 150 to 200 ml with an average of 188.75 ml; the time of fracture healing was from 5 to 9 months with an average of 5.4 months. All incision were healed at stage I. No loosening, breakage of internal fixation and displacement of fracture were occurred. There were no significant differences in Harris score of hip joint at 3, 6 and 12 months after operation (F = 0.07, P = 0.893 > 0.05), 10 cases obtained excellent results, 5 good and 1 moderate. There was no obvious meaning in HSS score of knee joint (F = 0.08,P = 0.876 > 0.05), 9 cases obtained excellent results, 6 good and 1 poor. Asian femoral intramedullary nail could treat segmental and comminuted femoral fractures by using variety of less invasive ways,which has advantages of less trauma, quick recovery of function and satisfied midterm following-up results. But long term following-up effects remains to be seen.

  10. Advances in the radiological diagnosis of VIIIth nerve tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Neumann, G.; Proemper, C.

    1982-01-01

    Where there is suspicion from the audiological and vestibular findings of an VIIIth nerve tumour, radiographs of the skull and of the petrous bones (Stenvers) should be obtained. This should be followed by computer tomography with intravenous contrast medium (a plain series can be omitted in these cases). A negative or indefinite scan should be followed by CT performed after air insufflation. Vertebral angiography is valuable as a pre-operative investigation for tumours larger than 3 cm. Ordinary tomography of the petrous bone in sagittal, lateral or Stenvers projection or cisternography with air, oily or aqueous contrast medium need not be carried out. (orig.) [de

  11. The Frank Stinchfield Award : Total Hip Arthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture Is Not a Typical DRG 470: A Propensity-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, William W; Lane, Joseph M; Halsey, David A; Iorio, Richard; Padgett, Douglas E; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-02-01

    Hip fractures are a major public health concern. For displaced femoral neck fractures, the needs for medical services during hospitalization and extending beyond hospital discharge after total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be different than the needs after THA performed for osteoarthritis (OA), yet these differences are largely uncharacterized, and the Medicare Severity Diagnosis-Related Groups system does not distinguish between THA performed for fracture and OA. (1) What are the differences in in-hospital and 30-day postoperative clinical outcomes for THA performed for femoral neck fracture versus OA? (2) Is a patient's fracture status, that is whether or not a patient has a femoral neck fracture, associated with differences in in-hospital and 30-day postoperative clinical outcomes after THA? The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, which contains outcomes for surgical patients up to 30 days after discharge, was used to identify patients undergoing THA for OA and femoral neck fracture. OA and fracture cohorts were matched one-to-one using propensity scores based on age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and medical comorbidities. Propensity scores represented the conditional probabilities for each patient having a femoral neck fracture based on their individual characteristics, excluding their actual fracture status. Outcomes of interest included operative time, length of stay (LOS), complications, transfusion, discharge destination, and readmission. There were 42,692 patients identified (41,739 OA; 953 femoral neck fractures) with 953 patients in each group for the matched analysis. For patients with fracture, operative times were slightly longer (98 versus 92 minutes, p = 0.015), they experienced longer LOS (6 versus 4 days, p group (2.0% versus 0.2%, p = 0.002), the frequency of postoperative transfusion was not different between groups (27% versus 24%, p = 0.157). Having a femoral neck fracture versus OA was

  12. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head by free vascularized fibular grafting: an analysis of surgical outcome and patient health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E.; McKee, Michael D.; Richards, Robin R.; Mahoney, James L.; Waddell, James P.; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Yoo, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the limb-specific outcome and general health status of patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with vascularized fibular grafting. Design A retrospective review. Setting A single tertiary care centre. Patients Fifty-five consecutive patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head who underwent fibular grafting (8 bilaterally). Intervention Vascularized fibular grafting. Outcome measures Limb-specific scores (Harris Hip Score, St. Michael’s Hospital Hip Score), general health status (Nottingham Health Profile, SF-36 health status survey) and radiographic outcome measures (Steinberg stage). Results Patients were young (mean age 34 years, range from 18 to 52 years) and 80% had advanced osteonecrosis (Steinberg stages IV and V). Fifty-nine hips were followed up for an average of 50 months (range from 24 to 117 months) after vascularized fibular grafting. Sixteen hips (27%) were converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA). To date, 73% of hips treated with vascularized fibular grafting have required no further surgery. Preoperative and postoperative Harris Hip Scores were 57.3 and 83.6 respectively (p < 0.001). As measured by patient-oriented health status questionnaires (SF-36, Nottingham Health Profile) and compared with population controls, patients had normal mental health scores and only slight decreases in physical component scores. Conclusions Free vascularized fibular grafting for osteonecrosis of the femoral head provides satisfactory pain relief, functional improvement and general health status and halts the progression of symptomatic disease. PMID:10459327

  13. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  14. Reinnervation of bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid muscles using the left phrenic nerve in patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of reinnervation of the bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA muscles using the left phrenic nerve in patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis. METHODS: Forty-four patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles using the left phrenic nerve were enrolled in this study. Videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time, pulmonary function testing, and laryngeal electromyography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were followed-up for at least 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: Videostroboscopy showed that within 1 year after reinnervation, abductive movement could be observed in the left vocal folds of 87% of patients and the right vocal folds of 72% of patients. Abductive excursion on the left side was significantly larger than that on the right side (P 0.05. No patients developed immediate dyspnea after surgery, and the pulmonary function parameters recovered to normal reference value levels within 1 year. Postoperative laryngeal electromyography confirmed successful reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles. Eighty-seven percent of patients in this series were decannulated and did not show obvious dyspnea after physical activity. Those who were decannulated after subsequent arytenoidectomy were not included in calculating the success rate of decannulation. CONCLUSIONS: Reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles using the left phrenic nerve can restore inspiratory vocal fold abduction to a physiologically satisfactory extent while preserving phonatory function at the preoperative level without evident morbidity.

  15. Reinnervation of Bilateral Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscles Using the Left Phrenic Nerve in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongliang; Chen, Donghui; Zhu, Minhui; Wang, Wei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Caiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of reinnervation of the bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles using the left phrenic nerve in patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Methods Forty-four patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles using the left phrenic nerve were enrolled in this study. Videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time, pulmonary function testing, and laryngeal electromyography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were followed-up for at least 1 year after surgery. Results Videostroboscopy showed that within 1 year after reinnervation, abductive movement could be observed in the left vocal folds of 87% of patients and the right vocal folds of 72% of patients. Abductive excursion on the left side was significantly larger than that on the right side (P 0.05). No patients developed immediate dyspnea after surgery, and the pulmonary function parameters recovered to normal reference value levels within 1 year. Postoperative laryngeal electromyography confirmed successful reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles. Eighty-seven percent of patients in this series were decannulated and did not show obvious dyspnea after physical activity. Those who were decannulated after subsequent arytenoidectomy were not included in calculating the success rate of decannulation. Conclusions Reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles using the left phrenic nerve can restore inspiratory vocal fold abduction to a physiologically satisfactory extent while preserving phonatory function at the preoperative level without evident morbidity. PMID:24098581

  16. Total Hip Arthroplasty in an Inveterate Femoral Neck Fracture in a Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Augusto; Ursino, Nicola; Ripamonti, Carlo A M; Fiorentini, Carlo E; Scelsi, Michele; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Portinaro, Nicola M

    2017-12-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by autonomic and sensory nerves malfunction with insensitivity to both deep and superficial painful stimuli, inability to sweat and produce tears, and mild to moderate mental retardation with self-mutilating behavior. Related consequences of inveterate musculoskeletal injuries represent a major issue for these patients, since pain cannot act as a protection mechanism. For the same reason, the patients are at risk during postoperative rehabilitation, which should be taken into account when selecting an orthopaedic implant. To our knowledge, only one case of total hip arthroplasty has been reported in the literature to date. A 21-year-old Caucasian male patient affected with CIPA arrived at our attention complaining about a functional limitation of the left hip. No history of trauma was reported. The X-rays showed an inveterate femoral neck fracture with a severe necrosis and resorption of the femoral head. We decided to perform a total hip arthroplasty with a cemented stem and a cemented dual mobility cup. The postoperative course and rehabilitation were satisfactory, with excellent clinical results, measured with the Harris Hip Score at 1 year.

  17. Computerized tomography in evaluation of decreased acetabular and femoral anteversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennis, D.; Skamel, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Computerized tomography has received a new importance. It has been shown that decreased anteversion of femur and acetabulum, when both have decreased angles, are causing pain and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Operative treatment should be performed before osteoarthritis develops. Exact measurements therefore are necessary. The investigation should be performed in prone position to have the pelvis lying in a defined and normal position. Femoral torsion is measured between the transverse axis of the knee and the femoral neck. The transverse axis for measurement of the femoral anteversion is defined by a rectangular line to the sagittal plane. For evaluation of the femoral anteversion in total the angle of the condyles has to be added to the femoral neck angle when the knee is found in internal rotation. Acetabular anteversion should be measured at the level where the femoral head is still in full contact and congruence with the anterior margin of the acetabulum. (orig.) [de

  18. Preoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Murphy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The value of a preoperative chest radiograph is twofold. The examination may reveal unsuspected pathology that would alter the approach to surgery of anesthesia. Secondly, it provides a baseline or reference from which to evaluate subsequent post-operative films. The percentage of detection of unsuspected pathology on preoperative chest radiographs has been shown to be exceedingly small in certain patient populations. The authors do not recommend routine use of preoperative chest radiographs in children or in adults under the age of 40 who do not smoke, unless (1) the surgical disease has chest manifestations; (2) there is historic or clinical evidence of a coexisting disease with chest involvement; or (3) there is a likelihood that post-operative management will require follow-up films

  19. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, Perry W; Roberts, Heidi L; Perez, Carlos A

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication.

  20. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, Perry W.; Roberts, Heidi L.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  1. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood pres...... that these traditional risk scores have underestimated the complicated impact of age and blood pressure on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk....

  2. A cementless, proximally fixed anatomic femoral stem induces high micromotion with nontraumatic femoral avascular necrosis: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chuan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in bone mineral density of metaphysis in patients with nontraumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN is considered the main factor leading to aseptic loosening of the femoral component. Researchers have hypothesized that a cementless, anatomic stem fixed proximally to the metaphysis has a higher risk for aseptic loosening than a straight stem that is fixed at the diaphysis in patients with nontraumatic AVN. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of cancellous bone stiffness at the metaphysis and stem geometry on the micromotion of the femoral stem relative to the femur. The VerSys (straight and ABG (anatomic femoral stems were enrolled in this finite element study to determine the performance of prosthetic micromotion. The simulated load to the hip joint during heel strike was assigned. Results showed that the VerSys model represented better resistance in micromotion between the bone/stem interface than the ABG model in either normal or poor cancellous bone stiffness at the metaphysis. The bone quality at the metaphysis of patients with nontraumatic AVN should be considered prior to selecting a femoral stem. In consideration of initial stability, acementless, straight stem that fits the isthmus is more favourable than an